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Sample records for local control lc

  1. Optimal Local Dimming for LC Image Formation With Controllable Backlighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Xiao; Wu, Xiaolin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED)-backlit liquid crystal displays (LCDs) hold the promise of improving image quality while reducing the energy consumption with signal-dependent local dimming. However, most existing local dimming algorithms are mostly motivated by simple implementation, and they often la...

  2. Control of dynamical localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jiangbin; Woerner, Hans Jakob; Brumer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Control over the quantum dynamics of chaotic kicked rotor systems is demonstrated. Specifically, control over a number of quantum coherent phenomena is achieved by a simple modification of the kicking field. These include the enhancement of the dynamical localization length, the introduction of classical anomalous diffusion assisted control for systems far from the semiclassical regime, and the observation of a variety of strongly nonexponential line shapes for dynamical localization. The results provide excellent examples of controlled quantum dynamics in a system that is classically chaotic and offer opportunities to explore quantum fluctuations and correlations in quantum chaos

  3. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  4. Lessons from the SLC for future LC control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, R.

    1991-12-01

    The SLC control system is the dynamic result of a number of forces. The most obvious force is the functional requirements of the SLC itself, but other forces are history, budget, people, available technology, etc. The plan of this paper is to describe the critical functional requirements of the SLC which caused significant development of the control system. I have tried to focus on functional requirements as a driver, and I will describe some solutions which we have implemented to satisfy those requirements. The important functional requirements drivers for the control system discussed in this paper are: Repetition rate; Sensitivity to orbit distortion; Stability/Automation; and Accelerator Development

  5. Lessons from the SLC for future LC control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, R.

    1992-01-01

    The SLC control system is the dynamic result of a number of forces. The most obvious force is the functional requirements of the SLC itself, but other forces are history, budget, people, available technology, etc. The plan of this paper is to describe the critical functional requirements of the SLC which caused significant development of the control system. I have tried to focus on functional requirements as a driver, and I will describe some solutions which we have implemented to satisfy those requirements. The important functional requirements drivers for the control system discussed in this paper are: (1) Repetition rate, (2) Sensitivity to orbit distortion, (3) Stability/Automation, (4) Accelerator Development. (author)

  6. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  7. Linear feedback control, adaptive feedback control and their combination for chaos (lag) synchronization of LC chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya; Yu Pei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study chaos (lag) synchronization of a new LC chaotic system, which can exhibit not only a two-scroll attractor but also two double-scroll attractors for different parameter values, via three types of state feedback controls: (i) linear feedback control; (ii) adaptive feedback control; and (iii) a combination of linear feedback and adaptive feedback controls. As a consequence, ten families of new feedback control laws are designed to obtain global chaos lag synchronization for τ < 0 and global chaos synchronization for τ = 0 of the LC system. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these theoretical results. Each family of these obtained feedback control laws, including two linear (adaptive) functions or one linear function and one adaptive function, is added to two equations of the LC system. This is simpler than the known synchronization controllers, which apply controllers to all equations of the LC system. Moreover, based on the obtained results of the LC system, we also derive the control laws for chaos (lag) synchronization of another new type of chaotic system

  8. QCScreen: a software tool for data quality control in LC-HRMS based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simader, Alexandra Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Neumann, Nora Katharina Nicole; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Lirk, Gerald; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-10-24

    Metabolomics experiments often comprise large numbers of biological samples resulting in huge amounts of data. This data needs to be inspected for plausibility before data evaluation to detect putative sources of error e.g. retention time or mass accuracy shifts. Especially in liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) based metabolomics research, proper quality control checks (e.g. for precision, signal drifts or offsets) are crucial prerequisites to achieve reliable and comparable results within and across experimental measurement sequences. Software tools can support this process. The software tool QCScreen was developed to offer a quick and easy data quality check of LC-HRMS derived data. It allows a flexible investigation and comparison of basic quality-related parameters within user-defined target features and the possibility to automatically evaluate multiple sample types within or across different measurement sequences in a short time. It offers a user-friendly interface that allows an easy selection of processing steps and parameter settings. The generated results include a coloured overview plot of data quality across all analysed samples and targets and, in addition, detailed illustrations of the stability and precision of the chromatographic separation, the mass accuracy and the detector sensitivity. The use of QCScreen is demonstrated with experimental data from metabolomics experiments using selected standard compounds in pure solvent. The application of the software identified problematic features, samples and analytical parameters and suggested which data files or compounds required closer manual inspection. QCScreen is an open source software tool which provides a useful basis for assessing the suitability of LC-HRMS data prior to time consuming, detailed data processing and subsequent statistical analysis. It accepts the generic mzXML format and thus can be used with many different LC-HRMS platforms to process both multiple

  9. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  10. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB): A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S; May, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. 825 patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as co-educators, situational, reflective and inductive teaching. The control arm received structured deductive teaching. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to at least 75% of the exercise training or education sessions. We tested for subgroup effects on the primary outcomes using interaction terms. The primary outcomes were compared across arms using logistic regression. More patients in the LC arm adhered to at least 75% of the exercise training sessions than control (80% versus 73%, adjusted odds ratio (OR):1.48; 95% CI:1.07 to 2.05, P=0.018) and 75% of education sessions (79% versus 70%, adjusted OR:1.61, 1.17 to 2.22, P=0.003). Some evidence of larger effects of LC on adherence was seen for patients with heart failure, low education and household income. Addition of LC strategies improved adherence in rehabilitation both in terms of exercise training and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Embedded controllers for local board-control

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, Niko; Mini, Giuseppe; Sannino, Mario; Guzik, Zbigniew; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has a large number of custom electronic boards performing high-speed data-processing. Like in any large experiment the control and monitoring of these crate-mounted boards must be integrated into the overall control-system. Traditionally this has been done by using buses like VME on the back-plane of the crates. LHCb has chosen to equip every board with an embedded micro-controller and connecting them in a large Local Area Network. The intelligence of these devices allows complex (soft) real-time control and monitoring, required for modern powerful FPGA driven electronics. Moreover each board has its own, isolated control access path, which increases the robustness of the entire system. The system is now in pre-production at several sites and will go into full production during next year. The hardware and software will be discussed and experiences from the R&D and pre-production will be reviewed, with an emphasis on advantages and difficulties of this approach to board-control.

  12. A Novel Neural Network Vector Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters with L, LC and LCL Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel recurrent neural network (NN-based vector control approach for single-phase grid-connected converters (GCCs with L (inductor, LC (inductor-capacitor and LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor filters and provides their comparison study with the conventional standard vector control method. A single neural network controller replaces two current-loop PI controllers, and the NN training approximates the optimal control for the single-phase GCC system. The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was used to train the NN controller based on the complete system equations without any decoupling policies. The proposed NN approach can solve the decoupling problem associated with the conventional vector control methods for L, LC and LCL-filter-based single-phase GCCs. Both simulation study and hardware experiments demonstrate that the neural network vector controller shows much more improved performance than that of conventional vector controllers, including faster response speed and lower overshoot. Especially, NN vector control could achieve very good performance using low switch frequency. More importantly, the neural network vector controller is a damping free controller, which is generally required by a conventional vector controller for an LCL-filter-based single-phase grid-connected converter and, therefore, can overcome the inefficiency problem caused by damping policies.

  13. Multiple reaction monitoring targeted LC-MS analysis of potential cell death marker proteins for increased bioprocess control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Kaisermayer, Christian; Reinhart, David; Ambrose, Monica; Kunert, Renate; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    The monitoring of protein biomarkers for the early prediction of cell stress and death is a valuable tool for process characterization and efficient biomanufacturing control. A representative set of six proteins, namely GPDH, PRDX1, LGALS1, CFL1, TAGLN2 and MDH, which were identified in a previous CHO-K1 cell death model using discovery LC-MS E was translated into a targeted liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) platform and verified. The universality of the markers was confirmed in a cell growth model for which three Chinese hamster ovary host cell lines (CHO-K1, CHO-S, CHO-DG44) were grown in batch culture in two different types of basal media. LC-MRM-MS was also applied to spent media (n = 39) from four perfusion biomanufacturing series. Stable isotope-labelled peptide analogues and a stable isotope-labelled monoclonal antibody were used for improved protein quantitation and simultaneous monitoring of the workflow reproducibility. Significant increases in protein concentrations were observed for all viability marker proteins upon increased dead cell numbers and allowed for discrimination of spent media with dead cell densities below and above 1 × 10 6  dead cells/mL which highlights the potential of the selected viability marker proteins in bioprocess control. Graphical abstract Overview of the LC-MRM-MS workflow for the determination of proteomic markers in conditioned media from the bioreactor that correlate with CHO cell death.

  14. Local and Integral Control of Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); J. Wijngaard (Jacob)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn most of the literature on performance analysis of production systems, buffer are assumed to be controlled locally. In automated production systems buffers are not always the result of local physical space restrictions, but may also be software- controlled. Software-controlled buffers

  15. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  16. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...

  17. Localized climate control in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P.S.; Sijs, J.; Fransman, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for controlling the indoor climate in greenhouses are based on a few sensors and actuators in combination with an assumption that climate variables, such as temperature, are uniform throughout the greenhouse. While this is already an improper assumption for conventional greenhouses, it

  18. Preoperative radiotherapy for resectable rectal cancer: improved local control is prognostic for distant metastasis occurrence and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotecki, Robert A.; Mendenhall, William M.; Copeland, Edward M.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicholas; Marsh, Robert D.; McCarley, Dean L.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the effect of preoperative external beam radiotherapy (RT) on local control (LC), distant metastasis (DM), survival, and perioperative complications in a 15-year single-institution experience. Disease and treatment variables potentially prognostic for local-regional control and survival were evaluated, and the importance of LC as a determinant of DM and survival was also examined. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ten patients with potentially resectable cancers of the rectum were treated with preoperative external beam RT at a single institution between 1975 and 1990. Excluded were patients with 'fixed' unresectable tumors and those treated with palliative intent only. All patients were treated with megavoltage RT to minimum tumor doses of 30 Gy using multiple-field techniques. Preoperative chemotherapy was not used. Surgical resection was performed 3-5 weeks after completion of RT. Abdominoperineal resection was performed in 175 cases, low anterior resection in 25 cases, and other surgical procedures in 10 cases. Pathologic tumor staging was by the Astler-Coller modification of the Dukes system. Minimum follow-up was 5 years. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with univariate and multivariate analysis of disease and treatment variables for prognostic significance. Results: No treatment-specific variables were predictive for LC, DM, absolute survival, or cause-specific survival. Disease-specific variables prognostic for LC were deep tumor infiltration or 'tethering' on digital rectal exam and Dukes pathologic stage. Ten-year LC rates were 91% for freely mobile tumors vs. 82% for tethered lesions (p=.009). LC rates for Dukes A, B, and C stage tumors were 100%, 91%, and 73%, respectively (p=.02). Variables prognostic for DM were tumor length, annular involvement, LC, and Dukes pathologic stage. Absolute survival at 5 and 10 years was 57% and 36%, respectively. Variables prognostic for absolute survival were

  19. Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quality Controlled Local Climatological Data (QCLCD) contains summaries from major airport weather stations that include a daily account of temperature extremes,...

  20. Feedforward control strategy for the state-decoupling Stand-alone UPS with LC output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    . In order to further increase the load current disturbance rejection capability of the state-decoupling in UPS system, a feedforward control strategy is proposed. In addition, the design principle for the current and voltage regulators are discussed. Simulation and experimental results are provided......In this paper, the disturbance rejection performance of the cascaded control strategy for UPS system is investigated. The comparison of closed loop system performance between conventional cascaded control (CCC) strategy and state-decoupling cascaded control (SDCC) strategy are further explored...

  1. Implementation of statistical process control for proteomic experiments via LC MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereman, Michael S; Johnson, Richard; Bollinger, James; Boss, Yuval; Shulman, Nick; MacLean, Brendan; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; MacCoss, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) is a robust set of tools that aids in the visualization, detection, and identification of assignable causes of variation in any process that creates products, services, or information. A tool has been developed termed Statistical Process Control in Proteomics (SProCoP) which implements aspects of SPC (e.g., control charts and Pareto analysis) into the Skyline proteomics software. It monitors five quality control metrics in a shotgun or targeted proteomic workflow. None of these metrics require peptide identification. The source code, written in the R statistical language, runs directly from the Skyline interface, which supports the use of raw data files from several of the mass spectrometry vendors. It provides real time evaluation of the chromatographic performance (e.g., retention time reproducibility, peak asymmetry, and resolution), and mass spectrometric performance (targeted peptide ion intensity and mass measurement accuracy for high resolving power instruments) via control charts. Thresholds are experiment- and instrument-specific and are determined empirically from user-defined quality control standards that enable the separation of random noise and systematic error. Finally, Pareto analysis provides a summary of performance metrics and guides the user to metrics with high variance. The utility of these charts to evaluate proteomic experiments is illustrated in two case studies.

  2. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... The treatment was well tolerated, and the patient is still disease free after 12 months. ECT resulted in improved local control and should be considered among the available adjuvant treatments in equines carrying soft tissue tumors. Keywords: Cisplatin, Electrochemotherapy, Equine, Fibrosarcoma.

  3. Local quantum control of Heisenberg spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, Rahel; Bruder, C.; Stojanovic, Vladimir M.; Burgarth, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by some recent results of quantum control theory, we discuss the feasibility of local operator control in arrays of interacting qubits modeled as isotropic Heisenberg spin chains. Acting on one of the end spins, we aim at finding piecewise-constant control pulses that lead to optimal fidelities for a chosen set of quantum gates. We analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the gate fidelities to random errors in the control fields, finding that with faster switching between piecewise-constant controls the system is less susceptible to these errors. The observed behavior falls into a generic class of physical phenomena that are related to a competition between resonance- and relaxation-type behavior, exemplified by motional narrowing in NMR experiments. Finally, we discuss how the obtained optimal gate fidelities are altered when the corresponding rapidly varying piecewise-constant control fields are smoothened through spectral filtering.

  4. Local control after brachytherapy for localized prostatic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, T.; Peneau, M.; Sabattier, R.; Breteau, N.

    1996-01-01

    From 1991 to 1995; 31 patients (mid-age: 70 years) underwent prostatic brachytherapy for localized prostate cancers using Iridium 192 transperineal percutaneous interstitial implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography. Initial staging included among other evaluations a bilateral staging, iliac and obturator lymph nodes dissection. Classification according to stage was : T1b=16%, T1c=36%, T2a=19%, T2b=13%, T2c=13%, T3a=3%. All patients were N (-). Gleason score was 5 for 55%. 77% of the initial PSA was < 25μg/l. Follow-up included one clinical control and psa determination at 1-3-6-12 and 18 months, bone scanning at 12 months and prostate biopsy guided by transrectal ultrasonography at 18, 24, 30 months. Up to now, mean follow-up is 32 months. At one month, psa was normal (< 2,5μg/l) in 21% of the patients, at 12 months 60% and 67% two years after brachytherapy. Biopsies at 18 months were negative for 60% of the patients and 63% at 24 months. 3 patients were metastased after 3 years. 4 patients had severe complications with colostomy and/or urinary derivation. This technic seems to be interesting for localized prostate cancers T1 and T2 with initial psa < 25μg/l. Two third of the patients had normal psa and negative biopsies after 2 years. The rate of ano-rectal and urinary morbidity is high but is explained by the technic used at the beginning of this study

  5. Electronically controllable spoof localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liu; Xun Xiao, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Electronically controllable multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are experimentally demonstrated in the microwave frequencies. It has been shown that half integer order LSPs modes exist on the corrugated ring loaded with a slit, which actually arise from the Fabry-Perot-like resonances. By mounting active components across the slit in the corrugated rings, electronic switchability and tunability of spoof LSPs modes have been accomplished. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate efficient dynamic control of the spoof LSPs. These elements may form the basis of highly integrated programmable plasmonic circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Local Control Prediction Using Different Biophysical Models for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Tian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The consistency for predicting local control (LC data using biophysical models for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment of lung cancer is unclear. This study aims to compare the results calculated from different models using the treatment planning data. Materials and Methods. Treatment plans were designed for 17 patients diagnosed with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using 5 different fraction schemes. The Martel model, Ohri model, and the Tai model were used to predict the 2-year LC value. The Gucken model, Santiago model, and the Tai model were employed to estimate the 3-year LC data. Results. We found that the employed models resulted in completely different LC prediction except for the Gucken and the Santiago models which exhibited quite similar 3-year LC data. The predicted 2-year and 3-year LC values in different models were not only associated with the dose normalization but also associated with the employed fraction schemes. The greatest difference predicted by different models was up to 15.0%. Conclusions. Our results show that different biophysical models influence the LC prediction and the difference is not only correlated to the dose normalization but also correlated to the employed fraction schemes.

  7. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  8. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona, J I; Alberdi, J; Gamero, E; Blanco, J

    1992-07-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  9. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector. Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  10. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de Seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona Maeztu, J.I.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Gamero Aranda, E.; Blanco, J.

    1991-12-31

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. the provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of 8 logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of a P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical ecuations of the control system. the memory output lines give the control commands of the parabolic trough collector motor. (author)

  11. Gamma knife radiosurgery of radiation-induced intracranial tumors: Local control, outcomes, and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Ashley W.; Brown, Paul D.; Pollock, Bruce E.; Stafford, Scott L.; Link, Michael J.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Foote, Robert L.; Gorman, Deborah A.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine local control (LC) and complication rates for patients who underwent radiosurgery for radiation-induced intracranial tumors. Methods and Materials: Review of a prospectively maintained database (2,714 patients) identified 16 patients (20 tumors) with radiation-induced tumors treated with radiosurgery between 1990 and 2004. Tumor types included typical meningioma (n = 17), atypical meningioma (n = 2), and schwannoma (n 1). Median patient age at radiosurgery was 47.5 years (range, 27-70 years). The median tumor margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 12-20 Gy). Median follow-up was 40.2 months (range, 10.8-146.2 months). Time-to-event outcomes were calculated with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results: Three-year and 5-year LC rates were 100%. Three-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 92% and 80%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 100%. Three patients died: 1 had in-field progression 65.1 months after radiosurgery and later died of the tumor, 1 died of progression of a preexisting brain malignancy, and 1 died of an unrelated cause. One patient had increased seizure activity that correlated with development of edema seen on neuroimaging. Conclusions: LC, survival, and complication rates in our series are comparable to those in previous reports of radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas. Also, LC rates with radiosurgery are at least comparable to those of surgical series for radiation-induced meningiomas. Radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for radiation-induced intracranial tumors, most of which are typical meningiomas

  12. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G

    2004-07-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q{sub 95} and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q{sub 95} (>4.5) with {delta}W{sub ELM}/W{sub ped}<5% was demonstrated in high triangularity ({delta} {approx} 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high {delta} and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and

  13. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Gonsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Burell, H.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A.; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Lonnroth, J.; Kamiya, K.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focusing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM (energy localized mode) energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. The theoretical description of the most studied Type-I ELMs is progressing from linear MHD stability analysis for peeling and ballooning modes to the non-linear explosive models and transport codes. Present theories cannot predict the ELM size self-consistently, however they pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area. The experimental data also suggest that the conductive energy losses in Type-I ELM can be controlled by working in specific plasma conditions. In particular, the existence of purely convective small Type-I ELMs regimes at high q 95 (>4.5) with ΔW ELM /W ped <5% was demonstrated in high triangularity (δ ∼ 0.5) plasmas in JET. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type-II, grassy, QH, Type-III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ and their relevance for ITER parameters are reviewed briefly. The absence of already developed ITER relevant high confinement scenarios with acceptable ELMs has motivated recent intensive experimental and theoretical studies of active control of ELMs. The possibility of suppression of Type-I ELMs in H-mode scenarios at constant confinement was demonstrated in DIII-D experiments with a stochastic boundary created by external coils. It has been demonstrated in AUG that small pellets can trigger Type-I ELMs with a frequency imposed by the pellet injector. Pellet induced ELMs are similar to the intrinsic Type-I ELMs with the same frequency. At the same time the confinement degradation due to the fuelling can be minimized with pellets small as compared to the gas injection. Recent plasma current ramp experiments (JET, COMPASS-D) and modelling (JETTO) demonstrated that the edge

  14. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  15. Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiwen; Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  17. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shiwen, E-mail: sunsw80@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  18. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1991-02-01

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  19. Hearing aid controlled by binaural source localizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right

  20. Deciding the Fate of Local Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental job of school board members is to view themselves as moral and cultural leaders and to transform the needs of groups to a higher and more noble framework. Lists the National School Boards Association's statement on the governance role of the local school board. (MLF)

  1. Electrochemotherapy increases local control after incomplete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... horse with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using cisplatin as chemotherapy agent. Two sessions of ECT were performed at two-week intervals using local cisplatin followed by trains of biphasic electric pulses applied using different electrodes until complete coverage of the area was achieved. The treatment was well tolerated ...

  2. Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Airfield Local Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mowery, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    .... In air traffic control operations, situational awareness of a local controller at an airfield such as Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton, California, is critical to prevention of catastrophic...

  3. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Koukourakis

    Full Text Available LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli, where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies.

  4. Topography printing to locally control wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zijian; Azzaroni, Omar; Zhou, Feng; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2006-06-21

    This paper reports a new patterning method, which utilizes NaOH to facilitate the irreversible binding between the PDMS stamp and substrates and subsequent cohesive mechanical failure to transfer the PDMS patterns. Our method shows high substrate tolerance and can be used to "print" various PDMS geometries on a wide range of surfaces, including Si100, glass, gold, polymers, and patterned SU8 photoresist. Using this technique, we are able to locally change the wettability of substrate surfaces by printing well-defined PDMS architectures on the patterned SU8 photoresist. It is possible to generate differential wetting and dewetting properties in microchannels and in the PDMS printed area, respectively.

  5. Towards probabilistic synchronisation of local controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herzallah, R.; Kárný, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2017), s. 604-615 ISSN 0020-7721 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : cooperative control * optimal control * complex system s * stochastic system s * fully probabilistic desing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.285, year: 2016

  6. Edge localized modes control: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becoulet, M.; Huysmans, G.; Thomas, P.; Joffrin, E.; Rimini, F.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Grosman, A.; Ghendrih, P.; Parail, V.; Lomas, P.; Matthews, G.; Wilson, H.; Gryaznevich, M.; Counsell, G.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Leonard, A.; Snyder, P.; Evans, T.; Gohil, P.; Moyer, R.; Kamada, Y.; Oyama, N.; Hatae, T.; Kamiya, K.; Degeling, A.; Martin, Y.; Lister, J.; Rapp, J.; Perez, C.; Lang, P.; Chankin, A; Eich, T.; Sips, A.; Stober, J.; Horton, L.; Kallenbach, A.; Suttrop, W.; Saarelma, S.; Cowley, S.; Loennroth, J.; Shimada, M.; Polevoi, A.; Federici, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental results focussing on the identification of the key factors controlling ELM energy and particle losses both in natural ELMs and in the presence of external controlling mechanisms. Present experiment and theory pointed out the benefit of the high plasma shaping, high q 95 and high pedestal density in reducing the ELM affected area and conductive energy losses in Type I ELMs. Small benign ELMs regimes in present machines (EDA, HRS, Type II, Grassy, QH, Type III in impurity seeded discharges at high δ ) and their relevance for ITER are reviewed. Recent studies of active control of ELMs using stochastic boundaries, small pellets and edge current generation are presented

  7. Electro-statically controllable graphene local heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Shan; Deng, Lian-Wen; Li, Lei; Sun, Qiu-Juan; Xie, Hong; Wang, Hao-Min

    2018-03-01

    We report on current-induced thermal power investigation of graphene nanostructure for potential local-heating applications. It is found that the efficiency of heating can be greatly improved if graphene is patterned into structures with narrow width and long channel. In a narrow graphene-ribbon, the Joule heating power exhibits an obvious dependence on the back-gate voltage. By monitoring Raman spectra, the temperature of graphene-ribbon can be determined. The temperature of graphene-ribbon is modulated by the electric field effect when the sample is sourced with a relatively high current. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFF0206106), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04040300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51772317), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 16ZR1442700).

  8. Globalization and Localization of the Management Control System package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Through an empirical case study, this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems – cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... the organization and others have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls and reward and compensation controls are glocal systems. The finding leads to the conclusion...... controls – through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. Based on a single-case study, the analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, some of which are universal throughout...

  9. Enabling Controlling Complex Networks with Local Topological Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xiao, Gaoxi; Tang, Pei; Wen, Changyun; Hu, Wuhua; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping; Stanley, H Eugene

    2018-03-15

    Complex networks characterize the nature of internal/external interactions in real-world systems including social, economic, biological, ecological, and technological networks. Two issues keep as obstacles to fulfilling control of large-scale networks: structural controllability which describes the ability to guide a dynamical system from any initial state to any desired final state in finite time, with a suitable choice of inputs; and optimal control, which is a typical control approach to minimize the cost for driving the network to a predefined state with a given number of control inputs. For large complex networks without global information of network topology, both problems remain essentially open. Here we combine graph theory and control theory for tackling the two problems in one go, using only local network topology information. For the structural controllability problem, a distributed local-game matching method is proposed, where every node plays a simple Bayesian game with local information and local interactions with adjacent nodes, ensuring a suboptimal solution at a linear complexity. Starring from any structural controllability solution, a minimizing longest control path method can efficiently reach a good solution for the optimal control in large networks. Our results provide solutions for distributed complex network control and demonstrate a way to link the structural controllability and optimal control together.

  10. Error Control in Distributed Node Self-Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Location information of nodes in an ad hoc sensor network is essential to many tasks such as routing, cooperative sensing, and service delivery. Distributed node self-localization is lightweight and requires little communication overhead, but often suffers from the adverse effects of error propagation. Unlike other localization papers which focus on designing elaborate localization algorithms, this paper takes a different perspective, focusing on the error propagation problem, addressing questions such as where localization error comes from and how it propagates from node to node. To prevent error from propagating and accumulating, we develop an error-control mechanism based on characterization of node uncertainties and discrimination between neighboring nodes. The error-control mechanism uses only local knowledge and is fully decentralized. Simulation results have shown that the active selection strategy significantly mitigates the effect of error propagation for both range and directional sensors. It greatly improves localization accuracy and robustness.

