K P White; A P Sage; F A Rodammer; C T Peters
The Environmental Advisory Service (EASe) is a decision support system which can provide assistance to local planning agencies in selecting land-development alternatives or in formulating land-use plans. EASe offers a comprehensive and consistent procedure for rating either a development proposal or a proposed plan. This procedure is based upon qualitative assessments of the impact of developments or plans on the natural environment, zoning and land use. public and private services, transport...
Sieglinde Kindl da Cunha
Full Text Available This article proposes a model to measure tourism cluster impact on local development with a view to assessing tourism cluster interaction, competitiveness and sustainability impacts on the economy, society and the environment. The theoretical basis for this model is founded on cluster concept and typology adapting and integrating the systemic competitiveness and sustainability concepts within economic, social, cultural, environmental and political dimensions. The proposed model shows a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sector view of local development brought back through a systemic approach to the concepts of competitiveness, social equity and sustainability. Its results make possible strategic guidance to agents responsible for public sector tourism policies, as well as the strategies for competitiveness, competition, cooperation and sustainability in private companies and institutions.
Alexei I. Podberezkin
Full Text Available The article is the form of scientific report on the results of three year long project on methodology of long term forecasting the development of the system of international relations. The methodology is based on the following assumptions: input information is accurate and complete; international relations constitute a system, scenarios for different levels of international relations development are hierarchically interdependent; the speed of development is different on various levels of international relations; various national capabilities affect the development; elites affect international relations; civil society affect international relations. Based on this assumption the author builds the most probable scenario of intercivilizational relations which is military coercive interaction. The role of soft power will increase its share in the toolkit of the confrontational politics. To win in this confrontation it is necessary to review the current practices of strategic forecasting and planning and to rebuild the entire military organization of the Russian army. The principal condition for the victory is development of national human capital, as well as the formation of the national ideology.
van Gemert, J.C.; Jain, M.; Gati, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.
This paper is on action localization in video with the aid of spatio-temporal proposals. To alleviate the computational expensive video segmentation step of existing proposals, we propose bypassing the segmentations completely by generating proposals directly from the dense trajectories used to
Local sustainable development: proposal of new arrangement for the development of social entrepreneurs Desenvolvimento Local Sustentável: Projeto de novos modos sócio-produtivos e de sistemas alternativos de produção e emprego
Full Text Available A diagnosis was developed in the context social and environmental of the city Campo Limpo Paulista and region, for the creation of an incubator destined for the development of social entrepreneurs and technical support to the businessmen of the small sized company. Was based on empirical research carried out in accordance with grounded theory. The present survey there was consulted residents of the region, tourists and made an inventory of the infrastructure of native resources, cultural, historical, economic and social of the city. The results of the inquiry provided subsidies to the projection of the local sustainable development, centered in the creation of a social incubator, of installment of technical services to the entrepreneurs of the region.Desenvolveu-se um diagnóstico no contexto socioambiental de Campo Limpo Paulista e região, para a criação de uma incubadora destinada ao desenvolvimento de empreendedores sociais e suporte técnico aos empresários de micro e pequenas empresas - MPE voltados ao turismo ecológico. Foi baseado em pesquisa empírica realizada de acordo com a grounded theory. Nesta pesquisa foram consultados moradores da região, turistas e efetuado um inventário da infra-estrutura dos recursos naturais, culturais, históricos, econômicos e sociais do município. Os resultados da pesquisa proporcionaram subsídios ao planejamento do desenvolvimento local sustentável, centrado na criação de uma incubadora social, de prestação de serviços técnicos aos empreendedores da região.
Ripplon induced weak localization is proposed for electrons on a liquid helium surface. Ripplon scattering is quasi-elastic, the ripplon are quasi-static relative to the electron velocity, and the relative change in occupation number of the ripplon state in a scattering event is small. Conditions for the observation of ripplon induced weak localization are calculated
Full Text Available Olive oil consumption has grown substantially in recent years, due in part to the fact that olive oil is healthy. Much of the global olive oil production comes from the rural areas of Jaén in southern Spain. Surrounding this industry, services such as oleotourism are increasing. This paper aims to identify the key elements supporting the development of oleotourism. After a preliminary exploratory analysis of the existing data, a qualitative analysis was performed with actors directly involved in the industry in Jaén. The results helped us define the level of the stakeholders’ involvement and the sustainability, the opportunities, and the constraints affecting oleotourism in this area. The practical implications of this investigation can be useful for governing agencies, local firms, and the tourism industry in support of oleotourism development.
Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .
Using the diagrammatic expansion, new developments for localized adsorption are found. It is proved that the correlations in the system, in the absence of the attractive site potential, and the periodicity of the sites play a fundamental role in the adsorption phenomena. 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
The Quebec government now requires Hydro-Quebec to submit a development plan every three years instead of annually, in order to permit more in-depth studies and a broader consultation with interested parties. In the first of such three-year plans, a series of plan proposals is presented which was developed after a year of consultation with various groups on four fundamental matters: energy efficiency, means of generation, electro-intensive industries, and electricity exports. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. Hydroelectricity will continue to be emphasized as the main source of generation since hydroelectric facilities offer distinct advantages in terms of costs, environmental impacts, and economic spinoffs. The proposed plan also presents objectives and strategies for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 5 figs., 15 tabs
Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj
information: Poul Carlsbæk: Master of Science (MSc) in Political Science Senior lecturer at Department of Management and Administration and head responsible for the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally. Has taught adults at the Diploma programme in Public Administration for 26...... years Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt: Occupational Therapist....... Master in Medical Anthropology Senior lecturer at Department of physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Lecturer at the the interprofessional course We Develop Welfare Together – Locally. 'Equality in Health' depend on both interprofessional collaboration regarding the individual citizen...
This paper discusses the establishment of distant work centers as an element in local development strategies in rural areas with a particular view on two new telework centers in Region North DenmarkDistant work is a phenomenon on the rise, due to the development of the internet on the one hand and new flexible work functions on the other hand. Not only the exchange of documents, but also meetings can be organized virtually by still better video conference equipment and programs. An implicatio...
Grönwall, Christina; Hendeby, Gustaf; Sinivaara, Kristian
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known positioning approach in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and inside buildings. Autonomous/aided target detection and recognition (ATR) is commonly used in military application to detect threats and targets in outdoor environments. This papers present approaches to combine SLAM with ATR in ways that compensate for the drawbacks in each method. The methods use physical objects that are recognizable by ATR as unambiguous features in SLAM, while SLAM provides the ATR with better position estimates. Landmarks in the form of 3D point features based on normal aligned radial features (NARF) are used in conjunction with identified objects and 3D object models that replace landmarks when possible. This leads to a more compact map representation with fewer landmarks, which partly compensates for the introduced cost of the ATR. We analyze three approaches to combine SLAM and 3D-data; point-point matching ignoring NARF features, point-point matching using the set of points that are selected by NARF feature analysis, and matching of NARF features using nearest neighbor analysis. The first two approaches are is similar to the common iterative closest point (ICP). We propose an algorithm that combines EKF-SLAM and ATR based on rectangle estimation. The intended application is to improve the positioning of a first responder moving through an indoor environment, where the map offers localization and simultaneously helps locate people, furniture and potentially dangerous objects such as gas canisters.
Rogers, J.D.; Vogel, H.F.; Warren, R.W.; Weldon, D.M.
A program is proposed to develop poloidal field components for TNS and EPR size tokamak devices and to test these components in realistic circuits. Emphasis is placed upon the development of the most difficult component, the superconducting ohmic-heating coil. Switches must also be developed for testing the coils, and this switching technology is to be extended to meet the requirements for the large scale tokamaks. Test facilities are discussed; power supplies, including a homopolar to drive the coils, are considered; and poloidal field systems studies are proposed.
Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya ... The team proposes to use the 2005 Right to Information Act as a tool to gather relevant information. ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of provincial corruption on the performance of local development bank, specifically to the profitability and credit quality. We use the data of 26 local development banks in 2012 and 2013. For the provincial corruption measurement we use “Public Institution Openness Index”. Results of this study are first, corruption significantly has a negative effect on the profitability of local development bank. Second, corruption doesn’t affect the credit quality of local development bank. These results are expected to enrich the within country corruption effect to the economic studies, particularly to the local development bank which is infrequently investigated.
Depreste, B. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Cabanes, A. [Communes du Canton de Saint Agreve, 07 (France); Puig, J.; Jochen, T. [BWE, Berlin (Germany); Gunnar boye, Olesen [Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (Denmark); Preben, Maegaard; Bidal, J.L. [FNSEA, 75 - Paris (France); Hartmann, Ch. [Confederation Paysanne, Alsace (France); Jedliczka, M.; Quantin, J.
This issue of Cler Info journal includes a dossier about the development of wind energy in France and in some other European countries (Spain, Germany, Denmark) and about its economical impact at the local scale. (J.S.)
Rasmussen, Lars; Bergendorff, Mads; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
awareness in sustainable development, and the topic is approached with a local planning perspective thus including elements of participation, both in the case study and the proposed strategy.The case study shows that environmental awareness among people in Paru Yai in general is low but it also indicates...... financially by DUCED the university consortium between Danish universities and universities in Thailand, Malaysia and countries in the southern Africa. The aim of DUCED is to educate candidates familiar with development projects and with ability of problem solving cross-professionally and cross......The aim of the project was to gather knowledge about the environmental awareness of people in Paru Yai tambon, Khorat, Thailand. This is done through qualitative interviews and observations of two selected environmental problems - garbage management and electricity consumption in households...
who have a lot of experience in this area may handle the process on their own while others may decide to hire a consultant to assist with or manage the process. Direct Buy Versus Power Purchase Agreement . It is also very common for local government agencies to enter into power purchase agreements (PPAs
In addition to these criteria, as is outlined in the concept note, each proposal will be subject to IDRC's risk management process that assesses the ability of IDRC to support programming in those countries or territories according to Canadian law, knowledge of the research setting, and the ability to monitor research activities.
Harder, D.; Greinert, R.
The molecular mechanism responsible for the a component of exchange-type chromosome aberrations, of chromosome fragmentation and of reproductive cell death is one of the unsolved issues of radiation biology. Under review is whether vibrational energy relaxation in the constitutive biopolymers of chromatin, induced by inelastic energy deposition events and mediated via highly excited vibrational states, may provide a pathway of fast local chromatin denaturation, thereby producing the severe DNA lesion able to interact chemically with other, non-damaged chromatin. (author)
Research for the first year was oriented towards: 1) the design of an interactive classification tool (ICT); and 2) the development of an appropriate theory of inference for use in ICT technology. The general objective was to develop a theory of classification that could accommodate a diverse array of objects, including events and their constituent objects. Throughout this report, the term "object" is to be interpreted in a broad sense to cover any kind of object, including living beings, non-living physical things, events, even ideas and concepts. The idea was to produce a theory that could serve as the uniting fabric of a base technology capable of being implemented in a variety of automated systems. The decision was made to employ two technologies under development by the principal investigator, namely, SMS (Symbolic Manipulation System) and SL (Symbolic Language) [see debessonet, 1991, for detailed descriptions of SMS and SL]. The plan was to enhance and modify these technologies for use in an ICT environment. As a means of giving focus and direction to the proposed research, the investigators decided to design an interactive, classificatory tool for use in building accessible knowledge bases for selected domains. Accordingly, the proposed research was divisible into tasks that included: 1) the design of technology for classifying domain objects and for building knowledge bases from the results automatically; 2) the development of a scheme of inference capable of drawing upon previously processed classificatory schemes and knowledge bases; and 3) the design of a query/ search module for accessing the knowledge bases built by the inclusive system. The interactive tool for classifying domain objects was to be designed initially for textual corpora with a view to having the technology eventually be used in robots to build sentential knowledge bases that would be supported by inference engines specially designed for the natural or man-made environments in which the
Lic. Domingos António-Lópes
Full Text Available In the past two decades, societies, economies and cultures of the countries developed and developing have lived deep structural changes of marked breadth and impact processes in everyday lives. Today we are witnessing a new era of technological and organizational restructuring that affects the ways to produce and manage local development. Sociology as a social science has begun to rethink development from the voices of a variety of actors, to strike with them rhythms and intensities of the social and cultural dynamics. This article is a sociological study on local development from the perspective of culture, placing the concepts of social space and socialization practices. An analysis of documentary sources which favoured the systematization of the concepts of development and local development.Keywords: development, local development, socialization, cultural practices, social space, social capital.
Ariel González Hernández
Full Text Available A domestic reality where we find areas of high deprivation and poverty, we analyze the participation of the university, as manager of the local development, considering that it is generating knowledge, able to process from global to local and from the local to global. To ensure that local development is efficient, it is necessary to propose strategies between development actors and local public and private institutions, including the university human resources management and cognitive development can be local. This work aims to make a conceptual review of the theoretical or the endogenous local development and institutional functionalism, establish a relationship between requirements, development agents and college. In this sense, Boisier, 2001 suggests that endogenous development but an analysis model is an interpretation action-oriented public policy, in which local actors, through their decisions and initiatives mark the path of development. In this framework, the university as a generator and disseminator of knowledge, should define its role as manager of the local development, which would answer the third mission (García, 1999, that contemporary society has assigned.
Hadi, Rizali; Supriyanto; Hasanah, Mahmudah
This study aims to describe the learning medium of economic education at senior High School in Banjarmasin with media based on local wisdom. This research uses qualitative method as developed by Miles & Huberman, starting from data collection, data reduction data display, and then made conclusion. Data were collected in the order of Basic…
Religious Itineraries as the Driving Forces behind Sustainable Local Development in the Veneto? Towards a Proposal for Promoting an Unusual and Often “Subliminal” Form of Heritage: Sanctuaries and Minor Churches
Luca Simone Rizzo
Full Text Available Religious sites/assets are reacquiring pre-eminence, partly in the role of mainsprings for local development: they are privileged witnesses to collective memory and depositories for symbolic, historical, cultural and spiritual values that they have contributed towards forging. These are essential keys for interpreting “places” and their evolution, as well as for studying their various facets and nuances in greater detail. In full knowledge of this, we are presenting here a study on the subject of cultural (and religious itineraries as a determining element in territorial conservation and as an instrument for: a promoting a type of tourism that is sustainable, alternative and aware, in which the approach towards “exploitation” changes (contributing towards not only the “consumption” of experiences, but also the enrichment of the tourist; b highlighting the value of authenticity and contact with local culture, as well as promoting contextual elements that are highly distinctive. In line with the need to make better use of local religious heritage, we identified anchor sites (sanctuaries and minor churches around which to develop further forms of (religious tourism.We devised an itinerary some 300 km long that “expresses” the diverse environmental/cultural/gastronomic realities that have the sanctuaries at their centre.This itinerary and its sub-routes – created via GIS – cover the central and western parts of the Veneto, as well as the south of the Region. The main route connects the sites in an attempt to link the area under examination, thanks to a ring, to the ancient Via Romea (the subject of research and reclamation as a long distance route.
Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo
The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed
Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo
The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop strategies that can be applied in the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan. The data used are primary data and secondary data. Variables examined included internal factors (strengths and weaknesses and external factors (opportunities and threats in the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan. Data analysis were conducted in qualitative descriptive to describe the pattern of food consumption in West Kalimantan and continued with a SWOT analysis to carry out the development strategy of the local food diversification in West Kalimantan. The analysis result showed that the strategy for the development of local food diversification in West Kalimantan is SO strategy (Strengths - Opportunities those are: 1 the increase in synergy between the government and the micro, small and medium enterprises for the development of local food products, 2 the utilization of communications and market information system in improving the marketing of local food products on micro, small and medium enterprises, and 3 the utilization of unutilized agricultural land to improve the quality and quantity of local food products.
This article explores whether and how the biotechnologization process that the fuel-plant Jatropha curcas is undergoing might strengthen local sustainable development. It focuses on the ongoing efforts of the multi-stakeholder network Gota Verde to harness Jatropha within local small-scale
Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana
Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…
In 1991, mayors were elected for the first time and local governments were mandated to ... and promote new and better territorial development practices and policies. ... workshops for government employees, production of information booklets, ...
The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.
Francisco J. Ortin-Montero
Full Text Available This introduction should serve as a framework for the following monograph. While it is true that other authors have examined the discipline of sport psychology, the majority of them have done so from a very generalist perspective. For possibly the first time, there has been an attempt to rely on specialists who, from a very precise proposal, have offered us unique approaches with a wide scientific foundation applied to this area of study. A theoretical framework that adequately delimits the structure of this proposal regarding sport psychology is presented.
Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.
The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.
Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.
... promotes the growth and competitiveness of large, medium, and small minority business enterprises by offering management and technical assistance through a network of regional and local business centers... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Minority Business Development Agency Proposed Information Collection...
... development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal Transit Administration (FTA) financial... of opportunities for private sector participation in public transportation projects, and includes the... ``value capture'' mechanisms, such as income derived from rental or lease payments, and private sector...
Full Text Available This article is an argument for the applicability of the Finnish model of knowledge society oriented public policy-making and not a detailed recommendation on the specific steps Romania should make in order to become a knowledge society. The article is elaborated as a synthesis of the Finnish knowledge society oriented public policies and an analysis of the adequacy of policy transfers from Finland to Romania. Data on Romania are not rich as the task of the article is not to make a diagnosis on Romania’s stage of development. Its main contribution consists of the identification of Finnish public measures meant to foster knowledge society that may be a best practice example for Romania. The introductory part briefly introduces the reader into the theoretical understanding of the concept of knowledge society. Then, I argue that there are several types of knowledge societies and Romania should look for European examples given the resemblance of the starting conditions. The main part of the paper presents the Finnish knowledge society development as an experience modeled by public intervention and I mirror these developments with the Romanian case. In the end, I explore the differences between the two countries that may interfere with the application of the Finnish model. Still, my conclusion is that those differences do not make the Finnish model less applicable. The efforts might need to be more intense and the results might show up later.
Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ohshita, Stephanie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Min, Hu [Energy Foundation China, Beijing (China); Xiulian, Hu [Energy Research Inst., Beijing (China)
Cities around the world are implementing policies and programs with the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as save energy, reduce costs, and protect the local, regional, and global environment. In China, low-carbon development is a key element of the 12th Five Year Plan. Pilot low-carbon development zones have been initiated in five provinces and eight cities and many other locations around China also want to pursue a low-carbon development pathway. This booklet provides information for government officials, policy makers, program designers and implementers, provincial and city planners, and others who want an overview of the key options available for low-carbon development at local level. These Strategies for Local Low-Carbon Development draw from successful experiences from around the world. Information is provided for low-carbon actions that can be taken in the sectors of (1) Industry, (2) Buildings and Appliances, (3) Electric Power, (4) Consumption and Waste Management, (5) Transportation and Urban Form, and (6) Agriculture and Forestry. A description of each policy is provided along with information on the stakeholders involved in implementation, the conditions for successful implementation, the expected energy and carbon savings, and the policy cost-effectiveness. Case studies show how each policy has been implemented somewhere around the world. While there are many low-carbon options available for local implementation, this booklet aims to provide guidance on those that have been most successful, that have the largest impact, and that are cost-effective in order to support low-carbon development efforts in Chinese cities.
Full Text Available In the current Programming Period (2014-2020 the European Commission has introduced a new strategic instrument, the Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI, which shifts the decisions on allocation of funds to the local level and, most importantly, enables drawing of funds from several priority axes and from several European Structural and Investment Funds. Greece is one of EU member countries that has committed on using ITIs as a tool for urban development. In August 2016, in the Region of Central Macedonia, urban authorities with a population of over 10.000 inhabitants were invited by the Managing Authority of the Regional Operational Programme to submit a Strategy for Sustainable Urban Development (SUD, through the mandatory implementation of the ITI tool. The paper focuses on one of these municipalities, the city of Veria, where the ITI approach has been implemented for the design of an ITI of urban scale (ITI-SUD. The integrated approach prescribed by regional authorities forced Municipalities to adopt government approaches uncommon until now: to involve multiple stakeholders in the entire process, from strategy development to project selection and implementation. The paper describes the benefits and challenges of the new approach as applied in the local context, showing the vertical and horizontal connections of urban development strategies. Most importantly, in the context of ‘procedural learning’ happening in Europe in the field of territorial cohesion, it offers an insight on how European cohesion policy strategies and tools are tested at the local level.
Woo, Chi-Keung; Horowitz, Ira; Tishler, Asher
In December 2005, the Hong Kong Government issued a 'Consultation Paper on Future Development of the Electricity Markets in Hong Kong: Stage II Consultation,' proposing a post-2008 regulatory regime upon the expiration of the existing regulatory contract between the Hong Kong Government and each of the two local electricity utilities. We assess the proposal using the criteria of safe, reliable, and environmentally friendly service at the lowest rates that will allow the utilities reasonable returns on their investments. We caution that if fully adopted, the highly risky proposal may lead to less-reliable service without the compensating benefits to the environment
Full Text Available Purpose: The growth potential of SMEs entrepreneurship is examined at regional and local level, initially on a Global scale and then for the case of Greece. Additionally, the possibility of an economic development policy beyond the macroeconomic approach is examined, focusing on business growth and competitiveness in the light of meso and micro-economic policy approach. Design/methodology/approach: This research leads to the proposal of building knowledge mechanisms and direct and efficient systematic development and innovation at the local level, particularity during a time of economic crisis. The establishment of Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ITAK is primarily geared towards promoting innovative entrepreneurship and extroversion of locally installed businesses. As part of the proposal for the establishment of ITAK, a questionnaire was developed - a tool to initially measure companies' opinions on the need for outside help in the macro, meso and micro environment, in order to demonstrate that ITAK local-level structures could be developed. Findings: The survey results were accrued via the analysis of questionnaires distributed to companies. The results of the questionnaires in the micro-environment in relation to those in the macro-environment shows a lower tendency to change business, which may be because managers perceive economics several times more in macroeconomic terms rather than in meso and micro economic (terms. Research limitations/implications: The restrictions of this particular research are the small sample of study of businesses in one country (Greece; this is because the approach of study, which is quantitative-qualitative, limits analysis to small data sets in the current phase. Originality/value: The results in the micro-environment, in relation to those at macro-environmental, shows a lower tendency to change business, something which may be because managers perceive economics several times more in
Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John
This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networking and knowledge sharing across boundaries. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis at both theoretical and empirical levels. Theoretically, we propose a conceptualization of relational knowled...
Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, fledging democracy and grand corruption. These must be adequately tackled for LGs to make more positive impact in the localities. Some pertinent recommendations are as follows. LGs need adequate autonomy, hard work rather than verbal ...
The paper found that inadequate handling of virtually all the above issues has posed some challenges for LGs' developmental efforts in the localities. Inadequate autonomy has been found to be the independent variable in the challenges. Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, ...
Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the consequences generated by regional infrastructures strategies on local city growth.Do regional infrastructure strategies activate transformation processes at a local level? And may these processes generate virtuous rules for local development in bottom-up transformations?To answer at these questions, in my opinion, the Metropolitan Area of Naples represents an interesting case study. In these area, and due to the lack of Institutions, the processes, object of this work, are clearly visible: a coexistence between “top-down” projects and “bottom-up” transformations is highlighted. In 2010 Naples lies on a huge conurbation: the high-way infrastructures reduced the distance, increasing the accessibility of the region but without building a clear relation with the surroundings; as a consequence, the city sprawls, messing up the previous rural structure. At the same time, the industrial areas produced visible fractures on the configuration of the territory.The different technologies produced physical changes in the Metropolitan Area, as well as in citizens life style. We are trying to understand, here, the relations between this two dynamics in order to measure the influences and forecast the transformations.An important fact is that nowadays and worldwide, we are assisting to the replacement of the industrial sector with global services and transport; commercial activities are transforming the landscape, finding their location in places that have well defined characteristics: big plots, high visibility, global connectivity and easy accessibility. In Naples they have been established in the same area where agriculture, industries and residential suburbs have already layered. Even though, here, they symbolize territorial references: “land-marks” (Lynch, 2006. New infrastructure have to been built in order to support this renewed uses of the territory. If the city can be described “as points of
Full Text Available This paper presents the software development meta-process (SD-MP as a proposal to set up software projects. Within this proposal we offer conceptual elements that help solve the war of methodologies and processes in favor of an integrating viewpoint, where the main flaws associated with conventional and agile approaches are removed. Our newly developed software platform to support the meta-process is also presented together with three case studies involving projects currently in progress, where the framework proposed in SD-MP has been applied.
Most countries have, at least since the 1992 United Nations summit in RIO, adopted some vague "sustainable development" policies. The goals of such policies are to combine economic growth with social development, while protecting our fragile planetary life support system. The scientific data about the state of our planet, presented at the 2012 (Rio+20) summit, documented that today's human family lives even less sustainably than it did in 1992. The data indicate furthermore that the environmental impacts from our current economic activities are so large, that we are approaching situations where potentially controllable regional problems can easily lead to uncontrollable global disasters. Despite these obvious failures, our political global leaders and their institutions are continuing the same "sustainable development" policies, which are now supplemented by equally vague ideas about future "green economies". Assuming that (1) the majority of the human family, once adequately informed, wants to achieve a "sustainable way of life" and (2) that the "development towards sustainability" roadmap will be based on scientific principles, one must begin with unambiguous and quantifiable definitions of these goals. As will be demonstrated, the well known scientific method to define abstract and complex issues by their negation, satisfies these requirements. Following this new approach, it also becomes possible to decide if proposed and actual policy changes will make our way of life less unsustainable, and thus move us potentially into the direction of sustainability. Furthermore, if potentially dangerous tipping points are to be avoided, the transition roadmap must include some minimal speed requirements. Combining the negation method and the time evolution of that remaining natural capital in different domains, the transition speed for a "development towards sustainability" can be quantified at local, regional and global scales. The presented ideas allow us to measure the
Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Ryan, Cindy A; Gerberick, G Frank; Lalko, Jon; Api, Anne Marie
The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed and validated for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to induce skin sensitisation. In common with other predictive test methods the accuracy of the LLNA is not absolute and experience has revealed that a few chemicals, including for instance a minority of skin irritants, may elicit false-positive reactions in the assay. To improve further the performance of the LLNA, and to eliminate or reduce false-positives, there has been interest in an adjunct method in which the ability of chemicals to cause increases in the frequency of B220(+) lymphocytes in skin-draining lymph nodes is measured. Previous studies suggest that the use of B220 analyses aligned with the standard LLNA may serve to distinguish further between contact allergens and skin irritants. In the original predictive model, chemicals were regarded as being skin sensitisers if they were able to induce a 1.25-fold or greater increase in the percentage of B220(+) cells within lymph nodes compared with concurrent vehicle controls. Although this first prediction model has proven useful, in the light of more recent experience, and specifically as a consequence of some variability observed in the frequency of B220(+) lymphocytes in nodes taken from vehicle control-treated animals, it is timely now to reconsider and refine the model. As a result a new prediction model is proposed in which reliance on the use of absolute thresholds is reduced, and in which small changes in control values can be better accommodated. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Payer, J H; Carroll, S A; Gdowski, G E; Rebak, R B; Michels, T C; Miller, M C; Henson, V E
The proposed Repository presents a familiar materials performance application that is regularly encountered in energy, transportation and other industries. The widely accepted approach to dealing with materials performance is to identify the performance requirements, to determine the operating conditions to which materials will be exposed and to select materials of construction that perform well in those conditions. A special feature of the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository is the extremely long time frame of interest, i.e. 10,000's of years and longer. Thus, the time evolution of the environment in contact with waste package surfaces and the time evolution of corrosion damage that may result are of primary interest in the determination of expected performance. An approach is presented to the analysis of localized corrosion during a time period when it is possible for waters from drips and seepage to contact the waste package surfaces, and the analysis is demonstrated for the water chemistry of mixed salt solutions and a set of time-temperature-relative humidity profiles for a hot, mid and cool temperature waste package. Based on the analysis, there are large time periods when localized corrosion can not be supported, and no corrosion damage will occur. Further analysis can then focus on time periods when it is possible for localized corrosion to occur and the determination of the evolution of any corrosion damage
Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.
Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena
Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.
Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...
important to first gain a thorough understanding of low and middle income countries’ current capability (i.e., knowledge and infrastructure in handling the disease. Therefore, the curation of a special issue incorporating all relevant cancer-related studies, focusing on developing countries, will be an essential step in realizing the long-term plan of reducing cancer burden in much of the developing world.For this proposed special issue, we welcome submissions in the forms of original research articles, case studies, and reviews, as well as editorials and perspective articles on:(i Clinical studies focusing on the diagnoses and treatments of common/rare cancers in developing countries, particularly those that present novel or innovative methods in a localized setting.(ii Basic science research that highlights the development of emerging or improved therapeutics and drugs.(iii Innovative cancer/oncology treatment modalities used in developing countries that have been adapted from conventional approaches.(iv Analysis of clinical data collected from developing countries on cancer-related incidence.(v Health policies and guidelines on managing cancers in a resource-constrained setting.
While the management of Locally Engaged Staff (LES) belongs to each supervisor of ... Regional Operations on the preparation of annual budget for the office. ... and preparing petty cash replenishment requests for approval by the Controller, ...
Full Text Available Besides local economic development (LED theories, especially LED practices have a growing importance nowadays. By a primary research involving more than 400 actors (local governments, local entrepreneurs, local agencies, the necessary competencies, practical experiences, and the field of further skills and extension concerning cooperation in economic development of localities were analysed. Summing up the research results, both local governments and local entrepreneurs have certain lack of competence that has to be improved, while the need of this exercise (and LED as a whole for an appropriate financial background and a national strategy/policy is well-emphasized by the answers of the actors.
Troiani, Filippo; Affronte, Marco; Carretta, Stefano; Santini, Paolo; Amoretti, Giuseppe
We propose a scheme for the implementation of quantum gates which is based on the qubit encoding in antiferromagnetic molecular rings. We show that a proper engineering of the intercluster link would result in an effective coupling that vanishes as far as the system is kept in the computational space, while it is turned on by a selective excitation of specific auxiliary states. These are also shown to allow the performing of single-qubit and two-qubit gates without an individual addressing of the rings by means of local magnetic fields.
Gejl, Ryle Nørskov; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rasmussen, Jens
on the water resource. Furthermore a local water stress indicator is necessary for benchmarking regional water supplies against each other. AWaRe is the freshwater impact recommended by the Lifecycle Initiative (developed by WULCA). It is defined as the inverse function of Availability Minus Demand (AMD) which......Currently there are several world maps showing the water stress in regions or nations. They give a good indication of water stress on a larger scale, but do not have information on a local scale that may assist a water utility in their prioritization of well fields to lower the overall pressure...... is compared to the world average AMD. The AMD represents the water remaining after human consumption and environmental requirements. This is done for a grid of 50x50km worldwide, but it does not give sufficient information on a local scale. Therefore we modified the AWaRe indicator so that it can account...
In Dutch rural planning, constraints concerning the accessibility and other physical characteristics of an area are no longer a major problem. More important is the policy-making process at higher levels of society and processes of economic and social restructuring, over which local people do not
The Indiana Center for the Life Sciences, an award-winning partnership between education, government, and the private sector, houses state-of-the-art science labs, classrooms, and industry training space for community college students and local employers. This innovative partnership prepares both the current and future workforce for careers in the…
268 Reports EFFL 4|2014 USA FDA Developments: Food Code 2013 and Proposed Trans Fat Determination Margaret Rosso Grossman* I. Food Code 2013 and Food Code Reference System Since 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration has published a Food Code, now updated every four years. In November 2013, the
Mulfinger, Lorraine M.; Dressler, Kevin A.; James, L. Eric; Page, Niki; Serrano, Eduardo; Vazquez, Jorge
Research administrator interest in large research proposal development and submission support is high, arguably in response to the bleak funding landscape for research and federal agency trends toward making more frequent larger awards. In response, a team from Penn State University and Huron Consulting Group initiated a baseline study to…
Nathalia Marcia Goulart Pinheiro
Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis comparing 21 product development models in order to identify whether these structures meet the demands Product Certification of the European Community (CE. Furthermore, it presents a product development model, comprising the steps in the models analyzed, including improvements in activities for referred product certification. The proposed improvements are justified by the growing quest for the internationalization of products and processes within companies.
Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others
The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.
Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU
Full Text Available This work aims to assess the impact of fiscal decentralization on local (regional development in the EU Member States while controlling for macroeconomic and local autonomy specific factors. Using a panel data approach with dynamic effects, we examined the implications of fiscal decentralization on local development across European Union countries over the 1990-2004 period. The novelty of the study is emphasized by including in the analysis a variable which tests local fiscal discipline, more exactly, Fiscal Rule Strength Index for local level of government. Our findings suggest that prosperity of regions, measured in GDP growth depends on variables such as characteristics of decentralization undertaken by each country or local fiscal discipline, confirming our primary hypothesis. This supports the view that recently implemented reforms aiming to enforce fiscal discipline following-up the Fiscal Compact strengthened the local budgetary framework and restrained, therefore, the local discretionary power to act towards development.
growth in planning initiatives for Local Economic Development (LED). This article examines LED activities in the city of Kitwe, against the backdrop of regional and local economic decline, two different sets of responses may be recognised: (i) local government led initiatives and (ii) 'bottom up' LED responses arising from the ...
Kwon, H.S.; Park, J.R.; Hwang, D.H.; Lee, S.K.
The local TDC model consisting of natural mixing and forced mixing part was developed to obtain more realistic local fluid properties in the core subchannel analysis. To evaluate the performance of local TDC model, the CHF prediction capability was tested with the various CHF correlations and local fluid properties at CHF location which are based on the local TDC model. The results show that the standard deviation of measured to predicted CHF ratio (M/P) based on local TDC model can be reduced by about 7% compared to those based on global TDC model when the CHF correlation has no term to account for distance from the spacer grid. (author)
Cláudia Brazil Marques
Full Text Available El turismo como activiadad económica puede contribuir al desarrollo social, económico y cultural de una región. Para entender estas dinámicas, es importante no sólo para introducir los principios rectores del desarrollo, sino también para pensar en estrategias para implementar y desarrollar la actividad en regiones específicas. Los factores positivos y negativos del turismo se pueden mostrar en base a las características peculiares de cada área. Sin embargo, en lugar de una discusión general del problema, este estudio presenta las estrategias de planificación y gestión del turismo en la Ruta del Vino del Valle de los Viñedos como un estudio de caso de estudo de rutas turísticas que visan el desarrollo local.
Jensen, Per Langå
An analysis of the Danish development in regulatory praxsis within occupational health and safety with a detailed description of Adapted Inspection.......An analysis of the Danish development in regulatory praxsis within occupational health and safety with a detailed description of Adapted Inspection....
Holcomb, W.F.; Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.
To support the concept of criteria for potential below-regulatory-concern (BRC) wastes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed technical information, cost data, a methodology for analyzing promising candidate waste streams, and a rationale for proposing the criteria. Risk assessments to support the BRC criteria include an analysis of surrogate radioactive waste streams, disposal alternatives, and diverse demographic settings. In arriving at a proposed BRC level, EPA carefully weighed and considered many factors. Foremost was protection of the public and the development of an exposure level with assurance of no undue risk. Also considered were other daily risks encountered, ability to demonstrate compliance, guidance for similar exemptions by other groups, consistency with other regulated risk levels, general population health risks, maximum annual exposures to critical population groups, and the costs presently associated with the regulation of these wastes
Marcos Felipe Gonçalves Maia
Full Text Available Introduction: Environmentalism and ecology have gained ground in the discussions and in the daily practices of university libraries. Objective: To describe the importance of integrating metadata records of biological collections in the catalogs of libraries of UFT as an action "environmentally contextualized" beyond sustainable development. Methodology: descriptive and explanatory research with a qualitative approach with data collection through bibliographical and documentary research. Theoretical reading through Jacques Derrida's deconstructionism. Results: The concepts of sustainable development, institutional sustainability and information ecology have been used by information professionals in an uncritical manner, without regard to its marketing perspective and maintaining the operating system of exploration of the nature. Conclusions: if informational professionals intend to participate in the concern/preservation for nature should be alert to develop actions beyond sustainable development. Should help local knowledge construction process and help in building information utilization through their daily practices.