  11. QUESTION OF IMPROVEMENT OF BUDGET CONTROL AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Vatslavskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyse the current practice of budgetary control to develop its areas of improvement at the local level. The subject of the research is theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of budgetary control at the local level. The methodological basis of the study comprises research approaches, general theoretical principles of scientific knowledge, system of methods and techniques. The paper clarifies the nature of budgetary control at the local level. The main bodies that implement budget control, namely the State Audit Office, the Accounting Chamber, the State Treasury, the State Fiscal Service, financial and management departments are singled out. It is found that the leading part among all of the special budgetary control bodies in the rational and efficient use of local financial resources is performed by the State Audit Office. Analysis of the State Audit Office in three regions of Ukraine for the period 2013-2015 has been carried out. We distinguish two main types of violations that the State Audit Service reveals during its work at the local level: 1 shortfall in the financial resources of public enterprises, institutions and organizations; 2 violations that lead to illegal, non-target costs and shortages. It is proved that the efficiency of budgetary control is low. The paper states basic problems of budget control at the local level, namely, low income funds and reimbursements from violations revealed by regulatory agencies; insufficient work with the public to explain the problems of budget control and eliminate violations in the public sector; lack of a consolidated legal act, which would have regulated all the major components of budgetary control; insufficient use of controlling and auditing methods aimed at determining the effectiveness of budget funds; low preventive function on the part of budget control bodies. We offer ways to improve budget control at the local level through: standardization system of

  12. A mobile console for local access to accelerator control systems.

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors were installed as auxiliary crate controllers (ACCs) in the CAMAC interface of control systems for various accelerators. The same ACC was also at the hearth of a stand-alone system in the form of a mobile console. This was also used for local access to the control systems for tests and development work (Annual Report 1981, p. 80, Fig. 10).

  13. Local hierarchical control for industrial microgrids with improved frequency regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, Juan M.; Vergara, Pedro P.; Castilla, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Local control strategies that operate without relying on communication systems enhance flexibility and reliability of AC industrial microgrids. Based on a previous work in which a secondary switched control was proposed, this paper presents a complementary strategy to improve the frequency......-use of communications. Experimental results obtained on a laboratory microgrid are presented to validate the performance of the proposed complementary control strategy....

  14. The Large Customer Reactive Power Control Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Małkowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors wish to draw attention to the rationale for, and the possibility of, the use of local reactive power sources by the Transmission Node Master Controller (TNMC. Large Customers (LC are one of the possible reactive power sources. The paper presents the issues related to the need for coordination between the control systems installed in the LC network, and coordination between control systems of the LC as well as master control systems in the network.

  15. Blockage-induced condensation controlled by a local reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Colangeli, Matteo; Muntean, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    We consider the setup of stationary zero range models and discuss the onset of condensation induced by a local blockage on the lattice. We show that the introduction of a local feedback on the hopping rates allows us to control the particle fraction in the condensed phase. This phenomenon results in a current versus blockage parameter curve characterized by two nonanalyticity points.

  16. STAR-TYPE LOCAL AREA NETWORK ACCESS CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯昭义; 齐藤忠夫

    1990-01-01

    The multiple access fashion is a new resolution for the star-type local area network (LAN) access control and star-type optical fibre LAN. Arguments about this network are discussed, and the results are introduced.

  17. Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional methods of social control in Afikpo north local government area, Ebonyi state south eastern Nigeria. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... simple percentage was used in presenting and interpreting the quantitative data.

  18. Impact of point A asymmetry on local control and survival for low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfermann, Krisha J; Wahlquist, Amy; Watkins, John; Kohler, Matthew; Jenrette, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether Point A asymmetry in low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy is associated with local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of disease control and survival outcomes was conducted for patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Institutional protocol entailed concurrent chemotherapy and whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) over 5 weeks, followed by placement of Fletcher-Suit tandem and colpostat applicators at weeks 6 and 8. Objective Point A doses, 80-85 Gy, were accomplished by placement of Cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between disease control and survival endpoints with variables of interest. The records of 50 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer undergoing LDR brachytherapy at our institution were identified. Thirty of these patients had asymmetry > 2.5%, and 11 patients had asymmetry > 5%. At a median survivor follow-up of 20.25 months, 15 patients had experienced disease failure (including 5 cervical/vaginal apex only failures and 2 failures encompassing the local site). Right/left dose asymmetry at Point A was associated with statistically significantly inferior LC (p = 0.035) and inferior DFS (p = 0.011) for patients with mean Point A dose of > 80 Gy. Insufficient evidence existed to conclude an association with OS. LDR brachytherapy may be associated with clinically significant dose asymmetry. The present study demonstrates that patients with Point A asymmetry have a higher risk of failure for DFS and LC.

  19. Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Clare M.; Mirmow, Dwight; Huang Qingshon; Gerszten, Kristina; Day, Roger; Jones, Mirka W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a significant problem following primary surgery for advanced vulva carcinoma. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of adjuvant vulvar radiation on local control in high risk patients and the impact of local recurrence on overall survival. Methods and Materials: From 1980-1994, 62 patients with invasive vulva carcinoma and either positive or close (less 8 mm) margins of excision were retrospectively studied. Thirty-one patients were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the vulva and 31 patients were observed after surgery. Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on local recurrence and overall survival. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival were also assessed. Results: Local recurrence occurred in 58% of observed patients and 16% in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates in both the close margin and positive margin groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.0048). On both univariate and multivariate analysis adjuvant radiation and margins of excision were significant prognostic predictors for local control. Significant determinants of actuarial survival included International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, percentage of pathologically positive inguinal nodes and margins of excision. The positive margin observed group had a significantly poorer actuarial 5 year survival than the other groups (p = 0.0016) and adjuvant radiation significantly improved survival for this group. The 2 year actuarial survival after developing local recurrence was 25%. Local recurrence was a significant predictor for death from vulva carcinoma (risk ratio 3.54). Conclusion: Local recurrence is a common occurrence in high risk patients. In this study adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates and

  20. Local control of Ewing's sarcoma: an analysis of 67 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.; Fixsen, J.A.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Local control of Ewing's sarcoma was analysed in a series of 67 patients treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy as well as combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was employed with or without surgery in 60 patients and produced an overall local control rate of 55%; complete excision of the primary lesion seemed to be beneficial. There was a marked variation in control rates depending on the site of the primary lesion: limb 85%, rib 53%, pelvis 31% and other sites 33%.Primary tumours greater than 10 cm in diameter were significantly less likely to be controlled. Using daily fractions of approximately 180 cGy, total doses in excess of 6000 cGy seem more likely to produce serious late morbidity amd may not increase the local control rate. No cases of second malignancy arising in irradiated tissue have been observed to date, but one patient developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)

  1. Analysis of locally controlled esophageal carcinomas treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yasuo; Yamada, Shogo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Hoshi, Akihiko; Ariga, Hisanori; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1996-01-01

    Of 227 esophageal carcinomas treated with a radiation dose of 60 Gy or more, 100 patients had no tumor or ulceration (with or without stenosis) of the esophagus after irradiation. We analyzed local control factors of these 100 patients to determine the need for further treatment. The cumulative local control rate at five years was 40% in all cases, 37% in 21 cases without any stenosis of the esophagus and 40% in 79 cases with stenosis. The presence of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was not a critical factor in predicting final local control. Local recurrence of tumors with findings of Borrmann III or Borrmann IV by the pretreatment esophageal barium study, tumors controlled after a total dose of more than 80 Gy, tumors without low dose rate telecobalt therapy (LDRT: 1 Gy/hour, 5 to 7 Gy/day, a total dose of 12 to 15 Gy) as boost therapy, and apparently controlled tumors with a stenotic ratio of 60% or more or with 5 cm or more length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation was significantly higher than that of the others (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that findings of pretreatment barium study, total dose, with or without LDRT, and length of stenosis of the esophagus after irradiation were significantly important factors in local control. Members of the high risk group of apparently controlled tumors should undertake surgical treatment or further intensive chemotherapy. (author)

  2. A low-power and low-phase-noise LC digitally controlled oscillator featuring a novel capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Huanhuan; Li Zhiqiang; Chen Pufeng; Wu Rufei; Zhang Haiying, E-mail: thuan8@126.com [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A monolithic low-power and low-phase-noise digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) based on a symmetric spiral inductor with center-tap and novel capacitor bank was implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process with six metal layers. A third new way to change capacitance is proposed and implemented in this work. Results show that the phase noise at 1 MHz offset frequency is below -122.5 dBc/Hz while drawing a current of only 4.8 mA from a 1.8 V supply. Also, the DCO can work at low supply voltage conditions with a 1.6 V power supply and 4.1 mA supply current for the DCO's core circuit, achieving a phase-noise of -21.5 dBc/Hz at offset of 1 MHz. It demonstrates that the supply pushing of DCO is less than 10 MHz/V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  4. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Raj, E-mail: rchakra@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  5. Combining local and global optimisation for virtual camera control

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2010 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games

    2010-01-01

    Controlling a virtual camera in 3D computer games is a complex task. The camera is required to react to dynamically changing environments and produce high quality visual results and smooth animations. This paper proposes an approach that combines local and global search to solve the virtual camera control problem. The automatic camera control problem is described and it is decomposed into sub-problems; then a hierarchical architecture that solves each sub-problem using the most appropriate op...

  6. The improvement of PWR(OPR-1000) Local Control Pannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Youl; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jun-Kou [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The malfunction of feature in NPP could be occurred by physical aging, electrical false signal and natural disaster. The first recognition of malfunction is almost done by alarm system. Due to the importance of alarm system, design basis of alarm system is described in FSAR 18.1.4.20(alarm system design review). Operators can recognize malfunction of feature and importance of alarm in short distance. The sound of alarm is also changed depending on frequency so it contributes recognition of alarm. This system is not helpful in recognition of alarm for filed operators. In this study, the way that FSAR(priority of alarm and color indication) is also applied on local control is suggested. The alarm sound considering field situation, alarm name, status indication in circuit breaker are suggested to improve overall local control panel. These can contribute to safety operation. This paper is made from improvement items of local control panel in the sight of field operator. The research of local panel is necessary to apply these improvements and the collaboration of related department is also needed. In this study, The alarm sound considering field situation, alarm name, status indication in circuit breaker are suggested to improve overall local control panel based on Hanul Unit 6. If the improvement is applied, the qualitative effect of safe operation will be increased, and fatigue of work stress will be lower.

  7. Robust controller for synchronous generator with local load via VSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Vazquez, J. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Departamento de Electronica, Av. Revolucion No. 1500, Modulo ' ' O' ' , Apdo. Postal 44840, Guadalajara Jalisco (Mexico); Loukianov, Alexander G.; Canedo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 31-438, Plaza La Luna, C. P. 44550, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Utkin, Vadim I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Ohio-State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1272 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to design a nonlinear observer-based excitation controller for power system comprising a single synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus with local load. The controller proposed is based on the using first singular perturbation systems concepts and then Sliding Mode Control technique combining with Block Control Principle. To reduce ''chattering'' a nonlinear observer with estimation of the mechanical torque and rotor fluxes is designed. This combined approach enables to compensate the inherent nonlinearities of the generator and to reject external disturbances. (author)

  8. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  9. Local control station for development, testing and maintenance of mirror fusion facility subsystem controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ables, E.; Kelly, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    A Local Control Station (LCS) was designed and built to provide a simplified ad easily configurable means of controlling any Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) subsystem for the purpose of development, testing and maintenance of the subsystem. All MFTF-B Subsystems incorporate at least one Local Control Computer (LCC) that is connected to and accepts high level commands from one of the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) computers. The LCS connects directly to the LCC in place of SCDS. The LCS communicates with the subsystem hardware using the same SCDS commands that the local control computer recognizes and as such requires no special configuration of the LCC

  10. Entangled Coherent States Generation in two Superconducting LC Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meiyu; Zhang Weimin

    2008-01-01

    We proposed a novel pure electronic (solid state) device consisting of two superconducting LC circuits coupled to a superconducting flux qubit. The entangled coherent states of the two LC modes is generated through the measurement of the flux qubit states. The interaction of the flux qubit and two LC circuits is controlled by the external microwave control lines. The geometrical structure of the LC circuits is adjustable and makes a strong coupling between them achievable. This entangled coherent state generator can be realized by using the conventional microelectronic fabrication techniques which increases the feasibility of the experiment.

  11. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  12. Local Model Predictive Control for T-S Fuzzy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Hu, Jianghai

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new linear matrix inequality-based model predictive control (MPC) problem is studied for discrete-time nonlinear systems described as Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. A recent local stability approach is applied to improve the performance of the proposed MPC scheme. At each time k , an optimal state-feedback gain that minimizes an objective function is obtained by solving a semidefinite programming problem. The local stability analysis, the estimation of the domain of attraction, and feasibility of the proposed MPC are proved. Examples are given to demonstrate the advantages of the suggested MPC over existing approaches.

  13. Improved local control with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma: Long-term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakfoor, Bruce M.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kaufman, S. Donald; Shellito, Paul C.; Daly, William J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Since 1979, our institution has treated locally advanced rectal cancer with preoperative irradiation followed by resection with or without intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). In 1986, our preoperative treatment policy was changed to include bolus 5-FU chemotherapy concurrent with irradiation in hopes of improving resectability, downstaging and/or local control rates. We report the long-term results with the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy to preoperative irradiation. Materials and Methods: From 1979 - 1994, 200 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma (primary or recurrent) received preoperative irradiation, resection and IORT if indicated. Bolus 5-FU (500mg/m 2 /day) chemotherapy was administered for three days during weeks one and five of irradiation. The change in treatment policy was limited to the addition of 5-FU chemotherapy: the radiation techniques (four-field), doses (50.4 Gy), and indications for intraoperative radiation (microscopic residual, gross residual, tumor adherence) remained constant. The median follow-up for the entire group of patients was 33 months (.95 months - 199 months), and the minimum follow-up was 1.5 years. Tabular results are 5-year actuarial calculations. Results: One hundred and five patients received preoperative 5-FU chemotherapy and irradiation whereas 95 patients underwent preoperative irradiation alone. Sixty-five percent of the patients were able to undergo complete resections, and 53% had transmural disease upon pathologic examination. The addition of chemotherapy did not affect the rates of resectability or tumor downstaging. However, the 10-year local control rate was significantly improved for those patients who received preoperative chemotherapy: 77% vs. 44% (p<0.01) (see figure). When stratified by extent of resection and stage, those patients who underwent complete resections or had transmural disease had significantly improved local control rates when compared to the non-chemotherapy group: No

  14. Ciudadania, el poder local e controle do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Moulin Simões Penalva Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian society is experiencing a population expansion within the context of decentralisation of public policies, from the central government to local institutions. Following this line of thought, in this article we analyse the public expenses in the Brazilian Federation in the period 1996-1998 in order to identify the institutions that have assumed the financial right of the citizens, as well as to estimate if there has been a transfer of responsibilities among federal institutions. The success of this process is related to the integrated performance of the external control from the public administration. In that sense, we also study the control exercised by Parliaments, Administrative Courts, Public Prosecution Offices and the Judicial Power beyond social control, taking into consideration their improvement and highlighting the control of the Public Prosecution Office as well as the control exercised by the popular councils.

  15. Can LC and LC-MS ever replace immunoassays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Cross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays have been the technology of choice for the analysis of biomolecules for many decades across a wide range of applications in research, diagnostics and infectious disease monitoring. There are good reasons for the wide adoption of immunoassays but even such a well established and characterised technique has limitations and as such investigators are looking at alternative technologies. One such alternative is liquid chromatography (LC and, more specifically, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS. This article will review both immunoassay and LC and LC-MS technologies and methodologies and discuss the advantages and limitations of both approaches. In addition, the next developments that will need to occur before there is widespread adoption of LC and LC-MS technology preferentially over immunoassays will be examined.

  16. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia, E-mail: krobitsc@molgen.mpg.de

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  17. Tuberculosis control: decentralization, local planning and management specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, Janaína Von Söhsten; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to analyze, according to the perception of health managers, the practices that guide tuberculosis control actions in cities in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. This qualitative study involved eight professionals in management functions. Testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews between May and June 2009 and organized through content analysis. Despite the acknowledged benefits of tuberculosis control action decentralization, local planning indicates the predominance of a bureaucratic model that is restricted to negotiation and supplies. Local programming is centered on the coordinator, which shows a command line and vertical management that lead to the fragmentation of the work process. Management action should follow an innovative and transformative route that surpasses bureaucratic barriers and faces the biggest challenge it is proposed: to balance professional interrelations with a view to improving health work performance.

  18. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  19. French local agencies of energy control; Agences locales francaise de maitrise de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the SAVE program, the European Commission brings financial assistance to the creation of local or regional agencies of energy control in municipalities and regions. The main criteria are the impacts on the energy demand, the reinforcement of the economic and social cohesion, the environmental quality and the contribution to the economic development and the employment creation. In this document, realized by Energie-Cites, the Ademe objective is to present a state of the art of french local agencies. Ten agencies are presented as case study. Each case deals with the following topics: the main context of the action which details the energy and the environmental policy of the municipality, the creation and the description of the agency, the implemented actions and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  20. Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehler-Jänne, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lütolf, Urs M; Ciernik, I Frank

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT). Clinical outcome of 81 HIV-seronegative patients (1988 – 2003) and 10 consecutive HIV-seropositive patients under HAART (1997 – 2003) that were treated with 3-D conformal RT of 59.4 Gy and standard 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C were retrospectively analysed. 10 TNM-stage and age matched HIV-seronegative patients (1992 – 2003) were compared with the 10 HIV-seropositive patients. Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and toxicity were assessed. RT with or without CT resulted in complete response in 100 % of HIV-seropositive patients. LC was impaired compared to matched HIV-seronegative patients after a median follow-up of 44 months (p = 0.03). OS at 5 years was 70 % in HIV-seropositive patients receiving HAART and 69 % in the matched controls. Colostomy-free survival was 70 % (HIV+) and 100 % (matched HIV-) and 78 % (all HIV-). No HIV-seropositive patient received an interstitial brachytherapy boost compared to 42 % of all HIV-seronegative patients and adherence to chemotherapy seemed to be difficult in HIV-seropositive patients. Acute hematological toxicity reaching 50 % was high in HIV-seropositive patients receiving MMC compared with 0 % in matched HIV-seronegative patients (p = 0.05) or 12 % in all HIV-seronegative patients. The rate of long-term side effects was low in HIV-seropositive patients. Despite high response rates to organ preserving treatment with RT with or without CT, local tumor failure seems to be high in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. HIV-seropositive patients are subject to treatment bias, being less likely treated with interstitial brachytherapy boost probably due to HIV-infection, and they are at risk to receive less chemotherapy

  1. Adaptive chaos control and synchronization in only locally Lipschitz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei

    2008-01-01

    In the existing results on chaos control and synchronization based on the adaptive controlling technique (ACT), a uniform Lipschitz condition on a given dynamical system is always assumed in advance. However, without this uniform Lipschitz condition, the ACT might be failed in both theoretical analysis and in numerical experiment. This Letter shows how to utilize the ACT to get a rigorous control for the system which is not uniformly Lipschitz but only locally Lipschitz, and even for the system which has unbounded trajectories. In fact, the ACT is proved to possess some limitation, which is actually induced by the nonlinear degree of the original system. Consequently, a piecewise ACT is proposed so as to improve the performance of the existing techniques

  2. Software for the Local Control and Instrumentation System for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    There are nine different systems requiring over fifty computers in the Local Control and Instrumentation System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Each computer system consists of an LSI-11/2 processor with 32,000 words of memory, a serial driver that implements the CAMAC serial highway protocol. With this large number of systems it is important that as much software as possible be common to all systems. A serial communications system has been developed for data transfers between the LSI-11/2's and the supervisory computers. This system is based on the RS 232 C interface with modem control lines. Six modem control lines are used for hardware handshaking, which allows totally independent full duplex communications to occur. Odd parity on each byte and a 16-bit checksum are used to detect errors in transmission

  3. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  4. Localization of the brainstem GABAergic neurons controlling paradoxical (REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep (PS is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe. Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles.

  5. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  6. Enhanced Control for Local Helicity Injection on the Pegasus ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierren, C.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Perry, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Local helicity injection (LHI) experiments on Pegasus rely upon programmable control of a 250 MVA modular power supply system that drives the electromagnets and helicity injection systems. Precise control of the central solenoid is critical to experimental campaigns that test the LHI Taylor relaxation limit and the coupling efficiency of LHI-produced plasmas to Ohmic current drive. Enhancement and expansion of the present control system is underway using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology for digital logic and control, coupled to new 10 MHz optical-to-digital transceivers for semiconductor level device communication. The system accepts optical command signals from existing analog feedback controllers, transmits them to multiple devices in parallel H-bridges, and aggregates their status signals for fault detection. Present device-level multiplexing/de-multiplexing and protection logic is extended to include bridge-level protections with the FPGA. An input command filter protects against erroneous and/or spurious noise generated commands that could otherwise cause device failures. Fault registration and response times with the FPGA system are 25 ns. Initial system testing indicates an increased immunity to power supply induced noise, enabling plasma operations at higher working capacitor bank voltage. This can increase the applied helicity injection drive voltage, enable longer pulse lengths and improve Ohmic loop voltage control. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  7. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods for determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in food and beverages: performances of local accredited laboratories via proficiency tests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, Ahmet C; Bilsel, Gökhan; Şimşek, Adnan; Bilsel, Mine; Akçadağ, Fatma; Topal, Kevser; Ozgen, Hasan

    2015-05-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography LC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods and beverages. HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were compared for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in a representative ketchup sample. Optimisation of the methods enabled the chromatographic separation of the analytes in less than 4 min. A correlation coefficient of 0.999 was achieved over the measured calibration range for both compounds and methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS). The uncertainty values of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were found as 0.199 and 0.150 mg/L by HPLC and 0.072 and 0.044 mg/L by LC-MS/MS, respectively. Proficiency testing performance of Turkish accredited laboratories between the years 2005 and 2013 was evaluated and reported herein. The aim of the proficiency testing scheme was to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, analysing benzoate and sorbate in tomato ketchup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  9. Typing Local Control and State Using Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arjun; Saftoiu, Claudiu; Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Programs written in scripting languages employ idioms that confound conventional type systems. In this paper, we highlight one important set of related idioms: the use of local control and state to reason informally about types. To address these idioms, we formalize run-time tags and their relationship to types, and use these to present a novel strategy to integrate typing with flow analysis in a modular way. We demonstrate that in our separation of typing and flow analysis, each component remains conventional, their composition is simple, but the result can handle these idioms better than either one alone.

  10. Local system for control by console-mobile crane for russian depository of fissionable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshchenko, V.G.; Kapustin, V.N.; Zinina, N.V.; Derbyshev, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Description of crane of console-mobile type used for transportation of fissionable materials in depository with local control system is represented. Local control system realizes program control in real time [ru

  11. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  12. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, E.

    2007-10-01

    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation

  13. Impact and relationship of anterior commissure and time-dose factor on the local control of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by 6 MV photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yiu-Tung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prognostic factors that may influence local control (LC of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by primary radiotherapy (RT with 6 MV photons. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 433 consecutive patients with T1N0 glottic cancer treated between 1983 and 2005 by RT in our institution. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons. One hundred and seventy seven (41% patients received 52.5 Gy in 23 fractions with 2.5 Gy/fraction, and 256 (59% patients received 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Results The median follow-up time was 10.5 years. The 10-year LC rates were 91% and 87% for T1a and T1b respectively. Multivariate analysis showed LC rate was adversely affected by poorly differentiated histology (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 7.5, p = 0.035; involvement of anterior commissure (HR: 2.34, p = 0.011; fraction size of 2.0 Gy (HR: 2.17, p = 0.035 and tumor biologically effective dose (BED 15 (HR: 3.38, p = 0.017. Conclusions The negative impact of anterior commissure involvement could be overcome by delivering a higher tumor BED through using fraction size of > 2.0 Gy. We recommend that fraction size > 2.0 Gy should be utilized, for radiation schedules with five daily fractions each week.

  14. High speed, locally controlled data acquisition system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, H.K.; Bradish, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, locally controlled, data acquisition and transmission system has been developed by the CICADA (Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition) Group for extracting certain timecritical data during a TFTR pulse and passing it to the control room, 1000 feet distant, to satisfy realtime requirements of frequently sampled variables. The system is designed to utilize any or all of the standard CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) modules now employed on the CAMAC links for retrieval of the main body of data, but to operate them in a much faster manner than in a standard CAMAC system. To do this, a pre-programmable ROM sequencer is employed as a controller to transmit commands to the modules at intervals down to one microsecond, replacing the usual CAMAC dedicated computer, and increasing the command rate by an order of magnitude over what could be sent down a Branch Highway. Data coming from any number of channels originating within a single CAMAC ''crate'' is then time-multiplexed and transmitted over a single conductor pair in bi-phase at a 2.5 MHz bit rate using Manchester coding techniques. Benefits gained from this approach include: Reduction in the number of conductors required, elimination of line-to-line skew found in parallel transmission systems, and the capability of being transformer coupled or transmitted over a fiber optic cable to avoid safety hazards and ground loops. The main application for this system so far has been as the feedback path in this closed loop control of currents through the Tokamak's field coils. The paper will treat the system's various applications

  15. Controllable photon and phonon localization in optomechanical Lieb lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang-Liang; Lü, Xin-You; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2017-07-24

    The Lieb lattice featuring flat band is not only important in strongly-correlated many-body physics, but also can be utilized to inspire new quantum devices. Here we propose an optomechanical Lieb lattice, where the flat-band physics of photon-phonon polaritons is demonstrated. The tunability of the band structure of the optomechanical arrays allows one to obtain an approximate photon or phonon flat band as well as the transition between them. This ultimately leads to the result that the controllable photon or phonon localization could be realized by the path interference effects. This study offers an alternative approach to explore the exotic photon and phonon many-body effects, which has potential applications in the future hybrid-photon-phonon quantum network and engineering new type solid-state quantum devices.

  16. Controlling Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernández, David; Smolka, Stephan; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum optics and quantum information technologies require enhancement of light-matter interaction by, for example, confining light in a small volume. A very recently demonstrated route towards light confinement makes use of multiple scattering of light and wave interference in disordered photonic...... structures [1,2]. Originally proposed for electrons by P. W. Anderson [3], only completely random systems without any long-range correlation between the scattering sites have been used so far, meaning that the Anderson-localized modes cannot be controlled. In disordered photonic crystals, these modes...... denoted by ng. By coupling light into a PCW with a tapered fiber (Fig. 1a), we have measured the ensemble-averaged exponential decay of the light distribution in the range 885 nm

  17. File list: InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC mm9 Input control Pluripotent stem cell EpiLC SRX823839,SRX5...5,SRX823838,SRX823831,SRX823826,SRX590324 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.PSC.50.AllAg.EpiLC.bed ...

  18. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  19. Radiotherapy in desmoid tumors. Treatment response, local control, and analysis of local failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santti, Kirsi; Beule, Annette; Tuomikoski, Laura; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Anna-Stina; Saarilahti, Kauko; Tarkkanen, Maija; Blomqvist, Carl [Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki (Finland); Roenty, Mikko [HUSLAB and University of Helsinki, Department of Pathology, Helsinki (Finland); Ihalainen, Hanna [Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    Desmoid tumors (aggressive fibromatosis) are rare soft tissue tumors which frequently recur after surgery. Desmoid tumors arise from musculoaponeurotic tissue in the extremities, head and neck, abdominal wall, or intra-abdominally. Our aim was to examine the outcome of radiotherapy of desmoid tumors in a single institution series. We evaluated 41 patients with desmoid tumors treated with 49 radiotherapies between 1987 and 2012. Radiologic images for response evaluation were reassessed and responses to treatment registered according to RECIST criteria 1.1. For patients with local failures radiation dose distribution was determined in each local failure volume using image co-registration. Recurrences were classified as in-target, marginal, or out-of-target. Prognostic factors for radiotherapy treatment failure were evaluated. Radiotherapy doses varied from 20-63 Gy (median 50 Gy) with a median fraction size of 2 Gy. The objective response rate to definitive radiotherapy was 55% (12/22 patients). Median time to response was 14 months. A statistically significant dose-response relation for definitive and postoperative radiotherapy was observed both in univariate (p-value 0.002) and in multivariate analysis (p-value 0.02) adjusted for potential confounding factors. Surgery before radiotherapy or surgical margin had no significant effect on time to progression. Nine of 11 (82%) local failures were classified as marginal and two of 11 (18%) in-target. None of the recurrences occurred totally out-of-target. Radiotherapy is a valuable option for treating desmoid tumors. Radiotherapy dose appears to be significantly associated to local control. (orig.) [German] Desmoide (aggressive Fibromatosen) sind seltene Weichteiltumore der muskulaeren Membranen von Kopf, Hals, Extremitaeten und Bauchwand. Ziel war es, die Wirksamkeit der Strahlentherapie bei aggressiver Fibromatose an einer einzelnen Klinik zu untersuchen. Ausgewertet wurden 41 Patienten mit aggressiver Fibromatose, die

  20. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix

  1. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  2. Fault-tolerant design of local controller for the poloidal field converter control system on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jun; Fu, Peng; Gao, Ge; He, Shiying; Huang, Liansheng, E-mail: huangls@ipp.ac.cn; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Xiaojiao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The requirements on the Local Control Cubicles (LCC) for ITER Poloidal Field Converter are analyzed. • Decoupled service-based software architecture is proposed to make control loops on LCC running at varying cycle-time. • Fault detection and recovery methods for the LCC are developed to enhance the system. • The performance of the LCC with or without fault-tolerant feature is tested and compared. - Abstract: The control system for the Poloidal Field (PF) on ITER is a synchronously networked control system, which has several kinds of computational controllers. The Local Control Cubicles (LCC) play a critical role in the networked control system for they are the interface to all input and output signals. Thus, some additional work must be done to guarantee the LCCs proper operation under influence of faults. This paper mainly analyzes the system demands of the LCCs and faults which have been encountered recently. In order to handle these faults, decoupled service-based software architecture has been proposed. Based on this architecture, fault detection and system recovery methods, such as redundancy and rejuvenation, have been incorporated to achieve a fault-tolerant private network with the aid of QNX operating system. Unlike the conventional method, this method requires no additional hardware and can be achieved relatively easily. To demonstrate effectiveness the LCCs have been successfully tested during the recent PF Converter Unit performance tests for ITER.

  3. Differences in the dose-volume metrics with heterogeneity correction status and its influence on local control in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Nami; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Narabayashi, Masaru; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Shibuya, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dose-volume metrics under different heterogeneity corrections and the factors associated with local recurrence (LR) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients who underwent SBRT for pathologically proven stage I NSCLC were reviewed retrospectively. The prescribed dose was 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter (IC) under heterogeneity correction with the Batho power law (BPL). The clinical plans were recalculated with Eclipse (Varian) for the same monitor units under the BPL and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and with no heterogeneity correction (NC). The dose at the IC, dose that covers 95% of the volume (D95), minimum dose (Min), and mean dose (Mean) of the planning target volume (PTV) were compared under each algorithm and between patients with local lesion control (LC) and LR. The IC doses under NC were significantly lower than those under the BPL and AAA. Under the BPL, the mean PTV D95, Min and Mean were 8.0, 9.4 and 7.4% higher than those under the AAA, and 9.6, 9.2 and 4.6% higher than those under NC, respectively. Under the AAA, all dose-volumetric parameters were significantly lower in T1a patients than in those with T1b and T2a. With a median follow-up of 35.9 months, LR occurred in 18 patients. Between the LC and LR groups, no significant differences were observed for any of the metrics. Even after stratification according to T-stage, no significant difference was observed between LC and LR. (author)

  4. Supervisor localization a top-down approach to distributed control of discrete-event systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic top-down approach to distributed control synthesis of discrete-event systems (DES). The approach is called supervisor localization; its essence is the allocation of external supervisory control action to individual component agents as their internal control strategies. The procedure is: first synthesize a monolithic supervisor, to achieve globally optimal and nonblocking controlled behavior, then decompose the monolithic supervisor into local controllers, one for each agent. The collective behavior of the resulting local controllers is identical to that achieved by the monolithic supervisor. The basic localization theory is first presented in the Ramadge–Wonham language-based supervisory control framework, then demonstrated with distributed control examples of multi-robot formations, manufacturing systems, and distributed algorithms. An architectural approach is adopted to apply localization to large-scale DES; this yields a heterarchical localization procedure, which is...

  5. Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütolf Urs M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT. Patients and methods Clinical outcome of 81 HIV-seronegative patients (1988 – 2003 and 10 consecutive HIV-seropositive patients under HAART (1997 – 2003 that were treated with 3-D conformal RT of 59.4 Gy and standard 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C were retrospectively analysed. 10 TNM-stage and age matched HIV-seronegative patients (1992 – 2003 were compared with the 10 HIV-seropositive patients. Pattern of care, local disease control (LC, overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and toxicity were assessed. Results RT with or without CT resulted in complete response in 100 % of HIV-seropositive patients. LC was impaired compared to matched HIV-seronegative patients after a median follow-up of 44 months (p = 0.03. OS at 5 years was 70 % in HIV-seropositive patients receiving HAART and 69 % in the matched controls. Colostomy-free survival was 70 % (HIV+ and 100 % (matched HIV- and 78 % (all HIV-. No HIV-seropositive patient received an interstitial brachytherapy boost compared to 42 % of all HIV-seronegative patients and adherence to chemotherapy seemed to be difficult in HIV-seropositive patients. Acute hematological toxicity reaching 50 % was high in HIV-seropositive patients receiving MMC compared with 0 % in matched HIV-seronegative patients (p = 0.05 or 12 % in all HIV-seronegative patients. The rate of long-term side effects was low in HIV-seropositive patients. Conclusion Despite high response rates to organ preserving treatment with RT with or without CT, local tumor failure seems to be high in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART. HIV-seropositive patients are subject to treatment bias, being less likely treated with interstitial brachytherapy boost probably due to HIV-infection, and they are at

  6. A Crossed Pack-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter with Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Equalization Control for Series-connected Lithium-Ion Battery Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin

    2015-01-01

    The equalization speed, efficiency, and control are the key issues of battery equalization. This paper proposes a crossed pack-to-cell equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC). The battery string is divided into M modules, and each module consists of N series-connected cells....... The energy can be transferred directly from a battery module to the lowest voltage cell (LVC) in the next adjacent module, which results in an enhancement of equalization efficiency and current. The QRLCC is employed to gain zero-current switching (ZCS), leading to a reduction of power losses......-equalization. A prototype with eight lithiumion battery cells is implemented. Experimental results show the proposed scheme exhibits outstanding balancing performance, and the equalization efficiency is higher than 98%. The proposed AFLC algorithm abridges the total equalization time about 47%, and reduces the switching...

  7. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  8. Control room, emergency control system and local control panels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The requirements on planning and construction of control boards including ergonomic-technical designing are specified in this rule. The specifications put the requirements on the design of place, process and environment of work, which are mentioned in the sections 90 and 91 of the labor-management relations act, into more concrete terms for the safety-relevant control panels as work places in a nuclear power station. The work places at control panels are not considered as video workstations in the sense of the 'Safety Rules for Video Workstations in the Office Sector' published by the General Association of the Industrial Trade Associations. The requirements are based on the operation and information technology realized at present in control panels of stationary nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors using Weak Magnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 mu m) under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D) space. The control system achieves precise localization

  10. Malaria control. generating evidence from local to global level

    OpenAIRE

    Plüss, Bianca

    2009-01-01

    In addition of the provision of effective treatment to each case, malaria control is heavily relying on vector control with either insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). The effectiveness of ITNs in controlling malaria in many different settings has already been comprehensively documented. On the other hand, while IRS has a long and distinguished history in malaria control, its health effects have never been properly quantified. The present thesis aimed...

  11. Local and global control of ecological and biological networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2014-01-01

    Recently, I introduced a methodological framework so that ecological and biological networks can be controlled both from inside and outside by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. The endogenous control requires the network to be optimized at the beginning of its dynamics (by acting upon nodes, edges or both) so that it will then go inertially to the desired state. Instead, the exogenous control requires that exogenous controllers act upon the network at each time step. By th...

  12. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Hammer, Gary D.; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed

  13. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Else, Tobias [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Center for Cancer Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Williams, Andrew [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Miller, Barbra S. [Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of General Surgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Worden, Francis [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Hammer, Gary D. [Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States); Jolly, Shruti, E-mail: shrutij@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Mchigan (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  14. Thailand Momentum on Policy and Practice in Local Legislation on Dengue Vector Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been integrated into healthcare services at the provincial level and also has been given priority in health plans of local governmental agencies. The enabling environments of local administrations are unique, so this critical review focuses on the authority of local governmental agencies responsible for disease prevention and control and on the functioning of local legislation with respect to dengue vector control and practices.

  15. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  16. Streamlining Local Behaviour Through Communication, Incentives and Control: A Case Study of Local Environmental Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heberer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how China uses evaluation ratings and monitoring as incentives in order to foster the implementation of environmental policies at the local level. It is argued that decentralisation in China leaves room for actors at the local levels to manoeuver and bargain with those on higher levels for flexible adjustment of implementation policies according to local conditions. However, decentralisation is accompanied by significant institutional changes in the structure of intergovernmental communication, incentives and control. Accordingly, decentralisation in China exhibits a specific design which leaves space for divergent local environmental policies while also engendering “grass-roots mechanisms”. On the whole, this new institutional setting benefits the implementation of environmental policies.

  17. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  18. The design schemes of database and intelligent local controller in the SRRC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J.S.; Jan, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The control system of the SRRC has been utilized to facilitate commisioning since the beginning, and it provides operators an easy to use environment. Hence, we would like to discuss the design schemes and relationships between the user's interface, the database and the ILC (Intelligent Local Controller) levels. The whole control system in SRRC is a two-level design connected by Ethernet. From operator's view, the upper level is the CONSOLE level and the lower one is the ILC level. Those signals from, or to, equipment are connected to ILCs through analog/digital interfaces, GPIB buses, RS232 serial links, etc.; the ILC is an IEEE 1014 bus (VMEbus) based system running PSOS+ real-time multi-tasking kernel and PNA+ (TCP/IP protocols) communication software. The control software of CONSOLE level is developed in the VMS operating system on DEC workstations, and The Graphic User Interfaces are built on the X-Window/Motif environment. The control system has fulfilled the expectations of the facility commissioning group. It has also proved to be a simple, stable, accurate, easily maintained system. ((orig.))

  19. Performance Comparison of Relational and Native-XML Databases using the Semantics of the Land Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (LC2IEDM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denny, Ian M; Jahn, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    .... The majority of messaging systems store information in a document-centric free-text format that makes it difficult for command and control systems, relational databases, software agents and web...

  20. Chemotherapy, brachytherapy and surgery of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas: prognosis factors of local control and global survival; Chimioradiotherapie, curietherapie et chirurgie des cancers du col uterin localement evolues: facteurs pronostiques de controle local et de survie globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laude, C.; Montella, A.; Montbarbon, X.; Malet, C.; Racadot, S.; Pommier, P. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Mathevet, P. [Hopital Femme-Mere-Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69 - Lyon (France); Buenerd, A. [Centre de Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2009-10-15

    The protocol used allows an excellent local control of the uterine cervix carcinoma with an acceptable morbidity. To anticipate the presence of a tumor residue can be an evolution in the therapy management after external radiotherapy, particularly in optimized image-guided brachytherapy (MRI and PET)New utero vaginal applicators with parameters implantation allow to realise the dose complement at the distal parameters. These advances make consider an improvement of results in the management of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas. (N.C.)

  1. Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.

  2. Robot Formations Using Only Local Sensing and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Matarić, Maja J

    2001-01-01

    , behaviorbased algorithm that solves the problem for N robots each equipped with sonar, laser, camera, and a radio link for communicating with other robots. The method uses the idea of keeping a single friend at a desired angle (by panning the camera and keeping the friend centered in the image), and only......We study the problem of achieving global behavior in a group of robots using only local sensing and interaction, in the context of formations, where the goal is to have N mobile robots establish and maintain some predetermined geometric shape. We have devised a simple, general, robust, localized...... communicating heartbeat messages. We also developed a general analytical method for evaluating formations and applied it to our algorithm. We validate our algorithm both in simulation and with physical robots....

  3. Local geology controlled the feasibility of vitrifying Iron Age buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Heap, Michael J; Damby, David E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Najorka, Jens; Vasseur, Jérémie; Fahrner, Dominik; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-01-12

    During European prehistory, hilltop enclosures made from polydisperse particle-and-block stone walling were exposed to temperatures sufficient to partially melt the constituent stonework, leading to the preservation of glassy walls called 'vitrified forts'. During vitrification, the granular wall rocks partially melt, sinter viscously and densify, reducing inter-particle porosity. This process is strongly dependent on the solidus temperature, the particle sizes, the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of the evolving liquid phase, as well as the distribution and longevity of heat. Examination of the sintering behaviour of 45 European examples reveals that it is the raw building material that governs the vitrification efficiency. As Iron Age forts were commonly constructed from local stone, we conclude that local geology directly influenced the degree to which buildings were vitrified in the Iron Age. Additionally, we find that vitrification is accompanied by a bulk material strengthening of the aggregates of small sizes, and a partial weakening of larger blocks. We discuss these findings in the context of the debate surrounding the motive of the wall-builders. We conclude that if wall stability by bulk strengthening was the desired effect, then vitrification represents an Iron Age technology that failed to be effective in regions of refractory local geology.

  4. Meteorological Controls on Local and Regional Volcanic Ash Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulidis, Alexandros P; Phillips, Jeremy C; Renfrew, Ian A; Barclay, Jenni; Hogg, Andrew; Jenkins, Susanna F; Robertson, Richard; Pyle, David M

    2018-05-02

    Volcanic ash has the capacity to impact human health, livestock, crops and infrastructure, including international air traffic. For recent major eruptions, information on the volcanic ash plume has been combined with relatively coarse-resolution meteorological model output to provide simulations of regional ash dispersal, with reasonable success on the scale of hundreds of kilometres. However, to predict and mitigate these impacts locally, significant improvements in modelling capability are required. Here, we present results from a dynamic meteorological-ash-dispersion model configured with sufficient resolution to represent local topographic and convectively-forced flows. We focus on an archetypal volcanic setting, Soufrière, St Vincent, and use the exceptional historical records of the 1902 and 1979 eruptions to challenge our simulations. We find that the evolution and characteristics of ash deposition on St Vincent and nearby islands can be accurately simulated when the wind shear associated with the trade wind inversion and topographically-forced flows are represented. The wind shear plays a primary role and topographic flows a secondary role on ash distribution on local to regional scales. We propose a new explanation for the downwind ash deposition maxima, commonly observed in volcanic eruptions, as resulting from the detailed forcing of mesoscale meteorology on the ash plume.

  5. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  6. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  7. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran

    2014-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  8. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum-II

    OpenAIRE

    Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of the internal states of an atom with spatially dependent standing-wave cavity field can impart position information of the atom passing through it leading to subwavelength atom localization. We recently demonstrated a new regime of atom localization [Sahrai {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 72}, 013820 (2005)], namely sub-half-wavelength localization through phase control of electromagnetically induced transparency. This regime corresponds to extreme localization of atoms within a...

  9. Progress in sub-femtosecond control of electron localization in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Recent advances in controlled generation of intense, ultrashort ... of the electric field for near infrared (IR) wavelength at 800 nm is about 2.7 fs. .... Furthermore, the oscillation contrast and phase, depends on the kinetic energy.

  10. Chemotherapy, brachytherapy and surgery of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas: prognosis factors of local control and global survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, C.; Montella, A.; Montbarbon, X.; Malet, C.; Racadot, S.; Pommier, P.; Mathevet, P.; Buenerd, A.

    2009-01-01

    The protocol used allows an excellent local control of the uterine cervix carcinoma with an acceptable morbidity. To anticipate the presence of a tumor residue can be an evolution in the therapy management after external radiotherapy, particularly in optimized image-guided brachytherapy (MRI and PET)New utero vaginal applicators with parameters implantation allow to realise the dose complement at the distal parameters. These advances make consider an improvement of results in the management of locally evolved uterine cervix carcinomas. (N.C.)

  11. Local uncontrollability for affine control systems with jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanţă, Savin

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates affine control systems with jumps for which the ideal If(g1, …, gm) generated by the drift vector field f in the Lie algebra L(f, g1, …, gm) can be imbedded as a kernel of a linear first-order partial differential equation. It will lead us to uncontrollable affine control systems with jumps for which the corresponding reachable sets are included in explicitly described differentiable manifolds.

  12. Scalable Harmonization of Complex Networks With Local Adaptive Controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Herzallah, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2017), s. 394-404 ISSN 2168-2216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive control * Adaptive estimation * Bayes methods * Complex networks * Decentralized control * Fee dback * Fee dforward systems * Recursive estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0457337.pdf

  13. Local, distributed topology control for large-scale wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this document, topology control of a large-scale, wireless network by a distributed algorithm that uses only locally available information is presented. Topology control algorithms adjust the transmission power of wireless nodes to create a desired topology. The algorithm, named local power

  14. Distributed illumination control with local sensing and actuation in networked lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caicedo Fernandez, D.R.; Pandharipande, A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of illumination control in a networked lighting system wherein luminaires have local sensing and actuation capabilities. Each luminaire (i) consists of a light emitting diode (LED) based light source dimmable by a local controller, (ii) is actuated based on sensing

  15. Design and implementation of software for automated quality control and data analysis for a complex LC/MS/MS assay for urine opiates and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A; Schmeling, Michael; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Hoffman, Noah G

    2013-01-16

    Mass spectrometry provides a powerful platform for performing quantitative, multiplexed assays in the clinical laboratory, but at the cost of increased complexity of analysis and quality assurance calculations compared to other methodologies. Here we describe the design and implementation of a software application that performs quality control calculations for a complex, multiplexed, mass spectrometric analysis of opioids and opioid metabolites. The development and implementation of this application improved our data analysis and quality assurance processes in several ways. First, use of the software significantly improved the procedural consistency for performing quality control calculations. Second, it reduced the amount of time technologists spent preparing and reviewing the data, saving on average over four hours per run, and in some cases improving turnaround time by a day. Third, it provides a mechanism for coupling procedural and software changes with the results of each analysis. We describe several key details of the implementation including the use of version control software and automated unit tests. These generally useful software engineering principles should be considered for any software development project in the clinical lab. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling spatio-temporal extreme events by decreasing the localized energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Lin; Xu Wei; Li Zhanguo; Zhou Bingchang

    2011-01-01

    The problem of controlling extreme events in spatially extended dynamical systems is investigated in this Letter. Based on observations of the system state, the control technique we proposed locally decreases the spatial energy of the amplitude in the vicinity of the highest burst, without needs of any knowledge or prediction of the system model. Considering the specific Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we provide theoretical analysis for designing the localized state feedback controller. More exactly, a simple control law by varying a damping parameter at control region is chose to achieve the control. Numerical simulations and statistic analysis demonstrate that extreme events can be efficiently suppressed by our strategy. In particular, the cost of the control and the tolerant time delay in applying the control is considered in detail. - Highlights: → We propose a local control scheme to suppress spatio-temporal extreme events. → The control is address by decreasing the spatial energy of the system locally. → The detail control law is to apply localized state feedback based on observations. → The cost of the control increases with the size of the control region exponentially. → The tolerant delay of the control is about 5-6 times of lifetime of extreme events.

  17. Antigen localization controls T cell-mediated tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; van Maren, Wendy W C; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Van Hout-Kuijer, Maaike A; Den Brok, Martijn H M G M; Wagenaars, Jori A L; van der Schaaf, Alie; Jansen, Eric J R; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde; Figdor, Carl G; Adema, Gosse J

    2011-08-01

    Effective antitumor immunotherapy requires the identification of suitable target Ags. Interestingly, many of the tumor Ags used in clinical trials are present in preparations of secreted tumor vesicles (exosomes). In this study, we compared T cell responses elicited by murine MCA101 fibrosarcoma tumors expressing a model Ag at different localizations within the tumor cell in association with secreted vesicles (exosomes), as a nonsecreted cell-associated protein, or as secreted soluble protein. Remarkably, we demonstrated that only the tumor-secreting vesicle-bound Ag elicited a strong Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell response, CD4(+) T cell help, Ag-specific Abs, and a decrease in the percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in the tumor. Moreover, in a therapeutic tumor model of cryoablation, only in tumors secreting vesicle-bound Ag could Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells still be detected up to 16 d after therapy. We concluded that the localization of an Ag within the tumor codetermines whether a robust immunostimulatory response is elicited. In vivo, vesicle-bound Ag clearly skews toward a more immunogenic phenotype, whereas soluble or cell-associated Ag expression cannot prevent or even delay outgrowth and results in tumor tolerance. This may explain why particular immunotherapies based on these vesicle-bound tumor Ags are potentially successful. Therefore, we conclude that this study may have significant implications in the discovery of new tumor Ags suitable for immunotherapy and that their location should be taken into account to ensure a strong antitumor immune response.

  18. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau.

  19. The efficacy of control environment as fraud deterrence in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuswantara Dian Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised scenario, the topic of an enormous increase of malfeasance in the local governments, posing catastrophic threats which come from vicious bureaucratic apparatus, becomes a global phenomenon. This current study uses case study material on the risk management control system specially the control environment in Indonesia local governments to extend existing theory by developing a contingency theory for the public sector. Within local government, contingency theory has emerged as a lens for exploring the links between public sector initiatives to improve risk mitigation and the structure of the control system. The case illustrates that the discretion of control environment - the encouragement of a local government’s control environment - is considered as a springboard for fraud deterrence and might be the loopholes in the government control systems.

  20. Descending and Local Network Interactions Control Adaptive Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    coupled CPGs also has the added benefit of making rhythms more robust. This improves both responses to perturbations to walking and the stability of...includes the sensory pathways identified in the insect and CPGs at each joint. We also developed a new robotic cockroach leg model that includes additional...controller. Campaniform sensilla (CS) are sensory neurons whose dendrites insert into a cuticular cap on the exoskeleton (Fig. 14). The elliptical

  1. Local Design Methodologies for a Hierarchic Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-12

    regional (in the sense of knowledge and influence) controllers which are distributed throughout the structure [9,39,54,56,65,68]. Many decentralized...occurs, it is necessary that - gpk = gk > 0 (3.74) I which is true provided Hk > 0 and gt 0 0. These conditions will be met near a strong minimum, but...Astronautics, 19763 Semester spent at Leningrad State University, 1975 PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Current major area of teaching and research is in the design and

  2. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    studies using ultrasound shock waves also support cavitation induced damage, e.g. hemorrhage and cellular membrane poration 26-28. In addition...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Cavitation -induced shock wave, as might occur in the head during exposure to blast waves, was investigated as a possible...damage mechanism for soft brain tissues. A novel experimental scheme was developed to visualize and control single bubble cavitation and its

  3. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Han [Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m{sup 2} as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted.

  4. Association between obesity and local control of advanced rectal cancer after combined surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Seon; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Ahn, Ki Jung; Lee, Yun Han

    2016-01-01

    The association between metabolism and cancer has been recently emphasized. This study aimed to find the prognostic significance of obesity in advanced stage rectal cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 111 patients who were treated with combined surgery and RT for clinical stage 2–3 (T3 or N+) rectal cancer between 2008 and 2014. The prognostic significance of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m 2 ) in local control was evaluated. The median follow-up was 31.2 months (range, 4.1 to 85.7 months). Twenty-five patients (22.5%) were classified as obese. Treatment failure occurred in 33 patients (29.7%), including local failures in 13 patients (11.7%), regional lymph node failures in 5, and distant metastases in 24. The 3-year local control, recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 88.7%, 73.6%, and 87.7%, respectively. Obesity (n = 25) significantly reduced the local control rate (p = 0.045; 3-year local control, 76.2%), especially in women (n = 37, p = 0.021). Segregation of local control was best achieved by BMI of 25.6 kg/m 2 as a cutoff value. Obese rectal cancer patients showed poor local control after combined surgery and RT. More effective local treatment strategies for obese patients are warranted

  5. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    KAUST Repository

    Sampson, J. N.