Loureiro Filho, I.
This Initiative has as purpose to get the attention and to propose a form of work practices so that the area energy became to contribute indeed for the reduction of global underdevelopment, pursuing the reduction of the energy developing in particular. Such a work is denominated Program of energy development of the states and municipalities PRODEEM intends that the energy of local use are taken advantage of through micro systems, to satisfy the basic necessities of developing towns of the country
Full Text Available All of digital devices which are connected through the Internet, are producing a big quantity of data. All this information can be turned into knowledge because we now have the computational power and solutions for advanced analytics to make sense of it. With this knowledge, cities could reduce costs, cut waste, and improve efficiency, productivity and quality of life for their citizens. The efficient/smart cities are characterized by more importance given to environment, resources, globalization and sustainable development. This paper represents a study on the methodologies for urban development that become the central element to our society.
Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John
This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to
The poor quality of infrastructure in terms of network density, connectivity and accessibility levels and general ... counter-productive to economic development of the study area. The roads in the area ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 4 2012 ... pedestrian friendly features.
Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bath (Ability, such as to achieve tourism destination function in Hungary. Secondly, the local government aims to sell its fruits and vegetables produced in the frame of public employment programme for local market and institutions. The supply of local population has got in focus because of current external opportunities (or force? in the settlements being traditionally agricultural area. The objective is to join the local tourism attractions and destinations with other existing local developments, which is hold back by the owners of developments. The authors – by keeping in mind local conditions and endogenous resources – define recommendations for settlements to be able to create a well-organised framework of local economic development.
Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R
The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.
Oliva Gonzalez, Juan P.
In the present paper, the current situation of the Cuban nuclear medicine, after its introduction in the country in the 40s of the 20 th century and its expansion since 1962 and, particularly, from the installation of the first gamma camera in 1980, is analyzed. Nowadays, there is a total 14 Nuclear Medicine Departments or Services in our country within the National Oncology Networks and national Health System (SNS), which provide medical attention to the population depending on the nuclear equipment available A Program for the medical and technical personnel's training is proposed, as well as for gradual development of nuclear medicine department's (including the installation of gamma cameras, divided into two stages: 2003-2004 and 2005-2006). The prospective results of the proposed program are analyzed, as well as the impact on the populations health
Interface Between Research, Development and Local Actors in Enhancing ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Environmental sustainability is a key area of focus in academic and development circles mainly because of the role that the ...
Lim, Hwan; Shim, Do Jun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin
In this paper, a unified methodology based on the local stress concept to estimate residual strength of locally thinned pipes is proposed. An underlying idea of the proposed methodology is that the local stress in the minimum section for locally thinned pipe is related to the reference stress, popularly used in creep problems. Then the problem remains how to define the reference stress, that is the reference load. Extensive three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) analyses were performed to simulate full-scale pipe tests conducted for various shapes of wall thinned area under internal pressure and bending moment. Based on these FE results, the reference load is proposed, which is independent of materials. A natural outcome of this method is the maximum load capacity. By comparing with existing test results, it is shown that the reference stress is related to the fracture stress, which in turn can be posed as the fracture criterion of locally thinned pipes. The proposed method is powerful as it can be easily generalised to more complex problems, such as pipe bends and tee-joints
Emmenegger, Rony Hugo
This article explores the politics of decentralization and state-peasant encounters in rural Oromiya, Ethiopia. Breaking with a centralized past, the incumbent government of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) committed itself to a decentralization policy in the early 1990......s and has since then created a number of new sites for state-citizen interactions. In the context of electoral authoritarianism, however, decentralization has been interpreted as a means for the expansion of the party-state at the grass-roots level. Against this backdrop, this article attempts...... between the 2005 and 2010 elections. Based on ethnographic field research, the empirical case presented discloses that decentralization and state-led development serve the expansion of state power into rural areas, but that state authority is simultaneously constituted and undermined in the course...
Full Text Available The local development means the existence of several goods and services and their performance, expressed through adequate marketing policies, thus determining the overall development performance.The paper approaches the economic fundamental issues of local development and in this context it determines the basic components of public service marketing, relevant for local development: price, multiplier of revenues/expenditures, respectively the export multiplier.Those elements will express the ratios between resources and outcomes and their balance is based on a Keynesian model in an open economy.
Praliev, K.; Seitkazina, G.; Karabalin, V.Yu.
The works in the field of search and study of new highly efficient and safe preparations for prevention and treatment of many diseases are most important in this country because of the grievous ecological situation some of its regions. In particular, essential territorial contamination by radionuclides causing a threat of people radioactive poisoning and total absence of radioprotectors aggravate the above-stated problem, as it is known, that many medicinal prepared lions are low efficient in conditions .of beam affection. Besides there is another problem - it concerns elaboration of efficient adaptogens - medicinal means that help a diseased organism to manage the illness more fast.Taking into account that the problem is most vital and significant research experience on new domestic radioprotectors and adaptogens is available, we have determined the forthcoming research main tasks: - Ynthetic investigations for the piperidine derivative series, purposed to the synthesis methods development, total substances identification and elaboration of experimental samples for pharmacological research. - The synthesized substances pharmacological tests according to the principles of radioprotector and adaptogen primary selection. - Selected preparations biochemical tests on radionuclide-affected experimental animals
Full Text Available Local sustainable development emphasizes the role of a community. One of the key prerequisite of this process is therefore participation of inhabitants. Nevertheless traditional way of managing cities does not work very well in terms of public engagement. Local sustainable development requires both i.e. governance mechanisms introduced by the local authorities and positive reaction of inhabitants for the invitation for cooperation. The paper is intended to explore some critical issues and dimensions of governance and citizens' engagement in terms of local sustainable development. It shows the general outlook on the most relevant conditions, factors, problems and barriers of this process in Poland. It presents experiences of the city of Rybnik in its work towards public engagement in local development.
Kristanto, A.; Mustaji; Mariono, A.; Sulistiowati; Nuryati, D. W.
In this era of technology in Indonesia, various publishers introduce themselves and participate in advancing the quality of education through the publication of various books as the learning sources. One of the publishers is PT. JP Press. In compiling the learning sources, we found some problems that are left unresolved by the editor. The purpose of this research is to overcome the problems that exist in PT. JP Press by developing media module. This development research uses the ADDIE model. The types of data used in this study are qualitative and quantitative data obtained based on the results of structured interviews with material experts and media experts, as well as the editorial response questionnaire provided for individual try-out and small group try-out. Therefore, it can be concluded that the medium of elementary school supplementary module proposed to the editors of PT. JP Press is valuable to be used in the teaching and learning activities.
This present paper discusses the local wisdom which can be applied to build the character of people living in a friendly city. It aims at (1) finding the main local wisdom which can be used to construct the integrity of human beings dwelling in it and (2) describing the concept of developing the friendly city based on local wisdom. Anthropolinguistics is applied to study this topic by focusing on the performance, indexicality, and participation. The analytic parameters are interconnection, evaluability, and sustainability.
Viktória Csizmadiáné Czuppon; Edina Sáriné Csajka; Tamás Molnár
The objective of the study is to introduce the potentials of local economic development in one of the least favoured micro regions, Tamási. The paper examines operating and planned activities at settlements of the micro region. The authors introduce local economic development activities that support tourism. The economic development planning in Tamási micro region has typically two directions. One of them is the utilisation of thermal water and the use of further potentials of the thermal bat...
Chan, Linda W.; Xia Ping; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Akazawa, Michelle; Scala, Matthew; Pickett, Barby M.S.; Hsu, I-C.; Speight, Joycelyn; Roach, Mack
Purpose: Although several institutions have reported rectal dose constraints according to threshold toxicity, the plethora of trials has resulted in multiple, confusing dose-volume histogram recommendations. A set of standardized, literature-based constraints for patients undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer would help guide the practice of prostate RT. The purpose of this study was to develop these constraints, demonstrate that they are achievable, and assess the corresponding rectal toxicity. Methods and Materials: An extensive literature search identified eight key studies relating dose-volume histogram data to rectal toxicity. A correction factor was developed to address differences in the anatomic definition of the rectum across studies. The dose-volume histogram constraints recommended by each study were combined to generate the constraints. The data from all patients treated with definitive intensity-modulated RT were then compared against these constraints. Acute rectal toxicity was assessed. Results: A continuous, proposed rectal dose-constraint curve was generated. Intensity-modulated RT not only met this constraint curve, but also was able to achieve at least 30-40% lower dose to the rectum. The preliminary clinical results were also positive: 50% of patients reported no acute bowel toxicity, 33% reported Grade 1 toxicity, and 17% reported Grade 2 toxicity. No patients reported Grade 3-4 acute rectal toxicity. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a set of proposed rectal dose constraints. This allowed for volumetric assessment of the dose-volume relationship compared with single dose-volume histogram points. Additional research will be performed to validate this threshold as a class solution for rectal dose constraints
Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:
Full Text Available The article is addressing the problem of local authorities seeing in national parks a stimulus or a barrier for local development in Poland. The results of surveys conducted among representatives of authorities of selected municipalities (n=61, in which there are national park areas show that the assessment of the role and impact of this type of protected areas varies. In most cases the presence of national parks is viewed positively. Emphasis is put on their importance to the local socio-economic development. The economic benefit is seen mainly in the tourism sector and the development of associated services. However, local communities experience many restrictions resulting from functioning of protected areas, especially in regard to the possibility of increasing revenues to the budgets of municipalities, production entrepreneurship development and intensification of agricultural production and fisheries. It is believed that in the future parks should stimulate local development to a larger extent. To achieve this, it is necessary to see a national park as a system linked to the socio-economic environment and to take planning actions based on a holistic look at natural, social and economic issues of a national park and its neighbourhood. The cooperation between local authorities, parks’ management, non-governmental organisations and local tourism business should be strengthened as well as steps should be taken in order to increase social participation in shaping the development of these areas.
This study is an investigation into the impact of Nigerian local government financing options on successful execution of development projects. Through the ordinary least square regression analysis, the study proved that though there is an established case of underfunding in the entire Nigerian local government system, the ...
The quest for development has been a major issue of concern to both domestic and foreign ... In the view of a scholar like Wraith, local government refers to locally .... the researchers and the simple percentage method used to analyze the data.
Full Text Available Many American communities place a high priority on retaining and attracting innovative industries. However, in most American metropolitan areas, the responsibility for local economic development is fragmented along jurisdictional and institutional lines. The result of this fragmentation is that local economic development is often chaotic with no one individual, agency, or jurisdiction in control, which may inhibit the effectiveness of local economic development efforts. To address these challenges and more effectively utilize resources, there has been greater emphasis recently on regional collaboration in local economic development. The purpose of this paper is to measure the extent of collaboration among local economic development professionals in the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area and to identify the extent to which these interactions constitute a social network. We believe that the existence of a strong social network among economic development professionals is critical to overcome some of the negative effects of jurisdictional and institutional fragmentation. While there is a core network of relatively dense collaboration in northwest Ohio, that network does not span the entire metropolitan area. A high level of local interactions occurs, but there are few “global pipelines” outside the region. A potential challenge for economic development in the region is to avoid “lock in”, which will make it more difficult to attract innovative industries or diversify the economy in order to decrease the traditional dependence on the auto industry.
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.
This paper examines the present system of project paper preparation and project planning used by the US Agency for International Development and many donor agencies. Three approaches for meeting the evident weaknesses of the system - a holistic approach to the planning problem, an operant-conditioning approach to implementation, and a process approach to planning and implementation - are presented and critiqued. On the basis of the critique, an approach grounded in a search for an approximately appropriate technology is supported; and a proposal for an appropriate-technology evaluation system which would analyze alternative technologies, deliver information to the field level, supply needed information on technologies and implementation, constrain donor planners, reduce lag time, incorporate evaluations into future planning, and reduce dependence upon planners is presented. 66 references.
Lipsman, Nir; Khan, Osaama; Kulkarni, Abhaya V
Modern neurosurgical training is both physically and emotionally demanding, posing significant challenges, new and old, to residents as well as programs attempting to train safe, competent surgeons. Models to describe resident development, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and milestones, address the acquisition of specific skills but largely ignore the stresses and pressures unique to each stage of resident training. We propose an alternative model of resident development adapted from the developmental psychology literature. Our model identifies the challenges that must be met at each stage of junior, intermediate, and senior and chief residency, leading ultimately to an "actualized" neurosurgeon (i.e., one who has maximized his or her potential). Failure to overcome any 1 of these challenges can lead to specific long-lasting consequences, including regret, identity crisis, incompetence, and bitterness. In contrast, the actualized surgeon is one who has successfully acquired the virtues of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, productivity, leadership, competence, and wisdom. The actualized surgeon not only functions safely, confidently, and professionally, but also successfully navigates the challenges of residency and emerges from them having fulfilled his or her maximal potential. This developmental perspective provides an individualized description of healthy surgical development. Our model allows programs to identify the basis for residents who fail to progress, counsel residents during their training, and perhaps help identify resident candidates who are better prepared to meet the developmental challenges of residency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Costa, M C; Lopes, C P; Souza, R P; Patel, B N
OBJECTIVE: To present a literature review of some aspects concerning the development of sexuality in the period between childhood and adolescence, and to work on some proposals for prevention and intervention. METHODS: Review of literature on relevant issues related to the process of psychosocial and sexual development during childhood and adolescence, and to the importance of prevention education. RESULTS: Differently from genitality, which is only concerned with biological aspects, sexuality encompasses emotional aspects, life history and cultural values. These factors contribute to the formation of general identity and to the components of sexual identity: gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Psychosocial and sexual development, emotional balance, and social relations are based on sexual experience during childhood and adolescence. During adolescence, the relationship with family and social group go through marked changes: conflicts arise, and experimentation and risk behavior are enhanced. The family, school, and health systems represent important links of identification, support, and protection for children and adolescents before they reach maturity. CONCLUSIONS: Sexuality education, either individually or in group, allows adolescents to experience sexuality and their emotional relations in a satisfactory, creative, and risk-free manner, combined with mutual respect and absence of gender discrimination.
Ronsivalle, C.; Casali, F.; Colavita, E.; Lamanna, E.
In the last years there has been an increasing interest on IORT (Intraoperative Radiation Therapy), also because of the development of dedicated accelerators. This technique represents a very effective oncological treatment consisting in delivering a single high dose on a tumour bed soon after surgery resection. In the following we present the proposal of development of a last generation IORT system based on the use of a linear accelerator with variable energy in the range 3-15 MeV, operating in C band (5712 MHz). Respect to the accelerator used in the commercial IORT systems operating at a typical frequency of 2998 MHz (S band) limited to a maximum energy of 12 MeV, the use of a higher RF frequency allows an increase of the maximum energy. This extends the use of the IORT technique to a wider field of tumors and an improvement of the system in terms of compactness and weight reduction. In addition the machine will be provided with a devoted absolute dosimetry system that will strongly simplify the procedures of dosimetric characterization. We intend to develop the system by a collaboration between ENEA, some Universities (Bologna, Catanzaro and Cosenza) and the national industry [it
Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo
To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...
Caplan, M.; Thompson, T.S. [MZ Consulting Inc., ON (Canada)
Nuclear power plants are large infrastructure projects that require government support and approval. This paper will highlight and contrast the larger, mostly government-desired, nuclear program localization objectives with the more utility-specific requirements for successful project implementation. Governments are concerned about sustainable industrial development, particularly manufacturing, and job creation while utilities are focused on delivering reliable electricity to consumers at the lowest cost. Numerous countries emphasize local content as a key requirement when procuring a station. For countries like China and Korea that have large programs, their strategy has been to localize to the point of having their own indigenous design. However, developing a workable localization strategy that truly benefits the local economy for others including existing nuclear markets like Canada, the UK, South Africa and Brazil as well as in newly developing markets such as Vietnam and Malaysia is more challenging. These countries may not look to indigenize a new design, rather they would localize elements of the nuclear program that best fit their strengths. The paper will discuss the issues related to developing successful localization and industrialization strategies in a changing nuclear world. (author)
Caplan, M.; Thompson, T.S.
Nuclear power plants are large infrastructure projects that require government support and approval. This paper will highlight and contrast the larger, mostly government-desired, nuclear program localization objectives with the more utility-specific requirements for successful project implementation. Governments are concerned about sustainable industrial development, particularly manufacturing, and job creation while utilities are focused on delivering reliable electricity to consumers at the lowest cost. Numerous countries emphasize local content as a key requirement when procuring a station. For countries like China and Korea that have large programs, their strategy has been to localize to the point of having their own indigenous design. However, developing a workable localization strategy that truly benefits the local economy for others including existing nuclear markets like Canada, the UK, South Africa and Brazil as well as in newly developing markets such as Vietnam and Malaysia is more challenging. These countries may not look to indigenize a new design, rather they would localize elements of the nuclear program that best fit their strengths. The paper will discuss the issues related to developing successful localization and industrialization strategies in a changing nuclear world. (author)
Francesco Maria Olivieri
Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.
Full Text Available The supply chain management of foods is commonly associated with modernistic large-scale production. This involves long transport distances of foods to reach consumers. In the case of local foods, supply chains are shorter. Based on a case study of five local foods producer's supply of their products to a common retailer, the supply chain of local foods is modelled conceptually and modes of development are pointed out based on contingency theory and supply chain management literature. Findings reveal that since these chains are transparent, reciprocal interdependency is abundant mainly because human perception creates a sufficient understanding of the operations management issues pertinent within this simple inter-organisational structure. Local foods supply chains are similar to service supply chains. This includes that both are short in nature and associated with bi-directional interaction between the customer and supplier. Developing short supply chains in local foods supply is associated with improving the exchange economy found in short supply chains. This also implies that development of local foods supply is associated with two paths which may be complementary. First, the use of improved intensive technology associated with reciprocal interdependency to develop efficiencies in the bi-directional and somewhat complex interaction. Alternatively local foods suppliers may seek to reduce this form of reciprocal interdependency thereby increasing the impact of pooled interdependencies and enabling using mediating technology involving standardising interaction such as through increased standardised products and packaging as well as automation of information connectivity.
Full Text Available Local economic development and workforce initiative are continually evolving. There are no hard and fast rules or long-proven experiences upon which to draw. The job of the economic development planner and the work of the community in achieving sustainable economic development have become much harder because of the national and global crisis.
Full Text Available The paper addresses the new role played by local self-government units in Poland. Main factors that determine the public authorities’ capacity to become architects of coalitions for local development are identified. Coalitions are defined as partnerships linking and mobilizing stakeholders anchored in three sectors: public, economic and non-governmental. The coalition-making role of the public organs is investigated on the basis of Local Action Groups (LAGs, which are pro-developmental cross-sector organizations established in rural areas of the Podkarpackie (Sub-Carpathian Voivodesh ip, Poland. Findings are presented that draw on quantitative and qualitative results of the research project that investigated mechanisms involved in the operation of the cross-s ector coalitions. The dominant role of the public authorities in those coalitions is demonstrated. The Community-led Local Development model is referred to as the future framework for LAGs.
Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.
Eris D Schoburgh
Full Text Available Implementation of the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED1began in 2012 in seven countries for a duration of six years, to support sustainable economic growth in the region. CARILED has introduced the idea of local economic development (LED to the ‘development’ debate in the region but has also brought the organisational capacity of local government, and local government’s role as ‘facilitator’ of LED,to the fore. This paper assesses organizational behaviour and capability in local government in Jamaica to determine the state of readiness for a developmental role. The paper draws on two sets of research data to aid its analysis–a capacity audit (CAPAUD conducted in 2010 and an organisational analysis (OAcommissioned by the Ministry of Local Government in 2010, both of which targeted a sample of local authorities in Jamaica. The study found that when assessed against established criteria for an LED organisation, ie: research and information provision; marketing and coordination; learning and innovation; and leadership - local government’s institutional and organisational capacity for development is unevenly distributed. For instance, local leaders understood organisational purpose but efforts to give effect to this appeared undeveloped, sporadic and uni-directional. It was also evident that participatory strategies are used to gain information from communities but these were often devoid of systematic research methodologies rendering formal community impact on local planning negligent. Finally there is strong potential for the kind of administrative leadership required by a developmental local government to evolve,indicated by the quality of training, quantum of managerial/supervisory staff, and stability of staff establishment. However, this potential is threatened by the deficiencies in the non-traditional functional areas that are strategic to the organisation’s effectiveness as a ‘facilitator’ of LED, ie
Mehmet Akif Çukurçayır
Full Text Available The foundation of modern local governments in Turkey was laid with an imperial edict in 1839. This reform also called Gulhane Hatt-i Hümayunu or Tanzimat Edict, paved the way for local and regional councils. Since the 1850s, the municipalities have been established. However, it is not possible to talk about the functionality of these municipalities in current terms. Since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, modern laws regulating local governments were issued. Village Law and Municipal Law are the first examples of these reformations. With the 1961 Constitution, modern participatory local government approach was adopted and mayors began to be elected directly by people for the first time. From 1960 to present, many local government reforms were made, but none of them were so fundamental as in 2012. With this reform, local government system has completely changed. Aim of this study is investigation of results of this reform and find out needs for a new wave of reform. New Metropolitan Municipalities Law is problematic in terms of local governance and local participation. Although European Charter of Local Self-Government and the European Urban Charter paying special importance to citizen’s participation, last developments in Turkey as a European Union candidate continues in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss all aspects of the new regulation. So that, field researches will be analyzed and recommendations will be presented in the light of these field studies relevant to the reforms.
Full Text Available The local geographic milieu plays a significant role in development of every man because of its orientation in space, a sense of security and belonging to the community and the place where he lives or who perform his activities. In other words, one needs to fall in a particular social group that inhabits an area or to perform some activities able in a space, because that is something that stands out from the rest of the world and marking his individuality. The main long-term goal of development of each local community is to increase the quality of life of all its members, job creation, integration of the local community in a wider social system through health, educational and cultural institutions, creating a network of relationships and connections and correlations of all the actors from the state and public sector up to private enterprise, local authorities and local associations. Of particular importance for Serbia, is a question of development of local rural communities, which is closely linked to issues of sustainable and balanced spatial, socio-economic and demographic development. This issue becomes more important in efforts to prevent existing urban-centric trends and highlighted the economic and demographic polarization of Serbia. .
capacity for understanding the development process and its priorities, designing, planning, implementing and assessing development policies with a favourable local impact in a regional context. The paper presents as in a mirror the Romanian and the Bulgarian points of view. The two perspectives are quite different but complementary. Briefly said, while the Romanian approach is bottom-up, with a focus on the local capacity to take initiatives that will contribute at shaping the regional development process, the Bulgarian one considers first the priorities of the region, in order to define the capacities required for a proper response at local level. Both perspectives are valid, and it should not be any contradiction between them. This is why we consider they are complementary. The studies rely on documentary research and secondary analysis of data in order to assess the capacity gap in addressing local development issues, and to identify education and training needs in economics and business matters related to local development. They discuss the rationale of cooperation between universities from Bulgaria and Romania in responding to such needs, and, finally they propose an inventory of joint initiatives in this respect. The paper emphasizes the factors which explain the reasons why cooperation between universities in raising the expertise in local development maters on both sides of Lower Danube is required and desirable, such as the vicinity, the common opportunities and responsibilities related to having Danube as a common asset, the similarities in development patterns, the common challenge of European integration, use of EU support and better exploitation of the Internal Market, the need to speed up the modernisation process and to achieve some economies of scope and scale. Among other proposals, authors propose the establishment of a university hub to coordinate networking among higher education institutions from Bulgaria, Romania and other countries of the Danube
Cheng, Yin Cheong
Since there are increasing international concerns with both the positive and negative impacts of globalization on indigenous and national development, how to manage the realities and practices of globalization and localization in education for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the disadvantages for the development of individuals and their…
Local energy developments from a spatial and systemic approach are highlighted using examples from a Dutch case study. Developments in energy systems included interconnectedness of contextual factors and systems responses. The need to explore both the contextual factors and systemic aspects are
Neisy Ramos Acevedo
Full Text Available The local development should complete a group of basic principles, such as: the design for training and the tools information adapted to the particularity of each territory. This training facilitates, also, the articulation of the stocks deployed by the local leaders, and it increases the administration of the knowledge and the transfer of technologies, processes in those that the nexuses are enlarged between the structures and the population, and where the participation of different present actors is potentialized in the territory. During the year 2010 the Ministry of Economy and Planning begins to offer the possibility to finance projects for the local development, nevertheless these initiatives should be accompanied by a rigorous study of feasibility of the investments. The University of Sancti Spíritus, committed in this zeal, designs the Diplomate of Administration of Projects for Local Initiatives, which offers theoretical tools and it develops practical abilities in the different actors of the local development that facilitate the realization of these studies. The exercise of this graduate's culmination consists on the defence of the study of feasibility of those projects that each municipality identifies as priority for its development.
Y. G. Udod
Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.
Gallimore, Ronald; And Others
This report summarizes the programmatic features of a proposal for the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP), a program aimed at the development, demonstration, and dissemination of methods for improving the education of Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian children. A brief description of the proposed project goals, structure, organization, and…
... representatives from the research, business, and government communities. Every effort will be made to ensure balance (geographical, ethnic, gender, institutional type, subject matter) across the entire competition... following issues in the preliminary proposal: (1) How the proposal addresses issues of national capacity in...
Full Text Available This paper presents an educational proposal of a technical nature but with bases rooted in popular education (Freire, 1970. It aims to provide lights on how vocational education, could have a link to the local development of the territory. Local development has its maximum exponents in the fields of the recovery of the endogenous sources and in the articulation of the associative network (Herrera, 2009, with the consequent benefit of enhancing participatory instruments that improve the democratic exchanges of territory. The educative centers may have a privileged territory view, converge in the same few elements, actors and actresses key, also if the Centre has the role of formative work development from the articulation of the productive elements, we have a resource of excellent characteristics for local development. The proposal is therefore, the linkage of the Centers for education and work with a perspective of local development, especially in areas with low social structuring communities, i.e., high rates of unemployment, schooling, economic difficulties, etc. These scenarios are very common in urban peripheries both in Europe and in America, but these fields, can also be found in certain rural communities, Latin American, although with different characteristics. The incidence in the local promotion, in these cases, will have a special responsibility, since the work by the unfinished schooling and educational inclusion, without doubt, work for community development (Torrent, 2012.
Johnson, Karl D
GASB has proposed new standards that will affect the way in which governments report postemployment health care benefits in audited external financial statements, resulting in more complete and transparent reporting by employers and plans and more relevant and useful information for the users of governmental financial reports. This article provides an overview of current financial reporting standards and practice, the financial reporting objectives of the project, the proposed measurement approach, noteworthy specific proposals, and the projected timetable for completion of the project and implementation of the new standards.
Juroszek, Zbigniew; Kudelko, Mariusz
The authors present a non-linear, optimization model supporting the planning of local energy systems development. The model considers two forms of final energy – heat and electricity. The model reflects both private and external costs and is designed to show the social perspective. It considers the variability of the marginal costs attributed to local renewable resources. In order to demonstrate the capacity of the model, the authors present a case study by modelling the development of the energy infrastructure in a municipality located in the south of Poland. The ensuing results show that a swift and significant shift in the local energy policy of typical central European municipalities is needed. The modelling is done in two scenarios – with and without the internalization of external environmental costs. The results confirm that the internalization of the external costs of energy production on a local scale leads to a significant improvement in the allocation of resources. - Highlights: • A model for municipal energy system development in Central European environment has been developed. • The variability of marginal costs of local, renewable fuels is considered. • External, environmental costs are considered. • The model reflects both network and individual energy infrastructure (e.g. individual housing boilers). • A swift change in Central European municipal energy infrastructure is necessary.
This article investigates the dynamic overall picture concerning the development of local curriculum in Thailand through action research conducted by 27 Thai elementary school teachers in three private schools in Fang District, Chiang Mai Province. This was the teachers' first experience with action research. The article examines the following…
Full Text Available In response to a central drive for evidence-based practice, there have been many research support schemes, setups, and other practices concentrating on facilitating access to external research, such as the Centre for Evidence Based Healthcare Aotearoa, the Cochrane Collaboration, and the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Very little attention has been paid to supporting internal research in terms of local evidence and internal research capabilities. The whole evidence-based practice movement has alienated internal decision makers and, thus, very little progress has been made in the context of evidence informing local policy formation. Health and social policies are made centrally based on dubious claims and often evidence is sought after implementation. For example, on record, most health care practitioners appear to agree with the causal link between depression and mental illness (sometimes qualified with other social factors with suicide; off the record, even some psychiatrists doubt that such a link is applicable to the population as a whole. Therefore, be it through misplaced loyalty or a lack of support for internal researchers/decision makers, local evidence informing local decision making may have been ignored in favour of external evidence. In this paper, we present a practical holistic model to support local evidence-based decision making. This approach is more relevant in light of a new approach to primary health care of “local knowledge” complementing external evidence. One possible outcome would be to network with other regional programmes around the world to share information and identify “best” practices, such as the “Stop Youth Suicide Campaign”(www.stopyouthsuicide.com.
Suriya Sukram; Chaiyot Ruangsuwan
This research aims to study the composition and indications 1. The Child Development Centre under the local governments in UdonThani province 2. Study the current state and the desired operating child care centers under the jurisdiction of local governments in UdonThani province. 3. Develop the child development centers under the local governments in UdonThani province. The operation is divided. Phase one of the elements and indicators, the Child Development Center. By synthesi...
This thesis examines the effects of a collection of policies that determine the\\ud mandatory distribution of mining, gas and oil revenues between national and subnational\\ud governments, and the greater involvement of mining companies in local\\ud development. I have labelled this set of policies, which aims to reduce social\\ud conflict and promote local development, the New Extractive Industry Strategy\\ud (NEIS).\\ud \\ud Chapter 1 describes the implementation of these policies in Peru and high...
The purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which the developed world is integrated that the pricing difference between using the local CAPM and the global CAPM is not relevant. This paper has analysed the twenty developed countries which have been classified as such in the MSCI global index. The paper breaks down the country and stock to identify where there is a significant difference in the pricing of assets between the local and global CAPM, and the significance of the result.
Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion, and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. In this context, public-private partnerships play an important role in regional development. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical context that combines different concepts and elements to explain and understand the public-private partnership phenomenon in tourism. A conceptual model of the role of public-private partnerships will be proposed in order to contribute to successful regional development.
... rural as well as urban areas. Because the appointment of the FirstNet Board occurred on August 20, 2012... resiliency requirements; (v) assignment of priority to local users and selection of entities seeking network... format. III. Data OMB Control Number: 0660-0038. Form Number(s): None. Type of Review: Regular submission...
Ryff, Luiz Carlos
A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical aspects of the relationship between scientific and technological production of universities and local development. The central argument is that this relationship is potentialized when produced knowledge permits the occupation of a position in the scientific field and is linked to specific forms of local insertion. In the context of globalization, which keeps the center-periphery structure of the world economic system practically intact, articulation is proposed between global and local dimensions of the environment. The recovery of theoretical-empirical categories formulated by Economic Commission for Latin-America and the Caribbean helps to place the discussion in a political sphere, and to characterize local development as an expression of social change on territorially demarcated scales.
Marlen Treviño Villalobos
capacities and capabilities of governance in the North Huetar Region through access to timely and relevant to the local economic development. This article aims to present the relevance of an information system in local development planning and currently the SIR-ZEE is becoming a competitive advantage for the North Huetar Region facilitating decision-making process.The main results obtained at the end of the initiative was a proposal to the processing of strategic plans for local development in the North Huetar Region, awareness of local stakeholders on the participation in the various stages of planning, a territorial diagnosis with the added value of having the information geo-referenced and available on the web site and progress in the Strategic Plan for Local Development.
... organizational structure of the agency during the period for which the proposal applies, along with a functional... grantee department or agency, depreciation or use allowances on buildings and equipment, the costs of... period, usually the governmental unit's fiscal year. This rate is based on an estimate of the costs to be...
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Elberling, Jesper
of patients suspected with immediate- and delayed-type immune reactions. Literature was examined using PubMed-Medline, EMBASE, Biosis and Science Citation Index. Based on the literature, the proposed algorithm may safely and rapidly distinguish between immediate-type and delayed-type allergic immune reactions....
Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.
Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six
It further aims to mobilize these actors and resources into a crucial motor for local development in the face of ever more aggressive globalization. This grant will support the training of key professionals from the National Agricultural University (UNA), as well as municipal and business leaders, in RMD with a view to adapting ...
Public Audit of Local Area Development Fund in Meghalaya. It is often alleged that many people contest the state assembly elections in Meghalaya (India) not with the intention of serving the people but rather of having access to the financial packages that come with it. These include funds from the Special Rural Works ...
The study investigated the role of youths in agricultural development in Makurdi Local Government area (LGA) of Benue State. Interview schedules were used to collect data from 120 youths selected through random sampling procedure from Makurdi LGA. Descriptive and inferential statistics namely, mean and factor ...
BIDDLE, LOUREIDE J.; BIDDLE, WILLIAM W.
THIS TRAINING GUIDE IS WRITTEN TO MEET THE NEEDS OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO WHICH THE PEACE CORPS, VISTA, CHURCHES, AND OTHER VOLUNTEER-USING AGENCIES TURN FOR HELP IN TRAINING THE NONPROFESSIONAL OR PREPROFESSIONAL LOCAL WORKER IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE LESSONS ARE DIRECTED TO THE "ENCOURAGER" WHO LIVES WITH THE PEOPLE PARTICIPATING IN…
Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.
Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.
Mazygula, E.; Kharlamova, M.; Kozlova, E.
This article presents an analysis of the city of Kerch (Crimea Republic, Kerch Peninsula) in accordance with the local sustainable development indicators. The authors carried out the assessment of the existing environmental problems in the city which was necessary for the further development of the environmentally oriented infrastructure under various development scenarios. Due to the natural and economic factors, Kerch can develop both as an industrial and recreational centre of the peninsula. The analysis of the atmospheric air condition, use of water and energy resources and the waste management system was conducted. The presented results showed the presence of major environmental problems in almost all spheres.
Maria del Pilar Leal Londoño
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to highlight the potential of gastronomic tourism as a mechanism for local development by examining stakeholders’ perceptions and the specific actions being carried out at a range of levels in Catalonia. The study reports the findings of a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats based on the responses gathered from semi-structured interviews. The findings reveal the strategies and the roles played by public and private agents. The study provides useful insights for planners and decision makers interested in instigating gastronomic tourism actions not only at the local but also at the regional level.
Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.
A preliminary plan is proposed for critical experiments to provide data needed for the recycle of thorium based nuclear fuels. The sequence of experimentation starts with well moderated solutions followed by highly concentrated low moderated solutions. It then progresses through lattices moderated by water, by water plus soluble poisons, and by fissile solutions, to solutions poisoned by raschig rings and soluble poisons. Final experiments would treat lattices moderated by poisoned fissile solution, and arrays of stored fissile units
I Nyoman Darma Putra
Full Text Available Abstract In September and October 2013, only one week apart,Bali hosted two global events in the upper class markettourism resort Nusa Dua. The first event was the MissWorld beauty pageant, and the other one was the APECSummit. Thousands of journalists from all over the worldcovered these events. From a tourism marketing point ofview, these two prestigious events helped Bali boost itspopularity through global mass media. Historically, sincethe early phase of its development, Bali’s tourism industryhas received many benefits from global forces initiallychanneled out through the Dutch colonial power in the firstdecade of the twentieth century and later through nationaland multinational corporations. The recent enlisting byUNESCO of Bali’s cultural landscape as a world heritagesite (2012 provides yet another great example of how Balicontinues to receive global endorsement by world institutions as a unique tourism destination. This paper discusesopportunities and challenges caused by globalizationand localization phenomena in the management of Bali’stourism island destination. Bali’s experiences provide aninteresting example of how global and local stakeholdersdevelop the island tourism in a sustainable manner whileat the same time continuing to preserve its local arts andculture as one of its main attractions. While there aremany examples how both forces contribute to numerousopportunities toward the development of Bali’s tourism,it is also true to state that impacts of globalization causesvarious forms of distraction for the island’s ability to takefull control of its vast move of development.
Adiwan F Aritenang
Full Text Available In Indonesia, decentralization and globalization has introduced a new spirit for localism. Since decentralisation, regions have been motivated to accelerate economic development through local endowment and resources. The democratic Indonesia government has been interested to follow economy theories and case studies develop in the advance countries. Over the years, government policies have supported and strengthen technology development through industrial clusters and national and regional innovation systems. This research aims to explore current progress of Indonesia innovation system through industrial clusters. The research found the presence of industry clustering and very limited innovation system in Indonesia. The research argues that these activities has significant impact on employment growth, but does not increase the industry's value added.
Full Text Available Depending where one looks you will find various definitions aimed at describing ‘sustainability’. In lasts years the notion of sustainable tourism must be regarded as one of the great success stories of tourism research and knowledge transfer. It has become the first topic discourse in academic research, business fields and governance. The government takes responsibility for the social and economic development of the country. The government through the lows, programs, plans, and strategies oriented people to choose the tools in economy’s branches and to walk in sustainable development without afraid for the future. One of the economic branches, that is qualified as friend of sustainable development is tourism. But tourism cannot develop in chaos by self without a strategy or a plan confirmed by specialist, who works in different sectors of public administrate in government. While, big or central government is occupied with macro-problem and macro-policies, local government is nearest community and it know better than anyone, their human and natural resources. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of local governance systems for sustainable tourism. So, local government can be the first promoting and encouraging tourism development, and helping the community for sustainable tourism.
Full Text Available Local government in South Africa is not only facing challenges normally associated with a process of development or transformation, but needs to adjust its focus according to the new development paradigm unfolding in South Africa. Developmental local government has to accomplish this task according to the mandate issued in the Constitution and within a specific legal-institutional and value framework The legal-institutional framework is based on a set of development law principles contained in new generation legislation. The value framework consists of community values as well as constitutional values reflecting individual and community values, norms and principles. This framework imposes a legal and moral duty as well as corresponding obligations on municipalities to plan and implement future socio-economic development of the areas for which they are responsible according to a new set of development principles and values. These principles make it incumbent upon municipalities to manage development through a people-centred and community-driven process. This article briefly deals with the nature and content of the duties and responsibilities of municipalities emanating from a new development paradigm when facilitating the development process within their areas of jurisdiction.
Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing
Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun
The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical framework for planning for sustainability for any proposed development project. The objective of this framework is to foster and preserve the social ecological system in which the proposed development project...
little room for in-depth analysis and critical investigative study of the role and impact of ASEAN's plans for regional integration -- and its interventions on ... A key part of Canada's aid program since 1970, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports research in developing countries to promote growth and ...
Stupin, D.M.; Fries, R.J.
A research and development program is described that will enable the fabrication of 10 6 targets/day for a laser fusion prototype power reactor in 2007. We give personnel and cost estimates for a generalized laser fusion target that requires the development of several new technologies. The total cost of the program between 1979 and 2007 is $362 million in today's dollars
Nikolay I. Churinov
Full Text Available In this article the characteristic of a theoretical component of model of interaction of local government bodies with the central government, and also development of scientific base in the course of history is given. Relevance to this subject in the conditions of the Russian reality is added by federalism of a state system of Russia, namely a thin side in questions of competences between bodies of one hierarchy. This article, will be useful to those who deal with issues in the field of the theory of the state and the right and the municipal right. Historic facts in the form of the regulatory legal acts adopted earlier which subsequently, were a source for development of theoretical ideas of local self-government and the government are given in article.
Most policymakers and academics agree that entrepreneurship is critical to the development and well-being of society. Entrepreneurs create jobs. They drive and shape innovation, speeding up structural changes in the economy. By introducing new competition, they contribute indirectly to productivity. Entrepreneurship is thus a catalyst for economic growth and national competitiveness. The paper presents the theoretical framework of links between the entrepreneurship, enterprises and local econ...
Huo, Yuen J; Dovidio, John F; Jiménez, Tomás R; Schildkraut, Deborah J
In the past 15 years, the adoption of subnational immigration policies in the United States, such as those established by individual states, has gone from nearly zero to over 300 per year. These include welcoming policies aimed at attracting and incorporating immigrants, as well as unwelcoming policies directed at denying immigrants access to public resources and services. Using data from a 2016 random digit-dialing telephone survey with an embedded experiment, we examine whether institutional support for policies that are either welcoming or hostile toward immigrants differentially shape Latinos' and whites' feelings of belonging in their state (Arizona/New Mexico, adjacent states with contrasting immigration policies). We randomly assigned individuals from the representative sample ( n = 1,903) of Latinos (US and foreign born) and whites (all US born) to consider policies that were either welcoming of or hostile toward immigrants. Across both states of residence, Latinos, especially those foreign born, regardless of citizenship, expressed more positive affect and greater belonging when primed with a welcoming (vs. hostile) policy. Demonstrating the importance of local norms, these patterns held among US-born whites, except among self-identified politically conservative whites, who showed more negative affect and lower levels of belonging in response to welcoming policies. Thus, welcoming immigration policies, supported by institutional authorities, can create a sense of belonging not only among newcomers that is vital to successful integration but also among a large segment of the population that is not a direct beneficiary of such policies-US-born whites.
Verónica Sánchez García
Full Text Available The scene of the majority of Latin American cities is hopeless due the crisis faced by this part of the world. The decisive factor was globalization because it forced an economical restructuring and the implementation of new ways of production. Cities had to reorganize to deal with and adapt to this system through “global cities.” This way, it was possible to strengthen certain groups or population areas while ignoring others. This generated and emphasized poverty, which, at the same time, created social and environmental segregation, insecurity, mobility, lack of housing and utilities, overspend, waste of materials and human resources, as well as other institutional difficulties. These were a constant and limited the equitable access to social opportunities.For this reason, every urban planning and prediction system should take into account realistic circumstances that foster solidarity, participation, consensus, and sustainability as the central concept of the strategy to implement. This is known as “local management.” To manage a city implies working together with public, private, and social sectors in order to solve everyday problems efficiently and wisely. This way, it is possible to prevent and solve the difficulties faced by the community while searching for a common good and the recovery of its citizenship.
Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute highly contagious viral respiratory disease of poultry caused by coronavirus. The disease causes high mortality in young chicks, reduce body weight gain in broilers and remarkable drop in egg production. IB can only be controlled by vaccination, but due to the antigenic variation among serotypes of IB viruses, the effective IB vaccine should be prepared from local isolates. The aim of this research is to develop inactivated IB vaccine derived from local IB isolates. Local isolates of IB viruses designated as I-37, I-269 and PTS-III were propagated respectively in specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs, the viruses then were inactivated by formaline at final concentration of 1:1,000. Subsequently, the inactivated viruses were mixed and emulsified in oil emulsion adjuvant with sorbitant mono-oleic as an emulsifier. The vaccine then was tested for its safety, potency and efficacy in broiler chickens. Birds inoculated twice with a two-week interval by inactivated vaccine did not show any adverse reaction, either systemic or local reaction. The inoculated birds developed antibody responses with high titre, while antibody of the control birds remain negative. In addition, efficacy test which was conducted in broilers demonstrated that birds vaccinated by live-commercial vaccine and boosted three weeks later by Balitvet inactivated vaccine showed high level of antibody production which provided high level of protection against challenged virus (76% against I-37, 92% against I-269 and 68% against PTS-III challenge viruses. From this study, it can be concluded that inactivated local IB vaccine is considered to be safe, potent and efficacious. The vaccine stimulates high titre of antibody responses, which provide high level of protection against challenged viruses.
The objective of this grant was to develop facilities and information resources that support current research in biotechnology and to meet the goal of strengthening the biological science programs at HBCUs/Mls...
In this article, I outline a proposal for decentering the field of United States-based community psychology. Transnational migrations, border crossings, and proliferating neoliberal trade and global media characterize the contemporary moment we live in. These movements challenge any monolithic disciplinary narrative of community psychology. Drawing from liberation psychology and women of Color feminisms, I argue that decentering the field involves engendering more reciprocal, nonhierarchical relations between the core and peripheries of knowledge production. Specifically, I consider the decentering project in two related realms-content and agents of knowledge production. The first issue concerns the kind of research and theorizing we engage in, the issues or topics we investigate, and the subject populations we work with. The second issue pertains to the agents who engage in the aforementioned processes, exercising epistemic power, that is the authority to construct what is considered legitimate and valid knowledge. I conclude with the implications of the decentering project for a multistranded community psychology that is responsive to the cartographies of contemporary struggles. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development
Craddock, M.K.; Baartman, R.; Burge, R.
The TRIUMF KAON Factory proposal has made considerable progress on both technical and political fronts over the last year. A racetrack-shaped lattice is now being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. The H - extraction system for the cyclotron has been tested successfully with 66 μA pulsed and 10 μA average beams. On the political side, British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn dollar 87M) and is making the KAON Factory its top priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Approval of dollar 11 million in pre-construction R and D funds is expected imminently, permitting formal negotiations to start abroad, with final approval for construction coming in 1989
Reyhan Genli Yiğiter
Full Text Available The twenty-first century is the beginning of an era in which urban development at the international and national levels, equality, continuity, capability, administration involving many actors and settlement systems need to be dealt with using new settlement administration ethics. The concept of sustainable development first came up at the National Development and Environment Conference held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, when the action plan known as Agenda 21 was constituted at the Earth Summit. This is a comprehensive document assigning responsibility to governments, NGOs, local authorities, United Nations organisations, development organisations and all persons and institutions that have an impact on the environment. On this basis, this study evaluates the growing necessity of urban transformation in Turkey in various dimensions within the framework of Local Agenda 21, in which various actors can be involved. This paper approaches the issues not only from the point of view of the state, but also from the point of view of all actors to whom responsibility is assigned. It examines the philosophy of the Local Agenda 21 program and how it is being implemented in the Municipality of Harran, and it assesses the achievement level of Local Agenda 21 in Turkey and policies in the case reviewed. The paper includes proposals that will allow all local authorities in Turkey to examine their own programs within the framework of the Local Agenda 21 action program so that they can participate in the urban transformation process, develop local sustainable development policies and establish short-term and long-term strategic plans to solve problems.
Bosch, Anita; Taylor, John
Globally, research has become a key driver for the achievement of status and the procurement of funding for higher education institutions. Although there is mounting pressure on institutions to become research active, many institutions are rooted in a strong tradition of teaching. These institutions find it challenging to develop research capacity…
Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J
Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Yang, Kyu-Ho
In relieving local pains, lidocaine, one of ester type local anesthetics, has been used. To develop the lidocaine gels of enhanced local anesthetic effects, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based bioadhesive polymer gel containing an enhancer was formulated. As the drug concentration in the gels increased up to 3%, the permeation rate of drug linearly increased, thereafter reaching a plateau. As the temperature of surrounding solutions increased, the permeation of drug increased. The activation energy of drug permeation was 3.29 kcal/mol for lidocaine. The permeation rate of drug through skin was studied using various enhancers, such as glycols, non-ionic surfactants, and bile salts. Among the enhancers studied, diethylene glycol showed the greatest enhancing effects on drug permeation through skin. The analgesic activity was examined using a tail-flick analgesimeter. In the area under the efficacy curve (AUEC) of the rat-tail flick tests, lidocaine gel containing diethylene glycol showed about 3.89-fold increase in analgesic activity compared with the control. The addition of vasoconstrictor in the gels prolonged the analgesic effects. The result of this study supports that the bioadhesive gel with efficient anesthetic effect could be developed using HPMC with combination of enhancer and vasoconstrictor.
Full Text Available The local public policies development in Romania represents an empirically realized measure, the strategic management practices in this domain not being based on a scientific instrument capable to anticipate and evaluate the results of implementing a local public policy in a logic of needs-policies-effects type. Beginning from this motivation, the purpose of the paper resides in the reconceptualization of the public policies process on functioning principles of the dynamic systems with inverse connection, by means of mathematical modeling and techniques simulation. Therefore, the research is oriented in the direction of developing an optimization method for the local public policies development process, using as instruments the mathematical modeling and the techniques simulation. The research’s main results are on the one side constituted by generating a new process concept of the local public policies, and on the other side by proposing the conceptual model of a complex software product which will permit the parameterized modeling in a virtual environment of these policies development process. The informatic product’s finality resides in modeling and simulating each local public policy type, taking into account the respective policy’s characteristics, but also the value of their appliance environment parameters in a certain moment.
Patrícia Flores Magnago
Full Text Available The product development is a process that addresses sustainability issues inside companies. Many approaches have been discussed in academy concerning sustainability, as Natural Capitalism, Design for Environment (DfE and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, but a question arises: which is indicated for what circumstance? This article aim is the proposition of a classification, based on a literature review, for 15 of these approaches. The criteria were: (i approach nature, (ii organization level, (iii integration level in Product Development Process (PDP, and (iv approach relevance for sustainability dimensions. Common terms allowed the establishment of connections among the approaches. As a result the researchers concluded that, despite they come from distinct knowledge areas they are not mutually excludent, on the contrary, the approaches may be used in a complementary way by managers. The combined use of complementary approaches is finally suggested in the paper.
The office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was formed within the US Department of Energy (DOE) to clean up radioactive and hazardous wastes on US government sites associated with the production and use of nuclear weapon materials In order to insure the development and demonstration of technologies necessary for the task, EM established an office of Technology Development (OTD). Furthermore, in order to accomplish this massive effort, DOE and its contractors will need large numbers of technically trained people. Because of the demands on the same pool of such individuals by other government agencies and the private sector, it is not clear that the supply will be sufficient to meet the competing demands.
Ukwatta, T. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Tollefson, K.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Bhat, P. N.; Sonbas, E.; Gehrels, N.
We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system that will coordinate ground-based optical telescopes to cover the Fermi GBM Error Circle (EC). The aim of the system is to localize GBM detected GRBs and facilitate multi-wavelength follow-up from space and ground. This system will optimize the observing locations in the GBM EC based on individual telescope location, Field of View (FoV) and sensitivity. The proposed system will coordinate GBM EC scanning by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project are presented.
This paper comprises a GIS-based land use analysis on the relationship between urbanization and transport infrastructure development, b GPS-based travel behavior survey, and c interview survey on residents' satisfaction with transport infrastructures and services. It was shown that the current land use patterns largely differ depending on the existence of agricultural infrastructure development in the pre-urbanized stage. It was also confirmed by a GPS-based travel survey that travel behavior patterns in scattered development areas are significantly different from those in orderly development areas. The former areas lack not only road space but also a structured hierarchy of networks, resulting in inefficient travel behaviors with low speed and detours. The GPS survey gave clearer pictures to grasp the relationship between travel patterns of residents and their demand for the improvement of local transport services. It was indicated that local governments who are responsible for these demands often fail to meet them due to financial and institutional limitations of the current system.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy AGENCY: Economic Development Administration... to John Cobb, Program Analyst, Office of Regional Affairs, Room 7009, Economic Development...
Aline Cabral de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the hearing, language, motor and social skills of children and propose a screening of child development. Methods: 129 preschool children of both sexes, aged between three and six years old, enrolled in educational institutions and 25 teachers of kindergarten from public and private institutions, with no history of hearing disorders, with type A tympanometric curves and the presence of acoustic reflexes participated. For the children, the neuropsychomotor test, Denver II, and the evaluation of sound localization and temporal ordination of three verbal and non-verbal sounds were applied. For the educators responsible for the children, the Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB, was used. Results: most participants with normal SAB presented hearing abilities or standard Denver II; while in the amended SAB group, most participants presented alterations in Denver II or in the auditory abilities tests. It was found, also, that part of the children with standard Denver II were pointed, by the educators, as misbehaving in SAB. Conclusion: the combination of the findings of the Denver II, hearing tests of sound localization and temporal ordination and the SAB Scale is useful in the characterization of child development and, thus, the use of these three instruments for screening in this age group is recommended.
Hoppe, Thomas; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.
“Think global, act local” is a phrase much related to green governance. Since the Earth Summit in Rio de Jañeiro and its ‘Local Agenda 21’ in 1992 it is accepted that local authorities have a key role in implementing sustainable development. During the early 1990’s Local Agenda 21 diffused to many
Plazas C, Julian A; De J Lema T, Alvaro; Leon P, Juan Diego
Environmental impact assessment of development projects is a fundamental process, which main goal is to avoid that their construction and functioning, lead to serious and negative consequences on the environment. Some of the most important limitations of the models employed to assess environmental impacts, are the subjectivity of its parameters and weights, and the multicolineality among the variables, which represent high quantities of similar information. This work presents a multivariate statistical-based method that tries to diminish such limitations. For this purpose, environmental impact assessment, is valuated through different environmental impact attributes and environmental elements, synthesized in an environmental quality index (ICA in Spanish). ICA can be applied at different levels, such as at a project level, or applied only at a partial level on one or some environmental components.
The objective of this project has been to create a photovoltaic roofing product, the Electra-Slate, that appears physically and dimensionally to conform with a standard pattern, but is designed in a way that any roofer could install the device with total safety on an existing truss, rafter, felt and batten construction roof without additional training and supervision. This has been achieved by developing new concepts in high voltage Amorphous Silicon plate, with in built series connections, and by making an inboard parallel bus connection system, which is self connecting during normal roofing placement. The remaining barriers to be overcome are further reductions in cost and increased output. These two effects combine to form the barrier of installed cost/kilowatt. However it is clear that cost/m 2 is already more competitive for this type of product than for a 'PV' module type of product. (author)
Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.
Juvenile localized scleroderma (jLS) and juvenile systemic sclerosis (jSS) are both orphan diseases, with jLS around 10 times more frequent than jSS. In recent years the time gap between the appearance of symptoms and diagnosis has become significantly shorter. This review focuses on the new classifications of jSS and jLS, and on the developments and adaptations of the outcome measures for certain organ involvements whereby progress has been made regarding pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Rebekah R.
This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts.
Full Text Available Las autoridades locales son agentes relevantes en los procesos de desarrollo local. Por lo tanto, sus actitudes, intereses y percepciones configuran un factor de suma importancia en el estudio de esos procesos. Partiendo de estas bases, se presenta una propuesta de análisis basada en los resultados que la Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation (FAUI arrojó para el caso de Argentina. Esta encuesta internacional se orienta principalmente al análisis de estilos de liderazgo en las autoridades municipales a partir de una muestra representativa de intendentes de municipios de 10 mil habitantes o más, un tamaño de municipio mínimo para que exista diversidad y movilización de grupos y asociaciones locales. Para este estudio en particular, orientado al análisis de intereses y actitudes que podrían favorecer o no al desarrollo local, se seleccionaron las variables más relevantes: Alianzas, apoyos recibidos a la candidatura; Interacción con otros actores; Influencia de actores sociales en la definición del gasto; Grado de respuesta a las demandas de diferentes grupos en preferencias de gasto; Prioridades de la gestión; Prioridad en las acciones de gobierno; Preferencia de gasto sobre diferentes áreas de políticas públicas; Ideología y actitudes. En términos generales, los resultados evidencian, por un lado, una tensión entre los nuevos modelos de gestión relacionados con un líder-administrador y los liderazgos más asociados en Argentina a la política tradicional. Por otro lado, un imperativo derivado de la situación socioeconómica: paliar los efectos de la pobreza. Generar las condiciones para un desarrollo no se percibe, en general, como una prioridad.Local authorities are important agents in any local development oriented process. Therefore, its attitudes, interests and perceptions become very relevant issues in the study of these processes. Starting off from these bases, this paper presents a proposal of analysis based on the
Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.
Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.
EDF aims at developing a 'Local Predictive Approach' of the boiling crisis for PWR core configurations, i.e. an approach resulting in (empirical) critical heat flux predictors based on local parameters provided by NEPTUNE-CFD code (for boiling bubbly flows, only in a first stage). Within this general framework, this PhD work consisted in assess one modelling of NEPTUNE-CFD code selected to simulate boiling bubble flows, then improve it. The latter objective led us to focus on the mechanistic modelling of subcooled nucleate boiling in forced convection. After a literature review, we identified physical improvements to be accounted for, especially with respect to bubble sliding phenomenon along the heated wall. Subsequently, we developed a force balance model in order to provide needed closure laws related to bubble detachment diameter from the nucleation site and lift-off bubble diameter from the wall. A new boiling model including such developments was eventually proposed, and preliminary assessed. (author)
Ruth I. Arias-Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In six Amazonian indigenous communities that call to their selves as membership of nación Kichwa, located in Pastaza province, in Ecuador, it is analyzed the process of inhabitation, population characteristics, how much the territory is enough for food requirements for the indigenous families, and their use of land, to determine important factors to improve strategies for local sustainable development. It is considered important because Ecuador has constitutional protection for plural ethnicity and it is looking for improving a new productivity matrix that let down extraction and contamination and raise another matrix based on knowledge and richness from natural renewable resources. Survey used statistics information, qualitative analysis around reality in process, participant research, documentary analysis, oral history and surveys to leadership and family`s chiefs. Results confirm that communities hold standing their identity and knowledge systems of the Amazonian environment, whose conservation they need. Those are factors to be included in local development strategies that let people become safe from effects of extractives activities that are dangerous for culture and environment, in the geographic and biological diversity of the high Ecuadorian Amazonia.
Van Beeck, N.
Energy planning is an essential tool in the economic development of industrialized as well as developing countries. Energy planning in this paper is restricted to the selection of new energy systems for the production of proper energy forms in order to meet increased energy demand. This demand is actually the desire for certain energy services, which are the starting point of the new decision support method for local energy planning presented in this paper. In the decision making process concerning energy planning at the local level it is important to include context-related issues because the context determines for a large part the viability of the technologies or systems used. The context, in turn, is represented by the aims of the relevant actors, which are translated into measurable indicators to compare the different options. The impact assessment must allow for inclusion of all the indicators, either quantitative or qualitative in order to find the most appropriate technology for a region rather than the technically best or economically most optimal one. Appropriateness is defined by the context and is thus case specific, but the framework described in this paper is generally applicable within the given limitations. Note that the new method described in this paper is a decision support tool, implying that it does not decide for the energy planner which actions to take. The ultimate decision must be made by the planners themselves
Tollin, Daniel J.
Cats are a common model for developmental studies of the psychophysical and physiological mechanisms of sound localization. Yet, there are few studies on the development of the acoustical cues to location in cats. The magnitude of the three main cues, interaural differences in time (ITDs) and level (ILDs), and monaural spectral shape cues, vary with location in adults. However, the increasing interaural distance associated with a growing head and pinnae during development will result in cues that change continuously until maturation is complete. Here, we report measurements, in cats aged 1 week to adulthood, of the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae and the localization cues, computed from measurements of directional transfer functions. At 1 week, ILD depended little on azimuth for frequencies 10 dB) shift to lower frequencies, and the maximum ITD increases to nearly 370 μs. Changes in the cues are correlated with the increasing size of the head and pinnae. [Work supported by NIDCD DC05122.
Full Text Available Environmental stress, such as oxygen deprivation, affects various cellular activities and developmental processes. In this study, we directly investigated Drosophila embryo development in vivo while cultured on a microfluidic device, which imposed an oxygen gradient on the developing embryos. The designed microfluidic device enabled both temporal and spatial control of the local oxygen gradient applied to the live embryos. Time-lapse live cell imaging was used to monitor the morphology and cellular migration patterns as embryos were placed in various geometries relative to the oxygen gradient. Results show that pole cell movement and tail retraction during Drosophila embryogenesis are highly sensitive to oxygen concentrations. Through modeling, we also estimated the oxygen permeability across the Drosophila embryonic layers for the first time using parameters measured on our oxygen control device.
Damien A Fair
Full Text Available The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI, graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults
Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E
The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have
Horban Vasylyna B.
Full Text Available There presented a theoretical rationale for the expediency of using the stakeholder-oriented approach to improve the process of management of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level. The evolution of theories by scientific schools that studied the concepts of «stakeholders» and «interested parties» is analyzed and generalized. A classification of types of stakeholders in the context of eighteen typological features is suggested, which allows to more effectively align their interests and contributes to establishing constructive forms of cooperation in order to achieve efficient final results. An algorithm of interaction with interested parties in achieving the goals of sustainable energy efficient development at the local level is elaborated. Typical motivational interests of stakeholders at the local level in the field of sustainable energy efficient development (on the example of Ukraine are identified. Instruments of prioritization of stakeholders depending on the life cycle stages of energy efficiency projects are proposed. The results obtained in the course of the research can be used to develop local energy efficient programs, business plans and feasibility studies for energy efficient projects.
... Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is authorized pursuant to Section 108(q... applicable: HUD 40123, Brownfields Economic Development Application; SF-LLL, Disclosure of Lobbying...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5480-N-29] Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Grant Application...--State Certifications Related to Nonentitlement; HUD--40123--Brownfields Economic Development Application...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection...)). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, Department of the Treasury, is... Loan Requirements for the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Bond Guarantee Program...
Moisés da Silva Martins
Full Text Available The present work, through a case study of the Settlement Conquest in Campo Grande / MS, aims to demonstrate the fragility of settlements in the face of economic and social development. Settlers face cultural dogmas and no administrative management, basic guidelines for managing their own business, cannot achieve a family or community quality of life. Government programs and projects are not adhered to as planned, as there are delays in funding and technical follow-up. Simultaneously, the study proposes alternative crops and a line of action in the path of cooperativism, for local and sustainable development, supporting the tripod of social responsibility with economic and cultural growth.
Bryant, Beverley; Ward, Megan
In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1.4 million people. An organization-wide strategic workforce development program was instituted. It is theory-based, evidence-informed and data-driven. A first step was a conceptual framework, followed by interventions in workforce planning, human resources management, and capacity development. The program was built on evidence reviews, theory, and public health core competencies. Interventions spread across the employee work-life span. Capacity development based on the public health core competencies is a main focus, particularly analytical capacity to support decision-making. Employees gain skill and knowledge in comprehensive population health. Leadership evolves as work shifts to the analysis of health status and development of interventions. Effective human resource processes ensure appropriate job design, recruitment and orientation. Analysis of the workforce leads to vigorous employee development to ensure a strong pool of potential leadership successors. Theory, research evidence, and data provide a robust foundation for workforce development. Competencies are important inputs to job descriptions, recruitment, training, and human resource processes. A comprehensive workforce development strategy enables the development of a skilled workforce capable of responding to the needs of the population it serves.
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of..., Proposal Review Panel Human Resource Development ( 1199). Date/Time: October 17, 2011; 5 p.m. to 10 p.m... Meeting: Part-Open. Contact Person: Kelly Mack, Division of Human Resource Development, Room 815, National...
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Human Resource Development; Notice of...; Proposal Review Panel Human Resource Development ( 1199). Date/Time: November 1, 2011; 5 p.m. to 10 p.m...: Part-Open. Contact Person: Kelly Mack, Division of Human Resource Development, Room 815, National...
Kim, Y. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Seo, D. H.; Kim, K. W. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The objective of this research is to develop a leakage monitoring system for pipelines or valves in the secondary water system of a nuclear power plant. The system aims to detect the existence of leakage and to estimate the leak location, especially by utilizing the noise generated from the leak. It is safe, precise real-time alert system compared with the previous monitoring methods and tools such as the visual test and the thermal imaging camera. When there exists leakage in the pipeline or valves of nuclear power plant, the noise due to gas flow is radiated through leak region. That is, the secondary water system with leakage generates different noise from the system without leakage. This motivates us to measure and analyze the noise generated from the secondary water system, so as firstly to detect the existence of leakage, and secondly to estimate the leak location by using the noise source identification technique such as beamforming and acoustic holography. Especially the beamforming method models the signal from the noise source to estimate the location of source. Therefore, it is necessary to model the noise due to leakage which is dependent upon parameters. In the process of leak localization, the reflected wave due to interior walls and the measurement noise should be removed for the precise estimation. Therefore, we attempt to characterize the reflected wave and the measurement noise by modeling the interior sound field, thus to remove them and to localize the leak location with high precision
Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.
María Isabel Quevedo Alejos
Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies
This underscores the philosophy behind the creation of local governments. In Nigeria however, it is sad to note that local governments have performed far ... that the little money made available are directed into private pockets. It is our recommendations that local governments should increase their revenue base and also ...
Li, Suzanne C.; Torok, Kathryn S.; Pope, Elena; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hong, Sandy; Jacobe, Heidi T.; Rabinovich, C. Egla; Laxer, Ronald M.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ferguson, Polly J.; Lasky, Andrew; Baszis, Kevin; Becker, Mara; Campillo, Sarah; Cartwright, Victoria; Cidon, Michael; Inman, Christi J; Jerath, Rita; O'Neil, Kathleen M.; Vora, Sheetal; Zeft, Andrew; Wallace, Carol A.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C
Objective To develop standardized treatment plans, clinical assessments, and response criteria for active, moderate to high severity juvenile localized scleroderma (jLS). Background jLS is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with substantial morbidity and disability. Although a wide range of therapeutic strategies have been reported in the literature, a lack of agreement on treatment specifics and accepted methods for clinical assessment of have made it difficult to compare approaches and identify optimal therapy. Methods A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, dermatologists and a lay advisor was engaged by the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) to develop standardized treatment plans and assessment parameters for jLS using consensus methods/nominal group techniques. Recommendations were validated in two face-to-face conferences with a larger group of practitioners with expertise in jLS and with the full membership of CARRA, which encompasses the majority of pediatric rheumatologists in the U.S and Canada. Results Consensus was achieved on standardized treatment plans that reflect the prevailing treatment practices of CARRA members. Standardized clinical assessment methods and provisional treatment response criteria were also developed. Greater than 90% of pediatric rheumatologists responding to a survey (67% of CARRA membership) affirmed the final recommendations and agreed to utilize these consensus plans to treat patients with jLS. Conclusions Using consensus methodology, we have developed standardized treatment plans and assessment methods for jLS. The high level of support among pediatric rheumatologists will support future comparative effectiveness studies and enable the development of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of jLS. PMID:22505322
Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.
Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A
To describe the process of approval and implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, between 2005 and 2009. Review of the Santa Fe smoke-free legislation, articles published in local newspapers and documentation on two lawsuits filed against the law, and interviews with key individuals in Santa Fe. Efforts to implement smoke-free policies in Santa Fe began during the 1990s without success, and resumed in 2005 when the provincial Legislature approved the first 100% smoke-free subnational law in Argentina. There was no strong opposition during the discussions within the legislature. As in other parts of the world, pro-tobacco industry interests attempted to block the implementation of the law using well known strategies. These efforts included a controversy media campaign set up, the creation of a hospitality industry association and a virtual smokers' rights group, the introduction of a counterproposal seeking modification of the law, the challenge of the law in the Supreme Court, and the proposal of a weak national bill that would 'conflict' with the subnational law. Tobacco control advocates sought media attention as a strategy to protect the law. Santa Fe is the first subnational jurisdiction in Latin America to have enacted a comprehensive smoke-free policy following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. After 3 years of implementation, pro-tobacco industry forces failed to undermine the law. Other subnational jurisdictions in Argentina, as well as in Mexico and Brazil are following the Santa Fe example.
Alejandro Martínez-de la Rosa
Full Text Available Tourism and heritage studies in Mexico are mainly focused on two major areas: specific ecological areas and historical edifications. However, in the last ten years they have proposed initiatives to consider the practices related to the state and federal levels immaterial. Until today there are seven elements in the UNESCO’s Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage belonging to Mexico. From conceptual review of the terms used to justify the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage in international conventions of the past fifty years, it will reflect on the relationship between processed of patrimonialization and sustainable development projects, first from a general point of view about specific problems of application in Mexico for later review.
The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...
Noegel Angelika A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Annexin A7 is a member of the annexin protein family, which is characterized by its ability to interact with phospholipids in the presence of Ca2+-ions and which is thought to function in Ca2+-homeostasis. Results from mutant mice showed altered Ca2+-wave propagation in astrocytes. As the appearance and distribution of Annexin A7 during brain development has not been investigated so far, we focused on the distribution of Annexin A7 protein during mouse embryogenesis in the developing central nervous system and in the adult mouse brain. Results Annexin A7 is expressed in cells of the developing brain where a change in its subcellular localization from cytoplasm to nucleus was observed. In the adult CNS, the subcellular distribution of Annexin A7 depends on the cell type. By immunohistochemistry analysis Annexin A7 was detected in the cytosol of undifferentiated cells at embryonic days E5–E8. At E11–E15 the protein is still present in the cytosol of cells predominantly located in the ventricular germinative zone surrounding the lateral ventricle. Later on, at embryonic day E16, Annexin A7 in cells of the intermediate and marginal zone of the neopallium translocates to the nucleus. Neuronal cells of all areas in the adult brain present Annexin A7 in the nucleus, whereas glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive astrocytes exhibit both, a cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. The presence of nuclear Annexin A7 was confirmed by extraction of the nucleoplasm from isolated nuclei obtained from neuronal and astroglial cell lines. Conclusion We have demonstrated a translocation of Annexin A7 to nuclei of cells in early murine brain development and the presence of Annexin A7 in nuclei of neuronal cells in the adult animal. The role of Annexin A7 in nuclei of differentiating and mature neuronal cells remains elusive.
...-XXXX. Type of Review: Generic Clearance Request. Title: Generic Clearance for Research in Development... information collected through qualitative evaluation methods will inform the disclosure form's design and... Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development of...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund: Proposed Collection...)). Currently, the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, an office within the Department of... Kuchar, Associate Program [[Page 5871
Slick, Jodi Lyn [Ecolibrium3
The Local Energy Matters project advanced solar deployment in the City of Duluth, MN- a cold-climate community of 86,000. At the beginning of the project, Duluth had 254.57 kW installed solar capacity with an average cost of $5.04/watt installed in 2014. The project worked with cross-sector stakeholders to benchmark the current market, implement best practices for solar deployment and soft cost reduction, develop pilot deployment programs in residential rooftop, community solar, and commercial/industrial sectors, work with the City of Duluth to determine appropriate sites for utility scale developments, and demonstrate solar pus storage. Over the three years of the project, Duluth’s installed residential and commercial solar capacity grew by 344% to 875.9 kW with an additional 702 kW solar garden capacity subscribed by Duluth residents, businesses, and institutions. Installation costs dropped 48% over this timeframe to $4.08/watt installed (exclusive of solar garden construction). This report documents the process used to identify levers for increased solar installation and cost reductions in a nascent cold-climate solar market.
Full Text Available Local governments play an important role in sustainable development processes based on their administrative and financial autonomy. Policies and programs undertaken to assure sustainable development by local governments produce benefits for persistence of the knowledge society. This paper will try to highlight the implication of local financial autonomy over sustainable development of local communities in a knowledge society, based especially on local financial autonomy theory approach.
Local governments play an important role in sustainable development processes based on their administrative and financial autonomy. Policies and programs undertaken to assure sustainable development by local governments produce benefits for persistence of the knowledge society. This paper will try to highlight the implication of local financial autonomy over sustainable development of local communities in a knowledge society, based especially on local financial autonomy theory approach.
Albert N. Kimbu
Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.