    2013-04-09

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  6. Extension of local front reconstruction method with controlled coalescence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkotwala, A. H.; Mirsandi, H.; Peters, E. A. J. F.; Baltussen, M. W.; van der Geld, C. W. M.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Kuipers, J. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The physics of droplet collisions involves a wide range of length scales. This poses a challenge to accurately simulate such flows with standard fixed grid methods due to their inability to resolve all relevant scales with an affordable number of computational grid cells. A solution is to couple a fixed grid method with subgrid models that account for microscale effects. In this paper, we improved and extended the Local Front Reconstruction Method (LFRM) with a film drainage model of Zang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)]. The new framework is first validated by (near) head-on collision of two equal tetradecane droplets using experimental film drainage times. When the experimental film drainage times are used, the LFRM method is better in predicting the droplet collisions, especially at high velocity in comparison with other fixed grid methods (i.e., the front tracking method and the coupled level set and volume of fluid method). When the film drainage model is invoked, the method shows a good qualitative match with experiments, but a quantitative correspondence of the predicted film drainage time with the experimental drainage time is not obtained indicating that further development of film drainage model is required. However, it can be safely concluded that the LFRM coupled with film drainage models is much better in predicting the collision dynamics than the traditional methods.

  7. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  8. Precise Localization and Formation Control of Swarm Robots via Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise localization and formation control are one of the key technologies to achieve coordination and control of swarm robots, which is also currently a bottleneck for practical applications of swarm robotic systems. Aiming at overcoming the limited individual perception and the difficulty of achieving precise localization and formation, a localization approach combining dead reckoning (DR with wireless sensor network- (WSN- based methods is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of WSN localization technologies are adopted in this paper, that is, ZigBee-based RSSI (received signal strength indication global localization and electronic tag floors for calibration of local positioning. First, the DR localization information is combined with the ZigBee-based RSSI position information using the Kalman filter method to achieve precise global localization and maintain the robot formation. Then the electronic tag floors provide the robots with their precise coordinates in some local areas and enable the robot swarm to calibrate its formation by reducing the accumulated position errors. Hence, the overall performance of localization and formation control of the swarm robotic system is improved. Both of the simulation results and the experimental results on a real schematic system are given to demonstrate the success of the proposed approach.

  9. Protection against Amoebic Liver Abscess in Hamster by Intramuscular Immunization with an Autographa californica Baculovirus Driving the Expression of the Gal-Lectin LC3 Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Meneses-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we demonstrated that oral immunization using Autographa californica baculovirus driving the expression of the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment (AcNPV-LC3 of Entamoeba histolytica conferred protection against ALA development in hamsters. In this study, we determined the ability of AcNPV-LC3 to protect against ALA by the intramuscular route as well as the liver immune response associated with protection. Results showed that 55% of hamsters IM immunized with AcNPV-LC3 showed sterile protection against ALA, whereas other 20% showed reduction in the size and extent of abscesses, resulting in some protection in 75% of animals compared to the sham control group. Levels of protection showed a linear correlation with the development and intensity of specific antiamoeba cellular and humoral responses, evaluated in serum and spleen of hamsters, respectively. Evaluation of the Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns expressed in the liver of hamsters showed that sterile protection was associated with the production of high levels of IFNγ and IL-4. These results suggest that the baculovirus system is equally efficient by the intramuscular as well as the oral routes for ALA protection and that the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment is a highly protective antigen against hepatic amoebiasis through the local induction of IFNγ and IL-4.

  10. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  11. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  12. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon gamma after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalová, Jana; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Quan, L.; Krulová, Magdalena; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, A. P. M.; Demant, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 203-213 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR IAA500520606; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Tumor susceptibility * Genetic control of interferon gamma production * Lymphocyte infiltration of tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.293, year: 2010

  13. Local control and image diagnosis of cases of esophageal carcinoma treated by external and intracavitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Discussions are made on local control of 31 cases of esophageal carcinoma which were treated by external and intracavitary irradiation between May 1980 and March 1983. X-ray and endoscopic findings have been used for the image diagnosis. Before the begining of radiotherapy, types of esophageal carcinoma were determined from X-ray findings according to Borrmann's classification. There were 10 cases of types 1 and 2, and 21 cases of types 3 and 4. After completion of external and intracvitary irradiation, all 10 cases of types 1 and 2 were locally controlled. Of the 21 cases of types 3 and 4, 8 cases which developed stenosis or deep ulcer after external irradiation all failed in local control. The remaining 13 cases of types 3 and 4 were locally controlled except 2 by radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Identification and quantification of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in therapeutically important Drosera species by LC-DAD, LC-NMR, NMR, and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehl, Martin; Braunberger, Christina; Conrad, Jürgen; Crnogorac, Marija; Krasteva, Stanimira; Vogler, Bernhard; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2011-06-01

    Droserae herba is a drug commonly used for treatment of convulsive or whooping cough since the seventeenth century. Because of the contribution of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives to the therapeutic activity of Droserae herba, an LC-DAD method has been developed for quantification of these analytes in four Drosera species used in medicine (Drosera anglica, D. intermedia, D. madagascariensis, and D. rotundifolia). During elaboration of the method 13 compounds, including three substances not previously described for Drosera species, were detected and unambiguously identified by means of extensive LC-MS and LC-NMR experiments and by off-line heteronuclear 2D NMR after targeted isolation. The most prominent component of D. rotundifolia and D. anglica, 2″-O-galloylhyperoside, with myricetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside, were identified for the very first time in this genus. The LC-DAD method for quantification was thoroughly validated, and enables, for the first time, separation and precise analysis of these analytes in Droserae herba. Simple sample preparation and use of a narrow-bore column guarantee low cost and simplicity of the suggested system, which is excellently suited to quality control of the drug or herbal medicinal products containing this drug.

  15. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  16. Continuously tunable sub-half-wavelength localization via coherent control of spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tan Xin-Yu; Gong Cheng; Shi Wen-Xing

    2012-01-01

    We propose a continuously tunable method of sub-half-wavelength localization via the coherent control of the spontaneous emission of a four-level Y-type atomic system, which is coupled to three strong coupling fields including a standing-wave field together with a weak probe field. It is shown that the sub-half-wavelength atomic localization is realized for both resonance and off-resonance cases. Furthermore, by varying the probe detuning in succession, the positions of the two localization peaks are tuned continuously within a wide range of probe field frequencies, which provides convenience for the realization of sub-half-wavelength atomic localization experimentally

  17. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... to understand how local governments can improve IT PPM. Keywords IT project portfolio management, E-government, Control theory, Control problems, Formal mechanisms, Informal mechanisms, Local government, Denmark...... control in IT PPM. The authors identify control problems and formulate recommendations to address these. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting principles from Engaged Scholarship, the authors have conducted a case study using a wide variety of data collection methods, including 29 interviews, one...

  18. Improved local and regional control with radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Tobin; Naghavi, Arash O; Messina, Jane L; Kim, Sungjune; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Russell, Jeffery; Sondak, Vernon K; Padhya, Tapan A; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that radiotherapy (RT) would improve both local and regional control with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A single-institution institutional review board-approved study was performed including 113 patients with nonmetastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Postoperative RT was delivered to the primary tumor bed (71.7% cases) ± draining lymphatics (33.3% RT cases). Postoperative local RT was associated with improved local control (3-year actuarial local control 89.4% vs 68.1%; p = .005; Cox hazard ratio [HR] 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06-0.55; p = .002). Similarly, regional RT was associated with improved regional control (3-year actuarial regional control 95.0% vs 66.7%; p = .008; Cox HR = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.69; p = .02). Regional RT played an important role for both clinical node-negative patients (3-year regional control 100% vs 44.7%; p = .03) and clinical/pathological node-positive patients (3-year regional control 90.9% vs 55.6%; p = .047). Local RT was beneficial for all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas regional RT was beneficial for clinical node-negative and clinical/pathological node-positive patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 48-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Post Laparoscopic Pain Control Using Local Anesthesia through Laparoscopic Port Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Vejdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe abdominal pain is not common after laparoscopic surgeries, but acute or chronic pain after operation is considerable in some patients. Post-operative Pain control after laparoscopic surgeries, is conventionally achieved using analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and narcotics, but their administration has a lot of side effects. This study compares the efficacy and side effects of local anesthetic drugs versus conventional analgesics in post-operative pain control.Materials and Methods: This prospective investigation was conducted into two groups of patients (n=93. Group 1, as control group, was given conventional analgesics such as narcotics and NSAIDs. In investigational group, at the end of laparoscopic surgery, prior to port withdrawal, a local anesthetic mixture, a short acting (Lidocaine 2% plus a long acting (Bupivacaine 0.5% is instilled through the port lumen between the abdominal wall layers. The efficacy of both types of medications was compared to their efficacy and side effects.Results: 85% of the control group, received 5 to 20 ml Morphine for pain control while the others were controlled with trans-rectal NSAIDs. In the treatment group, the pain of 65% of the patients was controlled only by local anesthetic drugs, 30% required NSAIDs and the other 5% required narcotics administration for pain control.Conclusion: The administration of local anesthetic drugs after laparoscopic surgery is an effective method for pain control with a low complications rate and side effects of narcotics.

  20. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-09-15

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  1. Negative impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Bin; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won

    2012-01-01

    Although anemia is considered to be a contributor to intra-tumoral hypoxia and tumor resistance to ionizing radiation in cancer patients, the impact of pretreatment anemia on local control after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for rectal cancer remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with NACRT followed by curative-intent surgery. The patients with anemia before NACRT (36.0%, 89/247) achieved less pathologic complete response (pCR) than those without anemia (p = 0.012). The patients with pretreatment anemia had worse 3-year local control than those without pretreatment anemia (86.0% vs. 95.7%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment anemia (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor and nodal stage (p = 0.020 and 0.032, respectively) were independently significant factors for local control. Pretreatment anemia had negative impacts on pCR and local control among patients who underwent NACRT and surgery for rectal cancer. Strategies maintaining hemoglobin level within normal range could potentially be used to improve local control in rectal cancer patients.

  2. Local-regional control in breast cancer patients with a possible genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Laura M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Thames, Howard D.; Strom, Eric A.; McNeese, Marsha D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Singletary, S. Eva; Heaton, Keith M.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Local control rates for breast cancer in genetically predisposed women are poorly defined. Because such a small percentage of breast cancer patients have proven germline mutations, surrogates, such as a family history for breast cancer, have been used to examine this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate local-regional control following breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of all 58 patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history treated in our institution between 1959 and 1998. The primary surgical treatment was a breast-conserving procedure in 55 of the 116 breast cancer cases and a mastectomy in 61. The median follow-up was 68 months for the BCT patients and 57 months for the mastectomy-treated patients. Results: Eight local-regional recurrences occurred in the 55 cases treated with BCT, resulting in 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates of 86% and 76%, respectively. In the nine cases that did not receive radiation as a component of their BCT, four developed local-regional recurrences (5- and 10-year local-regional control rates of BCT without radiation: 49% and 49%). The 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates for the 46 cases treated with BCT and radiation were 94% and 83%, respectively. In these cases, there were two late local recurrences, developing at 8 years and 9 years, respectively. A log rank comparison of radiation versus no radiation actuarial data was significant at p = 0.009. In the cases treated with BCT, a multivariate analysis of radiation use, patient age, degree of family history, margin status, and stage revealed that only the use of radiation was associated with improved local control (Cox regression analysis p = 0.021). The 10-year actuarial rates of local-regional control following mastectomy with and without radiation were 91% and 89

  3. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, Pcontrol balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, Pcontrol rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, Pcontrols. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism using sensory feedback depends on the level of neuropathy and the history of diabetes.

  4. Ferro-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS an LC/EC/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiwert, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Within this thesis, the development and application of ferrocene-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS and LC/EC/MS is presented. The advantages of derivatization by ferrocenes are the similtaneous introduction of a mass tag and an electroactive group, which make them ideally suited for LC/MS and

  5. Development of ITER CODAC compatible gyrotron local control system and its operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Katsumi; Oda, Yasuhisa; Takahashi, Koji; Terakado, Masayuki; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken; Sakamoto, Keishi; Hayashi, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, an ITER relevant control system for ITER gyrotron was developed according to Plant Control Design Handbook. This control system was developed based on ITER CODAC Core System and implemented state machine control of gyrotron operation system, sequential timing control of gyrotron oscillation startup, and data acquisition. The operation of ITER 170 GHz gyrotron was demonstrated with ITER relevant power supply configuration. This system is utilized for gyrotron operation test for ITER procurement. This report describes the architecture of gyrotron local control system, its basic and detailed design, and recent operation results. (author)

  6. Local Control: Fear or Fantasy. A Report of the New Jersey Education Reform Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan H.

    Today local control over education seems to face the most serious challenge in its history. The movement to reform school finance raises the specter of the State assuming its formal consitutional powers and removing autonomy from the communities. Hence, it is argued, as the State takes over control of taxation and expenditures it will want to…

  7. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  8. Barriers to adopting and implementing local-level tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D; Cassady, Diana; Treiber, Jeanette; Lemp, Cathy

    2011-08-01

    Although California communities have been relatively successful in adopting and implementing a wide range of local tobacco control policies, the process has not been without its setbacks and barriers. Little is known about local policy adoption, and this paper examines these processes related to adopting and implementing outdoor smoke-free policies, focusing on the major barriers faced by local-level tobacco control organizations in this process. Ninety-six projects funded by the California Tobacco Control Program submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to an outdoor smoking objective, and the reports from these projects were analyzed. The barriers were grouped in three primary areas: politically polarizing barriers, organizational barriers, and local political orientation. The barriers identified in this study underscore the need for an organized action plan in adopting local tobacco policy. The authors also suggest potential strategies to offset the barriers, including: (1) having a "champion" who helps to carry an objective forward; (2) tapping into a pool of youth volunteers; (3) collecting and using local data as a persuasive tool; (4) educating the community in smoke-free policy efforts; (5) working strategically within the local political climate; and (6) demonstrating to policymakers the constituent support for proposed policy.

  9. Should Aggressive Surgical Local Control Be Attempted in All Patients with Metastatic or Pelvic Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Steven W.; Weiss, Kurt R.; Goodman, Mark A.; Heyl, Alma E.; McGough, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In previous reports, patients with Ewing's sarcoma received radiation therapy (XRT) for definitive local control because metastatic disease and pelvic location were thought to preclude aggressive local treatment. We sought to determine if single-site metastatic disease should be treated differently from multicentric-metastatic disease. We also wanted to reinvestigate the impact of XRT, pelvic location, and local recurrence on outcomes. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between patients with either localized disease or a single-metastatic site and patients with multicentric-metastatic disease (P = 0.004). Local control was also found to be an independent predictor of outcomes as demonstrated by a significant difference in OS between those with and without local recurrence (P = 0.001). Axial and pelvic location did not predict a decreased OS. Based on these results, we concluded that pelvic location and the diagnosis of metastatic disease at diagnosis should not preclude aggressive local control, except in cases of multicentric-metastatic disease. PMID:22550427

  10. Transforming local government by project portfolio management: Identifying and overcoming control problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – As public organizations strive for higher e-government maturity, information technology (IT) Project Portfolio Management (IT PPM) has become a high priority issue. Assuming control is central in IT PPM, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a Danish local government conducts...... workshop, and analyses of documents. Findings – It is found that the local government relies vastly on informal control mechanisms and five control problems are identified: weak accountability processes between the political and administrative level; weak accountability between the director level...... the identified control problems. Research limitations/implications – As a single qualitative case study, the results are limited to one organization and subject. Practical implications – The paper has implications for IT PPM in Danish local governments and similar organizations in other countries. The paper...

  11. Government Internal Control System Maturity: The Role of Internal Guidance and External Control of Local Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Government Internal Control System (SPIP. The purpose of this study is to obtain empirical evidence of influence of guidance, external control, and the characteristics of Local Governments on Internal Control (SPIP maturity of local governments in Indonesia. The samples used in this study are 188 local governments in 2014. The variables used include the dependent variable, i.e. the SPIP maturity of local government; Independent variables, i.e. guidance frequency, the number of internal control findings, total assets, total expenditure and the number of local government units. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP and the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK. This study uses multiple regression analysis and the results show that the guidace frequency and total expenditure have a positive influence on maturity of SPIP, SPI finding has a negative influence, and the total assets and the number of units do not have significant influence on the maturity of SPIP.

  12. Local control and survival in spinal cord compression from lymphoma and myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, M.; Mendis, S.; Premawardhana, U.; Sanders, P.; Shahsavar-Haghighi, K.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Between 1979 and 1989, 48 cases of extradural spinal cord and cauda equina compression in patients with lymphoma (24) and myeloma (24) received local radiation therapy for control of cord compression. Twenty five (52%) of the cases were treated by surgical decompression prior to irradiation. Thirty five (73%) of the cases received chemotherapy following the diagnosis of spinal cord compression. Post-treatment outcome was assessed at a minimum follow-up of 24 months to determine the significant clinical and treatment factors following irradiation. Results: Seventeen (71%) of the lymphoma and 15 (63%) of the myeloma patients achieved local control, here defined as improvement to, or maintenance of ambulation with minimal or no assistance for 3 months from the start of radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 30 (2-98) for the lymphoma and 10 (1-87) months for the myeloma patients, the results showed that survival following local radiation therapy for cord compression was independently influenced by the underlying disease type in favour of lymphoma compared to myeloma (P<0.01). The median duration of local control and survival figures were 23 and 48 months for the lymphomas compared to 4.5 and 10 months for the myeloma cases. Survival was also independently influenced by preservation of sphincter function at initial presentation (P<0.02) and the achievement of local control following treatment (P<0.01). Discussion: We conclude that while disease type independently impacts on outcome following treatment of spinal cord compression in lymphoma and myeloma, within both of these disease type the achievement of local control of spinal cord compression is an important management priority, for without local control survival may be adversely affected

  13. Polymerization speed and diffractive experiments in polymer network LC test cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Larissa; Gong, Zhen; Habibpourmoghadam, Atefeh; Schafforz, Samuel L.; Wolfram, Lukas; Lorenz, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Polymer-network liquid crystals (LCs), where the response properties of a LC can be enhanced by the presence of a porous polymer network, are investigated. In the reported experiments, liquid crystals were doped with a small amount (situ generated polymer network, the electro-optic response properties of photo cured samples were enhanced. For example, their continuous phase modulation properties led to more localized responses in samples with interdigitated electrodes, which caused suppression of selected diffraction orders in the diffraction patterns recorded in polymer network LC samples. Moreover, capacitance changes were investigated during photopolymerization of a blue phase LC.

  14. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing. DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2 and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2 with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01, which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02, which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05 and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05. Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation

  15. Review: Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control by Colin Corpus, Mark Roberts, Rachel Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carr-West

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Local Government in England: Centralisation, Autonomy and Control is a serious book and an important contribution to the scholarship around local government. It opens however, with a pleasingly comic tableau as academics from England, Portugal and Poland bicker amiably at a conference and on Twitter about whose country is really the most centralised. The rest of the book is devoted to showing why the English academics were right, why it matters and what should be done about it. The main thrust of the text is an analysis of the impact of the dominant policy narratives around centralism and localism. The argument that Copus, Wall and Roberts put forward could be boiled down to the assertion that the problem with local government in England is that it is neither local nor government. But to make this case they first helpfully unpack several sets of concepts that are all too often elided together.

  16. Influence of postsurgical residual tumor volume on local control in radiotherapy for maxillary sinus cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Itai, Yuji

    2001-05-01

    The aim was to study the influence of postsurgical gross residual tumor volume on local control of maxillary sinus cancer treated with radiotherapy combined with debulking surgery. Forty-three patients who underwent combined surgery and radiotherapy (50-72 Gy, median 60 Gy) for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were reviewed. Gross residual tumor volume (GRTV) after surgery was measured on computed tomograms obtained during the radiotherapy planning. Patients were classified according to GRTV as follows: group AA, GRTV=0 (microscopic residual, n=2); group A, GRTV <10 cm{sup 3} (n=24); group B, 10-40 cm{sup 3} (n=9); and group C, {>=}40 cm{sup 3} (n=8). The relationship between local control and GRTV was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The 2-year local control rate for all patients was 62%. The differences in local control rates between groups AA, A and B were not significant (P<0.05), but the rate was significantly lower in group C than in the other groups (69% at 2 years vs 31% at 1 year, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GRTV (P=0.002) and histological differentiation (poorly differentiated histology was favorable, P=0.035) were independent prognostic factors and that intraarterial chemotherapy and administered total dose were not. Local control in groups A and B significantly depended on the total dose of radiotherapy, with 2-year control rates of patients receiving 50 Gy (n=6) and {>=}60 Gy (n=27) of 17% vs 79%, respectively (P<0.001). Our data suggest that adequate, not complete, debulking associated with a total radiotherapy dose of {>=}60 Gy can provide satisfactory local control for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. (author)

  17. The hybridising of financial and service expertise in English local authority budget control : a practice perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, T.; Ferry, L.; Khalifa, R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to trace the hybridising of financial and service expertise in English local authority budget control to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the contexts that gave rise to hybridisation than do previous accountability research frameworks. Design/methodology/approach Using practice theory, this paper interprets the findings from a field study of Newcastle City Council and a review of relevant local authority regulation for England, stretching back to...

  18. A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-02

    AD-A282 787 " A Feedforward Control Approach to the Local Navigation Problem for Autonomous Vehicles Alonzo Kelly CMU-RI-TR-94-17 The Robotics...follow, or a direction to prefer, it cannot generate its own strategic goals. Therefore, it solves the local planning problem for autonomous vehicles . The... autonomous vehicles . It is intelligent because it uses range images that are generated from either a laser rangefinder or a stereo triangulation

  19. Isotope ratio monitoring LC/MS (IRM-LC/MS): new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchelka, D; Hilkert, A.; Krummen, M.

    2005-01-01

    With the introduction of compound specific isotope analysis by isotope ratio monitoring GC/ MS (IRM-GC/MS) the immediate demand for similar applications using HPLC was created. Many compounds of biological, medical, pharmaceutical and environmental interest are not volatile or too polar. Consequently, they cannot be directly analyzed by gas chromatography. In IRM-GC/MS the carrier is helium, which does not interfere with the essential combust ion step prior to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In opposite the LC mobile phase has inhibited a similar direct conversion up to now. All earlier IRM-LC/MS approaches were based on the removal of the liquid phase prior to combustion risking fractionation of the isotope ratios of the eluted compounds. To avoid such restrictions we developed a new continuous flow concept for the coupling of an HPLC system to the isotope ratio MS for 13 C/ 12C isotope ratio analysis. In the Finnigan LC IsoLink, the liquid phase is not removed from the sample prior to oxidation. The sample is oxidized still in the mobile phase followed by on-line separation of the CO 2 from the liquid phase and transfer into the isotope ratio MS. Therefore, this strategy is based on water and inorganic buffers as mobile phase. The new approach opens up a whole new world in the application of gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The 13 C/ 12 C ratio s of organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and nucleotides can now be measured. These components typically within a complex matrix are separated by liquid chromatography followed by on-line determination of the isotope ratios. The draw backs of using derivatization and off-line preparation procedures can now be over come. This new technique allow s studying biochemical cycles, running tracer experiments and determining the origin of components. Applications from different scientific areas such as biogeochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacy as well as authenticity control o f foods will be presented

  20. Localized temperature and chemical reaction control in nanoscale space by nanowire array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C Yan; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R Stanley; Lee, K-Cheol; Park, Inkyu

    2011-11-09

    We introduce a novel method for chemical reaction control with nanoscale spatial resolution based on localized heating by using a well-aligned nanowire array. Numerical and experimental analysis shows that each individual nanowire could be selectively and rapidly Joule heated for local and ultrafast temperature modulation in nanoscale space (e.g., maximum temperature gradient 2.2 K/nm at the nanowire edge; heating/cooling time chemical reactions such as polymer decomposition/cross-linking and direct and localized hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nanowires were demonstrated.

  1. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L' Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.losquin@fysik.lth.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Xu, Hongxing [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); School of Physics and Technology and Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  2. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Dana L.; Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  3. Local Control With 21-Gy Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Dana L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Modak, Shakeel [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control after 21-Gy radiation therapy (RT) to the primary site in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Methods and Materials: After receiving dose-intensive chemotherapy and gross total resection (GTR), 246 patients (aged 1.2-17.9 years, median 4.0 years) with high-risk neuroblastoma underwent RT to the primary site at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 2000 to 2014. Radiation therapy consisted of 21 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each. Local failure (LF) was correlated with biologic prognostic factors and clinical findings at the time of diagnosis and start of RT. Results: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 6.4 years. Cumulative incidence of LF was 7.1% at 2 years after RT and 9.8% at 5 years after RT. The isolated LF rate was 3.0%. Eighty-six percent of all local failures were within the RT field. Local control was worse in patients who required more than 1 surgical resection to achieve GTR (22.4% vs 8.3%, P=.01). There was also a trend toward inferior local control with MYCN-amplified tumors or serum lactate dehydrogenase ≥1500 U/L (P=.09 and P=.06, respectively). Conclusion: After intensive chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking, hyperfractionated RT with 21 Gy in high-risk neuroblastoma results in excellent local control. Given the young patient age, concern for late effects, and local control >90%, dose reduction may be appropriate for patients without MYCN amplification who achieve GTR.