MA. NIÑA I. ADRIANO
Full Text Available There is a large body of literature that studies the link between good governance and development in a country level. However, only a few have exploited the same study in the local government unit (LGU setting. This study attempts to establish the relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development of the Top 9 Performing LGUs in the Philippines (La Union, Albay, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Makati City Valenzuela City, Taguig City, Davao City and Angeles City as measured by the Local Governance Performance Management System (LGPMS, the nationwide governance performance evaluation and management tool used in the Philippines. I used the data generated by the LGPMS, particularly the state of local governance and the state of local development, to see if there is a relationship between the two variables using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results revealed that that there is no relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development in the consistently top performing LGUs in the Philippines for the period 2009-2011. The findings of this study will be useful to government officials such as public administrators, LGU executives, policy makers, researchers, and students of public administration in addressing the issue of good governance and local development in their respective LGUs.
Junjan, Veronica; Balogh, Marton
Background: There is an increased attention in the administrative reform literature accorded to the mechanisms governing the processes of institutionalisation of changes and of diffusion of innovations in local governments. Objectives: Current paper investigates mechanisms that influence the process
This guide contains information on 2,086 funding programs that provide support on national, state, and local levels for economic and community development, social services, and the humanities. The guide begins with "A Guide to Proposal Planning and Writing" (Lynn E. Miner), which includes strategies for locating information on public and private…
MA. NIÑA I. ADRIANO
There is a large body of literature that studies the link between good governance and development in a country level. However, only a few have exploited the same study in the local government unit (LGU) setting. This study attempts to establish the relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development of the Top 9 Performing LGUs in the Philippines (La Union, Albay, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Makati City Valenzuela City, Taguig City, Davao City and Angeles C...
Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth
Public involvement and participation in policy development and implementation is becoming an increasingly prominent feature of social life. However, as politics and policy become ever more concerned with 'evidence,' the relationship between 'expert evidence' and political judgements and decisions becomes ever more complicated. For this reason, public participation increasingly has to mean inclusion in arguments about information, evidence and knowledge as much as it means straightforward involvement in decision making. Such involvement can involve critical questioning of a kind that can challenge and sometimes debunk experts' claims to privileged understanding. One practical arena in which knowledge-based policy and politics is being expressed is in health impact assessment (HIA). This paper describes a health impact assessment of housing options in a former mining village in South Wales in order to illustrate the contributions that local people can make to both evidence and decision making. This case study exemplifies an emerging civic intelligence that challenges a traditional demarcation between different forms of expertise and creates public spaces that provide the basis for new opportunities of democratic renewal
Several constraints exist in the local market as regards the purchase and after - sales services of small stationary diesel engines used for flour milling, water pumping and generation of electricity. These constraints could be substantially addressed through local production of frequently used spares. This paper describes the ...
Bartik, Timothy J.
Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…
Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Chai, Meiping; Tan, Yibing; Miyake, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yoji; Hosoya, Jun; Mibe, Ryota
Surveys on the Japan-oriented vendors in China were conducted twice to find out the existent problems in the Japan-oriented offshore software development. From these survey results, four main problems were found out, which were the frequent requirement changes from the product owner, the misunderstanding of the requirement specification in the vendor side, the heavy overhead of the project management and the low-efficiency communication between the product owner and the vendor. Several solutions are proposed to solve these four problems, which mainly consist of the improvement of the offshore software development process and the development of the offshore development supporting tools. The proposed offshore development process is based on the application of the prototype development, the iteration development and the customer test driven development processes. The proposed offshore development supporting tools include the project management assistant tool and the communication assistant tool.
Larkin, J.F.S.; Moduka, V.; Smit, J.; Potgieter, L.
Summary: • Universities can probably produce the required numbers of graduates on time, provided they start developing them now. • Technical/artisanal training requires significant work to develop the necessary capacity to develop/grow the local skills base necessary to bring the project to completion on time and within budget
Shim, Do Jun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Chi Yong
Recently authors have proposed a new method to estimate failure strength of a pipe with local wall thinning subject to either internal pressure or global bending. The proposed method was based on the equivalent stress averaged over the minimum ligament in the locally wall thinned region, and the simple scheme to estimate the equivalent stress in the minimum ligament was proposed, based on the reference stress concept. This paper extends the new method to combined internal pressure and global bending. The proposed method is validated against FE results for various geometries of local wall thinning under combined loading. The effect of internal pressure is also investigated in the present study. Comparison of maximum moments, predicted according to the proposed method, with published full-scale pipe test data for locally wall-thinned pipes under combined internal pressure and global bending, shows good agreement
Piil, Kristoffer; Wiborg, Irene; Andersen, Peter Stubkjær
incurred significant financial burdens on farmers, as well as restricting their freedom of operation on their farms. Over the last years, there has been a shift towards a targeted regulation that takes local conditions into account, in order to increase the cost effectiveness of mitigation strategies...... to be taken into account when involving a community in participatory planning regarding nitrogen management. As part of a more targeted Danish regulation, a system of catchment officers is currently being established to aide in formulating mitigation strategies that are adapted to local needs and local...
The application-oriented development of local institutions has become a trend. Business English, with its "compound and cross-disciplinary" characteristics and the development of local economy have put forward higher requirements for the development of business English teachers in local institutions. This paper surveys and analyzes the…
Schoonheim-Klein, M; Ong, T S; Loos, B G
To report on our implementation process within the existing local curriculum of all periodontal competences and assessments as proposed in the 2010 European consensus meeting. In 2011, a workshop for all teaching staff at the Department of Periodontology, ACTA, an education and assessment blueprint, was developed to test for missing education and assessment of European competences, divided into seven domains. This was repeated in 2013. An oral evaluation of the staff followed both meetings. It appeared that eight of 58 (14%) European competences were not taught, and 21 (35%) competences were not assessed. After evaluation of the results on the actual curriculum and the assessment programme, shared decisions were made about how to teach and assess the missing competences within the local periodontal educational programme. The second workshop in 2013 revealed still 8 (14%) competences were not taught and 8 (14%) competences were not assessed. Staff appreciated the used method of validation; it gave insight and an overview of the curriculum. The existence of the European consensus report for undergraduate periodontal education, based on seven domains, has been instrumental and essential. The development of a blueprint from the education programme and concomitant assessment methods in periodontology by participating teaching staff gives a validation and appreciation of the curriculum and will improve the quality of education and assessment. It is advised that for quality control of the curriculum, dental schools could do this exercise for all their specialties if European consensus reports exist. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J
A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A joint Oak Ridge - Roane County citizen task force (TF) evaluated the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility in Tennessee in terms of environmental, transportation, and socioeconomic impacts. The case study examines how the TF used mitigation, compensation and incentives (economic and non-economic) to address the problem of distrust of DOE and to change the net local impact balance from negative to positive. Intensive group interaction during their investigations and development of trust within the TF led to consensus decisions on safety and conditional acceptance. DOE accepted most of the TF conditions after informal negotiations. The siting process was stopped by extensive state-wide opposition resulting in legal challenge by the state and vetoes by the governor and state legislature
Kim, Seong Yun; Lee, Ji Bok; Suk, Ho Chun; Kuk, Il Hyun; Hwang, Woan; Kim, Bong Goo; Park, Joo Hwan; Kim, Young Jin; Kang, Thae Khapp; Lee, Jae Choon
This project was implemented aiming at localizing the fabrication of the KMRR fuel by october 1993. The contents of this project were divided into three parts: fuel design, fuel fabrication and process criticality analysis. In the fuel design, the radial power distribution in the fuel core was modeled and formulated taking account of the neutron flux depression in the radial direction. It was also performed to model and formulate the thermal characteristics such as the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the fuel core, U3Si-Al, the swelling and the film coefficient of heat transfer between the aluminum clad and light water coolant. The two dimensional heat transfer in the finned fuel element was equated based on the general equation governing the heat transfer in materials in order to develope a computer code, TEMP2D. TEMP2D solves finite differenced equations to calculate a two dimensional fuel temperature distribution under the steady and transient states. In the fuel fabrication, the technologies of fabricating uranium silicide fuel meat were tried by using depleted uranium as a raw material. These were extended to find the problems in technologies and to establish the ways of approach. The end product, so called fuel meat, was a metallic powder compound, U3Six(1≤x≤2), dispersed in Al matrix. The fuel meat was fabricated by the horizontal extrusion technique, and powder extrusion technique. Fabrication technologies comprise five different continuous processes: melting and casting of metallic uranium with silicon and aluminum, heat treatment, chipping and crushing, pulverizing, and extrusion. In the process criticality analysis, AMPX-KENO benchmark calculation was performed and calculational error of AMPX-KENO system was established. (Author)
Robinson-Garcia, N.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Rafols, I.
Current evaluation frameworks in research policy were designed to address: 1) life and natural sciences, 2) global research communities, and; 3) scientific impact. This is problematic, as they do not adapt well to SSH scholarship, to local interests, or to consider broader societal impacts. This paper discusses three different evaluation frameworks and proposes a methodology to operationalize them and capture societal interactions between social sciences and humanities (SSH) researchers and their local context. To capture such interactions, we propose the use of social media and web-link analysis to identify interactions between academics and local stakeholders. We consider that the power of these tools is not so much on understanding their meaning as ‘acts’ to develop impact or visibility metrics whenever a mention to a research article is made, but as proxies for personal interactions. We offer some examples of the expected social networks we aim at developing for two Spanish cities: Granada and Valencia. (Author)
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Developing Social Wellbeing Indicators for Marine Management AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...
Larsen, Jacob Norvig
Across Europe more and more citizens involve in voluntary grassroots and NGO activity. Concurrently, more local and national governments express an interest in increasing collaboration with voluntary organisations. The curiosity and interest as regards voluntary labour from public bodies seems...... to have grown as the financial crisis puts more and more pressure on municipal and national budgets. As such, the contribution of voluntary associations is seem as a supplement to more and more reduced public services, particularly within the social services field, care for the elderly, etc. but even...... in local communities and in relation to social capital, the diversity within the world of voluntary organisations, and the difference in views between public planners and volunteers of the role of volunteers. Three cases illustrate this as well as the need for capacity building of VCOs and the urban...
Pengelly, M.G.A.; Burnett, R.C.
This report makes a proposal to design, develop and test a containment of modular construction under plutonium active conditions. While this proposal contemplates work with plutonium, the system, when fully developed, has obvious applications wherever a temporary containment of radioactive or toxic materials is required. The fundamental feature of the proposal is that strippable coatings are used to prevent the inner surfaces of the working area from becoming contaminated. It is envisaged that this method of protecting the surfaces will enable the modular containment structure to be disassembled and re-used. (author)
Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Sang Kyu
Integrity evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning by erosion and corrosion is increasingly important in maintenance of wall thinned carbon steel pipes in nuclear power plants. Though a few program for integrity assessment of wall thinned pipes have been developed in domestic nuclear field, however those are limited to straight pipes and methodology proposed in ASME Sec.XI Code Case N-597. Recently, the engineering program for integrity evaluation of pipes with all kinds of local wall defects such as straight, elbow, reducer and branch pipes was developed successfully. The program was designated as PiTEP (Pipe Thinning Evaluation Program), which name was registered as a trademark in the Korea Intellectual Property Office. A developed program is carried out by sequential step of four integrity evaluation methodologies, which are composed of construction code, code case N-597, its engineering method and two developed owner evaluation method. As PiTEP program will be performed through GUI (Graphic User Interface) with user's familiarity, it would be conveniently used by plant engineers with only measured thickness data, basic operation conditions and pipe data
Many curriculum development interventions carried out in international development cooperation lack sustainable outcomes, often as a result of a too narrow focus on curriculum and its development. Implementation of effective and encompassing approaches with an aligned focus on capacity development
Gulløv, John Matthias
This presentation discuss two issues of rural change: 1) cultural reproduction and transformation in the local contex and 2) the importance and effect of schooling and education in rural society, especially how school can support the rural community in times of change.......This presentation discuss two issues of rural change: 1) cultural reproduction and transformation in the local contex and 2) the importance and effect of schooling and education in rural society, especially how school can support the rural community in times of change....
Full Text Available The number of research publications dealing with the simultaneous localization and mapping problem has grown significantly over the past 15 years. Many fundamental and practical aspects of simultaneous localization and mapping have been addressed, and some efficient algorithms and practical solutions have been demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of current theoretical understanding of the fundamental properties of the SLAM problem, such as observability, convergence, achievable accuracy and consistency. Recent research outcomes associated with these topics are briefly discussed together with potential future research directions.
Mihai Cristian APOSTOLACHE
Full Text Available The need for the development of local communities in terms of economic and social policy-making requires finding answers institutional and public policy context in which the company is located. More and more the focus is on partnership and cooperation between the various actors of public life, on the involvement of private capital in local investment, on the establishment of companies to boost the joint venture or the establishment of local action groups to train both local public administration, the local economic environment, local non -governmental entities and other persons concerned in the design, implementation and completion of local development projects financed from European funds. The projects for local communities will receive support from the increasingly pronounced from the European Union, having regard to the fact that through the development of local communities will strengthen the European project.
... Section 47.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.8 Who develops the local educational financial plans? The local Bureau-operated school supervisor develops the local educational financial plan in active...
Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Eames, Malcolm; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard
As the effects of climate change is becoming increasingly visible scientific and technological development is often seen as a key component in political action towards future sustainability. Historically, however, it is not evident that science and technology per se lead to sustainable solutions....... To address this aspect of the challenge of sustainable development, this paper examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between academia and local communities, which can inspire more contextualised modes of knowledge production. Building...... on the insights from critical theory; newer conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science for Sustainability action research programme, a number of principles towards more reflexive forms of community based public engagement in science and technology are proposed....
Natália Pelinca Braga
Full Text Available This paper proposes to prepare a case study on the role of the tourism cluster of Porto de Galinhas in local development. For such, the analysis on the indicators listed in the database of the Annual Report of Social Information (RAIS was performed, whose time interval was 15 years comprised between 1994 and 2008, the pair years in the aforementioned period being analyzed. The results show that the impact of tourism cluster is positive, both from economic, as the social point of views, i.e. it entails development both in physical infrastructure and in terms of socio-economic relationships of the resident population. This study reinforces therefore, the argument of the positive influence of a tourism cluster in the region, specifically in case of Porto de Galinhas.
Emmanuel Innocents Edoun
Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that, urbanisation could be effective only if decentralisation policy is at the centre of development initiatives. In this way the paper argues, local authorities could utilize local resources to ignite local economic development (LED through for instance trade activities and investments.LED initiatives aim at empowering local stakeholders to utilise business enterprises, labour, capital and other local resources effectively to maximise local benefits in order to contribute to poverty reduction and the uplifting of citizens life conditions. The paper is divided into four major parts. The first part gives a background of the notion of decentralisation, urbanisation and local economic development. The second part provides an overview of the review of the related literature while the third part gives an account on how the above are inter-related. The fourth part provides the challenges faced by urbanisation in achieving local economic development and part five is presented as conclusion and recommendations.
Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard
The threats posed by climate change are placing governments under increasing pressure to meet electricity demand from low-carbon sources. In many countries, including the UK, legislation is in place to ensure the continued expansion of renewable energy capacity. Onshore wind turbines are expected to play a key role in achieving these aims. However, despite high levels of public support for onshore wind development in principle, specific projects often experience local opposition. Traditionally this difference in general and specific attitudes has been attributed to NIMBYism (not in my back yard), but evidence is increasingly calling this assumption into question. This study used multiple regression analysis to identify what factors might predict attitudes towards mooted wind development in Sheffield, England. We report on the attitudes of two groups; one group (target) living close to four sites earmarked for development and an unaffected comparison group (comparison). We found little evidence of NIMBYism amongst members of the target group; instead, differences between general and specific attitudes appeared attributable to uncertainty regarding the proposals. The results are discussed with respect to literature highlighting the importance of early, continued and responsive community involvement in combating local opposition and facilitating the deployment of onshore wind turbines.
Full Text Available The study aimed to 1 study the use of local wisdom and its problems in secondary schools and 2 examine the pattern of development of local wisdom contents used in secondary schools. The study is a qualitative research which was done by examining related texts and documents as well as field research which was participated by 100 informants including government officers and local people. The data was collected by using questionnaire, observation form, interview, and focus group. The data was then analyzed according to the study and present by descriptive analysis approach. Research results show that The problems of using local wisdom contents are classified into the following aspects ; 1 Community aspect: learning and using local wisdom of the people in the community are related to local materials and ethnic ; 2 Curriculum aspect: the studied schools has curriculums conforming to government policies ; 3 Local wisdom instructors: local wisdom contents are instructed by local wisdom instructors in the studied schools. Local wisdom instructors from the university also take part in local wisdom education at the studied schools located in the same university campus ; 4 Current local wisdom learning aspect: all of the studied schools value the local wisdom education. Local wisdom contents are found enclosed in the schools’ visions and missions. Problems on using local wisdom contents are the deficiency of financial support from the government, neglect of school administrators, discontinuity of learners and instructors affected by their transference reasons, and insufficiency of local wisdom philosophers who could not keep continuative instruction in harvest season according to their initiative occupation of farming. For the development pattern of the use of local wisdom contents in the studied schools, it was found that local wisdom contents are creatively developed to increase the economic value in industry, handicraft, art, and Thai medicine. The
Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local timber company in struggle to resist on medium-term on the market. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing, and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of timber industry. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local and international market, pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will also be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.
... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR 5377-N-02] Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request, State Community Development Block (CDBG) Program AGENCY: Office of... Block Grant (CDBG) Program. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2506-0085. Description of the need for...
... Information Collection for Public Comment; Indian Community Development Block Grant Information Collection... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Indian Community Development Block Grant Information... Block Grants, requires that grants for Indian Tribes be awarded on a competitive basis. The purpose of...
Bowen, Brent D.; Russell, Valerie; Vlasek, Karisa; Avery, Shelly; Calamaio, Larry; Carstenson, Larry; Farritor, Shane; deSilva, Shan; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne
The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) continues to recognize the necessity of increasing the quantity and quality of highly skilled graduates and faculty involved with NASA. Through NASA Workforce Development funds awarded in 2002, NSGC spearheaded customer- focused workforce training and higher education, industry and community partnerships that are significantly impacting the state s workforce in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) competencies. NSGC proposes to build upon these accomplishments to meet the steadily increasing demand for STEM skills and to safeguard minority representation in these disciplines. A wide range of workforce development activities target NASA s need to establish stronger connections among higher education, industry, and community organizations. Participation in the National Student Satellite Program (NSSP), Community Internship Program, and Nebraska Science and Technology Recruitment Fair will extend the pipeline of employees benefiting NASA as well as Nebraska. The diversity component of this proposal catapults from the exceptional reputation NSGC has built by delivering geospatial science experiences to Nebraska s Native Americans. For 6 years, NSGC has fostered and sustained partnerships with the 2 tribal colleges and 4 reservation school districts in Nebraska to foster aeronautics education and outreach. This program, the Nebraska Native American Outreach Program (NNAOP), has grown to incorporate more than educational institutions and is now a partnership among tribal community leaders, academia, tribal schools, and industry. The content focus has broadened from aeronautics in the school systems to aerospace technology and earth science applications in tribal community decision-making and workforce training on the reservations. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal colleges, approximately 1,000 Native American youth, and over 1,200 community members
Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Yatsuka, Eiichi; Hatae, Takaki; Takeuchi, Masaki; Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi; Ota, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Yasunori; Nakamura, Kitaru; Sugie, Tatsuo
There is a need to develop ITER instrumentation and control (I and C) systems with high reliabilities. Interlock systems that activate machine protection functions are implemented on robust wired-logic systems such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs). We herein propose a software tool that generates program code templates for the control systems using PLC logic. This tool decreases careless mistakes by developers and increases reliability of the program codes. A large-scale engineering database has been implemented in the ITER project. To derive useful information from this database, we propose adding semantic data to it using the Resource Description Framework format. In our novel proposal for the ITER diagnostic control system, a guide words generator that analyzes the engineering data by inference is applied to the hazard and operability study. We validated the methods proposed in this paper by applying them to the preliminary design for the I and C system of the ITER edge Thomson scattering system. (author)
Salleh, Dani; Okinono, Otega
Globally, the challenge of local infrastructure provision has attracted much debate amongst different nations including Malaysia, on how to achieve an effective and efficient infrastructural management. This approach therefore, has intensified the efforts of local authorities in incorporating private developers in their developmental agenda in attaining a sustainable infrastructural development in local areas. Basically, the knowledge of the need for adequate provision of local infrastructure is well understood by both local and private authorities. Likewise, the divergent opinions on the usage of private delivery services. Notwithstanding the common perception, significant loopholes have been identified on the most appropriate and ideal approach and practices to adopt in enhancing local infrastructure development. The study therefore examined the role of private developers in local infrastructure provision and procedure adopted by both local authorities and the privates sector in local infrastructure development. Data was obtained using the questionnaire through purposive sampling, administered to 22 local authorities and 16 developers which was descriptively analysed. Emanating from the study findings, the most frequently approved practices by local authorities are joint venture and complete public delivery systems. Likewise, negotiation was identified as a vital tool for stimulating the acquisition of local infrastructure provision. It was also discovered the one of the greatest challenge in promoting private sector involvement in local infrastructure development is due to unregulated-procedure. The study therefore recommends, there is need for local authorities to adopt a collective and integrated approach, nevertheless, cognisance and priority should be given to developing a well-structured and systematic process of local infrastructure provision and development.
Boer, C.L.; Hewitt, Richard; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Martínez Alonso, Patricia; Hernández Jiménez, Verónica; Diaz Pacheco, Jaime; Bermejo, Lara Roman
Background The decentralised and private nature of small-scale renewable energy development does not fit traditional models of government planning and oversight. The land use impacts related to these developments are not well understood and data is lacking related to the environmental, social and
Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair
The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.
Jones, Christopher R.; Richard Eiser, J.
In recognition of the environmental and economic threats posed by climate change; decisive steps are now being taken to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions. One sector receiving particular attention within the UK is that of electricity generation. As such, the government has introduced ambitious targets for increasing renewable generating capacity within the country. Wind turbines are expected to play a significant role in meeting these targets; however, despite high levels of support for the technology in principle, specific projects are often delayed or rejected on account of local opposition. This study aimed to establish how attitudes towards development might vary with respect to increasing distance from the identified sites. Participants were required to register their opinion towards development at a number of on- and off-shore locations in the UK. The results indicated that participants were most favourable to offshore development and least favourable to development at the identified sites. Attitudes to onshore development indicated that so long as a proposed location was anticipated to be 'out of sight' it was considered in relatively general terms. The results are discussed with reference to site visibility and landscape concerns and clearly support calls for a shift towards community-focussed development strategies.
It explains political participation as the legitimating of leadership through consent, and the involvement of citizens in the governmental process of policy making and implementation. The paper notes that rural development is the focus of development attention on rural areas to ensure balanced development between the ...
Local authorities and greenhouse effect. Analysis and proposals for a mobilization of representatives about the greenhouse effect; Autorites locales et effet de serre. Analyse et propositions pour une mobilisation des elus sur l'effet de serre
Ged, A. [Agora Analyses et Systemes, 13 - Ventabren (France)
The local authorities are essential intermediates for the implementation of environmental policies (Kyoto protocol and European policy) and in particular the fight against the greenhouse effect. This report aims at finding arguments to sensibilize and mobilize the representatives of local authorities about the climatic change and the greenhouse effect problem. The main problem concerns the introduction of the greenhouse effect concern in the decision process of local authorities. Several steps are necessary to carry out this reflection. The analysis must take into consideration the new dimensions of the urban policies and the preoccupations of the representatives. A diagnosis and concrete proposals are deduced from this analysis. (J.S.)
Kuwahara, D.; Shinohara, S.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.
Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA
Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of Indonesian government’s developmental efforts of assistance and training performed on the growth of LED-SME business units and business performance. Both parameters of the government’s assistance and training were used to analyze the impact to the growth and performance of business unit. To achieve a comprehensive result, samples acquired in this research were about 190 entrepreneurs and managers of LED-SME from East Java. Based on the parameters above, there are five hypotheses made to prove the relationship of the assistance and training to the growth and performance of business units. The structural equation modeling (SEM was carried out to test the hypotheses. The results have shown that the government’s developmental efforts through both assistance and training for the LED-SME were capable on increasing growth and performance of business units. On the other hand, government’s developmental efforts through only trainings were incapable of directly affecting growth of LED-SME business units and performance. To improve the business unit and performance, the government needs to implement developmental principles of LED-SME with the basis of utilizing local natural resources and also the communities of LED-SME as main suppliers for their local markets. In addition, preservation and development of local cultural and traditional arts also need to be the government’s main concern.
Tanaka, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Koizumi, Hisao
As the market changes more rapidly and new products continue to get more complex and multifunctional, product development collaboration with competent partners and leading users is getting more important to come up with new products that are successful in the market in a timely manner. ECM (engineering chain management) and SCM (supply chain management) are supply-side approaches toward this collaboration. In this paper, we propose a demand-side approach toward product development collaboration with users based on the information gathered through user support interactions. The approach and methodology proposed here was applied to a real data set, and its effectiveness was verified.
Kron, Jr, N F
This report lists actions that local officials can make to change their community's development regulations and thereby lessen the effects of local energy problems. The term development regulations, as used here, is a general reference to local or state controls over land use and development that affect design, orientation, placement, location, and related characteristics of buildings and infrastructure. The regulations include items such as zoning, subdivision controls, setbacks, yard and height requirements, and solar-access ordinances.
Biddle, William W.; Biddle, Loureide J.
The development process in two communities, a mining county in rural Appalachia and a deteriorating neighborhood in a northern industrial city, is presented in case-study form. Concepts and commonly used terms are defined; a process of development is identified that can be used in groups small enough to permit attention to the growth of persons.…
Helena Lopes da Silva
Full Text Available During the years 2015 and 2016 we coordinated a research entitled Mediated and expanded listening for high school music classes: Dialogues between Murray Schafer and Luciano Berio, which proposed structuring methodological approaches to develop and expand the musical listening of young people who are at school having as a start point the dialogue between listening strategies proposed by Murray Schafer and the work of Luciano Berio. For the construction of a pedagogical-musical approach centered on listening the teaching strategies to expand the listening proposed by Schafer (2011 were mapped as well as four musical pieces by the composer Luciano Berio were analyzed. Our hypothesis was that the use of the teaching strategies proposed by Schafer for the active appreciation of Berio repertoire could enhance the development of a renewed musical listening, which would require from the students and the teacher an extension or a expansion of concepts of what they understand by «music». The results showed that the young participants expressed interest in the contemporary repertoire as they were being instrumentalized by the developed mediation activities. Mediation was carried out through active listening proposals through creative action on the sounds around us and on the selected repertoire. The experience of listening to music is a creative activity and has intensive demands on your exercise. It is an inner process of knowledge and discovery that should be considered central in the training of music teachers.
Parot, F.; Veyret, G.
As a consequence of the 1982-1983 French Decentralization laws, local elected officials were entrusted with new responsibilities concerning environmental protection and local development. EDF, the French public electricity utility therefore had to respond to new demands. New forms of cooperation with the various local actors were imagined: assistance in diagnostics, working out local strategies, subcontracting and working for the establishment of new industrial plants, multi-purpose water management (dams for example), environment protection (discreet lines...), urban waste treatment, transportation, etc
Full Text Available Regional tax is a compulsory duty made by an individual or entity to a region without equal direct repayment that can be enforced under applicable legislation, which is used to finance the administration of local government and regional development. The role of local taxes is to assist the development of APBD (Local Government Budget activities. Local governments are also exploring new local taxes annually that can be used for regional expenditure. This research was conducted in Jambi Province. This research uses descriptive method that the data obtained then arranged in such a way and analyzed correctly based on theory relevant to the problem. From the research results obtained growth of Jambi provincial tax in 2011-2015 fluctuate and tend to increase. Local tax contribution on Jambi provincial expenditure has decreased from year to year. Keywords: Local Tax, Regional Expenditure, Regional Development
Eryiğit Sibel Balı
Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable importance of financial markets in the economy, the factors promoting financial development have just recently begun to be researched intensively. In this context, the aim of the study is to explain the reasons for the financial development gaps among provinces in Turkey on the basis of capital accumulations. According to the results of the spatial panel data model estimates based on indices of 81 provinces in Turkey for the period 2005-2009, it was found that the level of social capital best explained the level of financial development, followed by physical capital and human capital. Additionally, it was found that capital accumulations contributed above average not only to the financial development of that province, but also to that of the surrounding provinces.
Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.
This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1974. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.
Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.
This report is one of a continuing series developed by ORNL with financial support from the Economic Development Administration to present the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types for four final consuming sectors of BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation in 1973. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The long-term objective of the program is to pinpoint those regions where economic development potentials will most likely be affected by the availability of energy. This information coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment distribution patterns can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.
Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao; Zhang Duo
The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present a pilot proposal of a model of “Virtual Development Management System” (ViDeMaS which will facilitate more effective management and development of virtual teams. Management and development of virtual teams is not a simple concept. It comprises a body of knowledge from a number of fields and scientific disciplines. The complexity of the concept may not be simplified as it is absolutely essential for full understanding of its nature. In order to gain better orientation in the concept, different perspectives will be used in the description of the model, which will enable us to achieve the goal of the work and to present the main results of the work (creation of a model for Virtual Development Management System. The present paper thus describes from different perspectives the proposal of a sufficiently detailed and complex model that may be utilized both on theoretical and application level.
LINXin-da; LINXin-hua; CHENGJia-an
Wg/Wnt signaling is a key signaling pathway in Drosophila. Many genes involved in Wingless(wg) signal transduction pathway downstream of Wg, or it'' s vertebrate Wg homologue Wnt, have been identified.Transduction of the Wg signal downstream of Wg is mediated by nuclear TCF/LEF-1, through association with Ar-madillo (Arm)/β-catenin. Pygopus (pygo) is a new identified component in this pathway . Cellular localization experiment showed that pygo was expressed specifically in the nucleus. The expression profile of pygo in embryos was examined using in situ hybridization. Although pygo expressed ubiquitously in the embryos, it expressed at relatively high level in pre-blastoderm embryos which indicate a high degree of maternally provided message, fol-lowed by a low level of ubiquitous zygotic expression. This continues into larval tissues (including wing disc, eye disc and leg disc), where pygo appears to be expressed at low level. Comparison of pygo expression levels, in the wing disc, eye disc and leg disc, showed pygo expression level in the wing disc pouch and leg disc were rela-tive higher.
Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine
Bente Johnsen Rygg
Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s  four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.
Moesby, Egon; Rolim, Cassio
Purpose: The paper will describe experiences from Aalborg University in Denmark on ways to support cooperation between the University and regional civic/business. Design/Methodology: Regional development is exceedingly focused in the world; and as growth is dependent on specialised knowledge...... and highly skilled and competent staff, it could be anticipated that universities should play a key role in facilitating such growth and development. At Aalborg University, such cooperation is taking place, and this paper sums up the practices and experiences gained therefrom. Findings: Universities have...... been and maybe still are seen as bodies focusing on know-how; however, they are now focusing on technology transfer, knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange, and maybe also on co-designing. From such beginnings co-operation can, and in many cases has, further developed into formal partnerships...
Sarikaya, Duygu; Corso, Jason J; Guru, Khurshid A
Video understanding of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) videos is an active research area. Modeling the gestures and skill level of surgeons presents an interesting problem. The insights drawn may be applied in effective skill acquisition, objective skill assessment, real-time feedback, and human-robot collaborative surgeries. We propose a solution to the tool detection and localization open problem in RAS video understanding, using a strictly computer vision approach and the recent advances of deep learning. We propose an architecture using multimodal convolutional neural networks for fast detection and localization of tools in RAS videos. To the best of our knowledge, this approach will be the first to incorporate deep neural networks for tool detection and localization in RAS videos. Our architecture applies a region proposal network (RPN) and a multimodal two stream convolutional network for object detection to jointly predict objectness and localization on a fusion of image and temporal motion cues. Our results with an average precision of 91% and a mean computation time of 0.1 s per test frame detection indicate that our study is superior to conventionally used methods for medical imaging while also emphasizing the benefits of using RPN for precision and efficiency. We also introduce a new data set, ATLAS Dione, for RAS video understanding. Our data set provides video data of ten surgeons from Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA, performing six different surgical tasks on the daVinci Surgical System (dVSS) with annotations of robotic tools per frame.
Full Text Available The article discusses the participatory elaboration of strategies for sustainable regional development in an Alpine tourist region in Austria to cope with global change effects evolving locally, considering climate change, economic change as well as (local societal change. Local stakeholders in an Alpine village in the Montafon region contributed in workshops to achieve the final results: participant teams conducted system analyses of the regional system to explore key elements of the region. Narrative scenarios described possible positive and negative development trends and indicated the critical issues controlling future development; 3D-images of landscape transition simulations show the consequences of certain development directions. Alternative development directions supported the local stakeholders to elaborate regional development strategies. In the end, the scientist team derived generic strategies for Alpine regions based on the locally developed strategy bundle. The article presents the intention, progress and outcome of the participatory approach and elaborates the potential to derive generic strategies from local ones and discusses the possibly occurring conflicts regarding cross-scale transfers of these local strategies. Overall, tourism was seen as a key element for future regional development, which can on the one hand derogate Alpine regions and is on the other hand threatened by climate change and diminution of landscape attractiveness. The suggested development strategies will help to cope with global change issues mitigating the negative consequences on the local society and environment.
Does the Strategic Planning of Local Development Result from the Motives Indicated in Literature? Contemporary Motivation of Polish Small Towns’ Authorities for Strategic Planning of Local Development
The international literature offers a numberof motives which should incline local authoritiestoward strategic planning of local development;it also emphasizes that they should be stronglymotivated to do that. Meanwhile, their actualmotivation for such planning can remain low anddominated by motives so far unrecognized in theliterature. The article presents research confi rmingthis assumption, conducted in 2014 amongthe authorities of Polish small towns.The results reveal that the general moti...
Energetic development program in States and municipality-PRODEEM:Energy of locality in development with microsystems for production and energetic local use; Programa de deselvolvimento energetico dos Estados e Municipios-PRODEEM: Energizacao de localidades subdesenvolvidas Microsistemas para producao e uso local de Energeticos
Loureiro Filho, I [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, Brasilia (Brazil)
This Initiative has as purpose to get the attention and to propose a form of work practices so that the area energy became to contribute indeed for the reduction of global underdevelopment, pursuing the reduction of the energy developing in particular. Such a work is denominated Program of energy development of the states and municipalities PRODEEM intends that the energy of local use are taken advantage of through micro systems, to satisfy the basic necessities of developing towns of the country.
This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...
Mu, Ren; van de Walle, Dominique
The authors assess impacts of rural road rehabilitation on market development at the commune level in rural Vietnam and examine the variance of those impacts and the geographic, community, and household factors that explains it. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. The results point to significant average impacts on the ...
No significant differences were found for the intakes of legumes, milk, vegetables and sugar-added foods. Conclusions: This study allowed the development of Malian food exchange lists and demonstrated their usefulness for the description of the dietary pattern and energy and macronutrient intakes of male and female ...
Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.
A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)
Martin, Michael J.; Leuci, Mary; Stewart, Mark
The University of Missouri Extension needed to develop an annual program review process that collaboratively engaged county-level stakeholders. The results from the first 2 years highlight the results, challenges, and implications of the design process. The annual review process needs to be adaptive, responsive, and reflective from year to year…
R. Vanella (Ricardo); C. Lucca (Carlos); J.R. Pittari (Jorge Romero); F. Steinberg (Florian); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)
textabstractThe Strategic Plan of Cordoba (SPC) is one of the few strategic urban development plans in Latin America, which has actually been implemented in the majority of its components. The SPC was conceived as a collective and global project of the city as a whole without excessive conflicting
Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin; Vrtílek, Milan
Roč. 92, č. 5 (2018), s. 1359-1370 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diapause * erratic development * escape embryo * killifish * Mozambique * secondary pool Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2016
... like their male counterparts. Incompatibility of government policies with community programmes (= 3.84), insufficient sources of funds (= 3.83), poor implementation of programmes (= 3.80), and gender bias (= 3.77) constituted the major constraints to effective leadership in community development programmes in the area.
Eriksen, Safania Normann; Sundbo, Jon
This article examines the growing interest in local food by focusing on local food networks. The objective is to explore what factors drive or hinder the development of local food networks in rural Denmark. For this purpose, we have combined three bodies of theory: local food networks; entrepreneur...... networks; and the experience economy. This provides a valuable contribution to the current discourse on local food networks, as it introduces a novel framework to investigate the localisation of food dynamics. The article presents an explorative, case-based investigation of three Danish local food networks....... The findings demonstrate that the main drivers of the development of local food networks are the pursuance of transparency and knowledge of origin, the existence of entrepreneurship potential, the coordination of networks by means of joint strategies, and the overcoming of conflict patterns. However...
Levine, Jay F
Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.
W. Enzama (Wilson)
textabstractThis paper describes and analyzes the operational strategy of West Nile region, a typical low local capability community, in pursuit of local economic development. Special emphasis has been placed on the development of groups of survival beekeeping-enterprises and their integration in
This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the
Full Text Available Economic areas with high technology are key drivers in sustainable regional development, including unemployment and consequently decreasing population migration in the region. Northeast Region is the largest development region of Romania in terms of number of inhabitants and the owned area. On 01/01/2014, according to balance employment, labor resources of the region were numbered 2,428,700, which represent 49.6% of employed population. The registered unemployment rate at 31 August 2014 was 6.5%, with 82 thousand unemployed registered. In terms of participation in the main economic activities, civilian employment in agriculture, forestry and fishing is predominant (40.1% while in service, civilian employment is 37.1%, while industry and construction is 22.8%. The paper aims to analyze the situation that the potential employment and development opportunities for the Northeast region through activities in the field of ITC domain. Unfortunately, this area was the worst in most indicators, the use of computers and the internet to the turnover of companies and investments in the IT & C and unfortunately in terms of employment population that is under 50%
Full Text Available This article presents the role of local governments in supporting entrepreneurship development. The content of the article presents the factors which foster activities undertaken by local authorities to promote entrepreneurship and also shows different considerations of when the supporting instruments are in use. The article is also an assessment of current activities of local governments in the sphere of supporting business initiatives. It indicates potential of possible changes in local policy on supporting entrepreneurship. The article sets out areas of possible improvements in policy when stimulating economic activity by local authorities. It addresses the improvements of the objective restrictions which are laid out by the existing legal framework.
The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs
Sharif, M.B.; Tahir, M.A.
This paper describes the development of metakaolin in which Kaolin clay is burnt at temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 deg. C Celsius for 6, 8 and 10 hours duration. SAI (Strength Activity Index) of metakaolin is determined with 20% replacement of cement with meta kaolin as per ASTM C-311. It was found that maximum value of SAI is achieved at a temperature of 800 degree C Celsius when kaolin clay is burnt for 6-8 hour duration. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) Analysis was also carried out which confirmed the outcome of strength results. (author)
Full Text Available There are few congenital anomalies that can be treated in utero, despite the rapid development of fetal medicine. The number of available antenatal treatments is growing with the advance of supplementary tools, especially ultrasound and endoscopy. Disorders involving accumulation of excessive fluid in the amniotic cavity (polyhydramnios, chest (hydrothorax, abdomen (ascites and urinary system (obstructive uropathy are regularly treated using aspiration or shunt drainage under ultrasound monitoring. Electrolyte solutions or concentrated blood component supplements are used to treat oligohydramnios (amnioinfusion and amniopatch and fetal anemia (fetal transfusion. Placental tumor (chorioangioma and fetal tumors (cystic hygroma and sacrococcygeal teratoma are also successfully treated by antenatal injection of medications. Fetoscopic procedures, especially obstetric endoscopy, are now used regularly in North America, Europe, Australasia and Japan after the validity was established in the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome when compared with traditional amnioreduction. However, most procedures involving surgical fetoscopy or open fetal surgery remain experimental. Their validity and efficacy are not confirmed in a number of fetal diseases for which they were claimed to be effective. A brief review of the global status and history of invasive fetal therapy is given, and its status in Taiwan is also described. Future development in this field relies on greater understanding of the basic physiology and pathology of the diseases involved, as well as on the progress of sophisticated instrumentation.
Full Text Available Of the numerous applications of GIS, administration and public services count among the main fields of application. They are both the users and the owners of the largest amount of spatial data. Portals for higher authorities have been the subject of extensive discussions, but the development and possible use of GIS systems in the form of geoportals at local levels still seems to have been insufficiently discussed. This article presents the process of designing and developing a portal for the lowest authorities - local authorities and the local community. A small town in Poland, Sokółka, was assumed as the study area. The concept development was preceded by, among others: recognition of the needs of an administrative unit in conducting spatial policy; establishment of the objectives, functionalities and assumptions of the designed GIS; a SWOT analysis of the designed geoportal; and an analysis of data resources. Pilot implementation was completed with an evaluation of the geoportal encompassing various groups of potential users.
Monika Govekar Okoliš
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the role that adult education has played in the development of local identity. This includes provision of a brief outline of the development and significance of smaller local communities in Slovenian history. As an example, a description is given of the development of local communities in the regions of Gorioka and of Trieste and its environs during the second half of the 19th c. Attention is given to the beginnings of the adult instruction and education activities which were conducted in the various societies, where membership was voluntary. There, the local members learnt from one another, transferred their knowledge and experience, and- with the stimul us of regional encouragement - took care of the development of their region and, consequently, their own personal development. As it was in the past, so it still is today: those who are most concerned for the development of the local community are the individuals who, within their own region, have felt the need to gain new opportunities for a deeper recognition of the local identity. This need is also linked to the history of the area and of the local or regional community. It is only through recognition and understanding of the history of the region, and of life in the local community, that people are better able to shape their own identity and attachment to the region, and hence to form and plan its further development.
Villarroya, Ana; Persson, Jesper; Puig, Jordi
The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown
Villarroya, Ana, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Persson, Jesper, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Landscape Management, Design and Construction, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 66, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden); Puig, Jordi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Zoology and Ecology, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea s/n, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)
The main scientific bibliography addressing the rationale behind ecological compensation is reviewed in order to examine general guidelines. This contains interesting general guidance on how to implement compensation, and provides the basis for future developments in compensation practice. On this basis, we propose a further step in compensation practice, advancing compensation proposals or rules for specific kinds of projects and contexts, focusing on road projects in the Spanish Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Three main residual impacts of roads are identified which usually remain uncompensated for: the loss of natural and semi-natural land use, the increase in emissions resulting from any new road, and the fragmentation, severance or barrier effect on the landscape and its wildlife. To counteract these, four proposals, or “rules”, are advanced: conservation of natural and semi-natural land use area, conservation of dominant plant species physiognomy, compensation for emissions, and the rule of positive defragmentation. -- Highlights: • Ecological compensation theory does not specify guidelines for types of projects. • EIA practitioners lack valuable specific guidance on how to implement compensation. • Specific guidance for road project ecological compensation is proposed. • Compensation proposals should have in mind present-day compensation practice level. • Specific ways to compensate for habitat loss, emissions, and fragmentation are shown.
Mark T.J. Vredegoor
Full Text Available Stimson, et al. (2009 developed one of the most relevant and well known model for Regional Economic Development. This model covers the most important factors related to economic development question. However, this model excludes the social components of development. Local community should be included in terms of the development of a region. This paper introduced to the Stimson model “Skills” and “Knowledge” at the individual level for local actors indicating the capabilities at the individual level and introduced “Human Coordination” for the capabilities at the collective level. In our empirical research we looked at the Indonesian seaweed market with a specific focus on the region of Baubau. This region was chosen because there are hardly any economic developments. Furthermore this study focuses on the poorer community who are trying to improve their situation by the cultivation of Seaweed. Eighteen local informants was interviewed besides additional interviews of informants from educational and governmental institutions in the cities of Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta. The informants selected had a direct or indirect relationship with the region of Baubau. With the support of the empirical data from this region we can confirm that it is worthwhile to include the local community in the model for regional economic development. The newly added variables: at the individual level; Skills and Knowledge and at the level of the collective: Human Coordination was supported by the empirical material. It is an indication that including the new variables can give regional economic an extra dimension. In this way we think that it becomes more explicit that “endogenous” means that the people, or variables closely related to them, should be more explicitly included in models trying to capture Regional Economic Development or rephrased as Local Economic Development Keywords:Regional and endogenous development; Fisheries and seaweed
Full Text Available Many studies have been investigating determinants of the company's competitive strategy. Nevertheless, there have insufficient studies conducted to investigate the determinants of competitive strategy on banking industry, particularly on Local development banks (LDBS. This study is aimed at filling in the literature. This study surveyed top executives of twenty-six local development banks in Indonesia and employed PLS approach to answer the research questions. The result shows that three groups of variables, i.e., innovation management, company resource management, and adoption of technology influence the development of competitive strategy in local development banks.
González-Weil, C.; Merino-Rubilar, C.; Ahumada, G.; Arenas, A.; Salinas, V.; Bravo, P.
The present work arises from the need to reform Science Education, particularly through the contextualization of teaching. It is proposed to achieve this through the use of local territory as a resource for the design of teaching-learning-sequences (TLS). To do this, an interdisciplinary group of researchers and teachers from a Secondary School created a Professional Circle for Reflection on Teaching, which constructed an emerging conceptualization of Territory, analyzed the possibil...
Lafrenz, W. B.; van Gaalen, J. F.
Water level hydrographs of the surficial aquifer can be evaluated to identify both the cause and consequence of water supply development. Rainfall, as a source of direct recharge and as a source of delayed or compounded recharge, is often the largest influence on surficial aquifer water level responses. It is clear that proximity of the rain gauge to the observation well is a factor in the degree of correlation, but in central Florida, USA, rainfall patterns change seasonally, with latitude, and with distance from the coast . Thus, for a location in central Florida, correlation of rain events with observed hydrograph responses depends on both distance and direction from an observation well to a rain gauge. In this study, we examine the use of extreme value analysis as a method of selecting the best rainfall data set for describing a given surficial aquifer monitor well. A surficial aquifer monitor well with a substantial suite of data is compared to a series of rainfall data sets from gauges ranging from meters to tens of kilometers in distance from the monitor well. The gauges vary in a wide range of directions from the monitor well in an attempt to identify both a method for rainfall gauge selection to be associated with the monitor well. Each rainfall gauge is described by a correlation coefficient with respect to the surficial aquifer water level data.
Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco
In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Does the Strategic Planning of Local Development Result from the Motives Indicated in Literature? Contemporary Motivation of Polish Small Towns’ Authorities for Strategic Planning of Local Development
Full Text Available The international literature offers a numberof motives which should incline local authoritiestoward strategic planning of local development;it also emphasizes that they should be stronglymotivated to do that. Meanwhile, their actualmotivation for such planning can remain low anddominated by motives so far unrecognized in theliterature. The article presents research confi rmingthis assumption, conducted in 2014 amongthe authorities of Polish small towns.The results reveal that the general motivationfor strategic planning of local developmentamong 37.7% of the authorities of Polish smalltowns is low. It also disclosed that the motivefor obtaining means from the EU funds (so farunrecognized in literature was and is motivatingstrongly at least 68.6% of these authorities forthe discussed planning and, moreover, that it is ashort-lived motive. The article indicates that thissituation may also refer to other local authorities,not just the Polish ones. It also indicates that itis an unintended effect of the dependence ofmunicipal development projects’ support by themeans from the EU funds on including them inthe local development strategy. The fi nal part ofthe article presents recommendations of actionsto rectify such an unfavorable situation and forfurther studies of planning motives followed bylocal authorities.
Scientists in developing countries sometimes lack knowledge of recent developments, co-operation with advanced countries, and government appreciation of the importance and quality of their work. The present IAEA mechanisms like CRPs and TC projects are very helpful but do not fully meet R and D co-operation needs of these scientists. A new complementary mechanism of co-operation among the Member States is proposed that would utilize IAEA services through a suitable agreement. The IAEA could help to evaluate joint R and D proposals, to provide an example legal agreement, to monitor progress, to disseminate the results, and, in some cases, to administer joint funds. This new mechanism would be similar to ITER, but on a smaller scale, and applicable to all fields of nuclear R and D. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaults are intriguing ribonucleoprotein assemblies with an unknown function that are conserved among higher eukaryotes. The Pacific coast sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is an invertebrate model organism that is evolutionarily closer to humans than Drosophila and C. elegans, neither of which possesses vaults. Here we compare the structures of sea urchin and mammalian vaults and analyze the subcellular distribution of vaults during sea urchin embryogenesis. Results The sequence of the sea urchin major vault protein (MVP was assembled from expressed sequence tags and genome traces, and the predicted protein was found to have 64% identity and 81% similarity to rat MVP. Sea urchin MVP includes seven ~50 residue repeats in the N-terminal half of the protein and a predicted coiled coil domain in the C-terminus, as does rat MVP. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryoEM reconstruction of isolated sea urchin vaults reveals the assembly to have a barrel-shaped external structure that is nearly identical to the rat vault structure. Analysis of the molecular composition of the sea urchin vault indicates that it contains components that may be homologs of the mammalian vault RNA component (vRNA and protein components (VPARP and TEP1. The sea urchin vault appears to have additional protein components in the molecular weight range of 14–55 kDa that might correspond to molecular contents. Confocal experiments indicate a dramatic relocalization of MVP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during sea urchin embryogenesis. Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role for the vault in delivering macromolecules to the nucleus during development.
Popovski, Kiril; De Medeiros, Jorge Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Catarina Tavares
Geothermal project Ribeira Grande has been the first trial to introduce the possibilities of direct application of geothermal energy at Azores. As all the first experiences, it's development has been escorted with a list of difficulties and problems, resulting with non proper completion of some systems and installations. However, even not complete, the reached results justified both technically and economically the indigenous resource door for further activities and development. Presented proposal for the second phase of project development consists two very important advantages: 1) Enables development of new demonstration and productive projects, without engaging new import of fuels or other energents; 2) Enables development based on the already existing economy sectors at the islands and makes them more profitable and accommodated to the requests of the national and international market. However, influencing national and international preconditions for the realization of the proposed activities are not very convenient and are requesting a concentrate engagement of the Institute for Innovative Technologies of Azores INOVA during the period of next 5 years. The final success of this engagement shall open very wide possibilities for direct application of geothermal energy development in this isolated EC community, presently mainly orientated towards import both of energy and food. (Authors)
Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua
Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.
The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation
Full Text Available Guichón, located 90km east of the capital of the department of Paysandú, is situated on the crossroad of two national ways. East-West, Route Nº90 Ruta de los Charrúas (the first indian tribe inhabitant of this area, that between the Palmares (location of palm trees and the Cuchilla de Haedo (line of hills winds through farms, villages and train stations. North-South, Route Nº4 Gral Andrés Artigas “Andresito”, designed in all its length, but built in stretches: starting in the city of Artigas, ends on the junction of Route Nº5 at Carlos Reyles. Farms, sites of great inheritance value, the Rincón de Pérez(that is part of the system of protected areas SNAP, villages, streams and calzadas (bridges at the same level of water can be found on the way. A topic that is frequently under discussion is the importance of finishing Andresito. Nowadays the Route between Guichón – Santana Stream is being bitumized, since on its margin the UPM nursery is going to be placed, covering an area of 45.000m2 for its greenhouse. This paper is focused on the Route, as the way, as the landscape and territorial path, on its design, its structure and functions, about the interactions, with the transformations that generates over the territory, the impact when crossing the settlement nets and the sites of natural and heritage value. Moreover, it is eager to place a reflection on the need to conceive Landscape and infrastructure as part of a unique and continuous process, after an integrative project that could mitigate the impacts, that could read landscape in the territorial field of reference, and that could make out the development of the settlements.
José Mateo Bastidas-Morales
Full Text Available The reconstruction of subjectivity involves overcoming criticism of individualism, utilitarianism and immediacy as the basis of society and consumer markets. Elemental is, with the addition of the individual as a subject of social action, the principal actor-oriented definition of welfare, community and local development. Obviously, the formation of human capital development. While it is imperative the state-society relationship in the context of the current modernization must also recover the principles of the community before the stressed relationship between the market-state. We intend here to link opposite the dichotomous thinking of Western rationalism, constitute an important element of social sustantivación. Along with this, the neo-institutionalism and institutional economics that questions the current neoliberal approves the participation of the state and, with new rules, can better confront the neoconservative positions. It is revalued, in the present work, interest in the new dynamics of social change in post-national or cosmopolitan side.
Wang, Yuandi; Zhou, Zhao
.g., knowledge, human capital) and the role of motivating multinational companies (MNCs) to upgrade their local operations in developing countries so as to perform more innovation activities. Few articles are presented that examine the role of local sites in the learning and technological-capability building......, and the collaborations with local industrial community firms positively influence the relationship between firms' international inward technology licensing and technological capabilities. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Knight, Zelda Gillian
Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ishak Nor Syafa’ah
Full Text Available A Development Plan acts as a planning and controlling instrument that helps to guide in decision making of current and future development. Therefore, in the Malaysian Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172, the provision of development plan from each level of the planning administration is stated in the Act under Section 6B till Section 16B. In examining the significance of one of the many development plans in Malaysia, i.e. the local plan, this paper therefore, focuses on the provision of a local plan by the Local Planning Authority (LPA of the said area. This paper, thus, aims to evaluate the Central Malacca Local Plan since Malacca is currently experiencing rapid growth in development along the coastal area. The primary data was obtained from interviews with the related planning authorities via face-to-face method. While, secondary data was gathered from related legal documents, policies and guidelines, as well as the existing development plan for the purpose of an in-depth data. Findings revealed incapability of the existing local plan to assist the development control in deciding the planning permission for reclaimed area. The existing local plan shows no zoning for coastal reclamation area because of the rapid growing development and time consuming procedure to amend the local plan according to the Act 172. In addition, the Act 172 and the process in amending the local plan should be more flexible and able to address the current issue efficiently. Finally, the paper concludes with a suggestion for further exploration in order to achieve an operative development process and functioning practice of the local plan.
Bartjan W Pennink
Full Text Available To build a strong local economy, good practice tells us that each community should undertake a collaborative, strategically planned process to understand and then act upon its own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. From this perspective we start with the local communities but how is this related to the perspective from the Helix model in which three actors are explicitly introduced: the Government, the Industry and the Universities? The purpose of local economic development (LED is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. To support the Local Economic Development in remote areas, a program has been developed based on the LED frame work of the world bank. This approach and the experiences over the past years with this program are described in the first part. In the second part of the paper, We analyse work done with that program with the help of the social capital concept and the triple helix model. In all cases it is important to pay attention to who is taken the initiative after the first move (and it is not always the governance as actor and for the triple helix we suggest that the concepts of (national Government, Industry and University need a translation to Local Governance Agency, Cooperation or other ways of cooperation of local communities and Local Universities. Although a push from outside might help a local region in development the endogenous factors are also needed. Keywords: Triple Helix model, Local Economic Development, Local Actors, Double Triangle within the Helix Model
Castaing, C.; Cazin, B. [Electricite de France, Noisy le grand (France)
The strategy proposed by EDF in the development of a means to limit personal and collective dosimetry is recent. It follows in the steps of a policy that consisted of developing remote operation means for those activities of inspection and maintenance on the reactor, pools bottom, steam generators (SGs), also reactor building valves; target activities because of their high dosimetric cost. One of the main duties of the UTO (Technical Support Department), within the EDF, is the maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors in French Nuclear Power Plant Operations (consisting of 54 units) and the development and monitoring of specialized tools. To achieve this, the UTO has started a national think-tank on the implementation of the ALARA process in its field of activity and created an ALARA Committee responsible for running and monitoring it, as well as a policy for developing tools. This point will be illustrated in the second on reactor vessel heads.
Full Text Available Large scale integration of wind generation capacity into power systems introduces operational challenges due to wind power uncertainty and variability. Therefore, accurate wind power forecast is important for reliable and economic operation of the power systems. Complexities and nonlinearities exhibited by wind power time series necessitate use of elaborative and sophisticated approaches for wind power forecasting. In this paper, a local neurofuzzy (LNF approach, trained by the polynomial model tree (POLYMOT learning algorithm, is proposed for short-term wind power forecasting. The LNF approach is constructed based on the contribution of local polynomial models which can efficiently model wind power generation. Data from Sotavento wind farm in Spain was used to validate the proposed LNF approach. Comparison between performance of the proposed approach and several recently published approaches illustrates capability of the LNF model for accurate wind power forecasting.
Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…
D.P. de Boer (Diederik)
markdownabstractBusiness community partnerships are vested in private sector development and are the study topic of this research. This study will elaborate on the role of local partnerships to understand to what extent they contribute to a sustainable environment for local socio-economic and
M.A. Brennan; Courtney G. Flint; A.E. Luloff
The developmental trajectories of communities are routinely explained by reference to economic history, human capital deficits, or the structure of local labour markets. The role of local culture in understanding community development or in interpreting empirical research has received less attention. We believe culture plays an important independent role in shaping...
G. Ncube (Gracsious); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)
textabstractThe paper explores the impact of migrant remittances on local economic development in a locality where more than half of the households have been recipients for at least five years. The study has taken place in rural Zimbabwe and uses an ethnographic method devised for this research. The
Upreti, B.R.; Horst, Dan van der
Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders
Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Fulop, Naomi J; Raine, Rosalind
According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions. Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access) if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care). A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception. Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville'), and one where they were not ('Hilltown'). 28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5) and older people (n=6) - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9). Hilltown interviewees (n=8) received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission. Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times. Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the
Full Text Available According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions.Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care. A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception.Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville', and one where they were not ('Hilltown'.28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5 and older people (n=6 - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9. Hilltown interviewees (n=8 received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission.Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times.Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the
Viguier, Laurent L.
The benefits from reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions are not limited to a single consumer or group of consumers but are available to a large set of countries and populations across generations. Underprovision and free-riding are thus to be expected in the climate change issue. Optimal provision of this type of public good requires creating incentives for international cooperation. Game theorists have proposed to restructure incentives through issues linkages consisting in exchanging concessions across different policy dimensions. In this paper we discuss the opportunity to link climate change to international trade, technology R and D and diffusion, and greening development assistance. We propose another option, called the 'rent-sharing' approach, that would guarantee meaningful participation of developing countries (DCs) without challenging their economic development. Developing countries would have the opportunity to enter the emission markets, and benefit from financial transfers, only if their agree with a rule that would guarantee a gainful domestic participation. Our numerical example shows that China may be better off, while accepting a significant CO 2 emission reduction effort
Planning for Transit-Supportive Development: A Practitioners Guide is a toolkit of practical and innovative measures to help : Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional planners, transit agencies, and local government elected o...
Full Text Available From its genesis in Mid 19th Century liberalism to its current rationalist position, local government in New Zealand has followed a similar path to that of New Zealand central government in that it has embraced a neo liberal economic rationalist view of its role in public policy. The article traces the historical foundation of New Zealand local government and the factors that have assisted in forming the current shape of local government in New Zealand. The article ends by suggesting that the system of local government is dynamic and is still in development.
This paper presents some proposals for developing a high-temperature structural design guideline for HTGR structural components. It is appropriate that a basis for developing high-temperature structural design rules is rested on well-established elevated-temperature design guidelines, if the same failure modes are expected for high-temperature components as considered in such design guidelines. As for the applicability of ASME B and PV Code Case N-47 to structural design rules for high-temperature components (service temperatures ≥ 900 deg. C), the following critical issues on material properties and service life evaluation rules have been pointed out. (i) no work-hardening of stress-strain curves at high temperatures due to dynamic recrystallization; (ii) issues relating to very significant creep; (iii) ductility loss after long-term ageing at high temperatures; (iv) validity of life-fraction rule (Robinson-Taira rule) as creep-fatigue damage evaluation rule. Furthermore, the validity of design margins of elevated-temperature structural design guidelines to high-temperature design rules should be clarified. Solutions and proposals to these issues are presented in this paper. Concerning no work-hardening due to dynamic recrystallization, it is shown that viscous effects cannot be neglected even at high extension rate for tensile tests, and that changes in viscous deformation rates by dynamic recrystallization should be taken into account. The extension rate for tensile tests is proposed to change at high temperatures. The solutions and proposals to the above-mentioned issues lead to the conclusion that the design methodologies of N-47 are basically applicable to the high-temperature structural design guideline for HTGR structural components in service at about 900 deg. C. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs
Josiah Oladele BABATOLA
Full Text Available Current high level of energy cost and operational cost of membrane technologies and couple with difficulties in obtaining chemicals for potable water treatment give rooms for development of local substance and low cost adsorbents for water treatment. This paper presents a follow-up study on an earlier work in which some water treatment Tablets were produced and tested. The current work was directed at establishing the optimum composition of the tablets. Alum, calcium hypochlorite and lime were combined in proportion and made into pastes and tablets. Residual chlorine contents of the tablets were determined. The quality of stream water samples treated with the tablets was measured by chlorine content, pH and turbidity removal. It is concluded that the best composition is one part alum, two parts hypochlorite and three parts lime and this produced treated water pH of 7.8, chlorine residual of 5.0 mg/l and settled water turbidity 3.0 NTU. The product is aimed for use in rural communities to reduce rampaging death from water borne diseases.
Ebay Jorge S.
Full Text Available This paper examines the efforts of the local government unit (LGU of San Jose de Buenavista, in the Province of Antique in central Philippines to manage risks associated with multiple hazards to protect the people, their livelihoods and local development gains. More specifically, it analyzes the process of pursuing risk management objectives vis-a-vis national and international disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM norms, without loosing sight of local contextual realities that directly influence people’s vulnerabilities and capacities. Risk management initiatives in the LGU revolve around four key areas namely disaster prevention and mitigation, disaster preparedness, emergency response, and recovery and rehabilitation. Binding these initiatives are actions that integrate governance mechanisms with scientific data and sectoral and community participation to develop a comprehensive plan of action and standard operating procedures that will serve as guideposts in the process of building a safer community. The experience of San Jose de Buenavista also suggests that cost saving strategies an be replicated by communities and organizations that have financial limitations to pursue DRRM objectives. This paper contends that risk management is a fundamental development strategy to pursue local development goals and to sustain efforts to protect development gains in the long run. This can be done using a combination of governance, risk assessment, knowledge management, vulnerability reduction and preparedness strategies. Local leadership, people’s participation, environmental resource management and continuous capability building are key elements of the process. Ultimately, risk management must be mainstreamed into local development to develop community resiliency.
Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte
Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms of organization. Against this background, the article discusses the challenges facing Greenland's self-rule in relation to further develop the existing water and wastewater systems so that they can contribute to the sustainable development of Greenland. The article reviews the historical development of the water supply and wastewater system. This leads to an analysis of the sectorisation, which in recent decades has reorganized the Greenlandic infrastructures, and of how this process is influencing local sustainable development. The article discusses the socio-economic and human impacts and points to the need for developing the water and sanitation system to support not only hygiene and health, but also local sustainable development.
Jayne M Rogerson
Full Text Available Within extant scholarship on tourism and local development one knowledge gap concerns the role of the accommodation sector as a base for tourism-led local development in rural areas and small towns. The focus is upon nature tourism accommodation establishments which cluster mainly in geographically marginal areas in South Africa where poverty levels are high and the imperative exists for new drivers of economic and social development. A national audit of nature tourism accommodation establishments confirms their potential critical relevance for local development planning in many parts of the country. Nevertheless, existing evidence points to limitations in local linkages through the food supply chain. A critical review is given of several constraints which impact upon tourism-agriculture linkages with policy conclusions for strengthening such linkages.
Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Welch, E.W.
This article contributes to the emerging literature on transparency by developing and empirically testing a theoretical framework that explains the determinants of local government Web site transparency. It aims to answer the following central question: What institutional factors determine the
James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Banay, Rachel F; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Wood, Benjamin; Arcaya, Mariana C
Decreasing traffic speeds increases the amount of time drivers have to react to road hazards, potentially averting collisions, and makes crashes that do happen less severe. Boston's regional planning agency, the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) that examined the potential health impacts of a proposed bill in the state legislature to lower the default speed limits on local roads from 30 miles per hour (mph) to 25 mph. The aim was to reduce vehicle speeds on local roads to a limit that is safer for pedestrians, cyclists, and children. The passage of this proposed legislation could have had far-reaching and potentially important public health impacts. Lower default speed limits may prevent around 18 fatalities and 1200 serious injuries to motorists, cyclists and pedestrians each year, as well as promote active transportation by making local roads feel more hospitable to cyclists and pedestrians. While a lower speed limit would increase congestion and slightly worsen air quality, the benefits outweigh the costs from both a health and economic perspective and would save the state approximately $62 million annually from prevented fatalities and injuries.
Bush, Ruth E.; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Taylor, Peter G.
District heating (DH) has an important role to play in enabling cities to transition to low-carbon heating. Although schemes are commonplace in some countries, in ‘learning countries’ where building-level technologies make up the majority of heating systems there are numerous barriers to introducing DH. Local governments are seen as key actors in helping to create a ‘shared vision’ for DH amongst stakeholders. This study uses interviews with stakeholders from a range of sectors in the UK (an example of a learning country) to examine the visions of local actors for developing DH and the types of national policy that would support local implementation of these visions. The analysis shows that in engaging with DH development local governments seek multiple types of value. Realising this value will most likely happen by taking a long-term, planned approach to development. In contrast, national government policy is geared towards techno-economic criteria and may lead to only a minority of potential sites being developed, without realisation of wider social or environmental benefits aligned to local visions. The work highlights the importance of local strategic planning, enabled by aligned national policy, in realising the full economic, environmental and social benefits of DH. - Highlights: • Local governments are key to the development of district heating (DH). • Local government-led visions of DH seek to deliver complex value. • In the UK development is led by funding and commercial factors and is not strategic. • To enable DH, national policy must align with the vision of local actors. • Social and environmental criteria must be incorporated in decision-making.
Gomez-Navarro, Tomas; Garcia-Melon, Monica; Acuna-Dutra, Silvia; Diaz-Martin, Diego
This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.
Project Manager Boston Biomedical Innovation Center 215 First Street, Suite 500; Cambridge, MA 02142 857-307-2441 | email@example.com | b...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0480 TITLE: Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain PRINCIPAL...31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tissue Injury
Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of housing, water and energy, it will be argued that polycentric innovation (which connects local and international actors) is most likely to generate inclusive development. Yet even a polycentric approach d...
This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.
Md Saad Nor Hasliza
Full Text Available Due to the importance of the tourism industry in the country, it is crucial to ensure that local authorities in Malaysia implement sustainable tourism development. In the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government set a key target to be achieved for the tourism sector. One of the key parties responsible for ensuring that the set targets are achieved is the local authorities, who are responsible for providing proper maintenance because the tourism destinations fall under their area of jurisdiction. The aim of this article is to explore tourism development and planning in one of the popular tourism destination and to analyse the role that local authorities play in the development process. This paper explores the local authorities’ views and opinions on their tourism development area using interview and focus group approaches. The paper also combines the analysis of government policy and planning documents with a review of tourism development literature. The findings reveal challenges and issues that are experienced by the local authorities in regard to setting the direction, development and management of tourism development. The issues of tourism development are then discussed for the government to ensure tourism development sustainability in the long term.
Siekmann, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz - FIA, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Reidenbach, H.D. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany)
Guidelines on limits of exposure to incoherent ultraviolet radiation, to incoherent visible and infrared radiation and to laser radiation have been published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are accepted globally and form the basis for risk assessment procedures for optical radiation in many countries. With the appearance of new scientific cognition the ICNIRP guidelines will be revised from time to time. A revision may also concern more formal aspects. Some proposals for the development of the ICNIRP limit value recommendations for optical radiation exposures follow. (orig.)
Caldeira, Alexandre D.
In the last three years, discussions were held on several topics in Nuclear Medicine area, starting with the nuclear data processing, passing by deterministic and stochastic mathematical methods, and finalizing with computer simulations of the following phenomena: neutron transport, applied to boron neutron capture therapy, and neutron diffusion, to study growth of tumor cells. From a mathematical model applied to radiotherapy of gliomas available in literature, it is proposed a strategy for development of a computer system to assist the planning radiotherapy of gliomas. (author)
María Santamarina Sancho
Full Text Available The introduction of ICT in the educational system is clearly evident because of the many advantages for professors and students. Our main objective is to improve the development of reading comprehension in students of Primary Education through the use of technologies, specifically with the Jclic application; a tool that will allow the teacher to design activities designed for this purpose that, in addition, is easy to access and manage, therefore it can also serve for the teacher who wants to start using the technologies in the classroom. With our proposal we also aim to highlight and emphasize the importance of ICT in the teaching and learning process.
Odano, Naoteru; Ohnishi, Seiki; Ueki, Kohtaro
The development aims at measuring local dose distribution accurately and handy and at enhancing precision of dose evaluation, so that personnel exposure can be reduced. A sheet type device and a sheet data reader were produced for trial and their performance testing were made under Sr-90 standard radiation and synchrotron radiation sources. Also a computer code was developed to analyze two-dimensional local dose distribution and to evaluate the precision of the sheet type dosimeter and data reader. The code enables to calculate local exposure doses of phantom quickly and simply for various beam irradiation conditions. (H. Yokoo)
Full Text Available Information search is an essential part of the consumer`s decision making process. The online medium offers new opportunities and challenges for information search activities (in and outside the marketing context. We are interested in the way human information experiences and behaviors are affected by this. Very often online games and social web activities are perceived as challenging, engaging and enjoyable, while online information search is far below this evaluation. Our research proposal implies that using the online medium for information search may provoke enjoyable experiences through the flow state, which may in turn positively influence an individual`s exploratory information behavior and encourage his/her pro-active market behavior. The present study sets out to improve the understanding of the online medium`s impact on human`s exploratory behavior. We hypothesize that the inclusion of the online flow experience in our research model will better explain exploratory information search behaviors. A 11-component conceptual framework is proposed to explain the manifestations of flow, its personal and technological determinants and its behavioral consequence in the context of online information search. Our research has the primary purpose to present an integrated online flow model. Its secondary objective is to stimulate extended research in the area of informational behaviors in the digital age. The paper is organized in three sections. In the first section we briefly report the analysis results of the most relevant online flow theory literature and, drawing on it, we are trying to identify variables and relationships among these. In the second part we propose a research model and use prior flow models to specify a range of testable hypothesis. Drawing on the conceptual model developed, the last section of our study presents the final conclusions and proposes further steps in evaluating the model`s validity. Future research directions
Restart rule of nuclear power plants (NPPs) with piping having local wall thinning subjected to an earthquake was proposed taking account of local wall thinning, seismic effects and restart of NPPs with applicability of 'Guidelines for NPP Response to an Earthquake (EPRI NP-6695)' in Japan. Japan Earthquake Damage Intensity Scale (JEDIS) and Earthquake Ground Motion Level (EGML) were introduced. JEDIS was classified into four scales obtained from damage level of components and structures of NPPs subjected to an earthquake, while EGML was divided into four levels by safe shutdown earthquake ground motion (So), elastic design earthquake ground motion (Sd) and design earthquake ground motion (Ss). Combination of JEDIS and EGML formulated 4 x 4 matrix and determined detailed conditions of restart of NPPs. As a response to an earthquake, operator walk inspections and evaluation of earthquake ground motion were conducted to know the level of JEDIS. JEDIS level requested respective allowable conditions of restart of NPP, which were scale level dependent and consisted of weighted combination of damage inspection (operator walk inspections, focused inspections/tests and expanded inspections), integrity evaluation and repair/replacement. If JEDIS were assigned greater than 3 with expanded inspections, inspection of piping with local wall thinning, its integrity evaluation and repair/replacement if necessary were requested. Inspection and evaluation of piping with local wall thinning was performed based on JSME or ASME codes. Detailed work flow charts were presented. Carbon steel piping and elbow was chosen for evaluation. (T. Tanaka)
Matsui, Kazuaki; Shioiri, Akio; Hamada, Jun; Kanagawa, Takashi; Mori, Yukihide; Kouno, Koji
In technical development of nuclear energy conceiving a view on energy environment problem at the 21st Century, technical development on innovative nuclear energy system as well as next generation LWR is an important subject. Even in Japan, on the 'Long-term program for research, development and utilization of nuclear energy (LPRNE)' summarized by the Atomic Energy Commission, investigation on R and Ds of innovative reactors under cooperation of government, industrial field, and universities is required. In the Energy Generalized Engineering Institute, by receiving a subsidy from the Ministry of Economy and Industry since 2000, a proposal recruitment business on innovative and practical technical development of nuclear energy has been carried out. Here were introduced hopeful and unique five themes out of them applied to the recruitment, such as a super-critical pressure water cooling reactor (SCPR), an integrated modular LWR (IMR): technical development for practice, technical development on general purpose boiling transitional analysis method, technical development on direct extraction of U and Pu from consumed fuels based on super-DIREX reprocessing method, and material transfer forecasting in natural barriers at landfill disposal of radioactive wastes. (G.K.)