  4. Determination of Insecticidal Effect (LC50 and LC90) of Organic Fatty Acids Mixture (C8910+Silicone) Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, James C; Falconer, Aneika; Leite, Laura N; Wirtz, Robert A; Brogdon, William G

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya and dengue and associated Aedes vectors are expanding their historical ranges; thus, there is a need for the development of novel insecticides for use in vector control programs. The mosquito toxicity of a novel insecticide and repellent consisting of medium-chain carbon fatty acids (C8910) was examined. Determination of LC 50 and LC 90 was made against colony-reared Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) using probit analysis on mortality data generated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays. Six different concentrations of C8910 + silicone oil yielded an LC 50 of 160.3 µg a.i/bottle (147.6-182.7) and LC 90 of 282.8 (233.2-394.2) in Ae. aegypti; five concentrations yielded an LC 50 of 125.4 (116.1-137.6) and LC 90 of 192.5 (165.0-278.9) in Ae. albopictus. Further development of C8910 and similar compounds could provide vector control specialists novel insecticides for controlling insect disease vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Distributed model predictive control for constrained nonlinear systems with decoupled local dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Ding, Baocang

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers the distributed model predictive control (MPC) of nonlinear large-scale systems with dynamically decoupled subsystems. According to the coupled state in the overall cost function of centralized MPC, the neighbors are confirmed and fixed for each subsystem, and the overall objective function is disassembled into each local optimization. In order to guarantee the closed-loop stability of distributed MPC algorithm, the overall compatibility constraint for centralized MPC algorithm is decomposed into each local controller. The communication between each subsystem and its neighbors is relatively low, only the current states before optimization and the optimized input variables after optimization are being transferred. For each local controller, the quasi-infinite horizon MPC algorithm is adopted, and the global closed-loop system is proven to be exponentially stable. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new strategy for transient stability using augmented generator control and local dynamic braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, J; Jiang, H; Habetler, T [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Z [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A decentralized automatic control strategy for significantly improving the transient stability of a large power system is introduced. The strategy combines local dynamic braking and a straightforward augmentation of the existing turbine / governor control system that uses only local feedback. The brake resistor, which employs thick film, metal oxide technology, has no inductance and is of very low resistance, allowing its use during fault to show a generator`s acceleration. Simulation results using the 39 Bus New England system show that the strategy dramatically increases the global stability of a power system. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the actuating subsystem of aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, S. S.; Zybin, E. Yu; Kosyanchuk, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a nonparametric method for failures detection and localization in the aircraft control system that uses the measurements of the control signals and the aircraft states only. It doesn’t require a priori information of the aircraft model parameters, training or statistical calculations, and is based on algebraic solvability conditions for the aircraft model identification problem. This makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of detection and localization problem solution by completely eliminating errors, associated with aircraft model uncertainties.

  8. 'A potential fifth column': conflicts and struggles for control in the context of local NHS privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    This article uses case study data to discuss how a new procurement policy (Local Improvement Finance Trust, or LIFT) in English primary care may affect general practitioners' control over their work. LIFT, a series of 51 public-private partnerships, will enable over the medium term a shift towards the corporate ownership of surgeries and the creation of polyclinics or 'onestop-shops'. In this article, I explore the struggles over work autonomy and control within these new LIFT structures, as expressed by clinicians and managers in meetings and in research interviews. More generally, I consider how the findings inform debates over the changing position of professionals within increasingly financialized 'local health economies'.

  9. Residual {sup 18}F-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao, E-mail: v.r.bollineni@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Widder, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically inoperable patients with proven Stage I NSCLC or FDG-PET-positive primary lung tumors were analyzed retrospectively. SABR consisted of 60 Gy delivered in 3 to 8 fractions. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of the treated lesion was assessed 12 weeks after SABR, using FDG-PET. Patients were subsequently followed at regular intervals using computed tomography (CT) scans. Association between post-SABR SUV{sub max} and local control (LC), mediastinal failure, distant failure, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) was examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 3-40 months). Median lesion size was 25 mm (range, 9-70 mm). There were 6 local failures: 15 mediastinal failures, 15 distant failures, 13 disease-related deaths, and 16 deaths from intercurrent diseases. Glucose corrected post-SABR median SUV{sub max} was 3.0 (range, 0.55-14.50). Using SUV{sub max} 5.0 as a cutoff, the 2-year LC was 80% versus 97.7% for high versus low SUV{sub max}, yielding an adjusted subhazard ratio (SHR) for high post-SABR SUV{sub max} of 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-38.5; p = 0.019). Two-year DSS rates were 74% versus 91%, respectively, for high and low SUV{sub max} values (SHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.3; p = 0.113). Two-year OS was 62% versus 81% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.7; p = 0.268). Conclusions: Residual FDG uptake (SUV{sub max} {>=}5.0) 12 weeks after SABR signifies increased risk of local failure. A single FDG-PET scan at 12 weeks could be used to tailor further follow-up according to the risk of failure, especially in patients potentially eligible for salvage surgery.

  10. Precise Localization and Control of Catalytic Janus Micromotors Using Weak Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam S. M. Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrate the precise localization of spherical Pt-Silica Janus micromotors (diameter 5 μm under the influence of controlled magnetic fields. First, we control the motion of the Janus micromotors in two-dimensional (2D space. The control system achieves precise localization within an average region-of-convergence of 7 μm. Second, we show that these micromotors provide sufficient propulsion force, allowing them to overcome drag and gravitational forces and move both downwards and upwards. This propulsion is studied by moving the micromotors in three-dimensional (3D space. The micromotors move downwards and upwards at average speeds of 19.1 μm/s and 9.8 μm/s, respectively. Moreover, our closed-loop control system achieves localization in 3D space within an average region-of-convergence of 6.3 μm in diameter. The precise motion control and localization of the Janus micromotors in 2D and 3D spaces provides broad possibilities for nanotechnology applications.

  11. Autonomous Micro-Air-Vehicle Control Based on Visual Sensing for Odor Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Kurotsuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel control method for autonomous-odor-source localization using visual and odor sensing by micro air vehicles (MAVs. Our method is based on biomimetics, which enable highly autonomous localization. Our method does not need any instruction signals, including even global positioning system (GPS signals. An experimenter simply blows a whistle, and the MAV will then start to hover, to seek an odor source, and to keep hovering near the source. The GPS-signal-free control based on visual sense enables indoor/underground use. Moreover, the MAV is light-weight (85 grams and does not cause harm to others even if it accidentally falls. Experiments conducted in the real world were successful in enabling odor source localization using the MAV with a bio-inspired searching method. The distance error of the localization was 63 cm, more accurate than the target distance of 120 cm for individual identification. Our odor source localization is the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system. These localization experiments were the first step to a proof of concept for a danger warning system to enable a safer and more secure society.

  12. Localized and Energy-Efficient Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy-Logic Control Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensor nodes in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are prone to failures due to many reasons, for example, running out of battery or harsh environment deployment; therefore, the WSNs are expected to be able to maintain network connectivity and tolerate certain amount of node failures. By applying fuzzy-logic approach to control the network topology, this paper aims at improving the network connectivity and fault-tolerant capability in response to node failures, while taking into account that the control approach has to be localized and energy efficient. Two fuzzy controllers are proposed in this paper: one is Learning-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (LFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is learnt from a training data set; another one is Rules-based Fuzzy-logic Topology Control (RFTC, of which the fuzzy controller is obtained through designing if-then rules and membership functions. Both LFTC and RFTC do not rely on location information, and they are localized. Comparing them with other three representative algorithms (LTRT, List-based, and NONE through extensive simulations, our two proposed fuzzy controllers have been proved to be very energy efficient to achieve desired node degree and improve the network connectivity when sensor nodes run out of battery or are subject to random attacks.

  13. Controlling the delocalization-localization transition of light via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jing; Huang Guoxiang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a transition from delocalization to localization of light waves via electromagnetically induced transparency. The system we suggested is a resonant cold atomic ensemble having N configuration, with a control field consisting of two pairs of laser beams with different cross angles, which produce an electromagnetically induced quasiperiodic waveguide (EIQPW) for the propagation of a signal field. By appropriately tuning the incommensurate rate or relative modulation strength between the two pairs of control-field components, the signal field can exhibit the delocalization-localization transition as it transports inside the atomic ensemble. The delocalization-localization transition point is determined and the propagation property of the signal field is studied in detail. Our work provides a way of realizing wave localization via atomic coherence, which is quite different from the conventional, off-resonant mechanism-based Aubry-Andre model, and the great controllability of the EIQPW also allows an easy manipulation of the delocalization-localization transition.

  14. Evaluation of secure capability-based access control in the M2M local cloud platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    delegation. Recently, the capability based access control has been considered as method to manage access in the Internet of Things (IoT) or M2M domain. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a proposed secure capability based access control in the M2M local cloud platform is presented......Managing access to and protecting resources is one of the important aspect in managing security, especially in a distributed computing system such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M). One such platform known as the M2M local cloud platform, referring to BETaaS architecture [1], which conceptually consists...... of multiple distributed M2M gateways, creating new challenges in the access control. Some existing access control systems lack in scalability and flexibility to manage access from users or entity that belong to different authorization domains, or fails to provide fine grained and flexible access right...

  15. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    the grid voltage. The algorithms generating the local prices are dynamically adjusted according to the actual realised responses to the dynamic prices. Results are presented from an adapted version of the control principle implemented and tested in DTUs experimental research power system, SYSLAB, including...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...... system. A challenge is to find a cheap, simple and robust way to requests the proper power regulation by the DER power units. The use of broadcasted, dynamic power prices and volunteer responses is one option. The paper presents a proposal for and an illustration of advanced generation of local, dynamic...

  16. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J

    1998-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  17. Forest management in India. Local versus state control of forest resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, J.

    1997-12-31

    Degradation and substantial losses to India`s forests have prompted a change in existing forestry management strategy. The new approach includes recognition of local participation in forestry management schemes but state control over most decisions is still dominant. Seen in terms of a common property resource system, India`s forests lack many of the factors usually considered inherent to successful management programs. Though India`s latest Forest Act affords more local involvement in forestry management, there continues to be an apparent lack of rights for local management groups over decision-making and the resource itself. Can this system enable the required balance between state and local management of India`s forests? 24 refs, 1 tab

  18. Atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission in a five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Yu Benli; Zhu Jun; Cao Zhigang; Zhen Shenglai; Wu Xuqiang; Xu Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the one- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the two-dimensional atom localization patterns reveal that the maximal probability of finding an atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the standing waves can reach unity when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization. - Highlights: ► One- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in five-level atoms are investigated. ► An assisting radio-frequency field is used to control the atom localization behaviors. ► High-precision and high-resolution two-dimensional atom localization can be realized in this scheme.

  19. The new local control systems for operating gaseous diffusion plant units at Pierrelatte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delacroix, C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a local control network for operating gaseous diffusion plant units is presented. The objective of the control system up date was to replace all the information network hardware. The new generation HP1000 calculators and a network architecture were chosen. The validation tests performed in laboratory and in situ, and the management policies towards the personnel during the technical changes are summarized [fr

  20. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  1. WWER-440 control assembly local power peaking investigation on LR-0 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information concerning the local power peaking problem induced by the WWER-440 control assembly and the investigation possibilities on the light water, zero power reactor LR-0 at the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Rez plc. A brief description is given about the disposable control assembly model, experimental arrangement and conditions on the LR-0 reactor with regard to the earlier performed investigations as well as to the relevant measurements to be realized in the near future.(abstract)

  2. LC Quadrature Generation in Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    Today quadrature signals for IQ demodulation are provided through RC polyphase networks, quadrature oscillators or double frequency VCOs. This paper presents a new method for generating quadrature signals in integrated circuits using only inductors and capacitors. This LC quadrature generation...

  3. Express control of migration processes of radioactive substances during drilling works in 'Ukryttya' object local zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdivyj, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Technical proposals are prepared to create a procedure for operative control of drilling works. Such a procedure will permit detecting the displacement of radioactively contaminated ground along borehole bore and correcting the drilling work procedure, which would prevent radioactive substance spreading, in boreholes of 'Ukryttya' object local zone and those of Exclusion Zone

  4. Local Control in the Era of Accountability: A Case Study of Wisconsin PreK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Wilinski, Bethany; Nocera, Amato

    2016-01-01

    The opposing principles of local control and increased standardization are a prominent tension in the United States' education system. Since at least the early 1990s, this tension has taken shape around the accountability movement, defined by educational reforms that hold schools, teachers, and students accountable for performance on new…

  5. Radiotherapy of tonsillar and base of the tongue carcinoma. Prediction of local control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak-Kregar, S.; Baris, G.; Lebesque, J. V.; Balm, A. J.; Hart, A. A.; Hilgers, F. J.

    1993-01-01

    119 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region (68) and the base of the tongue (51), who received external radiotherapy with curative intent between 1966 and 1984, are analysed with respect to overall treatment results, local tumour control and prognostic factors. Radiation doses

  6. The reasons for changes in the control of Dutch local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, H.J.; Haldma, T.

    2005-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen a succession of changes in the management control of organizations in the Dutch local government sector, i.e. municipalities and provinces. These changes relate to, for example, organizational structures, financial management and human resources management, and also

  7. Controlling Lean Manufacturing in Multidivisional Organisations : Highlighting Local Interests and Contraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Martijn; Tillema, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the impact of a multidivisional structure on the implementation of lean manufacturing. It investigates how the controls employed by the corporate level impact the local implementation of lean manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports on case studies

  8. Increasing Restorability for Local-to-Egress Restoration in GMPLS Controlled Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study the performance of the local-to-egress restoration method in GMPLS controlled optical networks, when a limited number of wavelength converters are available. We evaluate the recovery percentage for a converter-saving label assignment scheme and compare its performance to a simple scheme...

  9. Patterns of Failure and Local Control After Intraoperative Electron Boost Radiotherapy to the Presacral Space in Combination with Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Treiber, Martina; Oertel, Susanne; Dinkel, Julien; Timke, Carmen; Funk, Angela; Garcia-Huttenlocher, Helena; Bischof, Marc; Weitz, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang; Hensley, Frank W.; Buchler, Markus W.; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the outcome of 243 patients with rectal cancer treated with IOERT (median dose, 10 Gy) after TME. Eighty-eight patients received neoadjuvant and 122 patients adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose, 41.4 Gy), and in 88% simultaneous chemotherapy was applied. Median follow-up was 59 months. Results: Local failure was observed in 17 patients (7%), resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 92%. Only complete resection and absence of nodal involvement correlated positively with local control. Considering IOERT fields, seven infield recurrences were seen in the presacral space, resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 97%. The remaining local relapses were located as follows: retrovesical/retroprostatic (5), anastomotic site (2), promontorium (1), ileocecal (1), and perineal (1). Conclusion: Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy as part of a multimodal treatment approach including TME is a highly effective regimen to prevent local failure. The presacral space remains the site of highest risk for local failure, but IOERT can decrease the percentage of relapses in this area

  10. Regression and local control rates after radiotherapy for jugulotympanic paragangliomas: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsteijn, Leonie T. van; Corssmit, Eleonora P.M.; Coremans, Ida E.M.; Smit, Johannes W.A.; Jansen, Jeroen C.; Dekkers, Olaf M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment goal of radiotherapy for paragangliomas of the head and neck region (HNPGLs) is local control of the tumor, i.e. stabilization of tumor volume. Interestingly, regression of tumor volume has also been reported. Up to the present, no meta-analysis has been performed giving an overview of regression rates after radiotherapy in HNPGLs. The main objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess regression of tumor volume in HNPGL-patients after radiotherapy. A second outcome was local tumor control. Design of the study is systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, COCHRANE and Academic Search Premier and references of key articles were searched in March 2012 to identify potentially relevant studies. Considering the indolent course of HNPGLs, only studies with ⩾12 months follow-up were eligible. Main outcomes were the pooled proportions of regression and local control after radiotherapy as initial, combined (i.e. directly post-operatively or post-embolization) or salvage treatment (i.e. after initial treatment has failed) for HNPGLs. A meta-analysis was performed with an exact likelihood approach using a logistic regression with a random effect at the study level. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Fifteen studies were included, concerning a total of 283 jugulotympanic HNPGLs in 276 patients. Pooled regression proportions for initial, combined and salvage treatment were respectively 21%, 33% and 52% in radiosurgery studies and 4%, 0% and 64% in external beam radiotherapy studies. Pooled local control proportions for radiotherapy as initial, combined and salvage treatment ranged from 79% to 100%. Radiotherapy for jugulotympanic paragangliomas results in excellent local tumor control and therefore is a valuable treatment for these types of tumors. The effects of radiotherapy on regression of tumor volume remain ambiguous, although the data suggest that regression can

  11. A neo-strategic planning approach to enhance local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Malinda R; Carter, Sara Sally R; Wilson, Andrew P; Chan, Andie

    2015-01-01

    Research in tobacco control demonstrating best practices is widely disseminated; however, application at the local level is often difficult. Translating research into practice requires a concerted effort to develop an understanding of the evidence and how it can be applied within diverse contexts. A strategic planning infrastructure was developed to support the translation of evidence-based interventions into community practice. This paper highlights the strategic process of turning "know-what" into "know-how" to facilitate the strategic planning and implementation of tobacco control best practices at the local level. The purpose, people, process, and product strategies of knowledge management and translation provided a framework for the strategic planning infrastructure. The knowledge translation concepts of audience, motivations, and mechanisms were synergized in the neo-strategic planning component design. The participants were 20 community coalitions funded to implement local tobacco control programs. From 2004 to 2011, the strategic planners facilitated a cyclical process to translate research into practice using a trio of integrated tools, skill-building workshops on strategic planning, and grantee-driven technical assistance and consultation. In the short term, the usefulness of the strategic planning components to the programs was measured. The intermediate outcome was the successful movement of the community programs from the planning stage to the implementation stage. The achievement of community-level changes in planned tobacco control efforts was the overall outcome measure for the success of the local coalitions. Seventeen of 20 communities that began the planning process implemented strategic plans. All 17 of the programs implemented evidence-based practices, resulting in numerous tobacco-free policies, increased cessation, and increased support from the media and community. Bridging the gap between research and practice can enhance the practicality

  12. Stereotactic radiotherapy following surgery for brain metastasis: Predictive factors for local control and radionecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, M; Martin, S; Delpon, G; Clément, K; Campion, L; Thillays, F

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate local control and adverse effects after postoperative hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with brain metastasis. We reviewed patients who had hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (7.7Gy×3 prescribed to the 70% isodose line, with 2mm planning target volume margin) following resection from March 2008 to January 2014. The primary endpoint was local failure defined as recurrence within the surgical cavity. Secondary endpoints were distant failure rates and the occurrence of radionecrosis. Out of 95 patients, 39.2% had metastatic lesions from a non-small cell lung cancer primary tumour. The median Graded Prognostic Assessment score was 3 (48% of patients). One-year local control rates were 84%. Factors associated with improved local control were no cavity enhancement on pre-radiation MRI (P<0.00001), planning target volume less than 12cm 3 (P=0.005), Graded Prognostic Assessment score 2 or above (P=0.009). One-year distant cerebral control rates were 56%. Thirty-three percent of patients received whole brain radiation therapy. Histologically proven radionecrosis of brain tissue occurred in 7.2% of cases. The size of the preoperative lesion and the volume of healthy brain tissue receiving 21Gy (V 21 ) were both predictive of the incidence of radionecrosis (P=0.010 and 0.036, respectively). Adjuvant hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to the postoperative cavity in patients with brain metastases results in excellent local control in selected patients, helps delay the use of whole brain radiation, and is associated with a relatively low risk of radionecrosis. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Localized modelling and feedback control of linear instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Henry; Kotsonis, Marios; de Visser, Coen

    2016-11-01

    A new approach is presented for control of instabilities in 2-D wall bounded shear flows described by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations (LNSE). The control design accounts both for spatially localized actuators/sensors and the dominant perturbation dynamics in an optimal control framework. An inflow disturbance model is proposed for streamwise instabilities that drive laminar-turbulent transition. The perturbation modes that contribute to the transition process can be selected and are included in the control design. A reduced order model is derived from the LNSE that captures the input-output behavior and the dominant perturbation dynamics. This model is used to design an optimal controller for suppressing the instability growth. A 2-D channel flow and a 2-D boundary layer flow over a flat plate are considered as application cases. Disturbances are generated upstream of the control domain and the resulting flow perturbations are estimated/controlled using wall shear measurements and localized unsteady blowing and suction at the wall. It will be shown that the controller is able to cancel the perturbations and is robust to unmodelled disturbances.

  14. Radioguided occult lesion localization versus wire-guided localization for non-palpable breast lesions: randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocal, Koray; Dag, Ahmet; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Yucel, Erdem; Gunay, Emel Ceylan; Duce, Meltem Nass

    2011-01-01

    Aim: this prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) with wire-guided localization to evaluate optimum localization techniques for non-palpable breast lesions. Methods: a total of 108 patients who were undergoing an excisional biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions requiring pathologic diagnosis were randomly assigned to the ROLL group (n 56) and wire-guided localization group (n 52). In the study, patients' characteristics, radiological abnormalities, radiological technique of localization, localization time, operation time, weight of the excised specimen, clearance margins, pathological diagnosis and perioperative complications were assessed. Results: there were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, radiological abnormalities and localization technique (p = non-significant for all). ROLL techniques resulted in 100% retrieval of the lesions; for the wire-guided localization technique, 98%. Both localization time and operation time were significantly reduced with the ROLL technique (p = significant for all). The weight of the specimen was significantly lower in the ROLL group than in the wire-guided localization group (p = significant). The overall complication rate and pathological diagnosis were similar for both groups (p = non-significant for all). Clear margins were achieved in 91% of ROLL patients and in 53% of wire-guided localization patients, and the difference was significant. Conclusions: the present study indicated that the ROLL technique is as effective as wire-guided localization for the excision of non-palpable breast lesions. In addition, ROLL improved the outcomes by reducing localization and operation time, preventing healthy tissue excision and achieving clearer margins. (author)

  15. Radioguided occult lesion localization versus wire-guided localization for non-palpable breast lesions: randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocal, Koray; Dag, Ahmet; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Yucel, Erdem [Mersin University (Turkey). Medical Faculty. Dept. of General Surgery; Gunay, Emel Ceylan [Mersin University (Turkey). Medical Faculty. Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Duce, Meltem Nass [Mersin University (Turkey). Medical Faculty. Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    Aim: this prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) with wire-guided localization to evaluate optimum localization techniques for non-palpable breast lesions. Methods: a total of 108 patients who were undergoing an excisional biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions requiring pathologic diagnosis were randomly assigned to the ROLL group (n 56) and wire-guided localization group (n 52). In the study, patients' characteristics, radiological abnormalities, radiological technique of localization, localization time, operation time, weight of the excised specimen, clearance margins, pathological diagnosis and perioperative complications were assessed. Results: there were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, radiological abnormalities and localization technique (p = non-significant for all). ROLL techniques resulted in 100% retrieval of the lesions; for the wire-guided localization technique, 98%. Both localization time and operation time were significantly reduced with the ROLL technique (p = significant for all). The weight of the specimen was significantly lower in the ROLL group than in the wire-guided localization group (p = significant). The overall complication rate and pathological diagnosis were similar for both groups (p = non-significant for all). Clear margins were achieved in 91% of ROLL patients and in 53% of wire-guided localization patients, and the difference was significant. Conclusions: the present study indicated that the ROLL technique is as effective as wire-guided localization for the excision of non-palpable breast lesions. In addition, ROLL improved the outcomes by reducing localization and operation time, preventing healthy tissue excision and achieving clearer margins. (author)

  16. Evaluation of peptide adsorption-controlled liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (PAC-LC-MS/MS) method for simple and simultaneous quantitation of amyloid β 1-38, 1-40, 1-42 and 1-43 peptides in dog cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ryoya; Kobayashi, Nobuhiro

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the peptide adsorption-controlled liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PAC-LC-MS/MS) for reproducible measurement of peptides in biological fluids, simultaneous quantitation of amyloid β 1-38, 1-40, 1-42 and 1-43 peptides (Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42 and Aβ43) in dog cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was tried. Each stable isotope labeled Aβ was used as the internal standard to minimize the influence of CSF matrix on the reproducible Aβ quantitation. To reduce a loss of Aβ during the pretreatment procedures, the dog CSF diluted by water-acetic acid-methanol (2:6:1, v/v/v) was loaded on PAC-LC-MS/MS directly. Quantification of the Aβ in the diluted dog CSF was carried out using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The [M+5H(5+)] and b(5+) ion fragment of each peptide were chosen as the precursor and product ions for MRM transitions of each peptide. The calibration curves were drawn from Aβ standard calibration solutions using PAC-LC-MS/MS. Analysis of dog CSF samples suggests that the basal concentration of Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42 and Aβ43 in dog CSF is approximately 300, 900, 200 and 30 pM, respectively. This is the first time Aβ concentrations in dog CSF have been reported. Additionally, the evaluation of intra- and inter-day reproducibility of analysis of Aβ standard solution, the freeze-thaw stability and the room temperature stability of Aβ standard solution suggest that the PAC-LC-MS/MS method enables reproducible Aβ quantitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Local magnetic divertor for control of the plasma--limiter interaction in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Liewer, P.C.; Gould, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment is described in which plasma flow to a tokamak limiter is controlled through the use of a local toroidal divertor coil mounted inside the limiter itself. This coil produces a local perturbed field B/sub C/ approximately equal to the local unperturbed toroidal field B/sub T/approx. =3 kG, such that when B/sub C/ adds to B/sub T/ the field lines move into the limiter and the local plasma flow to it increases by a factor as great as 1.6, and when B/sub C/ subtracts from B/sub T/ the field lines move away from the limiter and the local plasma flow to it decreases by as much as a factor of 4. A simple theoretical model is used to interpret these results. Since these changes occur without significantly affecting global plasma confinement, such a control scheme may be useful for optimizing the performance of pumped limiters

  18. Neural Network with Local Memory for Nuclear Reactor Power Level Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluyol, Oender; Ragheb, Magdi; Tsoukalas, Lefteri

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is introduced for a neural network with local memory called a multilayered local output gamma feedback (LOGF) neural network within the paradigm of locally-recurrent globally-feedforward neural networks. It appears to be well-suited for the identification, prediction, and control tasks in highly dynamic systems; it allows for the presentation of different timescales through incorporation of a gamma memory. A learning algorithm based on the backpropagation-through-time approach is derived. The spatial and temporal weights of the network are iteratively optimized for a given problem using the derived learning algorithm. As a demonstration of the methodology, it is applied to the task of power level control of a nuclear reactor at different fuel cycle conditions. The results demonstrate that the LOGF neural network controller outperforms the classical as well as the state feedback-assisted classical controllers for reactor power level control by showing a better tracking of the demand power, improving the fuel and exit temperature responses, and by performing robustly in different fuel cycle and power level conditions

  19. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  20. Controlling the Local Electronic Properties of Si(553)-Au through Hydrogen Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, C.; Speiser, E.; Chandola, S.; Suchkova, S.; Aulbach, J.; Schäfer, J.; Meyer, S.; Claessen, R.; Esser, N.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a quantitative and reversible method for tuning the charge localization of Au-stabilized stepped Si surfaces by site-specific hydrogenation. This is demonstrated for Si(553)-Au as a model system by combining density functional theory simulations and reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy experiments. We find that controlled H passivation is a two-step process: step-edge adsorption drives excess charge into the conducting metal chain "reservoir" and renders it insulating, while surplus H recovers metallic behavior. Our approach illustrates a route towards microscopic manipulation of the local surface charge distribution and establishes a reversible switch of site-specific chemical reactivity and magnetic properties on vicinal surfaces.