Revised the last three (3 Municipal Development Plans of the Municipality of Neiva, in particular, Development Plan 2012-2015: “United to improve”; isolated actions are considered to be weak compared to a strong program on local development for not having adopted the Emerging or Sustainable Cities initiative supported by the Inter-American Development Bank-IDB in partnership with The Territorial Development Finance (Findeter, instruments that have already implemented cities in Colombia and Latin American.
Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.
Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO
Radu Lucian Blaga
Full Text Available Romanian National Rural Development Programme (NRDP 2007-2013 is the document, which applies EU Common Agricultural Policy in Romania as EU member state. LEADER, as part of EU Common Agricultural Policy was developed like territory planning policies focused on the rural area of intervention. It proved more effective and productive, being decided and implemented at local level by the local actors, using clear and transparent procedures for the evaluation of strategic objectives and plans, having the support of local governments and technical assistance necessary to transmit best practices. The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD finances investments in LEADER axis, using intervention areas (priority 1, priority 2 and priority 3 and related measures to NRDP. These measures can be found in a variable degree at the level of the Local Development Strategy (LDS elaborated by The Local Action Groups (LAGs, LEADER territory concerned. Based on these issues, the paper seeks to present some practical considerations of the assessment of the LAG‟s activities in the implementation of strategy, scientifically linked to the portfolio analysis activities (intervention areas and measures that compound the Local Development Strategy of some LEADER entities of the Arad County. The evaluation used outcome indicators for implementation of the Strategy.
Kim, Chang Gyu; Kang, Jong Gyu; Han, H.; Han, J. S.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, S. R.; Kang, D. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Yun, S. H.
In this development, we designed a integrated database for efficient data processing of radiation-environment data and developed the CLEAN (Computerized Local and overall country's Environmental data Analysis Network) system. The CLEAN system consists of local radiation-environment network, data analysis system, data open system. We developed the CLEAN system focused on building an integrated database, a data mart, and a CLEAN web site. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically, can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation
The book contains academic reflections on the relationship between governance, local economic development, poverty and social inclusion. The wide array of empirical material presented and the different perspectives on local development are balanced by the convergence in the contributors' analysis...... of the root-causes at the basis of conflicts on decision-making power devolution and on the pressures exerted by dominant neo-liberal thinking on development policies. As a result, concepts such as "good governance" or "participation" have acquired a hegemonic status among international development donors...
Jae Eon Yu
Full Text Available This paper discusses systems thinking development from Churchman’s systems ideas related to critical systems practice that appreciates the use of systems methods from sociolinguistic perspectives and poststructuralist thought. Systems research enabled us to understand and reinterpret Churchman’s philosophy and systems approach through the works of Deleuze and Foucault. Based upon the interpretation of Churchman’s philosophy and systems approach, I propose ‘process-oriented systems research’ developed from the use of social appreciative process and Churchman’s metasystem approach. By applying a metasystem approach into practice, I basically appreciate Deleuzian ethics and Foucault’s theory of discourse in order to deal with issues of power and knowledge, and metaethics or moral epistemology, where the meaning of good or bad is discussed. A detailed account of an application of process-oriented systems research is given to demonstrate how I use systems methods to examine the usefulness of the systems research in practice.
Chamarrita Farkas Klein
Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.
The supply and demand for electric power in Quebec are reviewed and forecasts of future demand are established, using various scenarios of demographic, economic, and energy development. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. In addition, objectives and strategies are presented for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 36 figs., 54 tabs
Full Text Available Research paradigms are only starting to emerge in relation to art and design practice. Consequently, research design in this domain often employs perspectives and methods developed in other disciplines. This paper traces the development of a proposal that combines theories from cognitive linguistics with graphic design practice. It describes the resulting challenges to and transformations of my long-held assumptions and understanding about graphic design and the communication process. It also outlines the way in which semantic analysis (a method from cognitive linguistics will be used in conjunction with different forms of visualisation--with visualisation used as a method to generate data for analysis as well as to present findings. Finally, it argues for an engagement by designers with conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual blending theory, as a way to facilitate reflection on design practice.
Creach, Morgane; Mathy, Sandrine; Moussa Na Abou, Mamouda; Nanasta, Djimingue; Angerand, Sylvain; Faraco, Benoit; Chetaille, Anne
After a presentation of the 'Climate and Development' international network, the first part of this report discusses how equity is at the heart of the definition of future commitments to reduce emissions (discussion of the possibility of a contribution from all countries to avoid global warming, comments on the Bali mandate, discussion of the different meaning and implications of equity). The second part discusses a specific stake with respect to climate: combating deforestation and forest degradation (overview of what is at stake, question of REDD financing - REDD stands for Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, reinforcement of public policies and governance to implement REDD policies). The third part discusses the issue of adaptation: limited significance given to adaptation until now, description of the framework of negotiations on adaptation in the Bali mandate and in the Nairobi work programme, overview of proposals from the states, recommendations by the Climate Development network). The fourth chapter highlights the extreme importance of technology transfer: overview of technologies needed for emission reduction and for adaptation, provisions of the convention and protocol on this issue, overview of what must be done. The last chapter outlines financing reduction and adaptation as a key stake for the post-2012 agreement: overview of the financial stakes (mechanisms, current state of finances), finance needs for mitigation and technology transfer, to combat deforestation, to support adaptation to the impacts of climate change, proposals made by different countries
Stockert, Juan Carlos; Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso
The critical involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both physiological and pathological processes in cell biology makes their detection and assessment a fundamental topic in biomedical research. Established methodologies to study ROS in cell biology take advantage of oxidation reactions...... is proved in a photodynamic model of ROS generation, the principle is applicable to many different scenarios of intracellular ROS production. As a consequence this proposed methodology should greatly complement other techniques aiming at establishing a precise subcellular localization of ROS generation....... between the ROS and a reduced probe. After reacting the probe reveals the presence of ROS either by the appearance of colour (chromogenic reaction) or fluorescence (fluorogenic reaction). However current methodologies rarely allow for a site-specific detection of ROS production. Here we propose...
Nguyen, Thanh C.; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wargo, Chris A.; Kocin, Michael J.; Garcia, Manuel L.
Accurate knowledge and understanding of data link traffic loads that will have an impact on the underlying communications infrastructure within the National Airspace System (NAS) is of paramount importance for planning, development and fielding of future airborne and ground-based communications systems. Attempting to better understand this impact, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), through its contractor Computer Networks & Software, Inc. (CNS, Inc.), has developed an emulation and test facility known as the Virtual Aircraft and Controller (VAC) to study data link interactions and the capacity of the NAS to support Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) traffic. The drawback of the current VAC test bed is that it does not allow the test personnel and researchers to present a real world RF environment to a complex airborne or ground system. Fortunately, the United States Air Force and Navy Avionics Test Commands, through its contractor ViaSat, Inc., have developed the Joint Communications Simulator (JCS) to provide communications band test and simulation capability for the RF spectrum through 18 GHz including Communications, Navigation, and Identification and Surveillance functions. In this paper, we are proposing the development of a new and robust test bed that will leverage on the existing NASA GRC's VAC and the Air Force and Navy Commands JCS systems capabilities and functionalities. The proposed NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeronautical Networks Research Simulator (ANRS) will combine current Air Traffic Control applications and physical RF stimulation into an integrated system capable of emulating data transmission behaviors including propagation delay, physical protocol delay, transmission failure and channel interference. The ANRS will provide a simulation/stimulation tool and test bed environment that allow the researcher to predict the performance of various aeronautical network protocol standards and their associated waveforms under varying
O. Y. Bobrovska
Full Text Available Ongoing decentralization of power in Ukraine enhances abilities of each region to independently choose their development path and use their own resources. It requires reviewing and updating of mechanisms and instruments of local government and public administration projected to increase the sustainability of development. This necessitates further research of issues of this extremely complex phenomenon. The problem of sustainable development of the regions and their internal capacities over the past decades has attracted the attention of many Ukrainian scientists. They considered the question of the essence and characteristics of this phenomenon, categorical apparatus, and formed approaches to the assessment of the state etc. Existing scientific researchers provided an opportunity for better understanding and deepening of the issues of processes of development formation, becoming the basis for further research. The purpose of the article is the definition of the potential of local governments in the sustainable development of the region, finding approaches for improving management and rational use of resources to enhance the regional development. Development of regions is the scope of display of results and public nature of local self-government. However, the results which are achieved by regional development and its level of sustainability do not meet the needs of society. The results of ongoing reforms, their economic, environmental and social significance do not correspond to spent resources and efforts of society. Strategies of regions for the transition to sustainable development are not systematic. To search for answers and ways to address the issues of the article attempts to identify common root causes in the organization of local government, the underlying increase its impact in the direction of creating conditions and ensure the flow of sustainable regional development through research and their potential influential factors. It is
Public local tax management in Spain: some solidarity proposals for welfare state to the global crisis / La gestión tributaria local en España: algunas propuestas solidarias del estado del bienestar ante la crisis global
Irene Belmonte Martín
Full Text Available Local government is a basic mainstay for democratic Welfare States based on principle of maximum closeness to the citizen (subsidiarity. However, municipalities are faced with many problems to make this challenge, including precisely its limited financial capacity and infra municipalism. Therefore, they had to devise new ways to maximize administrative efficiency of tax administration and collection. Following the literature on models of local public service delivery, local tax management provision would be: direct supply by the local administration, delivery through special purpose bodies dependent on the local government, and outsourcing. These formulas, incorporating elements of both the New Public Management (NPM and governance, have been reflected in various models ranging from inter administrative cooperation and supra local organizing skills. The aim of the study is to analyze these formulas for the sake of the principles of Solidarity, Equity and Redistribution. In this sense, municipalities have to maximize tax revenue for effective development of their social policies in the mode of Welfare States increasingly uncertain.
Biomass is a high-potential energy source whose development has been one of the primary objectives of the debate over the environment in France. Among the projects emerging today, we highlight two types of logics: large-scale projects such as electrical power or biofuel production plants, and smaller, local initiatives launched in rural areas. This paper lays down and illustrates the bases for the Agri-Territorial Energy System (ATES). This was inspired by Local Productive Systems and Localized Agri-food Systems, and the concept was set up on the basis of analyses of local projects involving biomass energy production. The ATES option offers strong local rooting and an organizational innovation process linking multi-stake holders. The concept is illustrated by two case studies: the Miscanthus project in Ammerzwiller (Alsace), and the Bois Bocage energy project in Orne (Basse-Normandie). These examples bring up an important point, namely the multifunctional dimension of the ATES concept
Kharuk Kateryna B.
Full Text Available The article determines the peculiarities of formation and development of the labor potential in the process of the reforming local self-government in Ukraine. It has been found that an integration of population, the system of economic entities, infrastructure units, scientific-technical potential allows to determine the need for modern spatial forms of concentration of labor potential, i.e. for consolidated territorial communities. With the purpose of formation and development of labor potential, considering impacts of the reform of local self-government in Ukraine, the following activities has been proposed to be carried out: improving the living standards of rural residents, creation of productive jobs, socio-economic cooperation between communities, infrastructure development, use of natural resources, socio-labor, agricultural and industrial capacities, effective use of rural socio-labour potential, development of agricultural production, rural non-farm activities, development of social infrastructure, creation of advisory service and introduction of a system of continuous education, development of family medicine, collaboration with regional and central authorities, involvement of the regional budget funds, establishment of a fund for economic development, cooperation with domestic and foreign investors. It has been determined that the introduction of the above measures will affect the increase in employment within the consolidated territorial communities.
Li, Suzanne C; Torok, Kathryn S; Pope, Elena; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hong, Sandy; Jacobe, Heidi T; Rabinovich, C Egla; Laxer, Ronald M; Higgins, Gloria C; Ferguson, Polly J; Lasky, Andrew; Baszis, Kevin; Becker, Mara; Campillo, Sarah; Cartwright, Victoria; Cidon, Michael; Inman, Christi J; Jerath, Rita; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Vora, Sheetal; Zeft, Andrew; Wallace, Carol A; Ilowite, Norman T; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C
Juvenile localized scleroderma (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with substantial morbidity and disability. Although a wide range of therapeutic strategies has been reported in the literature, a lack of agreement on treatment specifics and accepted methods for clinical assessment has made it difficult to compare approaches and identify optimal therapy. Our objective was to develop standardized treatment plans, clinical assessments, and response criteria for active, moderate to high severity juvenile LS. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, dermatologists, and a lay advisor was engaged by the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) to develop standardized treatment plans and assessment parameters for juvenile LS using consensus methods/nominal group techniques. Recommendations were validated in 2 face-to-face conferences with a larger group of practitioners with expertise in juvenile LS and with the full membership of CARRA, which encompasses the majority of pediatric rheumatologists in the US and Canada. Consensus was achieved on standardized treatment plans that reflect the prevailing treatment practices of CARRA members. Standardized clinical assessment methods and provisional treatment response criteria were also developed. Greater than 90% of pediatric rheumatologists responding to a survey (66% of CARRA membership) affirmed the final recommendations and agreed to utilize these consensus plans to treat patients with juvenile LS. Using consensus methodology, we have developed standardized treatment plans and assessment methods for juvenile LS. The high level of support among pediatric rheumatologists will support future comparative effectiveness studies and enable the development of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of juvenile LS. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Sarda, Stéphanie; Errassifi, Farid; Marsan, Olivier; Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine; Drouet, Christophe
This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.
Sarda, Stéphanie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Errassifi, Farid [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Marsan, Olivier [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France); Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine [Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMS006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); INSERM-UPS, UMS 006, Laboratoire Central de Biologie Médicale, Toulouse (France); Drouet, Christophe [CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)
This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • Interaction of tranexamic acid (TAX)/hydroxyapatite was studied. • The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir–Freundlich equation. • The release of TAX, fast during the first hours, was governed by a complex process. • Preliminary aPTT hemostasis tests show promising results. • The aim is to develop biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field investigation about sustainable development of Samani town—a rural area in Hidaka region, Hokkaido, Japan. Local activities, business, environmental, social and economic challenges that affect the town as well as the advantages were investigated. The research was done by means of field visits, questionnaires and interviews involving the local people and government. The main economic sectors: olivine industry, fishery, agriculture and tourism were targeted as well as the government sector and the local high school with a particular focus on rural-urban migration. Samani has quite unique natural features on hand but a few strong comprehensive challenges on the other hand. The authors focused on the citizens opinions and positions which were based on the uniqueness of Samani and their own local activities and initiatives for the sustainable development of the town in the future which can be replicated in other rural communities around the world.
Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.
Abadi, M. K.; Asih, E. C. M.; Jupri, A.
Learning materials used by students and schools in Serang district are lacking because they do not contain local wisdom content. The aim of this study is to improve the deficiencies in learning materials used by students by making interactive materials based on local wisdom content with format .swf. The method in this research is research and development (RnD) with ADDIE model. In making this interactive learning materials in accordance with the stages of the ADDIE study. The results of this study include interactive learning materials based on local wisdom. This learning material is suitable for digital students.
Beaudoin, A.J. Jr.; Mecking, H.; Kocks, U.F.
A finite element formulation which derives constitutive response from crystal plasticity theory is used to examine localized deformation in fcc polycrystals. The polycrystals are simple, idealized arrangements of grains. Localized deformations within individual grains lead to the development of domains that are separated by boundaries of high misorientation. Shear banding is seen to occur on a microscopic scale of grain dimensions. The important consequences of these simulations are that the predicted local inhomogeneities are meeting various requirements which make them possible nucleation sites for recrystallization
Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.
A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC
Chalor Yaekkhoksung; Songkoon Chantachon; Prasopsuk Ritthidet
Problem statement: Arts and craft were important for economics and society of northeastern people in Thailand: For all that, local wisdom to make ironware lack interest from society. This research aimed to an applied using local wisdom to make ironware for community economic development. Approach: Research method was a qualitative research which studied populations who lived in 5 provinces: Khai village, Chaiyaphum; Pai village, Buriram province; Muang Wan village, Khonkaen province; Phon vil...
Puse, Judeza S.; Awata, Takaaki; Atobe, Kozo
The role of education all over the world is becoming more and more significant and requires an in depth study since the life of the people is advanced, expanded and complicated. Educators are once again asked to address problems which have arisen within their own society. Thus, the search for ways to improve quality of education is global especially in line with nuclear science and technology. One area of focus is that managing and promoting learning inside the classroom, how teacher's utilized instructional materials were such an issue. Indeed, qualifications and resources are not the only factors that influence teachers' effectiveness, equally important are teachers' motivation, commitment, resourcefulness, innovativeness and creativeness in dealing with instructional materials. Lack of these things will produce poor attendance and unprofessional attitudes towards students. This paper aims to present a proposal on the use of innovative teaching device from the sample photographs as a result of the experiment taken at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) where samples were treated with gamma rays from a radioactive source 60 Co and lately exposed to photographic giving rise to understanding of photons emitted by radioactive material in a form of electromagnetic waves and later converted into visible light in a more authentic and simplified manners. As a consequent, this proposal was made to enhance teaching and encourage science teachers to exert great effort to develop instructional materials specifically in this area that requires the concretization of concepts which could not be detected by human senses. (author)
Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G
SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed
Owens, Taya L.; Lane, Jason E.
In this chapter, the authors explore various types of cross-border higher education, considering equity and quality issues within these developments. With a particular focus on international branch campuses, the authors discuss the ways in which global competition for knowledge and economic development interact with tensions at the local level.
Toharudin, Uus; Kurniawan, Iwan Setia
Development assessment and remedial needs to be done because it is an important part of a learning process. This study aimed to describe the ability of student teachers of biology in developing assessment and remedial based on local wisdom. using a quasi-experimental research methods with quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. The research…
Rahmatullah, S. N.; Sulaiman, A.; Askalani; Azizi, N. M. K.
Development production of Indonesia local cattle didn’t balance increasing of consumption livestock in Indonesian so that’s makes imports are still high both local beef production. Indonesian local cattle is one of cattle the largest contributed the national meat production of ruminant particular group of cattle so that the livestock has the potential to be developed as a profitable business if doing of farmer. One of advantages is potential areas in South Kalimantan mainly swamp lands was very large. It’s one effort in national promoting food sovereignty programme and the provinces especially about introduction of Indonesian local cattle in the swamp area are also important. Availability of region in South Kalimantan spacious and great forage production, then prospects for cattle productivity there is huge so that’s can even increase income for farmers. The programme more serious support from the governance of South Kalimantan province to develop Indonesian local cattle in swamp area and in that’s a real policy for encouraging farmers to maintain Indonesian local cattle to make sustainable food in Indonesia.
Sabin, Andrew; Blake, Kelly; Lazaro, Mike; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; McCullough, Jess; DeOreo, S.B.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kaven, Joern; Williams, Colin F.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Siler, Drew; Robertson-Tait, Ann
The proposed West Flank FORGE site is within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake, CA. The West Flank is west of the Coso geothermal field, an area of China Lake NAWS dominated by the Quaternary Coso volcanic field largely comprised of rhyolite domes and their volcaniclastic and epiclastic horizons. The largest dome flow complex, Sugarloaf Mountain, marks the northwestern margin of the geothermal field. The West Flank is situated due west of Sugarloaf. The geologic setting of the West Flank was determined from one deep well (83-11) drilled as a potential production hole in 2009. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) of well 83-11 approaches 600 oF (315˚C), but flow tests demonstrate very low, non-commercial permeabilities. With the exception of the upper 600 feet of volcaniclastic alluvium, well 83-11 is completed in granitic basement. The West Flank possesses the primary attributes of a FORGE site: non-commercial permeability (geothermal fieldThe Coso Mountains host the Coso volcanic field and are within a right-releasing stepover between the dextral Airport Lake (ALF) and Little Lake fault zones (LLFZ) and the Wild Horse Mesa and Owens Valley faults. Two distinct fault populations have been identified at Coso: WNW-trending and antithetical, NE-trending strike-slip faults and N- to NNE-trending normal faults. These faults are both high permeability drilling targets at depth within the main (productive) geothermal field and they locally segment the field into distinct hydrothermal regimes. The West Flank may be segmented from the rest of the field by one such northerly trending fault. The overall minimum principal stress orientation in the main geothermal field varies from 103˚ to 108˚; however, the minimum horizontal principal stress in 83-11 is rotated to 081˚.
José Emilio Sánchez-García
Full Text Available The first massive open online courses cMOOC lacked an instructional design and have now shifted to models that have an instructional design called xMOOC. This document makes a proposal instructional design for MOOC using the simplified adaptive method SAM inspired by the theory development and strategy of Mastery Learning as part of the research method based on the design of the qualitative paradigm. The results explain and justify the procedure used for the preparation of instructional design. The conclusion that has been reached is that both SAM and strategy Mastery Learning has allowed the instructional design for MOOC easily with emphasis in practice but supported with theoretical, personalized basis by tracking post and considering the learning strategy for the domain.
Chistiansen, J (CERN)
This proposal describes a new RD collaboration to develop the next genrration of hybrid pixel readout chips for use in ATLAS and CMS PHase 2 upgrades. extrapolation of hybrid pixel technology to the HL-LHC presents major challenges on several fronts. Challenges include: smaller pixels to resolve tracks in boosted jets, much higher hit rates (1-2 GHz/cm2 ), unprecedented radiation tolerance (10 MGy), much higher output bandwidth, and large IC format with low power consumption in order to instrument large areas while keeping the material budget low. This collaboration is specifically focused on design of hybrid pixel readout chips, and not on more general chip design or on other aspects of hybrid pixel technology. Participants include 7 institutes on ATLAS and 7 on CMS, plus 2 on both experiments.
Naybi Salas Vargas
Full Text Available Nowadays the resources administration is a problem to be solved, and is remarkable the universities role to orient knowledge to the expected local development. With the communion of the university and the main decisors at local and territorial contexts, it is evident the development of alternatives that diminish existing breaches in the known projects management Anytime the projects development context is diverse and multicultural, all the knowledge elements that provide new forms are useful experiences without point out unique recipees. The development dynamic evolution in the territories continues being an urgency for human survival.The projects management, notable in international cooperation actions as the international dimension of the extensionist activity and in the science contributions, are reduced in their foccus to the promotion of local development, what points out the need to orient the universitary processes to the territorial development of the province, in particular the projects management. The objective of this work is to offer a guidance of foundations that allow to orient the management of universtary projects to local development.
Full Text Available The object of this article is to analyze and asses the legal and economic consequences arising from the adoption (or change of a local spatial development plan. The paper also presents, based on the example of the rural commune of Tomice in the Malopolska Province of Poland, how to estimate income to the commune budget from the collected planning fees. The analyses are based on planning studies, including the local spatial development plan from 2004, and the study of conditions and directions of spatial development from 2012. The council of Tomice Commune adopted the local spatial plan due to the increasing demand for residential areas. According to the plan, over 930 acres of land have been allocated for investment purposes, which is approx. 22.4% of the total area of 4,155 ha. The local plan was developed for all the six cadastral units of the commune, with one hundred percent surface coverage. The physiographic conditions and the location of Tomice Commune encourage the settlement of the urban population (from Wadowice or Krakow, which entails the need for housing investment areas. In 2012, the Tomice Commune adopted a change in the study of conditions and directions of spatial development. The proposed re-zoning of the area is in line with the policy of transitioning from an agricultural character towards the sustainable and multifunctional development of the commune. It is worth noting that the provisions of the plan of 2004 take into account the collection of a one-time fee for the sale of real estate whose value has increased as a result of the adoption of the plan. The amount of this fee for investment areas was set at the level of 30% of the increase in value, in accordance with the provisions of the Polish Act on Spatial Planning and Management. Due to the fact that the currently valid local plan has been in effect for 10 years, it can be assumed that the commune will proceed to make some changes to it. The article estimates the
Mohd Bakri Norjanah
Full Text Available The Langkawi Island is a popular tourist destination in Malaysia, which development started in the 1990s. To date, it is among the ten islands most visited by local and foreign tourists. The development of Langkawi Island has influenced the economic structure of local community, of which, envisaged as a symbol to help the community especially in the changing economic environment due to its ability to generate income, employment and raise living standards. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the local community’s involvement and perceptions on changes in employment pattern and incomes stimulated by the tourism development in Langkawi. This study conducted a self-administered household survey and had successfully retrieved 398 respondents. From the findings, results showed that local community experienced employment opportunities which in return contributed to an increase in household income. It is therefore, notable investment on tourism development should be of interests to the government as this helps in ensuring the local community’s economic benefits.
Jeon, Yu Mi; Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan
The pressure drop characteristics for a fuel channel are essential for the design and reliable operation of a nuclear reactor. Over several decades, analytical methods have been developed to predict the friction factor in the fuel bundle flows. In order to enhance the accuracy of prediction for the pressure drop in a rod bundle, the influences of a channel wall and the local shear stress distribution should be considered. Hence, the correlation equation for a local shear stress distribution should be developed in order to secure an analytical solution for the friction factor of a rod bundle. For a side subchannel, which has the influence of the channel wall, the local shear stress distribution is dependent on the ratio of wall to diameter (W/D) as well as the ratio of pitch to diameter (P/D). In the case that W/D has the same value with P/D, the local shear stress distribution can be simply correlated with the function of angular position for each value of P/D. While, in the case that W/D has the different value with P/D, the correlation equation should be developed for each case of P/D and W/D. Hence, in the present study, the generalized correlation equation of a local shear stress distribution is developed for a side subchannel in the case that W/D has the different value with P/D
Andy Constantin Leoveanu
Full Text Available Agenda 21, UN initiative was adopted for the first time in Rio de Janeiro Summit in 1992, promoting the concept of sustainable development at local level. After ten years, in Johannesburg in 2002, the second World Summit stated that Agenda 21 “represented the main instrument in view to reach the welfare status of the population at world level”. Local Agenda 21 is implemented by local authorities and it promotes public participation, a genuine balance between the economic growth, social equity and environment protection. The concept of sustainable development involves a constant re-evaluation of the relationship human being - nature, solidarity between generations, as the only viable option for ensuring a development model on long term. In this respect, economic policies should be drawn up, in view to try to organise the adequate management of human being and natural resources instead of placing the biosphere under the constraints provided by the logic of immediate profit. The current paper aims to approach theoretically and pragmatically the topic of Local Agenda 21, as a model of systemic analysis. The paper will approach the core concepts which are shaping the general framework for accomplishing sustainable development and at the same time the paper will present the implementation of Local Agenda 21 in Romania.
Full Text Available Within the huge literature on local development policies produced across different disciplines, comparatively little attention has been paid to an important element as relevant as economic, financial and social capital: the cognitive element, needed in strategic thinking and complexity management, the “collective brain” guiding the decision-making process. In this paper, we investigate what we consider a direct “proxy” for this variable, which is supposed to incorporate that “usable knowledge” assisting those making policy choices: language. Language shapes the way problems are conceived, fixes priorities and delimits the range of strategic options. More specifically, our research question inquires which contextual factors are at stake in local development strategy design. The case studies were chosen among the pilot areas included in the Italian “National Strategy for Inner Areas”. Through a multidimensional content analysis of the plan documents available online, we explored the ways in which development strategies are locally interpreted. The techniques we used allowed us to make a comparative analysis, testing three effects that could have influenced local policy design: a geographical effect, a concept/policy transfer effect, and a framing effect. Broader, interesting reflections were drawn from research findings on the local embedded ability to designing consistent and effective development strategies.
Palmisano, Giovanni Ottomano; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan; Boggia, Antonio
Local Action Groups in order to promote the objectives of Rural Sustainable Development within rural municipalities. Each Local Action Group applies the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis in order to identify for its own rural municipalities the strategic elements to which...... and a Weakness factors and decision alternatives, as well as impossibility of ranking the decision alternatives. Thus, this research aims to overcome the drawbacks of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis and to support Local Action Group partnerships in the sustainability evaluation...... of their rural municipalities, and therefore to aid the identification of a common Rural Sustainable Development strategy to allocate the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development budget. This decision problem was tackled by applying a Multiple Criteria Spatial Decision Support System that integrates...
Full Text Available In this paper is a detailed analysis of the basics in the theory of economic development during the period from mid last century until today. It states the most significant theories, points out their ranges, offers a critical review regarding their treatment of development, especially regional, rural and local one. It observes those theories according to different classifications existing in scientific literature, primarily the ascend theory, stagnation theory, balanced economic growth theory; then, short-term and long-term development and growth theories; traditional and endogenous theories; economic growth stages theory emphasized after the WWII; structural changes theory; dependency theory, neo-classic counter-revolution theory and endogenous theory as a new growth theory. The analysis becomes wider with a study on development in regional economy theories and rural studies and it systematizes the classification of those theories according to regional economy academics. Distancing ourselves from any particular division as the most suitable and acceptable one, the theories are treated separately and in an historic context, in order to encircle the time framework which from modern theories, dealing with local level development difficulties, resulted. It asserts The Community-led Rural Development Theory, often referred to as the Community Development Theory, or marked as Bottom-up Partnership Approach. The analysis of development theories asserts that mixed exogenous - endogenous approach to development links the rural/local development to the globalization process mostly due to fast technology changes of the IT and communication sectors.
Aishlin, P. S.; Selker, J. S.
Climate change understanding and impacts vary by community, yet the global nature of climate change requires international collaboration to address education, monitoring, adaptation and mitigation needs. We propose that effective climate change monitoring and education can be accomplished via student-led local and international community partnerships. By empowering students as community leaders in climate-environmental monitoring and education, as well as exploration of adaptation/mitigation needs, well-informed communities and young leadership are developed to support climate change science moving forward. Piloted 2013-2015, the SLICEIT1 program partnered with TAHMO2 to connect student leaders in North America, Europe and Africa. At the international level, schools in the U.S.A and Netherlands were partnered with schools in Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda for science and cultural exchange. Each school was equipped with a climate or other environmental sensing system, real-time data publication and curricula for both formal and informal science, technology, engineering and math education and skill development. African counterparts in TAHMO's School-2-School program collect critically important data for enhanced on-the-ground monitoring of weather conditions in data-scarce regions of Africa. In Idaho, student designed, constructed and installed weather stations provide real time data for classroom and community use. Student-designed formal educational activities are disseminated to project partners, increasing hands-on technology education and peer-based learning. At the local level, schools are partnered with a local agency, research institute, nonprofit organization, industry and/or community partner that supplies a climate science expert mentor to SLICEIT program leaders and teachers. Mentor engagement is facilitated and secured by program components that directly benefit the mentor's organization and local community via climate/environment monitoring, student workforce
Full Text Available Malaysia is a fast growing developing country and its vision is becoming a developed country with a first class infrastructure. Towards this vision, the assets and facilities were developed, owned or leased by public sector especially buildings, constructions and infrastructures to fulfill administrative and social needs as well as economic responsibilities to general public. In Malaysia, public asset and facilities is owned by three major levels of government, which are the federal government, state government and the local government also known as local authority. Between these three forms of government, Local Authorities hold a large number of facilities that place demands on resources. They have a responsibility to use and maintain a wide range of property assets including classified and heritage buildings, single purpose facilities and state of the art multipurpose facilities. Over the years, the local authorities in Malaysia currently have been soundly criticized by public caused poor maintenance culture. The assets especially public buildings and infrastructures are not maintained properly. Thus, developing the maintenance culture is essential to increase the awareness about maintenance activity on public facilities and assets in Malaysian Local Authorities. Regarding this scenario, the purpose of this study is to determine the determinant factors affecting development of maintenance culture identified based on the review of previous research. As a guide to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the significance of ten determinant factors identified in the research study and their related affecting to development of maintenance culture in local authority as a respondent in this research. The collected data was then analyzed using quantitative approaches such as mean analysis, relative important index as well as others.
Full Text Available This article is an investigation of the theoretical and empirical concept of local participation, as it is used in the field of development-induced forced displacement and relocation (in short, DFDR. Local participation has repeatedly proved to be relevant with respect to the decrease of the negative impacts caused by DFDR on the people involved. Paradoxically, people who contribute to this process with their very culture and means of existence - including their land - often end up in chronic poverty, despite their participation in local decision-making. It appears that this concept, which was developed precisely in order to protect persons affected by poverty and supporting them in their attempt to overcome this poverty, contributes nevertheless to the destruction of their local culture, which shows signs of "inside cracking".Hence the necessity to answer two questions: is the concept of local participation deceitful or is it used erroneously? Do we need to reinterpret and rethink the way the project is conceived, planned and executed, taking into account its crucial elements with respect to risks and compensations? This approach seems to me to constitute a way to overcome blockages and avoid considering negotiations as an inflexible, univocal, hierarchical relation between two parties blocked into anasymmetrical power game without any possibility to escape from it. I have used the example of the hydroelectric dam project in Zimapán, Mexico, as a starting point for an ethnographic discussion of local participation2.
Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie
Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.
Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki
This study explores the motivation of domestic and international interregional collaboration on climate change mitigation through carbon crediting by Japanese local governments, using a social survey. The study finds balanced collaboration with domestic partner regions and developing countries is preferred in the case of collaboration, given that the unit cost of collaboration is assumed lower than that of no collaboration. Appreciation of benefits such as technology transfer and local environmental improvement in developing countries increases the preference of collaboration with developing countries. Two factors hinder Japanese local governments' collaboration with developing countries from the perspective of citizens: a sense of environmental responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the city and a preference for domestic orientation even if the collaboration with developing countries is less costly and has benefits of technology transfer and local environmental improvement. The preference for a lower total cost of GHG emissions reductions is confirmed except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. The study also finds that provision of information on mitigation projects and co-benefits would increase the preference for interregional collaboration with developing countries depending on the types of collaborative project, except for those with a sense of environmental responsibility. - Highlights: → We surveyed views of Japanese citizens on interregional/international cooperation of their cities for GHG reduction. → Sense of environmental responsibility is negatively correlated with the needs for cooperation. → Information on co-benefits of collaboration would strengthen preference for cooperation.
Full Text Available The study explores local food as a marketing opportunity for small food producers and identifies barriers to development. Research was conducted primarily through depth interviews, supplemented by a survey of food marketing group members in North-West England. The results of this local study were consistent with national survey data showing increasing consumer interest in food provenance, traceability and support for the local economy. Lack of an official and recognised definition of the term "local food" hindered marketing. Restricted access to finance and the burden of regulations were identified as barriers. Further, small business success was subjective and difficult to identify, since goals may be based on sustaining a lifestyle rather than profit.