  1. Density of states controls Anderson localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernández, David; Smolka, Stephan; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We prove Anderson localization in a disordered photonic crystal waveguide by measuring the ensemble-averaged extinction mean-free path, ℓe, which is controlled by the dispersion in the photon density of states (DOS) of the photonic crystal waveguide. Except for the very low DOS case, where out......-of-plane losses are non-negligible, ℓe can be approximated to be the localization length ξ. The extinction mean-free path shows a fivefold variation between the low- and the high-DOS regime, and it becomes shorter than the sample length thus giving rise to strongly confined modes. The dispersive behavior of ℓe...

  2. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  3. Combined treatment of the immunoconjugate bivatuzumab mertansine and fractionated irradiation improves local tumour control in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtner, Kristin; Hessel, Franziska; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Dörfler, Annegret; Zips, Daniel; Heider, Karl-Heinz; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: To test whether BIWI 1 (bivatuzumab mertansine), an immunoconjugate of the humanized anti-CD44v6 monoclonal antibody BIWA 4 and the maytansinoid DM1, given simultaneously to fractionated irradiation improves local tumour control in vivo compared with irradiation alone. Material and methods: For growth delay, FaDu tumours were treated with 5 intravenous injections (daily) of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), BIWA 4 (monoclonal antibody against CD44v6) or BIWI 1 (bivatuzumab mertansine) at two different dose levels (50 μg/kg DM1 and 100 μg/kg DM1). For local tumour control, FaDu tumours received fractionated irradiation (5f/5d) with simultaneous PBS, BIWA 4 or BIWI 1 (two dose levels). Results: BIWI 1 significantly improved local tumour control after irradiation with 5 fractions already in the lower concentration. The dose modifying factor of 1.9 is substantial compared to the majority of other modifiers of radiation response. Conclusion: Because of the magnitude of the curative effect, this approach is highly promising and should be further evaluated using similar combinations with improved tumour-specificity.

  4. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-05

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  5. Local control of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Ghert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The local control of desmoid tumors constitutes a continuing treatment dilemma due to its high recurrence rates. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically examine the current treatment of these rare tumors and to specifically evaluate the local failure and response rates of surgery, radiation and systemic therapy. We comprehensively searched the literature for relevant studies across Cinahl, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane databases. Articles were categorized as surgery, radiation, surgery + radiation and systemic therapy (including cytotoxic and non cytotoxic. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odd ratios (OR for comparative studies and weighted proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI are reported. Thirty-five articles were included in the final analysis. Weighted mean local failure rates were 22% [95% CI (16-28%], 35% [95% CI (26-44%] and 28% [95% CI (18-39%] for radiation alone, surgery alone and surgery + radiation respectively. In the analysis of comparative studies, surgery and radiation in combination had lower local failure rates than radiation alone [OR 0.7 (0.4, 1.2] and surgery alone [OR 0.7 (0.4, 1.0]. Weighted mean stable disease rates were 91% [95% CI (85-96%] and 52% [95% CI (38-65%] for non cytotoxic and cytotoxic chemotherapy respectively. The current evidence suggests that surgery alone has a consistently high rate of local recurrence in managing extra-abdominal desmoid tumors. Radiation therapy in combination with surgery improves local control rates. However, the limited data on systemic therapy for this rare tumor suggests the benefit of using both cytotoxic and non cytotoxic chemotherapy to achieve stable disease.

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  7. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  8. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  9. EDF and local authorities: a historical model of compromise and control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouneau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    The June 15, 1906 Distribution Act is central to the country's legal and energy heritage, and has retained, after 1946, its validity and relevance, in the era of EDF. By acknowledging the essential role of local authorities, mainly cities, it established the local public electricity agency (SPL) based on relationships between the licensor and the Licence Holder. After setting up the FNCCR (Federation Nationale des Collectivites Concedantes et Regies) in 1933, the April 8, 946 Nationalization Act had initiated a golden age for local electric economy control by public agencies, by confirming the privileges of local authorities. The end of rural electrification, the role of FACE (Fonds d'Amortissement des charges d'electrification rurale) and the increasing number of inter-city associations symbolize the French model of concession economy. Open competition under European energy liberalization directives since 1990 has led to increased authority, as well as responsibilities, for local authorities looking for a new SPL. Its key words are not only competitiveness, but also social and territorial solidarity and the new requirements of sustainable energy development, and its agenda. (author)

  10. The impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on local control in patients with invasive lobular breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diepenmaat, Lindy A.; Sangen, Maurice J.C. van der; Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de; Beek, Mike W.P.M. van; Berlo, Charles L.H. van; Luiten, Ernest J.T.; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A.P.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this population-based study was to examine the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on the risk of local recurrence in patients with invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). Methods: The population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry was used to select all patients with ILC, who underwent mastectomy in five general hospitals in the southern part of Netherlands between 1995 and 2002. Of the 499 patients 383 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Of these patients, 170 (44.4%) had received postmastectomy radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 7.2 years. Fourteen patients (3.7%) were lost to follow-up. Results: During follow-up 22 patients developed a local recurrence, of whom 4 had received postmastectomy radiotherapy. The 5-year actuarial risk of local recurrence was 2.1% for the patients with and 8.7% for the patients without postmastectomy radiotherapy. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, tumour stage and adjuvant systemic treatment, the patients who underwent postmastectomy radiotherapy were found to have a more than 3 times lower risk of local recurrence compared to the patients without (Hazard Ratio 0.30; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.10-0.89). Conclusion: Local control is excellent for patients with ILC who undergo postmastectomy radiotherapy and significantly better than for patients not receiving radiotherapy.

  11. Salivary gland carcinomas: prognostic factors for local control and distant metastasis, the role of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhaard, C.H.J.; Lubsen, H.; Tweel, I. van der; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Eijkenboom, W.M.H.; Marres, H.A.M.; Tjho-Heslinga, R.E.; Jong, J.M.A. de; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in which head and neck groups of all University hospitals and the two cancer institutes are represented, initiated a retrospective study concerning salivary gland carcinomas. A majority of Dutch patients with head and neck carcinomas are treated in the participating centres, and the follow-up is precise. Prognostic factors for local control and survival were studied, with special interest in the role of treatment and the role of histologic type. Methods and materials: Results were obtained of 568 patients with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. The parotid gland was involved in 59%, the submandibular gland in 14%, oral cavity in 24% and 3% was located elsewhere. Mean age was 59 years (range 8-100 yr), 48% was female. T-stage was T 1 in 27%, T 2 in 44%, T 3 in 19% and T 4 in 11%. Positive necknodes were seen in 15%, 3% was initially M 1 . Histologic type was acinic cell carcinoma in 12%, mucoepidermoid ca. in 16%, adenoid cystic ca. in 26%, adenoca. in 24%, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma in 8%, squamous cell ca. in 6% and undifferentiated ca. in 7%. Resection margins were radical in 37%, close in 20% and irradical in 40% (3% unknown). Surgery was the primary treatment in 501 patients, combined with postoperative radiotherapy (50-70 Gy, mean dose 62 Gy) in 389 patients. Radiotherapy was the primary treatment in 40 patients (18 M 1 , 30% N+), 20 patients were not treated and 7 patients were treated otherwise. For statistical analysis the Cox PH regression analysis was used (SPSS-PC+). Results: Actuarial local control after 8 years was 80% for surgery alone and 92% for the combined modality (in which more advanced cases prevaled). Independent factors for local control in the surgery±radiotherapy group were: I:T-stage (T 3 vs T 1-2 : RR 3.7; T 4 vs T 1-2 : RR 11.7), II: anatomic site (oral cavity vs parotid and submandibular gland: RR 0.2) and III: treatment modality (surgery alone vs surgery

  12. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  13. Prototyping the E-ELT M1 local control system communication infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argomedo, J.; Kornweibel, N.; Grudzien, T.; Dimmler, M.; Andolfato, L.; Barriga, P.

    2016-08-01

    The primary mirror of the E-ELT is composed of 798 hexagonal segments of about 1.45 meters across. Each segment can be moved in piston and tip-tilt using three position actuators. Inductive edge sensors are used to provide feedback for global reconstruction of the mirror shape. The E-ELT M1 Local Control System will provide a deterministic infrastructure for collecting edge sensor and actuators readings and distribute the new position actuators references while at the same time providing failure detection, isolation and notification, synchronization, monitoring and configuration management. The present paper describes the prototyping activities carried out to verify the feasibility of the E-ELT M1 local control system communication architecture design and assess its performance and potential limitations.

  14. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  15. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  16. Control of local intracellular calcium concentration with dynamic-clamp controlled 2-photon uncaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Idoux

    Full Text Available The variations of the intracellular concentration of calcium ion ([Ca(2+](i are at the heart of intracellular signaling, and their imaging is therefore of enormous interest. However, passive [Ca(2+](i imaging provides no control over these variations, meaning that a full exploration of the functional consequences of [Ca(2+](i changes is difficult to attain. The tools designed so far to modify [Ca(2+](i, even qualitatively, suffer drawbacks that undermine their widespread use. Here, we describe an electro-optical technique to quantitatively set [Ca(2+](i, in real time and with sub-cellular resolution, using two-photon Ca(2+ uncaging and dynamic-clamp. We experimentally demonstrate, on neurons from acute olfactory bulb slices of Long Evans rats, various capabilities of this technique previously difficult to achieve, such as the independent control of the membrane potential and [Ca(2+](i variations, the functional knocking-in of user-defined virtual voltage-dependent Ca(2+ channels, and the standardization of [Ca(2+](i patterns across different cells. Our goal is to lay the groundwork for this technique and establish it as a new and versatile tool for the study of cell signaling.

  17. Factors influencing local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Sohn, Jason W.; Fernandez-Vicioso, Eduardo; Kupelian, Patrick A.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify factors affecting local control and survival for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 3/90-10/95, 99 patients (median age 58, range 29-83; 44 women, 55 men) with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic intracranial metastases measuring < 4 cm in diameter and ≥ 1 cm from optic chiasm and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥ 70 underwent modified linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Patients characteristics included 20 with recurrent disease, 66 with solitary lesions, and 42 with systemic disease. Forty six patients underwent surgical resection prior to SRS (16 biopsy, 3 subtotal resection (STR), and 21 gross total resection (GTR)). Eighty of 99 patients underwent whole brain radiation treatments (median 4005 cGy/15 fx, range 2200-6000 cGy). A total of 154 lesions were treated with 143 being evaluable on follow-up CT or MRI scans. Radiosurgery parameters (median) were the following: volume 2.8 cc (range 0.1-38 cc) and a peripheral dose of 1700 cGy (range 500-2400 cGy) with normalization to the 80% line (range 50-90%). Survival was measured from the date of SRS. Local control was defined as stabilization or decrease in size of the intracranial lesion(s). RESULTS: The following factors were analyzed with respect to local control and survival: 1) solitary vs. multiple lesions, 2) Age < or ≥ 60, 3) sex, 4) radiosensitive vs. radioresistant (renal cell and melanoma) histologies, 5) recurrent vs. newly diagnosed lesions, 6) KPS (70-80 vs. 90-100), 7) extent of surgery (biopsy vs. STR/GTR), 8) use of whole brain radiation treatments, 9) absence or presence of systemic disease, 10) dose (< or ≥ 1500 cGy) and 11) volume (< or ≥ 3 cc). On univariate analysis, survival was significantly influenced by female sex, presence of solitary lesion, absence of systemic disease, and extent of surgery. On multivariate analysis, female sex (p=0.0037), absence of systemic disease

  18. Measurement of local dose rates in controlled areas of nuclear power plants. Version 6/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Local dose rate measurements according to this regulation, serve the following purposes: Development of preventive measures for radiation protection with respect to maintenance and modifications in controlled areas, e.g. determination of individual measures for personnel protection, development of flow charts and dose rate estimates; monitoring of the personnel's location of activity within the controlled area, including determination of time-dependence of local dose rates and determination of immediate radiation protection measures required; limitation and identification of controlled areas. Such measurements are performed to ensure that the principles of radiation protection as stated in Art. 28 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with respect to external radiation exposure of the personnel, and the requirements of Art. 61 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance relating to controlled areas are met and the limitation and identification of controlled areas as prescribed in Art 57 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance can be performed. They are not used to determine body doses as per Art. 63 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method to quantify lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), iso-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and nor-LSD and identify novel metabolites in plasma samples in a controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dolder, Patrick C.; Liechti, Matthias E.; Rentsch, Katharina M.

    2018-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of LSD, iso-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD), and nor-LSD in plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects after controlled administration of 100 μg LSD in a clinical trial. In addition, metabolites that have been recently described in in vitro studies, including lysergic acid monoethylamide...

  20. Indirect control of DSRs for regulating power provision and solving local congestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Inducing a shift in the electricity consumption using a broadcasted dynamic price for the energy is often proposed as a resource for providing regulating power and it is becoming an increasing research focus for enabling higher penetration of renewable energy in the current power system. This paper...... with the CIGRE’ MV reference network with 346 electrically heated buildings as Demand Side Resources, DSRs. The dynamic hourly price of the regulating power provided by Nord Pool Spot market has been used as indirect control signal for the flexible demand....... shows how using indirect control (or control by price) without any precautions, might easily lead to congestions in nearly saturated distribution grids. An auto tuning local controller which acts on the price signal at distribution level is proposed for solving the congestion. Simulations are performed...

  1. Distributed embedded controller development with petri nets application to globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Filipe de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a model-based development approach for globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous distributed embedded controllers.  This approach uses Petri nets as modeling formalism to create platform and network independent models supporting the use of design automation tools.  To support this development approach, the Petri nets class in use is extended with time-domains and asynchronous-channels. The authors’ approach uses models not only providing a better understanding of the distributed controller and improving the communication among the stakeholders, but also to be ready to support the entire lifecycle, including the simulation, the verification (using model-checking tools), the implementation (relying on automatic code generators), and the deployment of the distributed controller into specific platforms. Uses a graphical and intuitive modeling formalism supported by design automation tools; Enables verification, ensuring that the distributed controller was correctly specified; Provides flex...

  2. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  3. Comparison of preoperative short-course radiotherapy and long-course radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, M.; Saur, G.; Wehner, D.; Sweeney, R.A.; Flentje, M.; Thalheimer, A.; Germer, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this work was to perform a single institution comparison between preoperative short-course radiotherapy (SC-RT) and long-course radiochemotherapy (LC-RCHT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: A total of 225 patients with clinical stage UICC II-III rectal cancer were treated with SC-RT (29 Gy in 10 twice daily fractions followed by immediate surgery; n = 108) or LC-RCHT (54 Gy in 28 fractions with simultaneous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ± oxaliplatin chemotherapy followed by delayed surgery; n = 117). All patients in the LC-RCHT cohort and patients in the SC-RT with pathological UICC stage ≥ II received adjuvant chemotherapy. Before 2004, the standard of care was SC-RT with LC-RCHT reserved for patients where downstaging was considered as required for sphincter preservation or curative resection. In the later period, SC-RT was practiced only for patients unfit for radiochemotherapy. Results: Patients in the LC-RCHT cohort had a significantly higher proportion of cT4 tumors, clinical node positivity, and lower tumor location. The 5-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were 91% and 66% without differences between the SC-RT and LC-RCHT groups. Acute toxicity was increased during LC-RCHT (grade ≥ II 1% vs. 33%) and there were no differences in postoperative complications. Severe late toxicity grade ≥ III was increased after SC-RT (12% vs. 3%). Of patients aged > 80 years, 7 of 7 patients and 4 of 9 patients received curative surgery after SC-RT and LC-RCHT, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the fact that patients with worse prognostic factors were treated with LC-RCHT, there were no significant differences in LC and OS between the SC-RT and LC-RCHT group. Age > 80 years was identified as a significant risk factor for LC-RCHT and these patients could be treated preferably with SC-RT. (orig.)

  4. Local control unit for ITER-India gyrotron test facility (IIGTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Vipal, E-mail: vipal.rathod@iter-india.org; Shah, Ronak; Mandge, Deepak; Parmar, Rajvi; Rao, S.L.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A dedicated full scale ITER prototype Local Control Unit for ITER-India Gyrotron test facility. • National Instruments® make PXIe system for real time control & data acquisition and Siemens® PLC for sequence control function. • Hardwired FPGA based fast protection interlock system. • High speed analog fiber optical transmission link using V/F and F/V technique. • Software framework based on LabVIEW™ platform and ITER CODAC Core System. - Abstract: Electron Cyclotron system on ITER, is one of the important RF ancillary systems based on high power Gyrotron RF sources, that is used for plasma heating and current drive applications. To operate a Gyrotron source, various auxiliary systems and services such as Super Conducting Magnet set, High Voltage Power Supplies, Auxiliary Power Supplies, Waveguide components, Cooling water system and a Local Control Unit (LCU) are required. The LCU plays a very crucial role for the safe and reliable operation of Gyrotron system. A dedicated full scale ITER prototype LCU is being developed for testing and commissioning of an ITER like Test Gyrotron at ITER-India Gyrotron Test facility (IIGTF). The main functions of LCU include Sequence Control, Local Interlock Protection and Real Time Data Acquisition. PLC based slow controller is used for implementing the Sequence Control & Slow Interlock functions. Critical Protection Interlocks are required to have a response time of <10 μs and are implemented using custom built hardware and PXIe based fast controller. Also PXIe system is used for implementing Real Time Data Acquisition function that is required to have slow and fast acquisition with online visualization and off line analysis facility. A Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) is used to interface and faithfully transmit the field signals to the remote control systems. Necessary controller hardware is procured and several pre-prototype developments have been taken up to establish the critical subsystems such as

  5. Local control unit for ITER-India gyrotron test facility (IIGTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Shah, Ronak; Mandge, Deepak; Parmar, Rajvi; Rao, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dedicated full scale ITER prototype Local Control Unit for ITER-India Gyrotron test facility. • National Instruments® make PXIe system for real time control & data acquisition and Siemens® PLC for sequence control function. • Hardwired FPGA based fast protection interlock system. • High speed analog fiber optical transmission link using V/F and F/V technique. • Software framework based on LabVIEW™ platform and ITER CODAC Core System. - Abstract: Electron Cyclotron system on ITER, is one of the important RF ancillary systems based on high power Gyrotron RF sources, that is used for plasma heating and current drive applications. To operate a Gyrotron source, various auxiliary systems and services such as Super Conducting Magnet set, High Voltage Power Supplies, Auxiliary Power Supplies, Waveguide components, Cooling water system and a Local Control Unit (LCU) are required. The LCU plays a very crucial role for the safe and reliable operation of Gyrotron system. A dedicated full scale ITER prototype LCU is being developed for testing and commissioning of an ITER like Test Gyrotron at ITER-India Gyrotron Test facility (IIGTF). The main functions of LCU include Sequence Control, Local Interlock Protection and Real Time Data Acquisition. PLC based slow controller is used for implementing the Sequence Control & Slow Interlock functions. Critical Protection Interlocks are required to have a response time of <10 μs and are implemented using custom built hardware and PXIe based fast controller. Also PXIe system is used for implementing Real Time Data Acquisition function that is required to have slow and fast acquisition with online visualization and off line analysis facility. A Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU) is used to interface and faithfully transmit the field signals to the remote control systems. Necessary controller hardware is procured and several pre-prototype developments have been taken up to establish the critical subsystems such as

  6. Local control and functional results after twice-daily radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolek, Timothy W.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price; Scarborough, Mark T.; Graham-Pole, John

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) has been the predominant local treatment for Ewing's sarcoma of bone at the University of Florida. Twice-daily hyperfractionated RT was initiated in 1982 to improve local control and functional outcome. This retrospective review compares the results of once-daily vs. twice-daily RT in patients with primary Ewing's sarcoma of an extremity, with emphasis on functional outcome. Methods and Materials: Between June 1971 and January 1990, 37 patients were treated at the University of Florida for nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone with a primary lesion in an extremity. Three patients underwent amputation. Of 34 patients treated with RT, 31 had RT alone and 3 had a combination of RT and local excision. Before 1982, 14 patients received once-daily RT; since 1982, 17 patients have received twice-daily RT. Doses of once-daily RT varied from 47 to 61 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy per fraction. Doses of twice-daily RT varied, depending on the response of the soft-tissue component of the tumor to chemotherapy, and ranged from 50.4 to 60 Gy at 1.2 Gy per fraction. Some patients in the twice-daily RT group also received total body irradiation 1-3 months after local RT as part of a conditioning regimen before marrow-ablative therapy with stem cell rescue. They received either 8 Gy in two once-daily fractions or 12 Gy in six twice-daily fractions. The six patients who received surgery were excluded from local control analysis. Local control rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method. Fifteen patients had a formal functional evaluation. Results: In the 31 patients treated with RT alone, the actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 81% for patients treated twice daily and 77% for those treated once daily (p = NS). No posttreatment pathologic fractures occurred in patients treated twice daily, whereas five fractures occurred in those treated once daily (p = 0.01). On functional evaluation, less loss in range of motion (15 deg. vs. 28 deg. of loss

  7. Quadratic obstructions to small-time local controllability for scalar-input systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchard, Karine; Marbach, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    We consider nonlinear finite-dimensional scalar-input control systems in the vicinity of an equilibrium. When the linearized system is controllable, the nonlinear system is smoothly small-time locally controllable: whatever m > 0 and T > 0, the state can reach a whole neighborhood of the equilibrium at time T with controls arbitrary small in Cm-norm. When the linearized system is not controllable, we prove that: either the state is constrained to live within a smooth strict manifold, up to a cubic residual, or the quadratic order adds a signed drift with respect to it. This drift holds along a Lie bracket of length (2 k + 1), is quantified in terms of an H-k-norm of the control, holds for controls small in W 2 k , ∞-norm and these spaces are optimal. Our proof requires only C3 regularity of the vector field. This work underlines the importance of the norm used in the smallness assumption on the control, even in finite dimension.

  8. The influence of mechanical vibration on local and central balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Mohler, Jane; Marlinski, Vladimir; Rashedi, Ehsan; Toosizadeh, Nima

    2018-04-11

    Fall prevention has an indispensable role in enhancing life expectancy and quality of life among older adults. The first step to prevent falls is to devise reliable methods to identify individuals at high fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess alterations in local postural muscle and central sensory balance control mechanisms due to low-frequency externally applied vibration among elders at high fall risk, in comparison with healthy controls, as a potential tool for assessing fall risk. Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and elders at high fall risk (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years). Eyes-open and eyes-closed upright standing balance performance was measured with no vibration, 30 Hz, and 40 Hz vibration of Gastrocnemius muscles. When vibratory stimulation was applied, changes in local-control performance manifested significant differences among the groups (p fall risk participants when compared to healthy young and older adults, respectively. On the other hand, vibration-induced changes in the central-control performance were not significant between groups (p ≥ 0.19). Results suggest that local-control deficits are responsible for balance behavior alterations among elders at high fall risk and healthy individuals. This observation may be attributable to deterioration of short-latency reflexive loop in elders at high fall risk. On the other hand, we could not ascribe the balance alterations to problems related to central nervous system performance or long-latency responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local control of T3 carcinomas after accelerated fractionation: a look at the 'gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; Efird, Jimmy; Nakfoor, Bruce; Martins, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of midcourse treatment break or gaps related to the local control of T3 carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx following accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: All patients were treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1979 through 1994 with treatment consisting of 1.6 Gy per fraction, two fractions a day for the treatment of T3 carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx. They were entered in the head and neck data base. Their treatment dates, treatment breaks, and doses vs. local control were analyzed and compared. A p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 patients were available for review. Due to the acute severe mucosal effects, most of the patients required a midcourse pause or 'break' after a dose of 38.4-48 Gy before treatment could be resumed and completed. The data indicate that (a) prolongation of the treatment gap for more than 14 days, (b) total treatment course longer than 45 days, (c) total dose less than 67 Gy, and (d) male gender adversely affected local control. In spite of the gaps, the female patients with advanced carcinomas enjoyed the benefits of improved local control after the accelerated hyperfractionated radiation therapy. Conclusions: Accelerated hyperfractionation radiation therapy using 1.6 Gy per fraction/twice-a-day (b.i.d.) for a total dose of 70.4 Gy in 6 weeks is effective in achieving high local control of T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and larynx. The midcourse treatment gap should be as short as possible with the projected total dose and time. Should the gaps be unduly prolonged due to various circumstances, further increase in the total dose, for example, 72-75 Gy, and/or increase of the fraction sizes, for example, 1.8-2.0 Gy/f b.i.d. after the gap may be necessary to compensate for the adverse effects of the tumor regeneration from the prolonged gap

  10. Energy performance control of local collectivities. Good practices of european towns; Mesure des performances energetiques des collectivites locales. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-01-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the first axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  11. Local control of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: preoperative radiotherapy and cystectomy versus cystectomy alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Christopher J; Pollack, Alan; Zagars, Gunar K; Dinney, Colin P; Swanson, David A; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: The role of preoperative radiotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer remains controversial. Since 1985, the primary modality for treatment of these patients at our institution has been radical cystectomy alone. Prior to that time, the use of preoperative radiotherapy and cystectomy had been the mainstay of treatment. In this retrospective review we compare the results of these treatments, focusing on local control. Methods and Materials: The preoperative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy (PREOP) group was comprised of 338 patients with muscle-invasive (Stages T2-T4) transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder treated between 1960 and 1983. A mean total dose of 49.3 {+-} 0.2 Gy ({+-} SE) was administered at 2 Gy per fraction 4-6 weeks prior to cystectomy. The radical cystectomy alone (CYST) group was comprised of 232 patients treated between 1985 and 1990. The median follow-up for the PREOP group was 91 months and for the CYST group was 54 months. Only those patients who completed planned PREOP (n = 301) and CYST (n = 220) treatments were included in the analyses described below. Results: The treatment groups were stratified by clinical stage and compared in terms of actuarial local control. There were no differences between the groups for Stage T2 or T3a patients, and there were not enough Stage T4 patients in the PREOP group with which to make a meaningful comparison. However, for those with T3b disease, actuarial 5 year local control for the PREOP group (n = 92) was 91%, compared to 72% for the CYST group (n = 43). This difference was significant at p = 0.003 (log rank). Patients with T3b disease who received PREOP also fared slightly better at 5 years in terms of freedom from distant metastasis (67% vs. 54%), disease freedom (59% vs. 47%), and overall survival (52% vs. 40%); although, these differences did not reach statistical significance. The distribution of prognostic factors in the groups was analyzed to determine if this could

  12. Effect of tumor dose, volume and overall treatment time on local control after radiochemotherapy including MRI guided brachytherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Sturdza, Alina

    2016-01-01

    -center patient series (retroEMBRACE). Materials and methods This study analyzed 488 locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy combined with IGABT. Brachytherapy contouring and reporting was according to ICRU/GEC-ESTRO recommendations. The Cox Proportional...... Hazards model was applied to analyze the effect on local control of dose-volume metrics as well as overall treatment time (OTT), dose rate, chemotherapy, and tumor histology. Results With a median follow up of 46 months, 43 local failures were observed. Dose (D90) to the High Risk Clinical Target Volume...

  13. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengyue Zou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost.

  14. Local Control of Audio Environment: A Review of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kuutti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a local audio environment is to have sound playback locally restricted such that, ideally, adjacent regions of an indoor or outdoor space could exhibit their own individual audio content without interfering with each other. This would enable people to listen to their content of choice without disturbing others next to them, yet, without any headphones to block conversation. In practice, perfect sound containment in free air cannot be attained, but a local audio environment can still be satisfactorily approximated using directional speakers. Directional speakers may be based on regular audible frequencies or they may employ modulated ultrasound. Planar, parabolic, and array form factors are commonly used. The directivity of a speaker improves as its surface area and sound frequency increases, making these the main design factors for directional audio systems. Even directional speakers radiate some sound outside the main beam, and sound can also reflect from objects. Therefore, directional speaker systems perform best when there is enough ambient noise to mask the leaking sound. Possible areas of application for local audio include information and advertisement audio feed in commercial facilities, guiding and narration in museums and exhibitions, office space personalization, control room messaging, rehabilitation environments, and entertainment audio systems.

  15. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. METHODS: 825 patients with ischaemic heart...... and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394....... disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced...

  16. Phase-controlled localization and directed transport in an optical bipartite lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Kuo; Luo, Yunrong; Lu, Gengbiao; Hai, Wenhua

    2014-02-24

    We investigate coherent control of a single atom interacting with an optical bipartite lattice via a combined high-frequency modulation. Our analytical results show that the quantum tunneling and dynamical localization can depend on phase difference between the modulation components, which leads to a different route for the coherent destruction of tunneling and a convenient phase-control method for stabilizing the system to implement the directed transport of atom. The similar directed transport and the phase-controlled quantum transition are revealed for the corresponding many-particle system. The results can be referable for experimentally manipulating quantum transport and transition of cold atoms in the tilted and shaken optical bipartite lattice or of analogical optical two-mode quantum beam splitter, and also can be extended to other optical and solid-state systems.

  17. Controlling the layer localization of gapless states in bilayer graphene with a gate voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments in gated bilayer graphene with stacking domain walls present topological gapless states protected by no-valley mixing. Here we research these states under gate voltages using atomistic models, which allow us to elucidate their origin. We find that the gate potential controls the layer localization of the two states, which switches non-trivially between layers depending on the applied gate voltage magnitude. We also show how these bilayer gapless states arise from bands of single-layer graphene by analyzing the formation of carbon bonds between layers. Based on this analysis we provide a model Hamiltonian with analytical solutions, which explains the layer localization as a function of the ratio between the applied potential and interlayer hopping. Our results open a route for the manipulation of gapless states in electronic devices, analogous to the proposed writing and reading memories in topological insulators.

  18. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-03-26

    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  19. Controlling effect of geometrically defined local structural changes on chaotic Hamiltonian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, Yossi; Horwitz, Lawrence

    2010-04-01

    An effective characterization of chaotic conservative Hamiltonian systems in terms of the curvature associated with a Riemannian metric tensor derived from the structure of the Hamiltonian has been extended to a wide class of potential models of standard form through definition of a conformal metric. The geodesic equations reproduce the Hamilton equations of the original potential model through an inverse map in the tangent space. The second covariant derivative of the geodesic deviation in this space generates a dynamical curvature, resulting in (energy-dependent) criteria for unstable behavior different from the usual Lyapunov criteria. We show here that this criterion can be constructively used to modify locally the potential of a chaotic Hamiltonian model in such a way that stable motion is achieved. Since our criterion for instability is local in coordinate space, these results provide a minimal method for achieving control of a chaotic system.

  20. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  1. Local Control After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Amarinthia E.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Chintagumpala, Murali; Teh, Bin S.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the patterns of failure in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, 19 patients with a diagnosis of head-and-neck RMS received IMRT at The Methodist Hospital. There were 11 male and 8 female patients, with a median age of 6 years at time of irradiation. Tumor location was parameningeal in 7, orbital in 6, and other head-and-neck RMS in 6. Chemotherapy was given to all patients, with vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide being the most common regimen (n = 18). The median prescribed dose was 5040 cGy. The clinical target volume included the gross tumor volume with a 1.5-cm margin. The median duration of follow-up for surviving patients was 56 months. Results: The 4-year overall survival and local control rates were 76% and 92.9%, respectively. One patient developed a local failure in the high-dose region of the radiation field; there were no marginal failures. Distant metastasis was seen in 4 patients. Overall survival was 42.9% for parameningeal sites and 100% for other sites (p < 0.01). Late toxicities were seen in 7 patients. Two secondary malignancies occurred in 1 child with embryonal RMS of the face and a p53 mutation. Conclusions: Local control was excellent in patients receiving IMRT for head-and-neck RMS. Patterns of local failure reveal no marginal failures in this group of patients

  2. Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Trans Ova Genetics, L.C., a business located at 2938 380th Street Sioux Center, IA 51250, for alleged violations at the Trans Ova Genetics, L.C.’s facility located in 12425

  3. LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin, Richard L.; Fox, Robert Lee; Moses, Robert W.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2005-01-01

    A recently invented method of nonintrusively detecting faults in piezoelectric devices involves measurement of the resonance frequencies of inductor capacitor (LC) resonant circuits. The method is intended especially to enable diagnosis of piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and sensor/actuators that are embedded in structures and/or are components of multilayer composite material structures.

  4. A Performance Management Initiative for Local Health Department Vector Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerding, Justin; Kirshy, Micaela; Moran, John W; Bialek, Ron; Lamers, Vanessa; Sarisky, John

    2016-01-01

    Local health department (LHD) vector control programs have experienced reductions in funding and capacity. Acknowledging this situation and its potential effect on the ability to respond to vector-borne diseases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Public Health Foundation partnered on a performance management initiative for LHD vector control programs. The initiative involved 14 programs that conducted a performance assessment using the Environmental Public Health Performance Standards. The programs, assisted by quality improvement (QI) experts, used the assessment results to prioritize improvement areas that were addressed with QI projects intended to increase effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of services such as responding to mosquito complaints and educating the public about vector-borne disease prevention. This article describes the initiative as a process LHD vector control programs may adapt to meet their performance management needs. This study also reviews aggregate performance assessment results and QI projects, which may reveal common aspects of LHD vector control program performance and priority improvement areas. LHD vector control programs interested in performance assessment and improvement may benefit from engaging in an approach similar to this performance management initiative.

  5. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: local control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  6. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: Local control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean-Charles; Barriga, Pablo; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David G.

    2009-11-01

    High performance vibration isolators are required for ground based gravitational wave detectors. To attain very high performance at low frequencies we have developed multistage isolators for the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory detector in Australia. New concepts in vibration isolation including self-damping, Euler springs, LaCoste springs, Roberts linkages, and double preisolation require novel sensors and actuators. Double preisolation enables internal feedback to be used to suppress low frequency seismic noise. Multidegree of freedom control systems are required to attain high performance. Here we describe the control components and control systems used to control all degrees of freedom. Feedback forces are injected at the preisolation stages and at the penultimate suspension stage. There is no direct actuation on test masses. A digital local control system hosted on a digital signal processor maintains alignment and position, corrects drifts, and damps the low frequency linear and torsional modes without exciting the very high Q-factor test mass suspension. The control system maintains an optical cavity locked to a laser with a high duty cycle even in the absence of an autoalignment system. An accompanying paper presents the mechanics of the system, and the optical cavity used to determine isolation performance. A feedback method is presented, which is expected to improve the residual motion at 1 Hz by more than one order of magnitude.

  7. Edge localized modes control by resonant magnetic perturbations; Controle des instabilites de bord par perturbations magnetiques resonantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardon, E

    2007-10-15

    The present work is dedicated to one of the most promising methods of control of the ELMs (Edge Localized Modes), based on a system of coils producing Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs). Our main objectives are, on the one hand, to improve the physical understanding of the mechanisms at play, and on the other hand to propose a concrete design of ELMs control coils for ITER. In order to calculate and analyze the magnetic perturbations produced by a given set of coils, we have developed the ERGOS code. The first ERGOS calculation was for the DIII-D ELMs control coils, the I-coils. It showed that they produce magnetic islands chains which overlap at the edge of the plasma, resulting in the ergodization of the magnetic field. We have then used ERGOS for the modelling of the experiments on ELMs control using the error field correction coils at JET and MAST. In the case of JET, we have shown the existence of a correlation between the mitigation of the ELMs and the ergodization of the magnetic field at the edge, in agreement with the DIII-D result. In order to design the ELMs control coils for ITER we have used ERGOS intensively, taking the case of the DIII-D I-coils as a reference. Three candidate designs came out, which we presented at the ITER Design Review, in 2007. Recently, the ITER management decided to provide a budget for building ELMs control coils, the design of which remains to be chosen between two of the three options that we proposed. Finally, in order to understand better the non-linear magnetohydrodynamics phenomena taking place in ELMs control by RMPs, we performed numerical simulations, in particular with the JOREK code for a DIII-D case. The simulations reveal the existence of convection cells induced at the edge by the magnetic perturbations, and the possible screening of the RMPs in presence of rotation.

  8. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  9. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  10. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of local grid control using wind farms with grid support. The focus is on simulation of the behaviour of the wind farms when they are isolated from the main grid and establish a local grid together with a few other grid components. The isolated subsystems used in the work presented in this report do not intend to simulate a specific subsystem, but they are extremely simplified single bus bar systems using only a few more components than the wind farm. This approach has been applied to make it easier to understand the dynamics of the subsystem. The main observation is that the fast dynamics of the wind turbines seem to be able to contribute significantly to the grid control, which can be useful where the wind farm is isolated with a subsystem from the main grid with surplus of generation. Thus, the fast down regulation of the wind farm using automatic frequency control can keep the subsystem in operation and thereby improve the reliability of the grid. (LN)

  11. Effect of time, dose and fractionation on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Chan, David K.K.; Poon, Y.F.; Foo, William; Law, Stephen C.K.; O, S.K.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Fowler, Jack F.; Chappell, Rick

    1995-01-01

    To study the effect of radiation factors on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1008 patients with similarly staged T1N0-3M0 disease (Ho's classification) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by megavoltage irradiation alone using the same technique. Four different fractionation schedules had been used sequentially during 1976-1985: with total dose ranging from 45.6 to 60 Gy and fractional dose from 2.5 to 4.2 Gy. The median overall time was 39 days (range = 38-75 days). Both for the whole series and 763 patients with nodal control, total dose was the most important radiation factor. The hazard of local failure decreased by 9% per additional Gy (p < 0.01). Biological equivalents expressed in terms of Biologically Effective Dose or Nominal Standard Dose also showed strong correlation. Fractional dose had no significant impact. The effect of overall treatment time was insignificant for the whole series, but almost reached statistical significance for those with nodal control (p = 0.06). Further study is required for elucidation, as 85% of patients completed treatment within a very narrow range (38-42 days), and the possible hazard is clinically too significant to be ignored

  12. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  14. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  15. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  16. Automatic boiling water reactor control rod pattern design using particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Der, E-mail: jdwang@iner.gov.tw [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chaung [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The PSO algorithm was adopted to automatically design a BWR CRP. ► The local search procedure was added to improve the result of PSO algorithm. ► The results show that the obtained CRP is the same good as that in the previous work. -- Abstract: This study developed a method for the automatic design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod pattern (CRP) using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The PSO algorithm is more random compared to the rank-based ant system (RAS) that was used to solve the same BWR CRP design problem in the previous work. In addition, the local search procedure was used to make improvements after PSO, by adding the single control rod (CR) effect. The design goal was to obtain the CRP so that the thermal limits and shutdown margin would satisfy the design requirement and the cycle length, which is implicitly controlled by the axial power distribution, would be acceptable. The results showed that the same acceptable CRP found in the previous work could be obtained.

  17. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D(prime) or A(prime) units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  18. Simultaneous PLK1 inhibition improves local tumour control after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Kummer, Berit; Deparade, Andre; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Pfitzmann, Dorothee; Yaromina, Ala; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays an important role in mitotic progression, is frequently overexpressed and associated with a poor prognosis of cancer patients, thus providing a promising target in anticancer treatment. Aim of the current project was to evaluate the effect of the novel PLK1 inhibitor BI 6727 in combination with irradiation. Material and methods: In vitro proliferation and radiation cell survival assays as well as in vivo local tumour control assays after single treatment and combined radiation and drug application were carried out using the squamous cell carcinoma models A431 and FaDu. In addition, cell cycle phases were monitored in vitro and in vivo. Results: BI 6727 showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect and an increase in the mitotic fraction. BI 6727 alone reduced clonogenic cell survival, while radiosensitivity in vitro (SF2) and in vivo (single-dose TCD 50 under clamped hypoxia) was not affected. In contrast, local tumour control was significantly improved after application of BI 6727 simultaneously to fractionated irradiation (A431: TCD 50 = 60.5 Gy [95% C.I. 57; 63] after IR alone and <30 Gy after combined treatment; FaDu: 49.5 Gy [43; 56 Gy] versus 32.9 Gy [26; 40]). Conclusions: Despite the lack of direct cellular radiosensitisation, PLK1 inhibition with BI 6727 during fractionated irradiation significantly improves local tumour control when compared to irradiation alone. This result is likely explained by a considerable effect on cell cycle and an independent cytotoxic potential of BI 6727

  19. Synaptic control of local translation: the plot thickens with new characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, María Gabriela; Pascual, Malena Lucía; Maschi, Darío; Luchelli, Luciana; Boccaccio, Graciela Lidia

    2014-06-01

    The production of proteins from mRNAs localized at the synapse ultimately controls the strength of synaptic transmission, thereby affecting behavior and cognitive functions. The regulated transcription, processing, and transport of mRNAs provide dynamic control of the dendritic transcriptome, which includes thousands of messengers encoding multiple cellular functions. Translation is locally modulated by synaptic activity through a complex network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and various types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including BC-RNAs, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs, and small interference RNAs. The RBPs FMRP and CPEB play a well-established role in synaptic translation, and additional regulatory factors are emerging. The mRNA repressors Smaug, Nanos, and Pumilio define a novel pathway for local translational control that affects dendritic branching and spines in both flies and mammals. Recent findings support a role for processing bodies and related synaptic mRNA-silencing foci (SyAS-foci) in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. The SyAS-foci respond to different stimuli with changes in their integrity thus enabling regulated mRNA release followed by translation. CPEB, Pumilio, TDP-43, and FUS/TLS form multimers through low-complexity regions related to prion domains or polyQ expansions. The oligomerization of these repressor RBPs is mechanistically linked to the aggregation of abnormal proteins commonly associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on how specificity in mRNA translation is achieved through the concerted action of multiple pathways that involve regulatory ncRNAs and RBPs, the modification of translation factors, and mRNA-silencing foci dynamics.

  20. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed

  1. What is the effect of local controls on the temporal stability of soil water contents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderlinden, K.; Hardelauf, H.; Herbst, M.

    2012-04-01

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of SWC. Factors and their interactions that control this organization, are not completely understood and have not been quantified yet. It is understood that these factors should be classified into groups of local and non-local controls. This work is a first attempt to evaluate the effects of soil properties at a certain location as local controls Time series of SWC were generated by running water flow simulations with the HYDRUS6 code. Bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils were represented by sets of 100 independent soil columns. Within each set, values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were generated randomly assuming for the standard deviation of the scaling factor of ln Ks a value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. Weather conditions were the same for all of the soil columns. SWC at depths of 0.05 and 0.60 m, and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. The temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences (MRD) of soil water content. MRD distributions from simulations, developed from the log-normal distribution of Ks, agreed well with the experimental studies found in the literature. Generally, Ks was the leading variable to define the MRD rank for a specific location. Higher MRD corresponded to the lowest values of Ks when a single textural class was considered. Higher MRD were found in the finer texture when mixtures of textural classes were considered and similar values of Ks were compared. The relationships between the spread of the MRD distributions and the scaling factor of ln Ks were nonlinear. Variation in MRD was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Established vegetation decreased variability of MRD in the root zone and increased variability below. The dependence of MRD on Ks opens the possibility of using SWC sensor networks to

  2. Atom localization via phase and amplitude control of the driving field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Qamar, Sajid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2002-01-01

    Control of amplitude and phase of the driving field in an atom-field interaction leads towards the strong line narrowing and quenching in the spontaneous emission spectrum. We exploit this fact for the atom localization scheme and achieve a much better spatial resolution in the conditional position probability distribution of the atom. Most importantly the quenching in the spontaneous emission manifests itself in reducing the periodicity in the conditional position probability distribution and hence the uncertainty in a particular position measurement of the single atom by a factor of 2

  3. Impact of radiation therapy fraction size on local control of early glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Edward; Shenouda, George; Beaudet, Marie P.; Black, Martin J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Different radiotherapy fractionation schedules were used over a 10-year period to treat patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords at McGill University. A retrospective analysis was performed to study the effect of fraction size on local control in this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 previously untreated patients with T1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cords were irradiated between January 1978 and December 1988 in the Department of Radiation Oncology at McGill University. All patients received megavoltage irradiation, 94 patients received daily fractions > 2 Gy (64 patients received 50 Gy with once-daily 2.5-Gy fractions, and 30 received 65.25 Gy in 29 fractions of 2.25 Gy each), and 32 patients were treated to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Patients' characteristics of prognostic importance were equally distributed between the two fractionation groups. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, the 10-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 76% and 93%, respectively. Local control for patients treated with > 2 Gy fraction was 84%, compared to 65.6% for those treated with 2-Gy fractions (p = 0.026). Among the prognostic factors tested, such as gender, age, stage, anterior and posterior commissure involvement, smoking history, and fraction size, the latter was the only significant predictor of local control for the whole group of patients in univariate (p = 0.041) and multivariate (p = 0.023) analysis. There was no observed difference in the incidence of complications between the two fraction groups. Conclusions: From the results of this retrospective review of patients treated with radiotherapy for T1 true vocal cord cancer, and within the range of total doses and overall treatment times used in our patients, it was found that fractionation schedules using daily fraction size > 2 Gy are associated with a better local control than schedules delivering 2 Gy

  4. Mosquito politics: local vector control policies and the spread of West Nile Virus in the Chicago region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Carmen; Ruiz, Marilyn; McLafferty, Sara

    2010-11-01

    Differences in mosquito control practices at the local level involve the interplay of place, scale and politics. During the Chicago West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak of 2002, mosquito abatement districts represent distinct suburban clusters of human WNV cases, independent of characteristics of the local population, housing and physical environment. We examine how the contrasting actions of four districts reveal a distinct local politics of mosquito control that may have contributed to local-scale geographic differences in WNV incidence. This politics is rooted in political, economic and philosophical differences within and between administrative boundaries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy); Research and Clinical Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy); Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, Aviano 33081 (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term {alpha} and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of {alpha} and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy{sup -1} and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  6. Correlation of a hypoxia based tumor control model with observed local control rates in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avanzo, Michele; Stancanello, Joseph; Franchin, Giovanni; Sartor, Giovanna; Jena, Rajesh; Drigo, Annalisa; Dassie, Andrea; Gigante, Marco; Capra, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the application of current radiation therapy (RT) based tumor control probability (TCP) models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to include the effects of hypoxia and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: A TCP model is described based on the linear-quadratic model modified to account for repopulation, chemotherapy, heterogeneity of dose to the tumor, and hypoxia. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters exert the greatest influence on the uncertainty of modeled TCP. On the basis of the sensitivity analysis, the values of specific radiobiological parameters were set to nominal values reported in the literature for NPC or head and neck tumors. The remaining radiobiological parameters were determined by fitting TCP to clinical local control data from published randomized studies using both RT and CRT. Validation of the model was performed by comparison of estimated TCP and average overall local control rate (LCR) for 45 patients treated at the institution with conventional linear-accelerator-based or helical tomotherapy based intensity-modulated RT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is most sensitive to the radiosensitivity term α and the dose per fraction. The estimated values of α and OER from data fitting were 0.396 Gy -1 and 1.417. The model estimate of TCP (average 90.9%, range 26.9%-99.2%) showed good correlation with the LCR (86.7%). Conclusions: The model implemented in this work provides clinicians with a useful tool to predict the success rate of treatment, optimize treatment plans, and compare the effects of multimodality therapy.

  7. Improvement of Inventory Control Using Continuous Review Policy in A Local Hospital at Bandung City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Hafnika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research was aimed to analyze the excess inventories issue in pharmacy and medical equipment unit at a local hospital in Bandung which affected the service level of the hospital. As one of the busy hospital in Java, proven by the higher amount of the patient/year than in other average Java typical hospital, the hospital needs to concern about the pharmaceutical and medical equipment inventories in order to fulfill patients’ needs and in the same time keeping the inventory level under control. Therefore, an inventory control evaluation was conducted to determine the appropriate number of inventories and time of order to avoid the excessive goods in central warehouse of the hospital. By using probabilistic inventory model and continuous review policy, the pharmaceutical inventory in the hospital was calculated to compare the ideal and actual amount of the average inventory level (AIL. ABC (Always, Better, Control classification also classified in this research to identify the proper item which potentially can be reduced from the inventory. From the analysis, we have discovered that the hospital potentially able to reduce almost Rp 830 million or 57% from the overstock inventory level by using continuous review policy as the basis of inventory control calculation system. Keywords: Continuous review policy, inventory control, EOQ, ROP, AIL

  8. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of porcine MAP1LC3A in the granulosa cells of normal and miniature pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The members of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (MAP1LC family, especially those of the LC3 family (MAP1LC3A, B, C, are known to induce autophagy upon localization onto the autophagosomal membrane. In this regard, LC3 can be utilized as a marker for the formation of autophagosomes during the process of autophagy. The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE were used to obtain the 5′ and 3′ ends of the porcine MAP1LC3A full length cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine MAP1LC3A. The localization of MAP1LC3A in the ovary was determined by In situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical staining. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine MAP1LC3A and identified an open reading frame of 980 bp encoding 121 amino acids. Based on its homology to known mammalian proteins (98% this novel cDNA was designated as porcine MAP1LC3A and registered to the GenBank (Accession No. GU272221. We compared the expression of MAP1LC3A in the Graafian follicles of normal and miniature pigs by in situ hybridization at day 15 of the estrus cycle. While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. In addition, the expressions of MAP1LC3A and ATG5 were higher in normal pigs than in miniature pigs both in the presence and absence of rapamycin. Conclusions The newly cloned porcine

  9. Optochemical Control of Protein Localization and Activity within Cell-like Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Reese M; Bermudez, Jessica G; Thai, David; Aonbangkhen, Chanat; Schuster, Benjamin S; Courtney, Taylor; Deiters, Alexander; Hammer, Daniel A; Chenoweth, David M; Good, Matthew C

    2018-05-08

    We report inducible dimerization strategies for controlling protein positioning, enzymatic activity, and organelle assembly inside synthetic cell-like compartments upon photostimulation. Using a photocaged TMP-Haloligand compound, we demonstrate small molecule and light-induced dimerization of DHFR and Haloenzyme to localize proteins to a compartment boundary and reconstitute tripartite sfGFP assembly. Using photocaged rapamycin and fragments of split TEV protease fused to FRB and FKBP, we establish optical triggering of protease activity inside cell-size compartments. We apply light-inducible protease activation to initiate assembly of membraneless organelles, demonstrating the applicability of these tools for characterizing cell biological processes in vitro. This modular toolkit, which affords spatial and temporal control of protein function in a minimal cell-like system, represents a critical step toward the reconstitution of a tunable synthetic cell, built from the bottom up.