The INEL Lead Management Project (LMP) performed an investigation of the origin of lead used as shielding at the INEL and developed radiological profile information that was then used to establish a baseline for the DOE ''no-rad-added'' standard. Primary findings of the investigation include the following: (a) Much of the lead at the INEL was obtained from a DOE lead bank; (b) Lead inventory at the DOE lead bank was derived primarily from recycled sources and was most likely in the form of pure lead; (c) Secondary lead (lead from recycled sources), available in today's market, is expected to have radiological characteristics similar to those of the DOE lead bank; (d) Highly sensitive radiological testing of 20 samples of lead from secondary sources revealed the lead to be radiologically pristine. Beta-, gamma-, and alpha-emitting radionuclide concentrations were all found to be less than detectable, except for a very small quantity of lead-210 (an alpha emitter), which is a naturally occurring isotope of lead. Based on the pristine nature of lead, a proposed free release criterion for lead was developed based on a statistical null hypothesis approach. The free release criterion compares the natural background count of a clean lead standard with the natural background count of a sample. When the sample background count cannot be distinguished as different from the standard background count at the 95% confidence level, then the sample is considered radiologically clean
The dry oxidation-reduction process (called OREOX for Oxidation Reduction of Oxide Fuel) being developed by Korea and Canada, in cooperation with IAEA and the US State Department, is limited to recycle of spent LWR fuel into CANDU reactors (DUPIC). When first conceived and demonstrated via irradiation of test elements by Atomics International in 1965, (the process was called AIROX at that time) a wider range of applications was intended, including recycle of spent LWR fuel into LWRs. Studies sponsored by DOE's Idaho Office in 1992 confirmed the applicability of this technology to regions containing LWR's only, and described the potential advantages of such recycle from an environmental, waste management and economic point of view, as compared to the direct disposal option. Recent analyses conducted by the author indicates that such dry recycle may be one of the few acceptable paths remaining for resolution of the US spent fuel storage dilemma that remains consistent with US non-proliferation policy. It is proposed that a new US program be established to develop AIROX dry recycle for use in the US, and this become part of an international cooperative program, including the current Canadian - Korean program, and possibly including participation of other countries wishing to pursue alternatives to the once through cycle, and wet reprocessing. With shared funding of major project elements, such international cooperation would accelerate the demonstration and commercial deployment of dry recycle technology, as compared to separate and independent programs in each country. (author)
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.
Jhon Alejandro Boza Valle; Elsye Teresa Cobo Litardo; Fidelina Castillo Morales
The main objective of the present article is to show the roll the university should play in the context of Popular and Solidarity Economy for local development in Ecuador. It is based on w hat has been happing in Latin America, particularly Ecuadorian University and Rafael Correa ́s speeches about the problem to come to conclusions about what ha s to be done to get a local development. It also offers a definition about Popular and Solidarity E conomy with its acronym in Spanish.
Jhon Alejandro Boza Valle
Full Text Available The main objective of the present article is to show the roll the university should play in the context of Popular and Solidarity Economy for local development in Ecuador. It is based on w hat has been happing in Latin America, particularly Ecuadorian University and Rafael Correa ́s speeches about the problem to come to conclusions about what ha s to be done to get a local development. It also offers a definition about Popular and Solidarity E conomy with its acronym in Spanish.
Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of short food supply chains for the development of rural areas in Romania, considering the increasing demand of the population for healthy food. A proper functionality of these local food supply chains brings benefits to producers, consumers and the local community, but some issues must be solved. This article presents the results of a qualitative marketing research study conducted for identifying the difficulties in this sector. The study aimed to identify the small producers’ opinions on the barriers to the development of these supply chains and how they could be helped to sell their products at a fair price.
T. M. Tarasenko
Full Text Available The essence of discretionary powers of authorities and officials of local government has been developed, and possible dangers associated with their implementation in the context of the local government development in Ukraine have been outlined. The study attempts to specify the nature of these powers with due regard to the specific features of local government and outline approaches for improving the regulation of relations in the exercise of discretionary powers. The need for further researches in this area in the field of public administration, in particular, regarding the practiceoriented research support to activities of authorities and officials of local government in this area, has been substantiated. The article focuses on the importance of not only reducing the number of discretionary powers, but also ensuring the proper monitoring of the exercise of such powers on the basis of law, justice, and expediency. The article emphasizes the need to strengthen accountability of authorities and officials of local government, including the social and political accountability and development of practices of public control over the decisionmaking in the field of local government. The research results confirm the relevance of an issue of the formation of competence of officials on the matters of the exercise of discretionary powers. It is recommended to develop the techniques of making decisions or actions during the implementation of discretionary powers as methodological support. This methodology is based on the requirements of the Administrative Court Procedure Code of Ukraine and existing methodologies with anticorruption expertise. It has been noted that discretionary powers of authorities and officials of local government make it possible to increase the level of their freedom in the activities concerning the functions of local government. It gains in particular importance in the absence of decisionmaking opportunities otherwise
The aim of the Rennes colloquium was to present and discuss the proposals made by the French representatives (citizens, associations, companies, local authorities, universities, research institutes etc..) and which were presented at the world summit on sustainable development (Johannesburg, August 26 - September 4, 2002). This document presents, first, a summary of the work carried out by the 'energy' group on: the north-south problem and the need for the development of education plans on sustainable development, the climate change and the shared but differentiated liability, the mastery of consumptions and the development of renewable energy sources. A table summarizes the initiatives proposed by the group: decentralized energy production for the development of rural areas, institutional and financial mechanisms for the sustainable development of the energy efficiency of renewable energy sources, and the energy efficiency and the renewable energies for a sustainable development of urban areas. The second part of this document is the report made by the 'energy' group to the French committee for the summit: energy for the sustainable development and the fight against paucity, biomass as first stake of sustainable energy development for education plans, rural energy for the development, mastery of energy consumptions in urban areas, energy production and transport on networks. A report made by the non-governmental ecological organizations completes the document and presents the possible contribution of the French energy policy to the sustainable development of France. (J.S.)
Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John
Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762
Are E. Kjeang
Full Text Available In Sweden, energy-consulting services, here referred to as local energy advising (LEA, have traditionally contributed to improving household energy efficiency. The aim of this article is to analyze the development of this service from the 1970s, when the consultancy came into being, to the present day, through a review of documents and published literature. The analysis enables the understanding of the evolution of local energy advising as a policy instrument, and provides valuable insights for the future. Local energy advising has often been subsidized by the Swedish government and used as a state policy measure rather than a municipal one. As a policy measure, the function of the service has changed over time. In the early period, the oil crisis was a fact and the local advisers were used to inform households. In the 1980s, however, the task of energy-advising was taken over by the energy companies in the spirit of market liberalization. In the 1990s, Sweden became a member of the European Union, and the emphasis was put on general information campaigns. Recently, the development of decentralized energy systems (including micro-energy systems has necessitated targeting individuals with information. One important lesson to learn from the historical development of LEA is the imperativeness of providing energy advising at the local rather than the state level for better efficiency.
Creative industries existence is inseparable from the underlying social construct which provides sources for creativity and innovation. The working of social capital in a society facilitates information exchange, knowledge transfer and technology acquisition within the industry through social networks. As a result, a socio-spatial divide exists in directing the growth of the creative industries. This paper aims to examine how such a socio-spatial divide contributes to the local creative industry development in Semarang and Kudus batik clusters. Explanatory sequential mixed methods approach covering a quantitative approach followed by a qualitative approach is chosen to understand better the interplay between tangible and intangible variables in the local batik clusters. Surveys on secondary data taken from the government statistics and reports, previous studies, and media exposures are completed in the former approach to identify clustering pattern of the local batik industry and the local embeddedness factors which have shaped the existing business environment. In-depth interviews, content analysis, and field observations are engaged in the latter approach to explore reciprocal relationships between the elements of social capital and the local batik cluster development. The result demonstrates that particular social ties have determined the forms of spatial proximity manifested in forward and backward business linkages. Trust, shared norms, and inherited traditions are the key social capital attributes that lead to such a socio-spatial divide. Therefore, the intermediating roles of the bridging actors are necessary to encouraging cooperation among the participating stakeholders for a better cluster development.
Miguel A. Ibeas
Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants. Little is know about how iron is loaded in embryo during seed development. In this article we used Perls/DAB staining in order to reveal iron localization at the cellular and subcellular levels in different Brassicaceae seed species. In dry seeds of Brassica napus, Nasturtium officinale, Lepidium sativum, Camelina sativa, and Brassica oleracea iron localizes in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in cotyledons and hypocotyl. Using B. napus and N. officinale as model plants we determined where iron localizes during seed development. Our results indicate that iron is not detectable by Perls/DAB staining in heart stage embryo cells. Interestingly, at torpedo development stage iron localizes in nuclei of different cells type, including integument, free cell endosperm and almost all embryo cells. Later, iron is detected in cytoplasmic structures in different embryo cell types. Our results indicate that iron accumulates in nuclei in specific stages of embryo maturation before to be localized in vacuoles of cells surrounding provasculature in mature seeds.
Hadi, S.A.; Chaudhry, A.G.
The study focused on recognizing the local approaches of farming in designing and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changing needs of the societies. The research was carried out in the villages of Ghora Gali and Aruka through qualitative and quantitative methods. Sustainable development in Pakistan thus needs to be reinvented in the local perspective considering approaches and practices and, eradicating the alien chains of development completely. (author)
Rossignoli, Serena; Coticchia, Fabrizio; Mezzasalma, Annarosa
The role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the field of development cooperation has globally increased in last decades. International and regional organizations, as well as states, local governments and NGOs have largely adopted the tools provided by M&E in order to enhance transparency, effectiveness and efficiency. The paper aims at verifying how and to what extent the implementation of M&E systems has affected the overall quality of international cooperation projects financed by a local government. After a literature review on M&E in development cooperation, the research analyzes the wide range of activities (evaluation ex-ante, mid-term, final, monitoring, consultancy) carried out by the Evaluation Team of the XY in the last eight years in behalf of an Italian local government: the Region of Tuscany. The paper reveals the strategic significance of adopting M&E systems in the medium-long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeon, Yu Mi; Park, Ju Hwan
The pressure drop characteristics for a fuel channel are essential for the design and reliable operation of a nuclear reactor. Over several decades, analytical methods have been developed to predict the friction factor in the fuel bundle flows. In order to enhance the accuracy of prediction for the pressure drop in a rod bundle, the influences of a channel wall and the local shear stress distribution should be considered. Therefore, the correlation equation for a local wall shear stress distribution should be developed in order to secure an analytical solution for the friction factor of a rod bundle. For a side subchannel, which has the influence of the channel wall, the local wall shear stress distribution is dependent on the ratio of wall to diameter (W/D) as well as the ratio of pitch to diameter (P/D). In the case that W/D has the same value with P/D, the local shear stress distribution can be simply correlated with the function of angular position for each value of P/D. While in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D, the correlation equation should be developed for each case of P/D and W/D. Therefore, in the present study, the generalized correlation equation of the local wall shear stress distribution was developed for a side subchannel in the case where W/D has a different value than P/D. Consequently, the generalized correlation equation of a local wall shear stress distribution can be represented by the equivalent pitch to diameter ratio, P'/D for the case that P/D and W/D had a different value
Wang Chuanying; Chen Shiqi
U.S. proposed 'Generation IV Nuclear Power System' concept. Its origin and proposed goals for it are analyzed; goals are compared with requirements of URD. In particular, discussed issues on nuclear fuel cycle and Non-proliferation. A well-considered nuclear power development plan, paying close attention to international trend and considering comprehensively domestic situation, is expected
Faulds, James E.; Blankenship, Douglas; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Sabin, Andrew; Nordquist, Josh; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kennedy, Mack; Siler, Drew; Robinson-Tait, Ann; Williams, Colin F.; Drakos, Peter; Calvin, Wendy M.
entire Fallon project. The well data indicate that a sizeable area (~4.5 km2 ) has adequate temperatures in crystalline basement but lacks sufficient permeability within the proposed FORGE site. There are two possible, competent target formations in Mesozoic basement for stimulation in the FORGE project area: 1) Jurassic felsic metavolcanic rocks/and or metaquartzite; and 2) Cretaceous granitic intrusions. These units make up at least 3 km3 in the project area and have target temperatures of ~175-215o C. The abundant well data and detailed geophysical surveys (e.g., gravity, MT, and seismic reflection) provide significant subsurface control for the site and will permit development of a detailed 3D model. The documented temperatures, low permeability, and basement lithologies, as well as abundant available data facilitate development of a site dedicated to testing and improving new EGS technologies and techniques, thus making Fallon an ideal candidate for FORGE.
Raven, R.P.J.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland); Lovio, R. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland); Hodson, M. [Centre for Sustainable Urban and Regional Futures, Manchester (United Kingdom)
This paper examines the tension between the need to maintain diversity and the need to support path creation in the promotion of emerging sustainable technologies. The analysis is framed within the niche development literature and in particular the dynamics of socio-cognitive technology evolution as elaborated elsewhere. This literature offers a framework for analyzing the relation between individual projects in local contexts and the transfer of local experiences into generally applicable rules on the 'global niche level'. We address this question by examining two case studies drawn from a meta-analysis of 22 new energy projects throughout Europe. These two case studies, both pertaining to biogas projects for local municipalities, illustrate the diversity of applications introduced into a generic technology through processes of local variation and selection. We examine the diversity of expectations, and the negotiation and alignment of these expectations, underlying the diversity of local solutions. Moreover, we identify the types of generally applicable rules that the projects produced for the 'global niche level', and suggest that the transfer of lessons from individual local experiments can follow different pathways, but always requires due attention to the social and cultural limits to the transferability of solutions.
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Fauzi, Amin
This research aims to develop a student-centered learning model based on local culture and instrument of mathematical higher order thinking of junior high school students in the frame of the 2013-Curriculum in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The subjects of the research are seventh graders which are taken proportionally random consisted of three public…
Managing relations is a complex task for internationalizing firms and their subsidiaries: MNC subsidiaries are not only part of the MNC network but they also develop relations with network actors in their local environment.This paper investigates conceptually how MNC subsidiaries established through
The development is summarized of passive condensers for accident localization systems at nuclear power plants (with RBMK and WWER reactors) in the former USSR. Basic properties and criteria defining their availability are described, as are experimental tests and technical solution optimization results. (author) 2 fig
The aim of this paper is to analyse the actions of various actors involved in "global human resource development" and to clarify whether discussions on global human resources are based on local perspectives. The results of the analysis are as follows: 1) after the year 2000 began, industry started discussions on global human resources in…
The development of local wisdom based sensitizing reading material is aimed at penetrating one of the imperishable gaps between authentic and non-authentic reading materials dispute in an EFL teaching context. Promoting EFL learners' needs for the first semester students of English department at university level, who rarely or even never have a…
Sampson, K. A.; Johnston, L.; Comer, K.; Brogt, E.
Summative and benchmarking surveys to measure the postgraduate student research experience are well reported in the literature. While useful, we argue that local instruments that provide formative resources with an academic development focus are also required. If higher education institutions are to move beyond the identification of issues and…
Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.
In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it
Can we improve training for health professionals? We explore specific variables that need to be accounted for to achieve sustainable local health development through training. A problem-based approach with appreciation of the need for making changes is suggested as the only authentic basis for training. PMID:28090174
Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte
Today, as Greenland focuses on more economic and cultural autonomy, the continued development of societal infrastructure systems is vital. At the same time, pressure is put on the systems by a lack of financial resources and locally based professional competences as well as new market-based forms...
Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by
Innovation and entrepreneurship have the potential to stimulate economic growth. Yet it remains unclear whether top-down or bottom-up innovations are more likely to lead to local economic development. By looking at three cases of frugal innovation on the Zambian Copperbelt, in the spheres of
Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.
This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…
Brooks, Lara; Whitacre, Brian; Shideler, Dave; Muske, Glenn; Woods, Mike
Small and home-based businesses have long been identified by Extension educators as an important component of economic development, particularly in rural areas. The services available to these businesses can take many forms, including management training, accessibility of local funding, providing incubation facilities, or setting up mentoring…
Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.
The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered
This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.
The study discusses how the
Full Text Available The role of tourism in rural areas is pivotal for the integration and valorization of territorial resources and it is strengthened by the capacity to promote local community participation in processes of development. The paper addresses the issue by presenting and discussing a case study of a rural area of southern Italy where a territorial network for the development of local tourism has been set up. The innovative initiative aimed, firstly, to facilitate a closer connection between production and consumption by reducing transaction costs and, secondly, to connect local production with quality conscious consumers looking for traditional products. The network project also aimed to create conditions conducive to increasing the competitiveness of the local production chain and tourism sector. The case study shows how the challenge for many rural territories lies in increasing levels of trust and rebuilding social capital as a precondition of developing the tourism sector and fostering socio-economic development as a whole. Traditional institutions, as well as hybrid institutions, with the support of research organizations, can play a key role.
Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar
Increasingly, international and national statements are calling for the development of local sustainability scenarios within partnerships between schools and their communities. The present study addresses the question of reciprocity in such partnerships, by comparing the sustainability agendas underlying schools' educational programs to the…
Pedro Monteiro Machado de Almeida Penna
Full Text Available This work presents a restructuring of taxes in the automotive sector in Brazil in order to foster sustainable development. Personal vehicles, trucks or buses emit gases that contribute to global warming and cause human health problems. There are policies in Brazil to reduce the emission of air pollutants from vehicles; however, these neither punish the polluter nor provide for damage compensation. The Tax Law, with the Constitutional Polluter Pays Principle, is an efficient instrument for State intervention in the economy. The work compared environmental and economic views regarding fuel and both personal and public vehicles. We estimated the environmental benefits of recycling vehicles in use more than 10 years, taking into consideration pollution engendered in the manufacture of a new vehicle. Finally, we propose to unify vehicular taxation when the vehicle is acquired, by ending the ICMS and PIS / COFINS taxes on fuels and instead taxing CIDE-fuels, without reducing overall collection by the Brazilian government. The ensuing revenue would be used for repairing environmental damages. We have also made suggestions for the improvement of public policies to control emissions of atmospheric pollutants.
Full Text Available This is the first in a series of articles on primary care research in the African context. The aim of the series is to help build capacity for primary care research amongst the emerging departments of family medicine and primary care on the continent. Many of the departments are developing Masters of Medicine programmes in Family Medicine and their students will all be required to complete research studies as part of their degree. This series is being written with this audience in particular in mind – both the students who must conceptualise and implement a research project as well as their supervisors who must assist them.This article gives an overview of the African primary care context, followed by a typology of primary care research. The article then goes on to assist the reader with choosing a topic and defining their research question. Finally the article addresses the structure and contents of a research proposal and the ethical issues that should be considered.
Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.
Otto-Bliesner, Bette [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
We have made significant landmarks in our proposed work in the last 4 years (3 years plus 1 year of no cost extension). We have developed the simulation capability of the major isotopes in CESM. In particular, we have completed the implementation of the stable water isotopes (δ18O, δD) into the components for the atmosphere, ocean, land surface, runoff transport, sea ice, and coupler. In addition, the carbon isotopes (abiotic and biotic radiocarbon, δ13 C) have been implemented into the CESM ocean and land models, and long spinup simulations have been completed (Jahn et al., 2015). Furthermore, we have added abiotic Neodymium to the CESM ocean model as a tracer of ocean circulation, also measured by the proxy data community. Fullycoupled simulations with the stable water isotopes and ocean radiocarbon are currently being run for the preindustrial and also the Last Glacial Maximum. We have secured 19 million core-hours on the NWSC Yellowstone supercomputer for 12 months. Together with some CESM Paleoclimate Working Group CSL Yellowstone core hours, we are guaranteed sufficient computing for the spin-up experiments and deglaciation simulations for 21 to 15ka.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted with the group Women of Theater from Alajuelita. The research intended to answer the question of how to develop changes in our reading of the world. The goal of our study was the co-researchers’ raising awareness process leading them, from themselves, and by means of the abovementioned group, to read, interpret and reconstruct the environment in order to yield transformations in their lives and community. Through reflection, the process was investigated on the basis of the pedagogical practices of Augusto Boal´s Theater of Oppressed (Boal, 1980, as they were applied at the theater workshop together with the group of Women of Theather, at the library of the Educative Center Los Pinos in Alajuelita. The main elements of the implemented methodology respond to the Participative Action Research (PAR, where the dialectical participative relationship and the collective discussion make it possible the creation of learning. We used audio recordings as data collection tools, which were later systematized for their analysis. The paradigmatic position assumed was inspired by an approach related to the concept of complexity. This concept proposes a holistic view of reality, life, and, so, of pedagogy. According to such a view, we all are one, and the multiplicity is interconnected with each one of its parts, in continuous entropy. Under this approach, where the world is a system of systems interconnected among themselves, the main finding was to perceive pedagogy as an instrument for humanization, a magical object capable of valuing diversity and transforming our thoughts, life styles and values, and, in consequence, our reading of the world. We considered that such an important finding might help to develop changes in human beings and might inspire us to assume an ecological perspective towards relationships. Such a perspective might give rise to deep transformations in our social, political and
Full Text Available The main challenge of the food sector in the Republic of Moldova is to identify specific needs and opportunities for agriculture and rural development throughout food supply chains, and focusing investment in areas where the most impact will be made. The identification and allocation of resources requires analysis of main dimensions of food supply chains, in order to establish links and determine local factors. In small transition economies the diagnosis of the food supply chains, is typically based on limited data and incomplete information. In order to investigate the actual state of food supply chains were used specific methods and techniques: statistical and economic analysis of macro-economic indicators, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders, analysis of the impact of public policies on the agro-food sector. In the article is analyzed the process of food systems formation and integration at the local and global level. Although it is a small part of the overall agricultural sector, various local food systems are under development in the Republic of Moldova. These systems bring consumers in close contact with farmers and mobilize them to support local farms and sustainable farming practices. While local food systems continue to face many barriers, many of them show considerable potential for growth.
Moragues-Faus, Ana M.; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio
The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)
Ilham Rohman Ramadhan
Full Text Available Kasepuhan Ciptagelar is one of the Sundanese traditional village based on agricultural culture in West Java Province, Indonesia. Kasepuhan Ciptagelar people still hold and apply their ancestral cultural values in their daily life. The purpose of this study is to (1 know the existence of local wisdom values that exist in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar society; (2 to know the form of social solidarity values that exist in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar community and (3 Integration of local wisdom value for social solidarity development in globalization era. This research is a descriptive qualitative research, with ethnography approach. The results show that (1 Kasepuhan Ciptagelar community has some local wisdom, they are social solidarity, environment awareness, democratic, honest, responsibility and creative. The values of existing local wisdom still exist and are proven to survive in the era of globalization; (2 social solidarity in Kasepuhan Ciptagelar reflected from social interaction, trust and social awareness that exist in society; and (3 Development of social solidarity in the era of globalization can be done through the integration of local wisdom into education in School.
Dan Mihnea Diaconescu
Full Text Available Tourism is a multi-faced activity that links the economic, social and environmental components of sustainability. Firstly, this research analyses residents’ perceptions of the impact of tourism development and examines the factors that influence the support for sustainable tourism development. Secondly, the research discusses Community Based Tourism (CBT and its positive impact of tourism development; CBT is connected to community’s capacity to protect itself from outside threats by negotiating the quality of tourism development. Thirdly, Gastronomic Tourism development is depicted as an interaction between outside developers and local residents that ultimately builds a sustainable dialogue for growth of tourism. Usually, the partnerships established between local community residents and outside tourism developers began with initial resistance from residents and led to the following sequence of behaviour: town meetings, formal organization of residents, petitioning, public demonstration, and legal action. By examining collective action narratives in the study communities, a framework for sustainable rural tourism development is built to understand relationships between tourism impacts, sustainable development and community identity. Findings indicate that residents see tourism as a development factor. The natural, economic, and social-cultural environment as well as infrastructure, age, gender and education are factors that influence the sustainable development of tourism and gastronomic tourism.
Kuwahara, D., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Ito, N. [Department of Intelligent System Engineering, Ube National College of Technology, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8555 (Japan); Nagayama, Y. [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshinaga, T. [Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0811 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sugito, S. [Equipment Development Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyusyu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)
A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.
Vuković, Predrag; Subić, Jonel; Cvijanović, Drago
Since the mid-nineties of the twentieth century begins a rapid expansion of rural tourism in Serbia. In the first initial phase, the development has taken place without a clear plan and program. The first achieved positive results, influenced that Serbian Government since 2008 started with appropriate funding with aim to improve rural tourism development. Also, until 2008 there was no system of education and training sessions of the local population. Farmers were not educated and trained t...
Der Workshop "Methodology of Gender Research and Local Development Concepts" wurde aus Anlass eines Besuches zweier Angehöriger der 'Ahfad University of Women' Omdurmman, Sudan von der 'Gender Division of the Sociology of Development Research Centre' an der Universität Bielefeld organisiert und von ungefähr 30 Teilnehmern besucht. Erfahrungen von empirischen Feldforschungsarbeiten aus dem Sudan, Kenia, Ruanda, Westafrika und Südasien bildeten den Ausgangspunkt für Diskussionen über methodolo...
Hoschka, Tobias C.
This paper surveys the experience of countries in the East Asian region that have introduced local currency bonds by foreign issuers. The countries that are examined include Australia; Hong Kong, China; Japan; Republic of Korea; and Singapore. It is suggested that there are sound reasons for many countries to develop the market for foreign issuers. Benefits and potential issues are analyzed, development policies are reviewed, and concrete policy options are discussed for those countries that ...
... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. ...
Full Text Available South Africa’s population has risen from 40.5 million in 1996 to 44.8 million in 2001 and to 51.77 in 2011. Africans are in majority making 79.2% of the whole population. About 22.3% of blacks have received no schooling with the unemployment rate of the blacks at 28.1%. Most of these unemployed and uneducated blacks are found in rural areas. This compelled government to introduce Developmental Local government. Developmental Local government refers to the layer of public service that has the capacity to deliver and account to the people in a responsive, accountable, and efficient manner. It is also described as a sphere that encourages community participation in matters of governance and developmental initiatives. However, Developmental Local government is hindered by continuous growth of population which is likely to lead to overpopulation. Overpopulation is characterised by lack of basic resources such as water and food. Developmental Local government on the other hand is expected to deliver on these needs. Lack of fulfilment of goals of Developmental Local government is attributed to lack of effective communication between local government and community members. Although population growth is not attributed only to high birth rate, governments around the continent have introduced measures to encourage healthy reproductive life. However, this needs community members that are self-motivated to be active participants in government initiatives. This is not achievable as there is an indication of lack of effective communication. This paper’s main focus is the provision of effective communication model at local sphere which will see community members working together with government on matters of their own development including initiatives to preserve limited resources amid the challenges of overpopulation. This paper is based on the qualitative study on effectiveness of communication in Mutale local municipality on the enhancement of
Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.
Full Text Available The article presents a proposal for the development of soda industry landfills on the example of a former Cracow Soda Works "Solvay". The area is located in close proximity to the center of Krakow and is surrounded by places of worship. The analyzed area is characterized by specific physical and chemical properties of the substrate (soda production waste that manifest themselves e.g. in very high salinity and the presence of numerous processes of water erosion. The former landfill covers an area of 1 km2 and is a natural link between the two large settlements in the southern part of Krakow, namely Kurdwanów and Borek Fałęcki. The developed landscape concept is based on a detailed analysis of the physicochemical substrate and the conditions necessary for the foundation of buildings and civil engineering. In the research phase, the technical and natural inventory was made, and a detailed review of the literature in the field of land use with similar properties was performed. The designing process was guided by the information contained in the available planning documents and the needs of the local community, which presented in the literature of other scientists. As a result of the research, the concept of omni-zoning area landfills was established. The main assumptions are based on the concept of the nineteenth-century idea of the garden city, consisting in dividing the area into 6 main thematic areas, i.e. parks, which are described in detail in the article. The main functions (leisure and recreation have been supplemented with historical and touristic elements.
The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.
Shiel, Chris; Leal Filho, Walter; do Paço, Arminda; Brandli, Luciana
Universities have the potential to play a leading role in enabling communities to develop more sustainable ways of living and working however, sustainable communities may only emerge with facilitation, community learning and continual efforts to build their capacities. Elements of programme planning and evaluation on the one hand, and capacity building on the other, are needed. The latter entails approaches and processes that may contribute to community empowerment; universities may either lead such approaches, or be key partners in an endeavour to empower communities to address the challenges posed by the need for sustainable development. Although capacity building and the promotion of sustainable development locally, are on the agenda for universities who take seriously regional engagement, very little is published that illustrates or describes the various forms of activities that take place. Further, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the work performed by universities in building capacity for sustainable development at the local level. This paper is an attempt to address this need, and entails an empirical study based on a sample of universities in the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal and Brazil. The paper examines the extent to which capacity building for sustainable development is being undertaken, suggests the forms that this might take and evaluates some of the benefits for local communities. The paper concludes by reinforcing that universities have a critical role to play in community development; that role has to prioritise the sustainability agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucas Labigalini Fuini
Full Text Available This article seeks to develop an analysis of the territorial evidences of discussion on local productive arrangements, those clusters, using as spatial scale of the regional analysis, more precisely the Ourinhos Government Region. Form of industrial organization emerging in the 1990s, the APLs express localized concentrations of specialized companies in the same industry and establishing partnerships among themselves and with other institutions, with varying impacts on the development and governance of cities. Far from exhausting this debate, we consider the model of APL as an alternative strategy for the development of territories and their small businesses, despite their financial and institutional weaknesses. Also, put hypothesized that there are potential clusters and agglomerations in the Ourinhos region that are still unknown and did not receive institutional and financial contribution of the state, staying on the sidelines of the economic benefits of local development, for which they are poorly organized or disorganized. Tracing the framework of national and local policies to arrangements and productive agglomerations, accentuates the way of development in clusters like that guided resources, institutions and local networks, dependent, however, the larger scales of government action. That said, we propose a methodology of analysis grounded in documentary and statistical data research (IBGE and RAIS seeking to achieve the objectives of identifying the major industrial clusters in the region studied, recognizing its dynamism to local economies and relevance or not to consider some regional industrial agglomerations as APLs.
Barth, Jannette M
It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies.
Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik
The paper explores relations between mining and urban structures as these are decisive for involving the local workforce and developing local businesses. A major challenge for Greenland is the on-going decoupling between existing settlements and the main export industry based on marine living...... also for the surrounding community. The paper explores if a different and long-term organisation of exploitation of mineral resources with establishment of flexible settlements creates an attractive and sustainable alternative with a reasonable population and economic diversity....
Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Haishi, Tomoyuki
A local NMR sensor to measure methanol concentration of fluid flowing in a mini-channel was developed. The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 0.60 mm inside diameter. Using the sensors, local methanol concentration of water-methanol mixture in the mini-channel of 3.0 mm width and 1.5 mm depth was measured. The effects of flow velocity in the channel and the gravity direction on the methanol concentration distribution in the channel were investigated experimentally. (author)
Casillas, Christian E.
I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers
Full Text Available Sustainable development refers to the fair usage of the resources, so that future generations can be able to satisfy their needs, as well. For this to happen, a new paradigm on how economic development is being carried out is imperative. Thus, inter-national treaties on mitigating Climate Change, bio-diversity and fighting poverty and other such matters have been signed by most states. At local level, the problems appear more concrete, and thus, the practical solutions are (or appear to be sometimes in opposition to what is needed for a sustainable way of handling things. This paper aims to present an instrument, which can be used by the local authorities to overcome this impediment. The Integrated Management System (I.M.S. aims to contribute to a better communication between the local stakeholders, citizens and local authorities, which, in the end, can lead to a more sus-tainable future. For this, we will analyze first steps towards implementing the IMS in the village of Ighiu, Alba County, on the basis of the minimum requirements developed by the Champ project.
Veronica Lo Presti
Full Text Available This paper is a methodological reflection on the use of the "positive thinking approaches" for the promotion of capacity building of the projects in the local and inner areas. Recently, international policies have focused on the need to identify local development strategies to promote the capacity building in the local administrations, for the development of human and social capital.In the inner areas, it is necessary to experiment innovative approaches that are "place based" and “tailor made” for the projects to achieve the objectives of the National Strategy of the Inner Areas”The paper presents the “positive thinking approaches” as an innovative strategy of local development in the inner areas. The positive thinking approaches start from the analysis of "what has worked well", with a focus on the co-construction of the "successes", because “you learn more from successes than failures”.In particular, the article presents three positive thinking approaches (EI, evaluation of innovation; DE - developmental evaluation, and MSC - Most Significant Change. The aim is to explore what these approaches share in the Inner Areas. The advantage of positive thinking approaches is their ability to capitalize on unexpected positive effects. EI, DE and MSC recognise that the good practice that has been detected needs to be adapted to other situations by thoughtful agents. In both cases, a detected success will need responsible actors to produce further success.
Vidaki, Marina; Drees, Frauke; Saxena, Tanvi; Lanslots, Erwin; Taliaferro, Matthew J; Tatarakis, Antonios; Burge, Christopher B; Wang, Eric T; Gertler, Frank B
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons. We find that translation of dyrk1a, a Down syndrome- and autism spectrum disorders-related gene, is dependent on Mena, both in steady-state conditions and upon BDNF stimulation. We identify hundreds of additional mRNAs that associate with the Mena complex, suggesting that it plays broader role(s) in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Our work establishes a dual role for Mena in neurons, providing a potential link between regulation of actin dynamics and local translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The background of this study is that Dewa Starfruit as a local resource in Depok City is threatened with extinction. The absence of regulations that protect these local resources and high rate of land use conversion causes decreasing number of starfruit plants and production. Starfruit farmers tend to switch professions to non-agricultural occupations. In national level, the largest number of agricultural business households experienced the greatest decline in horticulture subsector by 37.4% (Agricultural Census 2013. The elected regional head has branded Depok City with the tagline "friendly city" replacing Dewa Starfruit. The government's orientation and support for Dewa starfruit is fading away. Therefore, Depok City Government, especially DKP3, need to develop local resource-based agriculture development plan in order to be able to maintain local resources while improving it for society welfare. This research uses qualitative approach. The research informants were DKP3 apparatus of Depok City, Bappeda (Regional Government apparatus of Depok City, field officer and farmer group. Data collection techniques used in-depth interviews and documentary studies. Data analysis utilized interactive model. Research results indicate that the development of local resource-based agricultural development plans has not gone well. Despite various supporting factors, there are existing inhibiting factors which are land use conversion had never been discussed; DKP3 Depok City efforts to safeguard agricultural issues in musrenbang has not been optimal; no field data update, either by couseling workers or farmers; DKP3 Depok City prioritized RPL activity; uneducated farmers; and absence of regional head support.
Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi
The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.
Diana Mihaela MOJOLIC
Full Text Available Ulmeni locality, that became town less than a decade ago, still shows, to a high degree, the general aspects of a rural locality, where agriculture is the main economic component. As capital city of the administrative-territorial division with the same name, Ulmeni town directs the activities of the entire territory. Possessing natural resources marked by the presence of Somes River and the existence of well-wooded areas, as well as anthropogenic resources embodied in values of the national heritage: museums, monuments, religious structures, folk activities, there is the possibility of providing the impulse of local development by means of tourism activities and the awareness of the need to revitalize the entire community.
The currently dominant pattern of rural development projects is characterized by centrally-controlled, top-bottom schemes. The local sociopolitical structure and the fit of development to local customs and needs are given little attention. The major statement made in this work is the need for technological implementation which is sensitive to its socio-economic context in the case of the introduction of novel uses of the biomass potential of Europe. A learning process approach is introduced as the alternative that could build up a low-cost, sustainable use of biomass technologies. In this context, the identification of the decision-making procedures and centers, as well as the understanding of the principal actors and their interrelations, is of paramount importance to the development of fruitful and socially acceptable biomass utilization policies. (author)
Full Text Available Tourism is an activity encompassing economy, society and nature. Besides mass tourism, many different forms of tourism activities and products have developed and are gaining ground in terms of demand. Debates on the definition of such typically small scale activities have brought forward a number of different types, including ‘agrotourism’, ‘agri-tourism’ and ‘rural tourism’. This paper contributes to the conceptual analysis of agritourism with a focus on its effects on local development. After a brief historical sketch of agritourism development, the effects on local development found in the literature are presented. Then, a typology of different forms of agritourism is discussed, including aspects of supply and demand, the scale of operation of the enterprises and networks of enterprises related to agritourism. Finally, we explore the case of small islands, a special type of space, and their local development with these types of ‘alternative’ tourism activities alongside ‘conventional’ tourism. The conceptual framework that results suggests the need for a case and area specific mapping of type, scale and network of enterprises in order to determine impacts and provide important information for managing and planning agritourism, especially on islands.
Victoire Lejzerzon; Sauron, Claire; Villot, Marie; Ratzbor, Guenter; Tausch, Christian; Cagneaux, Bertrand; Jouneau, Agathe; Stemmer, Boris; Huebner, Gundula; Orozco-Souel, Paola; Lhermitte, Charles; Ferus, Elisabeth; Benezech, Philippe; Gunzelmann, Thomas
The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on n wind power development in the face of landscape and local project acceptability challenges. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants addressed the following points: the conciliation between landscape protection and wind power development, the definition of landscape environmental quality criteria, the needs and usages of the departments in charge of the treatment of landscape studies in France, the socio-psychological approach of the local acceptability of wind farm projects, the re-powering tool for the improvement of the wind farm integration in the landscape, and the conciliation between the monuments maintenance and wind power development. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Conciliating landscape protection and wind power development goals in France (Marie Villot); 2 - Wind turbines: Conflicts between development goals, landscape and acceptance - Perception and criteria (Guenter Ratzbor); 3 - Bayern's wind power atlas: a planning tool which takes into account the landscape aspects (Christian Tausch); 4 - Landscape assessment in wind farms projects: what and how to do in French administrative procedures? (Bertrand Cagneaux); 5 - Methods for evaluation of landscape for wind farms projects - A French project developer's feedback (Agathe Jouneau); 6 - Landscape Assessment: Methods from German Landscape Practice (Boris Stemmer); 7 - Acceptance of Wind Turbines - Social Psychological Research (Gundula Huebner); 8 - Local consultation: who to involve, when and how? (Paola Orozco-Souel); 9 - Local acceptability: what dialogue concepts and strategies, and how to manage wind energy objection (Charles Lhermitte); 10 - Re-powering and landscape: chances and limits (Elisabeth Ferus); 11 - Wind power and cultural heritage: consultation and dialogue to succeed (Philippe Benezech); 12
The author first notices that climate change and environmental degradations induce new logics in international relationships, and then discusses how consequences of climate change can be factors of instability for States, and how to address them. He recalls and comments the main effects of climate change as they have been described in IPCC reports. He outlines limitations of conventional approaches in terms of direct and indirect impacts on States. Direct effects concern territories (for example, a modification of borders due to sea level rise or to erosion), populations (impact of extreme events on housing, on health) and the economy (more particularly the primary sector and high levels of adaptation costs). The author outlines the limitations of these global models, and proposes additional and corrective approaches: hybrid (regional and global) approaches, local and medium term-based approach (some natural resource management can be assessed and organised only locally). An appendix proposes a contribution of an IPCC work-group in which impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilities of the different regions of the world in front of climate changes are summarized
Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika
Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."
Abdel-Halim, A.; Durst, P.C.; Witkin, A.L.
The expanded use of nuclear power is being driven in today's world, because nuclear power provides high density base-load power, produces waste in a manageable and compact form, and does not emit carbon based 'green-house gases' that could be altering the world's climate. For these reasons, there is a veritable renaissance in the construction of nuclear power reactors of inherently safer designs, as well as an expansion in worldwide uranium mining, and construction of associated fuel cycle facilities. It is important to recognize that this expansion and revisiting of nuclear power is not just limited to the industrialized countries of North America, Europe, and Asia, but is also occurring in states developing their first nuclear power plant. In particular, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, and Indonesia have all contracted the construction of nuclear power plants, or are planning to do so. The authors of this paper believe that all of these programs could benefit from enhanced training in the use and operation of nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities, through the more effective transfer of knowledge. In particular, the authors propose the greater use of retired nuclear reactor and fuel cycle engineers, experts, and former senior staff members from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as one way to transfer this knowledge more effectively. The transfer of nuclear knowledge between senior experts and students, young engineers and professionals in training would help bridge the significant gap that exists in today's nuclear engineering curriculum between academic instruction and the real world of industry. The need for more effective knowledge transfer is particularly acute in the areas of nuclear safety, nuclear safeguards, and security. One only has to recall the nuclear accidents at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine, Three Mile Island in the United States, and the JCO uranium conversion plant in Japan, to
Bolton, Paul R.; Tatchyn, Roman; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Daito, Izuru; Ma, Jinglong; Chen, Liming; Pirozhkov, Alexander; Tajima, Toshiki
Development of new diagnostics is critical for future laser-plasma accelerators, laser-driven light sources and for x-ray FELs. Recent laser wakefield electron acceleration developments and novel beam-based light source schemes (such as free electron lasers) obviate the need for next generation ultrafast diagnostics, capable of temporal resolution of a few femtoseconds (and in some cases attoseconds) for laser pulses (high order harmonics), x-ray pulses and electron bunches. Single shot detection capability in noninvasive and parasitic modes is also important. Alterations of laser pulse spectra and the associated dynamics can be informative diagnostics. The portion of a high intensity laser pulse that is transmitted through a self-induced underdense plasma (such as in laser wakefield acceleration LWFA schemes) carries the effects of plasma processes it has experienced. A distinction between the self-modulated laser wakefield (SMLWF) acceleration regime and the forced laser wakefield (FLWF) acceleration regime is in the spectral signature of the transmitted ir laser pulse. The former regime generates sidebands from stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) and the latter exhibits general spectral broadening that evidences ir laser pulse compression. Transmitted spectral effects can diagnose these acceleration regimes. Existing noninvasive electro-optic (EO) schemes for detection of ultrashort electron bunches are limited by material properties to temporal resolution at the 50-100 femtosecond level. While timing jitter at conventional accelerators is of this order (or greater), single bunch longitudinal profile measurements can require improvement of at least an order of magnitude. A new FO technique is described here which monitors enhancement and associated dynamics of spectral components in a probe pulse. Three correlation schemes for detecting ultrashort x-ray pulses are described. Two-photon absorption in tailored ion targets is proposed for scanning auto
Raúl Rosales Guzmán
Full Text Available The present article contains an analysis on the possibilities offered by the cooperative sector in La Palma, which is supported by the local development initiative of breeding rabbits. This activity can be easily carried out with minimal cost and effort, and is supported by a tradition in the local population, mainly in the private sector. The proposal will allow the production of rabbit meat in order to ease the difficult situation regarding meat supply; constitute the fundamental problem of how to incorporate research conducted the cooperative sector in La Palma to development projects municipal initiative? The Group of Local Development in La Palma has a project portfolio in which many important enterprises take part, with lack of initiation on the cooperative sector, which is basic for La Palma’s and Cuba’s economy. This proposal is also sustained by the fact that all cooperatives in that territory have a great deal of resources of all kinds (human, natural, etc which will allow for a sustainable development and the improvement of life quality standards for associates and inhabitants in general. The aim of the research conducted to analyze the possibilities of the cooperative sector in the municipality of La Palma, incorporating the process of local development initiative, through a project on breeding rabbit and improve the supply of meat in the town
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0048] Proposed Generic Communication; Regulatory Issue... CFR) Part 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to satisfy the... inservice testing programs during the initial 120-month program interval following nuclear power plant...
Haji Suhaili, Wida Susanty
The research presented in this thesis investigates ways to assist students with writing their project proposals. There is limited literature on the problems students have when writing project proposals in Higher Education. Particularly most of the literature has concentrated on the writing aspects, rhetorical aspects and structure of a scientific article. Even though various studies on assessment of undergraduate individual and group project works have been done, the project pr...
Yunita; Galinium, M.; Lukas
New product development in real estate industry is a challenging process since it is related to long term concept and high cost. A newly proposed product development should meet customer need and their preferences which appropriate with customer buying power and company value. This research use data mining for profiling customer transaction and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for product selection in new product development. This research utilizes Weka as data mining open source software to profiling data customers. The analysis correlated product preferences and profiling demography such as city, age, gender and occupation. Demography profiles gives description buying power and product preferences. The products proposed are based on customer profiles and rank of the product by AHP method. The product with the highest score will be proposed as new product development. Case studies of this research are real estate projects in Serang, Makassar, and Balikpapan. Makassar and Balikpapan are the project that already gained success and Serang is new project which new products development will be proposed to launch. Based on profiling and product preference of customer in Balikpapan, Makassar, and prospectus of Serang markets, new products development that will be proposed are house type of 120/200 m2 with price around Rp1.300.000.000 and house type of 71/120 m2 with price around Rp800.000.000. The markets of Serang and Balikpapan have similarities in profiles as urban city so the new products development will adopt the succeed story of Balikpapan project.
Anywhere the demand and supply exist, construction of SCM (supply chain management) is in progress, in order to make production, distribution and marketing more smooth. From 90's, information networks have developed by making as much efforts as computer's memory can. Now that many useful software packages of SCM are also developed. But these packages are expensive, and are hard to operate. In this paper we will propose how to make the simple SCM which takes the least operation cost prevailing...
Rob I. Mawby
Full Text Available Tourism has long been recognized as a crime generator. This poses a dilemma in the sustainable development context: is continued tourist expansion sustainable if it generates increased law and order problems? Using the example of Brașov, Romania, this article considers the ways in which criminal justice agencies and the tourism sector have operated in partnership to ensure the security of both local residents and visitors. We argue that the success of the initiative depends on multi-agency working at the local level, but that the involvement of local residents is also crucial. This commitment may be tested as the nature of tourism changes. The research consists of an analysis of primary and secondary data. The results revealed that among the main security issues mentioned by tourists are not only robberies and other social and situational features that contributed to tourists feeling anxious or unsafe, but also the need to have access to good health services and easy access to money changing facilities, information centers, etc. Some improvements are suggested for the local Sustainable Development Strategy of Brașov.
Ricardo Lopes Correia
Full Text Available The Cultural Order is understood as the expression of a game of interdependencies determinations between local and global social groups, pairs identified by productions, values and behavior that consciously guide the life projects and the expansion of a collective freedom. Based on a Social Science research and with theoretical mark of Nobert Elias and Amartya Sen, this article aims to present a theoretical-practice structure of the approach in participatory local development- PLD to the occupational therapist surround by the construction of collective life projects, in order to operationalize in the practice of the community question, understood as the strengths that singularize the participation. We discuss the use of the PLD approach to the occupational therapist in a flexible structure, aiming to guarantee its domain, the Human Occupation, and the set of interventions, technologies, sustained in the management of the activities of daily living. The approach in participatory local development presents itself as an important structural outline to the community actions, and it is the occupational therapist role to be an articulator of the Local Cultural Order dimensions, to deal with the target population their work processes of continuity in collective life projects and expansion of freedom.
Raiko, M.O.; Gronfors, T.H.A. [Fortum Energy Solutions, Fortum (Finland); Haukka, P. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)
Many changes in business drivers are now affecting power-producing companies. The power market has been opened up and the number of locally operating companies has increased. At the same time the need to utilize locally produced biofuels is increasing because of environmental benefits and regulations. In this situation, power-producing companies have on focus their in-house skills for generating a competitive edge over their rivals, such as the skills needed for developing the most economical energy investments for the best-paying customer for the local biomass producers. This paper explores the role of optimization in the development of small-sized energy investments. The paper provides an overview on a new design process for power companies for improved use of in-house technical and business expertise. As an example, illustrative design and optimization of local wet peat-based power investment is presented. Three concept alternatives are generated. Only power plant production capacity and peat moisture content are optimized for all alternatives. Long commercial experience of using peat as a power plant fuel in Finland can be transferred to bioenergy investments. In this paper, it is shown that conventional technology can be feasible for bioenergy production even in quite small size (below 10 MW). It is important to optimize simultaneously both the technology and the two businesses, power production and fuel production. Further, such high moisture content biomass as sludge, seaweed, grass, etc. can be economical fuels, if advanced drying systems are adopted in a power plant. (author)
McCullough, Elizabeth A; Clopper, Cynthia G; Wagner, Laura
The development of language attitudes and perception of talker regional background was investigated across the life span (N = 240, age range = 4-75 years). Participants rated 12 talkers on dimensions of geographic locality, status, and solidarity. Children could classify some dialects by locality by age 6-7 years and showed adult-like patterns by age 8 years. Children showed adult-like status ratings for some dialects by age 4-5 years but were not fully adult-like until age 12 years. Solidarity ratings were more variable and did not exhibit a clear developmental trajectory, although some adult-like patterns were in place by age 6-7 years. Locality ratings were a significant but modest predictor of attitude ratings, suggesting that geographic knowledge is one contributor to language attitudes throughout development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Bendek, Eduardo A.; Leatherbee, Michael; Smith, Heather; Strappa, Valentina; Zinnecker, Hans; Perez, Mario
Specialized manpower required to efficiently operate world-class observatories requires large investments in time and resources to train personnel in very specific areas of engineering. Isolation and distances to mayor cities pose a challenge to retain motivated and qualified personnel on the mountain. This paper presents strategies that we believe may be effective for retaining this specific know-how in the astronomy field; while at the same time develop a local support industry for observatory operations and astronomical instrumentation development. For this study we choose Chile as a research setting because it will host more than 60% of the world's ground based astronomical infrastructure by the end of the decade, and because the country has an underdeveloped industry for astronomy services. We identify the astronomical infrastructure that exists in the country as well as the major research groups and industrial players. We further identify the needs of observatories that could be outsourced to the local economy. As a result, we suggest spin-off opportunities that can be started by former observatory employees and therefore retaining the knowhow of experienced people that decide to leave on-site jobs. We also identify tools to facilitate this process such as the creation of a centralized repository of local capabilities and observatory needs, as well as exchange programs within astronomical instrumentation groups. We believe that these strategies will contribute to a positive work environment at the observatories, reduce the operation and development costs, and develop a new industry for the host country.
Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Cheok, Christopher Cs; Ho, Roger Cm
Over the past decade, there have been massive developments in both Web-based and mobile phone technologies. Mobile phones are well accepted by students, trainees, and doctors. A review of the current literature has identified the following specialties that have used mobile phones in education: pediatrics, ophthalmology, nephrology, plastic surgery, orthopedics, pharmacology, and urology. However, to date, there are no published papers examining the application of the latest mobile phone technologies for psychiatry education internationally. The main objectives of this study are (1) to determine the feasibility and receptiveness of a locally-developed psychiatry mobile phone app and user perspectives (both quantitative and qualitative) towards it, and (2) to determine the receptiveness of a locally-developed app for psychiatry education internationally. A Web-based app that contained textbook contents, videos, and quizzes was developed using HTML5 technologies in 2012. Native apps were subsequently developed in 2013. Information about the apps was disseminated locally to Singaporean medical students, but the respective native apps were made available on the app stores. A user perspective survey was conducted locally to determine student's perception of the app. From the inception of the app until the time of preparation of this manuscript, there have been a cumulative total of 28,500 unique visits of the responsive HTML5 Web-based mobile phone app. There have been a cumulative total of 2200 downloads of the Mastering Psychiatry app from the Apple app store and 7000 downloads of the same app from the Android app store. The initial user perspective survey conducted locally highlighted that approximately a total of 95.2% (177/186) of students felt that having a psychiatry mobile phone app was deemed to be useful. Further chi-squared analysis demonstrated that there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of having textbook contents in
... before April 5, 2010. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Diana Hynek, Departmental Paperwork... and diversified local economies in western Alaska. CDQ and prohibited species quota (PSQ) allocations... collection. II. Method of Collection Respondents have a choice of either electronic or paper forms. Methods...
Full Text Available The new world order demands transdiscipline in the technological scientist advances and the development of countries framed in a holistic vision and strategic approach, able to generate a process with multidirectional character which considers varied participation and from important actors of the communities in the design on strategies for the local development. Is all about assuming new rolls of local public politics. The Municipal Public Power Organic Law (2005, on its 112 article, establishes that inside the functions of the Local Advice of Local Publish Planning, including parochial and communal advices, they are constituted in the main center for the participation and protagonism of the people in the formulation, execution, control and evaluation in the public politics. This it is a new state of local government where scientist, technological, productive and community predominate. In this investigation a descriptive-documentary methodological approach is being followed, referring to the technological management topics and local development specifically Latinoamerica and Venezuela. This work has the objective to give systematized information and some teorical reflections on the local development by the technological management. Finally, we can see it is very low the importance that the technological scientific issue has been taken by the government for the local development, as like the perception on local management like lender of services, adding to this situation the strong inertia of the old styles of local politics, associated to the clientelism, that are limitants as well factors of the own development of the localities.
Elsa Del Castillo Mory
Full Text Available Alliances are formed to overcome the constraints partners face to achieve certain goals. When the goal is to promote local development, it requires the participation of stakeholders: private sector, local government, civil associations and community groups, among others. This article seeks, through the comparative analysis of three experiences of local development led by the district of Villa El Salvador (Lima - Peru, the mining company Yanacocha (Cajamarca -Peru and the Spanish Agency for Development Iraugi Lantzen (Basque Country - Spain, to identify the success factors of cooperation agreements for local development. We believe that a better understanding of the factors associated with the success of partnerships could help those who seek the challenge of looking for possible partners, as well as those concerned with the effective management of partnerships in place. The case of Villa El Salvador shows how government support was fundamental in the establishment of the district, but the achievements of this group could not be explained without the active participation of the community. On the other hand, the experience of the company Yanacocha reminds the reader that there is still a big gap to fill in Peru in terms of the joint efforts between private enterprises and stakeholders, and that is necessary to learn from the experiences of those who have gone through part of this path. A different case is shown by the experience of the Spanish Agency Iraugi Lantzen, highlighting the challenges and opportunities that arise from a concerted action between municipal entities pursuing local development. Overall, it can be said that although there are context and situational conditions that favor the development of alliances for development, there are other factors that mediate the success of partnerships. The case studies show that the most successful cooperation experiences are those where there are key individuals that are leaders
Pastor Seller, Enrique
Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical-conceptual and methodological bases that allow promotion of sustainable and autonomous changes in the complex relational universe in twenty-first century Spain. It takes as its starting point the methodological and participative processes linked to social work with communities, focused on a local strategic development model that is comprehensive and centered on community empowerment. It presents the results of research aiming to characterise communities’ practices locally. This is linked to Spain´s communities social work presented in the form of typologies. The analysis of the communities´ practices permits identification of the ideal necessary characteristics that the experiences of community action must have in terms of good practices to promote local coexistence through citizen participation.El artículo presenta las bases teórico-conceptuales y metodológicas que permiten impulsar cambios sostenibles y autónomos en el complejo universo relacional en España en el siglo XXI a partir de procesos metodológicos y participativos vinculados con un trabajo social con comunidades centrado en el modelo de desarrollo local estratégico, integral y centrado en el empowerment comunitario. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a caracterizar las prácticas comunitarias en el ámbito local vinculadas con el trabajo social con comunidades en España y que son presentados a modo de tipologías. El análisis de las prácticas comunitarias permite identificar las características idóneas que deben tener las experiencias de acción comunitaria en su consideración de buenas prácticas en el fomento de la convivencia local a través de la participación ciudadana.
Sonnemann, G. [Div. of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Paris (France)
UNEP DTIE, through its Life Cycle Initiative, proposes to join with industry to strengthen the capacity of the weakest economic actors in the global supply chains to tackle environmental requirements. Two particularly important target groups for this project are SMEs and local authorities. Although the SMEs are the immediate actors, they need appropriate political institutions to provide an enabling framework. Multinational companies are continuously increasing the environmental requirements that their suppliers have to meet in order to provide a green image for the final product reaching western markets. Some multinational companies have accompanied these requirements with information and training of suppliers. By joining with UNEP they will be able to expand the effectiveness of their outreach and also gain greater visibility for their environmental policies. For SMEs this project is an opportunity to develop environmental management expertise and thus position themselves as reliable suppliers to leading companies. (orig.)
Bailoa, Sandra; Resende da Silva, Paulo
Multiple authors argue that the digital infrastructure of municipalities and regions, such as websites, have an important role to play in local and regional development since they enable the access and sharing of information, knowledge and the provision of certain services. Functioning as an entrance way to a territory, the websites provide important contributions in the knowledge and intellectual capital management activities. In this sense, an evaluation of websites is a core ac...
Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene
Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...
open house and air show), the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) All-Star Game, or NASCAR 34 Bridging the Gap: Developing a Tool to Support Local...Americas] protest in Columbus, the National Col- legiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Final Four basketball games in San Antonio, and annual New Year’s...there are large events, such as the NBA All-Star Game, which pose some difficulties related to law enforcement. Other recent events with potential
The main goal of this study is the development a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana. This goal was achieved in five key objectives. Firstly the study set to review extant literature on tourists‟ cuisine experiences in general and in Botswana. An understanding of tourists‟ cuisine experiences is significant in paving the way for increased promotion in cuisine tourism, an alternative form of tourism that has remained relatively neglected in the country‟s tourism ...
Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The main purpose of the paper is the identification of opportunities and threats for city logistics development from a local authority perspective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents the original results of surveys conducted among city logistics experts from all over the world and among representa- tives of twelve EU capital cities. Findings - According to the study the most important opportunities for cities are stakeholders' willingness for cooperation, as well as a good and long cooperation with them. It shows that a local authority cannot introduce any solutions in the field of city logistics without cooperating with other stakeholders. Therefore, the lack of cooperation can be a threat. The other threat highlighted by the majority of studied cities is the lack of standards on data collections. Without information in real time on problems and activities undertaken by various stakeholders in the field of city logistics it is very difficult for strategic and tactical decisions to be made by a local authority. Research implications/limitations - The most significant limitation of the research was the sample of respondents. Despite the fact that the questionnaire was sent to 28 EU capital cites only 12 out of them have completed and returned the questionnaire. A further problem arises from the lack of standards on collecting information on city logistics by cities. As a result of it many European cities do not collect this information or do it in a fragmentary way. Originality/value/contribution - The research results introduced in the paper make a contribution to the theoretical and practical knowledge on city logistics development. It fills the gap related to the external factors affecting the development of city logistics. The author's concept of the framework for city logistics development with the inclusion of threats and opportunities and the set of questions can be a useful tool for local authorities as well as
Full Text Available Localizing sounds in our environment is one of the fundamental perceptual abilities that enable humans to communicate, and to remain safe. Because the acoustic cues necessary for computing source locations consist of differences between the two ears in signal intensity and arrival time, sound localization is fairly poor when a single ear is available. In adults who become deaf and are fitted with cochlear implants (CIs sound localization is known to improve when bilateral CIs (BiCIs are used compared to when a single CI is used. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of spatial hearing sensitivity in children who use BiCIs, with a particular focus on the development of behavioral localization patterns when stimuli are presented in free-field horizontal acoustic space. A new analysis was implemented to quantify patterns observed in children for mapping acoustic space to a spatially relevant perceptual representation. Children with normal hearing were found to distribute their responses in a manner that demonstrated high spatial sensitivity. In contrast, children with BiCIs tended to classify sound source locations to the left and right; with increased bilateral hearing experience, they developed a perceptual map of space that was better aligned with the acoustic space. The results indicate experience-dependent refinement of spatial hearing skills in children with CIs. Localization strategies appear to undergo transitions from sound source categorization strategies to more fine-grained location identification strategies. This may provide evidence for neural plasticity, with implications for training of spatial hearing ability in CI users.
Quilici, Domingo F.
Argentina has given recently a new start to its nuclear power activities. Looking for background and experiences that can be useful under the new reality, the paper is a survey of the past development of local suppliers for the national nuclear industry. Based on the intention to answer the questions: Why so early it was decided to build a nuclear power plant? Why it was decided to buy it under a turnkey basis rather than developing an indigenous design? and what was the meaning of the 'opening of the technology package' at that time?, the paper describes the actions that led to the purchase of the Atucha I, Embalse and Atucha II nuclear power plants and how these decisions were implemented in order to maximize local participation and the technology transfer. It also analyzes the influence of the Argentine Nuclear Plan of the late seventies on the development of endogenous technology and describes the facts that helped to preserve until now the technological nuclear capabilities of the country in spite of the stopping of the Atucha II construction, and to create positive expectations regarding the revival of the local industry as a supplier of nuclear goods and services. (author) [es
This article discusses the links between poverty, development, the environment, and implementing Agenda 21. The poor in large cities experience greater health risks and threats from environmental hazards. The poor also face inadequate housing, poor sanitation, polluted drinking water, and lack of other basic services. Many poor live in marginalized areas more susceptible to environmental degradation. During 1990-2030, population size may reach 9.7 billion, or 3.7 billion more than today. 90% may be urban residents. Already a large proportion of urban population live in a decaying urban environment with health and life threatening conditions. At least 250 million do not have easy access to safe piped water. 400 million lack proper sanitation. The liberalization of the global economy is fueling urbanization. The cycle of poverty and environmental decline requires rapid economic growth and closing of the infrastructure gaps. Policy initiatives of Agenda 21 occur at the local urban level. At this level, policies directly affect people. The future success of Agenda 21 will depend on local initiatives. Management approaches may need to change in order to achieve sustainable development. The poor will be more vocal and heard from in the future. Critical areas of management include waste management, pollution control, traffic, transportation, energy, economic development, and job creation. Society must be able to participate in setting priorities. About 1500 local authorities are involved in Agenda 21 planning initiatives. Curitiba, Brazil, is an example of how cities can solve community problems.
Full Text Available Atuntaqui is heralded as a local economic development success story. The author scrutinizes the experience of the textile industrial district in Atuntaqui in the province of Imbabura, and concludes that the district actually represents a case of overspecialization, given a lack of economic diversification. Moreover the author notes that the municipality has an urban bias, pointing out the need for a broader ¨territorial¨ approach to local and regional development planning that factors in issues like water scarcity, rural poverty and exploitation of female labour, as opposed to the current myopic view that ignores rural urban linkages. In the article the success story of Atuntaqui is downplayed, stating that donors exaggerated the economic impact of the textile cluster.Atuntaqui is viewed as a model by neighboring cities as a result of its recent economic dynamism. Local policy makers need to look deeper into these efforts, and also take into account negative externalities, concluding that clusters are not a panacea for quick industrial development.
Full Text Available In this paper we try to show the perception of the main stakeholder on the rural tourism field, local government, on the development of this economic activities. We believe that a revision of an important part of approaches that have appeared in the literature in terms of the concept of rural tourism, in terms of methods of analysis of tourism activities and, not least, requiring the use modern techniques for foresight indicators by which to make assessments on these activities.The local public administration is responsible for policy formulation, research and planning, development of basic infrastructure, the development of certain landmarks, establishing and managing service delivery standards, establishing management measures and recovery planning and environmental protection, setting standards for training and improving employment, setting standards for maintaining public health and safety.In this paper we try to show as well the main factors of the emergence and development of rural tourism in order to establish priorities in the joint action of local people, entrepreneurs, tourists and local and national administrations. In many countries, the tourism industry fall within government priority. Tourism has been identified as one of the primary industries with potential to support local communities in developing economic diversity. In this research, it was also used descriptive analysis of the variables and comparative analysis using Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U test.Kruskal-Wallis H test. The Kruskall-Wallis test aims at comparing several independent samples when, as is the case of our research, the dependent variable is ordinal. The test is based on rank and hierarchy of data analysis. Scores are ranked from lowest to highest, ignoring the groups they belong to, and then calculate the sum of ranks for each of the groups. The question refers to how much respondents considered that are due to the development of rural tourism
Full Text Available Histone deacetylases (HDACs are thought to localize in the nucleus to regulate gene transcription and play pivotal roles in neurogenesis, apoptosis and plasticity. However, the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the developing brain remains unclear. Here, we show that HDAC1 and HDAC2 are located in both the mitochondria and the nucleus in the Xenopus laevis stage 34 tectum and are mainly restricted to the nucleus following further brain development. HDAC3 is widely present in the mitochondria, nucleus and cytoplasm during early tectal development and is mainly distributed in the nucleus in stage 45 tectum. In contrast, HDAC8 is broadly located in the mitochondria, nucleus and cytoplasm during tectal development. These data demonstrate that HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 are transiently localized in the mitochondria and that the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs in the Xenopus tectum is heterogeneous. Furthermore, we observed that spherical mitochondria accumulate in the cytoplasm at earlier stages, whereas elongated mitochondria are evenly distributed in the tectum at later stages. The activity of histone acetylation (H4K12 remains low in mitochondria during tectal development. Pharmacological blockades of HDACs using a broad spectrum HDAC inhibitor of Trichostatin A (TSA or specific class I HDAC inhibitors of MS-275 and MGCD0103 decrease the number of mitochondria in the tectum at stage 34. These findings highlight a link between the subcellular distribution of class I HDACs and mitochondrial dynamics in the developing optic tectum of Xenopus laevis.
Gouvello, Ch. de; Nadaud, F.
The decree of June 8. 2001 concerning wind powered electricity purchase prices as a sign of public support in terms of industrial policy. The recent debates have given the local authorities a key role in the development of ENR systems although concrete achievements so far remain quite limited We will demonstrate that this is essentially explained by the fact that the skills of local authorities chiefly lie in the discrete framework of the Rural Electrification scheme. Based on examples of thermal ENR systems in housing and of electrical production via ENR systems connected to the network, we will show that the Rural Electrification scheme has the effect of focusing the technical choices of local authorities on the traditional technology of the distribution networks. A minor modification to the Rural Electrification scheme would make it possible to give the capacity for initiative back to local authorities with regard to ENR systems, while at the same time making it possible to contribute to resolving the question of the reinforcement of transportation and distribution networks in order to incorporate production obtained from ENR systems. (authors)
Tanabe, Akira; Yamamoto, Toru; Shinfuku, Kimihiro; Nakamae, Takuji.
A neural network model has been developed to learn the local power distributions in a BWR fuel bundle. A two layers neural network with total 128 elements is used for this model. The neural network learns 33 cases of local power peaking factors of fuel rods with given enrichment distribution as the teacher signals, which were calculated by a fuel bundle nuclear analysis code based on precise physical models. This neural network model studied well the teacher signals within 1 % error. It is also able to calculate the local power distributions within several % error for the different enrichment distributions from the teacher signals when the average enrichment is close to 2 %. This neural network is simple and the computing speed of this model is 300 times faster than that of the precise nuclear analysis code. This model was applied to survey the enrichment distribution to meet a target local power distribution in a fuel bundle, and the enrichment distribution with flat power shape are obtained within short computing time. (author)
Full Text Available The article offers some reflections on the important changes that local development has experienced along the last decades. In particular, it emphasizes the strong and increasing presence of uncertainties and the complex character of the actual urban and territorial problems. All this must be confronted to the requirements of governability, the importance of institutions and social co-operation. The article underline some positive aspects of the innovative milieux as an example of creating «social capital», this concept particularly understood as «relationships capital». The final section of the article emphasizes the advantages of the urban strategic plans, built through very participative processes aiming to get cooperation agreements between the economic agents, the citizens and the local authorities. According to the author, the urban strategic plans are an excellent instrument leading to new forms of self-organization and better governability because it helps the city, the citizens and not only the local administration to be placed into the center of the decision processes and the local transformations.
Full Text Available This paper considers the role of the public library as a community hub, engagement space, and entrepreneurial incubator in the context of the city, city governance, and local government planning. It considers this role from the perspective of library experts and their future visions for libraries in a networked knowledge economy. Public libraries (often operated by or on behalf of local governments potentially play a pivotal role for local governments in positioning communities within the global digital network. Fourteen qualitative interviews with library experts informed the study which investigates how the relationship between digital technology and the physical library space can potentially support the community to develop innovative, collaborative environments for transitioning to a digital future. The study found that libraries can capitalise on their position as community hubs for two purposes: first, to build vibrant community networks and forge economic links across urban localities; and second, to cross the digital divide and act as places of innovation and lifelong learning. Libraries provide a specific combination of community and technology spaces and have significant tangible connection points in the digital age. The paper further discusses the potential benefits for libraries in using ICT networks and infrastructure, such as the National Broadband Network in Australia. These networks could facilitate greater use of library assets and community knowledge, which, in turn, could assist knowledge economies and regional prosperity.
... Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER... Fisheries Service (NMFS) proposes to conduct a survey to collect demographic, cultural, economic and social... regulations. The data gathered will be used to describe the socio-political impact of tournament fishing in...
Article 1(2) has been proposed in the final report on G20/OECD's Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Action 2. Two principle purposes of the BEPS project can be identified: First, to combat against aggressive tax planning which results in less than single taxation, and secondly, to allocate
... more streamlined recruitment process; A provider based recruitment strategy that relies on health care... Study (NCS), Vanguard (Pilot) Study, Recruitment Substudy Phase 1 SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... questioned the value and utility of the proposed data collection, stating that this type of research is not...
Kwon, Kee Choon; Jang, Tong Il; Kim, Jung Tack
Through KNICS and Nu-Tech 2012, a MMIS(Man-Machine Interface System) package for nuclear plants was localized and is expected to be applied to SUN 1,2 plants. This study is aimed to support the application of the MMIS package including the following technologies that meet strengthened regulation requirements and enhanced utility's performance requirements to nuclear plants. - Dedication to safety-grade computers and real time operating systems - The broadband communication network for safety information - Application of the automatic test for safety systems - Application of programmable logic controllers to nuclear plants - Development strategy for an integrated SW development tool for control device
Ohshima, Katsumi; Oda, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Koji; Terakado, Masayuki; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken; Sakamoto, Keishi; Hayashi, Kazuo
In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, an ITER relevant control system for ITER gyrotron was developed according to Plant Control Design Handbook. This control system was developed based on ITER CODAC Core System and implemented state machine control of gyrotron operation system, sequential timing control of gyrotron oscillation startup, and data acquisition. The operation of ITER 170 GHz gyrotron was demonstrated with ITER relevant power supply configuration. This system is utilized for gyrotron operation test for ITER procurement. This report describes the architecture of gyrotron local control system, its basic and detailed design, and recent operation results. (author)
Watanabe, Tomohiko; Oya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.
Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling are performed to study self-excitation of auroral arcs with special emphasis on 1) nonlinear evolution of the feedback instability in the M-I coupling system, 2) controlling mechanisms of the auroral arc structure, 3) formation of a field-aligned electric potential structure in association with the development of the feedback instability, and 4) effects of the parallel potential generation on auroral arc development. It is reconfirmed that the feedback instability produces a longitudinally elongated, latitudinally striated structure where the upward field-aligned current and the ionospheric density are locally enhanced. The following important new features are revealed. 1) The global distribution of the striation structure is primarily governed by the magnetospheric convection pattern and the ionospheric density distribution. 2) There appears a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry in the auroral arc formation, even though the apparent geometrical relationship is symmetric. 3) The recombination effect plays a significant role in the global, as well as local, development of the auroral arc structure. The nonlinearity of recombination, in conjunction with the closure of an arc-associated local field-aligned current system, acts to destroy an old arc and creates a new arc in a different but adjacent position. 4) A V-shaped field aligned potential structure is created in association with an auroral arc. Rapid increase in the electron density and the local upward field-aligned current of an arc arises as a result of enhanced ionization by precipitating electrons accelerated by the parallel potential. 5) A drastic oscillatory behavior of appearance and disappearance of auroral arcs is obtained when the ionization effect is strong. The period is primarily given by the Alfven bounce time. (J.P.N.)