  10. Localization of an Underwater Control Network Based on Quasi-Stable Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongmei; Feng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    There exists a common problem in the localization of underwater control networks that the precision of the absolute coordinates of known points obtained by marine absolute measurement is poor, and it seriously affects the precision of the whole network in traditional constraint adjustment. Therefore, considering that the precision of underwater baselines is good, we use it to carry out quasi-stable adjustment to amend known points before constraint adjustment so that the points fit the network shape better. In addition, we add unconstrained adjustment for quality control of underwater baselines, the observations of quasi-stable adjustment and constrained adjustment, to eliminate the unqualified baselines and improve the results’ accuracy of the two adjustments. Finally, the modified method is applied to a practical LBL (Long Baseline) experiment and obtains a mean point location precision of 0.08 m, which improves by 38% compared with the traditional method. PMID:29570627

  11. An Application-Level QoS Control Method Based on Local Bandwidth Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service (QoS is an important performance indicator for Web applications and bandwidth is a key factor affecting QoS. Current methods use network protocols or ports to schedule bandwidth, which require tedious manual configurations or modifications of the underlying network. Some applications use dynamic ports and the traditional port-based bandwidth control methods cannot deal with them. A new QoS control method based on local bandwidth scheduling is proposed, which can schedule bandwidth at application level in a user-transparent way and it does not require tedious manual configurations. Experimental results indicate that the new method can effectively improve the QoS for applications, and it can be easily integrated into current Web applications without the need to modify the underlying network.

  12. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... and local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...... different work tasks at three locations in the room. Response of the subjects to the environment generated with a chilled ceiling combined with mixing air distribution was used for comparison. The air temperature in the room was kept at 26 or 28 °C. Results show no significant difference in the overall...

  13. Quantum computation via local control theory: Direct sum vs. direct product Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Tannor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The central objective in any quantum computation is the creation of a desired unitary transformation; the mapping that this unitary transformation produces between the input and output states is identified with the computation. In [S.E. Sklarz, D.J. Tannor, arXiv:quant-ph/0404081 (submitted to PRA) (2004)] it was shown that local control theory can be used to calculate fields that will produce such a desired unitary transformation. In contrast with previous strategies for quantum computing based on optimal control theory, the local control scheme maintains the system within the computational subspace at intermediate times, thereby avoiding unwanted decay processes. In [S.E. Sklarz et al.], the structure of the Hilbert space had a direct sum structure with respect to the computational register and the mediating states. In this paper, we extend the formalism to the important case of a direct product Hilbert space. The final equations for the control algorithm for the two cases are remarkably similar in structure, despite the fact that the derivations are completely different and that in one case the dynamics is in a Hilbert space and in the other case the dynamics is in a Liouville space. As shown in [S.E. Sklarz et al.], the direct sum implementation leads to a computational mechanism based on virtual transitions, and can be viewed as an extension of the principles of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage from state manipulation to evolution operator manipulation. The direct product implementation developed here leads to the intriguing concept of virtual entanglement - computation that exploits second-order transitions that pass through entangled states but that leaves the subsystems nearly separable at all intermediate times. Finally, we speculate on a connection between the algorithm developed here and the concept of decoherence free subspaces

  14. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Lai

    Full Text Available The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  15. LcMYB1 is a key determinant of differential anthocyanin accumulation among genotypes, tissues, developmental phases and ABA and light stimuli in Litchi chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Biao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Hu, Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red coloration of litchi fruit depends on the accumulation of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins level in litchi fruit varies widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies on various plant species demonstrate that anthocyanin biosynthesis is controlled at the transcriptional level. Here, we describe a litchi R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, LcMYB1, which demonstrates a similar sequence as other known anthocyanin regulators. The transcription levels of the LcMYB1 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were investigated in samples with different anthocyanin levels. The expression of LcMYB1 was strongly associated with tissue anthocyanin content. LcMYB1 transcripts were only detected in anthocyanin-accumulating tissues and were positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of 12 genotypes. ABA and sunlight exposure promoted, whereas CPPU and bagging inhibited the expression of LcMYB1 and anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp. Cis-elements associated with light responsiveness and abscisic acid responsiveness were identified in the promoter region of LcMYB1. Among the 6 structural genes tested, only LcUFGT was highly correlated with LcMYB1. These results suggest that LcMYB1 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi and LcUFGT might be the structural gene that is targeted and regulated by LcMYB1. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcMYB1 induced anthocyanin accumulation in all tissues in tobacco, confirming the function of LcMYB1 in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The upregulation of NtAn1b in response to LcMYB1 overexpression seems to be essential for anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and pedicel. In the reproductive tissues of transgenic tobacco, however, increased anthocyanin accumulation is independent of tobacco's endogenous MYB and bHLH transcriptional factors, but associated with the upregulation of specific structural genes.

  16. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; São Julião, Guilherme P.; Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B.; Perez, Rodrigo O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation

  17. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habr-Gama, Angelita, E-mail: gamange@uol.com.br [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); São Julião, Guilherme P. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Colorectal Surgery Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo (Brazil); Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Perez, Rodrigo O. [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, São Paulo (Brazil); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo Branch (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation.

  18. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Yogesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD. Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a 20% benzocaine; (b pressure with cotton applicator; (c no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001, and pulse rate (P < 0.05 when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  19. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of glomus jugulare tumors. Local control, toxicity, symptomatology, and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G.; Sitter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For glomus jugulare tumors, the goal of treatment is microsurgical excision. To minimize postoperative neurologic deficits, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed as an alternative treatment option. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) could be a further alternative. This study aims at the assessment of local control, side effects, and quality of life (QoL). Patients and Methods: Between 1999-2005, 17 patients were treated with SRT. 11/17 underwent previous operations. 6/17 received primary SRT. Treatment was delivered by a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median cumulative dose was 57.0 Gy. Local control, radiologic regression, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated half-yearly by clinical examination and MRI scans. QoL was assessed by Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: Median follow-up was 40 months. Freedom from progression and overall survival for 5 years were 100% and 93.8%. Radiologic regression was seen in 5/16 cases, 11/16 patients were stable. Median tumor shrinkage was 17.9% (p = 0.14). Severe acute toxicity (grade 3-4) or any late toxicity was never seen. Main symptoms improved in 9/16 patients, 7/16 were stable. QoL was not affected in patients receiving primary SRT. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with less side effects, especially in cases of large tumors, morbidity, or recurrences after incomplete resections. (orig.)

  20. Global frameworks, local strategies: Women's rights, health, and the tobacco control movement in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Martínez, Hepzibah; Pederson, Ann

    2018-02-23

    The article examines how civil society organisations in Argentina used the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to frame the country's failure to enact strong national tobacco control legislation as a violation of women's rights in the late 2000s. We analyze this case study through the politics of scale, namely the social processes that produce, reproduce, and contest the boundaries of policies and socio-economic relations. This approach understands how multiple scales overlap and connect to obstruct or enhance the right to health in Latin America. In Argentina, the global organisation of tobacco companies, the reach of international financial institutions and the national dynamics of economic austerity and export-orientation promoted the local production and use of tobacco (leaf and cigarettes) and reproduced health inequalities in the country throughout the 1990s and the early 2000s. Yet, the visible legacy of local and national human rights struggles in the adoption of international human rights treaties into Argentina's national constitution allowed the tobacco control movement to link the scale of women's bodies to the right to health through the use of CEDAW to change national legislation, tackling the social determinants of the tobacco epidemic.

  1. Influence of fractionation and time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Krieg, Richard M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Fu, Karen K.; Meyler, Thomas S.; Stuart, Alex A.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of fraction size and overall time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma Methods and Materials: Between 1956 and 1995, 318 consecutive patients with early glottic carcinoma (250 T1, 68 T2) were treated with definitive megavoltage radiotherapy at UCSF. Treatment was delivered using conventional fractionation at one fraction/day, 5 days/week. Minimum tumor dose ranged from 50 to 81Gy (median: 61Gy). The fraction size was 200cGy. Conclusions: Risk of tumor recurrence increased with higher T-stage, smaller fraction size, and longer overall time. Our results suggest that for optimal local control, radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma should be completed as soon as possible, preferably within 6 weeks, using a fraction size ≥ 225cGy. Our current policy is to treat T1 and T2 vocal cord carcinomas with 225cGy/fraction/day, 5 days/week to a total dose of 63-65Gy

  2. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  3. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyue-nam Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR range of motion (ROM greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group. Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.

  5. Intraincisional vs intraperitoneal infiltration of local anaesthetic for controlling early post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouda M El-labban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was designed to compare the effect of intraincisional vs intraperitoneal infiltration of levobupivacaine 0.25% on post-operative pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This randomised controlled study was carried out on 189 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group 1 was the control group and did not receive either intraperitoneal or intraincisional levobupivacaine. Group 2 was assigned to receive local infiltration (intraincisional of 20 ml solution of levobupivacaine 0.25%, while Group 3 received 20 ml solution of levobupivacaine 0.25% intraperitoneally. Post-operative pain was recorded for 24 hours post-operatively. Results: Post-operative abdominal pain was significantly lower with intraincisional infiltration of levobupivacaine 0.25% in group 2. This difference was reported from 30 minutes till 24 hours post-operatively. Right shoulder pain showed significantly lower incidence in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. Although statistically insignificant, shoulder pain was less in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion: Intraincisional infiltration of levobupivacaine is more effective than intraperitoneal route in controlling post-operative abdominal pain. It decreases the need for rescue analgesia.

  6. Comparison of the effects of local cryotherapy and passive cross-body stretch on extensibility in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Choung, Sung-Dae; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the

  7. Radiosurgery for brain metastases: relationship of dose and pattern of enhancement to local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, C.-Y.; Sneed, Penny K.; Shu, H.-K.G.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; McDermott, Michael W.; Chang, Susan; Nowak, Peter; Petti, Paula L.; Smith, Vernon; Verhey, Lynn J.; Ho, Maria; Park, Elaine; Wara, William M.; Gutin, Philip H.; Larson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to analyze dose, initial pattern of enhancement, and other factors associated with freedom from progression (FFP) of brain metastases after radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: All brain metastases treated with gamma-knife RS at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1991 to 1994 were reviewed. Evaluable lesions were those with follow-up magnetic resonance or computed tomographic imaging. Actuarial FFP was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, measuring FFP from the date of RS to the first imaging study showing tumor progression. Controlled lesions were censored at the time of the last imaging study. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of 261 lesions treated in 119 patients, 219 lesions in 100 patients were evaluable. Major histologies included adenocarcinoma (86 lesions), melanoma (77), renal cell carcinoma (21), and carcinoma not otherwise specified (17). The median prescribed RS dose was 18.5 Gy (range, 10-22) and the median tumor volume was 1.3 ml (range, 0.02-30.9). The initial pattern of contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 68% of lesions, heterogeneous in 12%, and ring-enhancing in 19%. The actuarial FFP was 82% at 6 months and 77% at 1 year for all lesions, and 93 and 90%, respectively, for 145 lesions receiving ≥ 18 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed that longer FFP was significantly associated with higher prescribed RS dose, a homogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement, and a longer interval between primary diagnosis and RS. Adjusted for these factors, adenocarcinomas had longer FFP than melanomas. No significant differences in FFP were noted among lesions undergoing RS for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (119 lesions), RS alone as initial treatment (45), or RS boost (55). Conclusion: A minimum prescribed radiosurgical dose ≥ 18 Gy yields excellent local control of brain metastases. The influence of pattern of enhancement on local control, a

  8. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenier Klaas H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis provided by general practitioners was assessed. Methods Participants with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were recruited by general practitioners. Short-term outcomes (one week after injections were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term effectiveness was evaluated in an open prospective cohort-study of steroid responders during a follow-up period of 12 months. Participants were randomised to one or two local injections of 1 ml of triamcinolonacetonide (TCA or 1 ml of NaCl 0.9% (placebo. Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment response, severity of pain, improvement as perceived by participant and functional disability using sub items hand and finger function of the Dutch Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (Dutch AIMS-2-HFF. Results 11 general practitioners included 21 wrists in 21 patients. The TCA-group had better results for short-term outcomes treatment response (78% vs. 25%; p = 0.015, perceived improvement (78% vs. 33%; p = 0.047 and severity of pain (4.27 vs. 1.33; p = 0.031 but not for the Dutch-AIMS-HFF (2.71 vs. 1.92; p = 0.112. Absolute risk reduction for the main outcome short-term treatment response was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.76 with a number needed to treat of 2 (95% CI: 1, 3. In the cohort of steroid responders (n = 12 the beneficial effects of steroid injections were sustained during the follow-up of 12 months regarding severity of pain (p = 0.67 and scores of Dutch AIMS-2-HFF (p = 0.36, but not for patient perceived improvement (p = 0.02. No adverse events were observed during the 12

  9. Influence of locoregional irradiation on local control and survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, B.

    1998-01-01

    Locoregional control is a crucial step in the achievement of breast cancer cure. In ductal carcinoma in situ, breast irradiation significantly reduces the rates of local recurrence whatever the histological subtypes, as demonstrated by the NSABP-B17 trial (25.8 % of local recurrences without radiotherapy vs. 11.4 % with radiotherapy). In infiltrating breast carcinomas, complementary breast irradiation has been shown to significantly improve the local control and slightly the overall survival in five randomized trials. Following mastectomy, locoregional irradiation clearly reduces the chest wall and nodal relapse rates, especially in case of lesions more than 5 cm or with nodal involvement and/or large lymphatic or vascular emboli. Two recent randomized trials confirmed the benefit of well-adapted locoregional irradiation in all subgroups, especially in patients with one to three axillary involves nodes. In the Danish trial (including pre-menopausal high-risk women), radiotherapy reduced locoregional relapses from 32 to 9 % (p<0.001) and increased the 10-year survival rate from 45 to 54% (p<0.001). In the Canadian trial, locoregional relapse rate decreased from 25 to 13 % and the 10-year survival rate increased from 56 to 65 %. The meta-analysis published in 1995 by the EBCTCG showed only a modest benefit due to locoregional irradiation in breast cancer. However, when small or old trials were excluded due to imperfect methodology or inadequate irradiation techniques, the benefit of modern radiotherapy became much more evident in a population of 7,840 patients. Locoregional irradiation appears to be able to reduce the risk of metastatic evolution occurring after local or nodal relapse and must be integrated in a multidisciplinary strategy. Treatment toxicity (especially toxicity due to irradiation of internal mammary nodes) is of special concern, as anthracycline-based chemotherapy is prescribed more often. The use of a direct field, with at least 60 % of the dose

  10. Local population structure of Plasmodium: impact on malaria control and elimination

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    Chenet Stella M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regardless of the growing interest in detecting population structures in malarial parasites, there have been limited discussions on how to use this concept in control programmes. In such context, the effects of the parasite population structures will depend on interventions’ spatial or temporal scales. This investigation explores the problem of identifying genetic markers, in this case microsatellites, to unveil Plasmodium genetic structures that could affect decisions in the context of elimination. The study was performed in a low-transmission area, which offers a good proxy to better understand problems associated with surveillance at the final stages of malaria elimination. Methods Plasmodium vivax samples collected in Tumeremo, Venezuela, between March 2003 and November 2004 were analysed. Since Plasmodium falciparum also circulates in many low endemic areas, P. falciparum samples from the same locality and time period were included for comparison. Plasmodium vivax samples were assayed for an original set of 25 microsatellites and P. falciparum samples were assayed for 12 microsatellites. Results Not all microsatellite loci assayed offered reliable local data. A complex temporal-cluster dynamics is found in both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Such dynamics affect the numbers and the type of microsatellites required for identifying individual parasites or parasite clusters when performing cross-sectional studies. The minimum number of microsatellites required to differentiate circulating P. vivax clusters differs from the minimum number of hyper-variable microsatellites required to distinguish individuals within these clusters. Regardless the extended number of microsatellites used in P. vivax, it was not possible to separate all individual infections. Conclusions Molecular surveillance has great potential; however, it requires preliminary local studies in order to properly interpret the emerging patterns in the context of

  11. Effective local control of vertebral metastases by simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubgan, Dorota; Ziegaus, Anke; Semrau, Sabine; Lambrecht, Ulrike; Lettmaier, Sebastian; Fietkau, Rainer [Erlangen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-11-14

    The primary endpoint was to improve local tumour control of patients with metastatic spinal tumours by stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and dose escalation by simultaneous, integrated boost (PTV-boost). We used a whole vertebral body (PTV-elective) contouring approach. Secondary endpoints were severity of acute and chronic adverse effects and overall survival. In all, 33 patients with metastases of the vertebral column were treated at Erlangen University Hospital. SBRT was given in 12 or 10 fractions. The metastatic lesion (PTV-boost) received 3.6 Gy (range 3.0-4.51 Gy) per fraction for a total of 42.0 Gy (24.36-48.0 Gy) and the whole vertebra (PTV-elective) received 2.85 Gy (range 1.8-3.6 Gy) per fraction for a total of 32.39 Gy (range 21.60-38.0 Gy). Patients were followed up every 3 months. Local control rate of all patients was 93 % at 12 and 24 months. The overall survival rate was 54 % at 12 months, 38 % at 24 months and 18 % at 36 months. No radiation myelopathy occurred. The most frequently observed adverse events in 3 cases was oesophagitis grade 2. SBRT with simultaneous, integrated boost was associated with excellent local control of 93 % after 24 months. This result shows the possibility of delivering escalated doses to the target while still keeping the incidence of side effects low. This study forms the basis for a future randomised controlled trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (10 fractions of 3 Gy) with hypofractionated dose intensified SBRT (12 fractions of 3 Gy + integrated boost 12 fractions of 4 Gy) for improvement of local tumour control and pain. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Verbesserung der lokalen Tumorkontrolle von Patienten mit Wirbelkoerpermetastasen mittels stereotaktischer Radiotherapie (SBRT) mit Dosiseskalation durch einen simultan integrierten Boost (PTV-Boost). Dabei wurde der ganze Wirbelkoerper konturiert (PTV-Elektive). Zu den sekundaeren Endpunkten der Studie gehoerten der Schweregrad von

  12. Could LC-NE-Dependent Adjustment of Neural Gain Drive Functional Brain Network Reorganization?

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    Carole Guedj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system. We propose that these two mechanisms are interdependent such that the LC-NE-dependent adjustment of the neural gain inferred from the clustering coefficient could drive functional brain network reorganizations through coherence in the gamma rhythm. Via the temporal dynamic of gamma-range band-limited power, the release of NE could adjust the neural gain, promoting interactions only within the neuronal populations whose amplitude envelopes are correlated, thus making it possible to reorganize neuronal ensembles, functional networks, and ultimately, behavioral responses. Thus, our proposal offers a unified framework integrating the putative influence of the LC-NE system on both local- and long-range adjustments of brain dynamics underlying behavioral flexibility.

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V., E-mail: dharmark@mskcc.org [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L. [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, and Nuclear Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {<=}7 vs >7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {<=}7 vs 79% for SUVmax >7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.

  14. Neurophysiological mechanisms of circadian cognitive control in RLS patients - an EEG source localization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS. Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs. evening on cognitive performance in RLS patients (n = 33 compared to healthy controls (n = 29 by analyzing flanker interference effects in combination with EEG and source localization techniques. RLS patients showed larger flanker interference effects in the evening than in the morning (p = .023, while healthy controls did not display a comparable circadian variation. In line with this, the neurophysiological data showed smaller N1 amplitudes in RLS patients compared to controls in the interfering task condition in the evening (p = .042, but not in the morning. The results demonstrate diurnal cognitive changes in RLS patients with intensified impairments in the evening. It seems that not all dopamine-regulated cognitive processes are altered in RLS and thus show daytime-dependent impairments. Instead, the daytime-related cognitive impairment emerges from attentional selection processes within the extra-striate visual cortex, but not from later cognitive processes such as conflict monitoring and response selection.

  15. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  16. Local control of globally competing patterns in coupled Swift-Hohenberg equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maximilian; Frenzel, Thomas; Niedermayer, Thomas; Reichelt, Sina; Mielke, Alexander; Bär, Markus

    2018-04-01

    We present analytical and numerical investigations of two anti-symmetrically coupled 1D Swift-Hohenberg equations (SHEs) with cubic nonlinearities. The SHE provides a generic formulation for pattern formation at a characteristic length scale. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state reveals a wave instability in addition to the usual Turing instability of uncoupled SHEs. We performed weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the codimension-two point of the Turing-wave instability, resulting in a set of coupled amplitude equations for the Turing pattern as well as left- and right-traveling waves. In particular, these complex Ginzburg-Landau-type equations predict two major things: there exists a parameter regime where multiple different patterns are stable with respect to each other and that the amplitudes of different patterns interact by local mutual suppression. In consequence, different patterns can coexist in distinct spatial regions, separated by localized interfaces. We identified specific mechanisms for controlling the position of these interfaces, which distinguish what kinds of patterns the interface connects and thus allow for global pattern selection. Extensive simulations of the original SHEs confirm our results.

  17. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  19. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix; Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd; Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [de

  20. Predictors of Individual Tumor Local Control After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garsa, Adam A.; Badiyan, Shahed N.; DeWees, Todd; Simpson, Joseph R.; Huang, Jiayi; Drzymala, Robert E.; Barani, Igor J.; Dowling, Joshua L.; Rich, Keith M.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Kim, Albert H.; Leuthardt, Eric C.; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control rates and predictors of individual tumor local control for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Between June 1998 and May 2011, 401 brain metastases in 228 patients were treated with Gamma Knife single-fraction SRS. Local failure was defined as an increase in lesion size after SRS. Local control was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify an optimal cutpoint for conformality index relative to local control. A P value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Median age was 60 years (range, 27-84 years). There were 66 cerebellar metastases (16%) and 335 supratentorial metastases (84%). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (range, 14-24 Gy). Median overall survival from time of SRS was 12.1 months. The estimated local control at 12 months was 74%. On multivariate analysis, cerebellar location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94, P=.009), larger tumor volume (HR 1.09, P<.001), and lower conformality (HR 0.700, P=.044) were significant independent predictors of local failure. Conformality index cutpoints of 1.4-1.9 were predictive of local control, whereas a cutpoint of 1.75 was the most predictive (P=.001). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier 1-year local control for conformality index ≥1.75 was 84% versus 69% for conformality index <1.75, controlling for tumor volume and location. The 1-year adjusted local control for cerebellar lesions was 60%, compared with 77% for supratentorial lesions, controlling for tumor volume and conformality index. Conclusions: Cerebellar tumor location, lower conformality index, and larger tumor volume were significant independent predictors of local failure after SRS for brain metastases from NSCLC. These results warrant further investigation in a prospective

  1. Local cerebral glucose utilization during status epilepticus in newborn primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, D.G.; Dwyer, B.E.; Lake, R.R.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of bicuculline-induced status epilepticus (SE) on local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMRglc) was studied in 2-wk-old ketamine-anesthetized marmoset monkeys, using the 2-[ 14 C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographical technique. To estimate LCMRglc in cerebral cortex and thalamus during SE, the lumped constant (LC) for 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and the rate constants for 2-DG and glucose were calculated for these regions. The control LC was 0.43 in frontoparietal cortex, 0.51 in temporal cortex, and 0.50 in thalamus; it increased to 1.07 in frontoparietal cortex, 1.13 in temporal cortex, and 1.25 in thalamus after 30 min of seizures. With control LC values, LCMRglc in frontoparietal cortex, temporal cortex, and dorsomedial thalamus appeared to increase four to sixfold. With seizure LC values, LCMRglc increased 1.5- to 2-fold and only in cortex. During 45-min seizures, LCMRglc in cortex and thalamus probably increases 4- to 6-fold initially and later falls to the 1.5- to 2-fold level as tissue glucose concentrations decrease. Together with our previous results demonstrating depletion of high-energy phosphates and glucose in these regions, the data suggest that energy demands exceed glucose supply. The long-term effects of these metabolic changes on the developing brain remain to be determined

  2. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  3. Cooperative control of UAVs for localization of intermittently emitting mobile targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Daniel J; Delima, Pedro; Toussaint, Gregory J; York, George

    2009-08-01

    Compared with a single platform, cooperative autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer efficiency and robustness in performing complex tasks. Focusing on ground mobile targets that intermittently emit radio frequency signals, this paper presents a decentralized control architecture for multiple UAVs, equipped only with rudimentary sensors, to search, detect, and locate targets over large areas. The proposed architecture has in its core a decision logic which governs the state of operation for each UAV based on sensor readings and communicated data. To support the findings, extensive simulation results are presented, focusing primarily on two success measures that the UAVs seek to minimize: overall time to search for a group of targets and the final target localization error achieved. The results of the simulations have provided support for hardware flight tests.

  4. The effects of local control station design variation on plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of human engineering deficiencies at local control stations (LCSs) was addressed in a study (NUREG/CR-3696) conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL concluded that the existence of these human factors deficiencies at safety significant LCSs increases the potential for operator errors that could be detrimental to plant and public safety. However, PNL did not specific analysis to evaluate the effects of LCS design variations on human performance, on plant risk, or on the cost benefit feasibility of upgrading LCSs. The purpose of the present investigation was to conduct such an analysis. The specific objectives of the research were (1) to further define important local control stations, human factors related LCS design variations, and typical human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) at LCSs; (2) to determine the effect of LCS design variations on human performance, i.e., on risk-significant human errors (HEs); (3) to determine the effect of LCS-induced human performance variation on plant risk as measured by core melt frequency (CMF); and (4) to determine whether LCS improvements (upgrades in LCS design to mitigate HEDs) are feasible in a scoping-type value-impact analysis. The results can be summarized as follows. There was an overall effect of LCS variations on human performance. The transition from the worst LCS configuration to the best resulted in an absolute reduction or improvement of 0.82 in mean HEP (reduction by a factor of 20). The transition from low to high levels of FC was associated with a 0.46 (86%) reduction in mean HEP. The majority of the effect was accounted for in the transition from the low to medium levels. The Panel Design dimension also had an effect on human performance although not as large as functional centralization. Upgrading from a low to high panel design resulted in a 0.29 (69%) reduction in mean HEP

  5. Effect of transarterial chemoembolization with miriplatin plus epirubicin on local control of hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective comparison with miriplatin monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naoko Hashimoto,1 Jin Iwazawa,1 Shoichi Ohue,2 Takashi Mitani11Department of Radiology, Nissay Hospital, Nishiku, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Komatsu Hospital, Neyagawa, JapanObjective: We aimed to evaluate local tumor control after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma using miriplatin and low-dose epirubicin combination therapy.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients who underwent TACE using miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin (30 patients, 61 nodules, August 2011–March 2012 and control patients who underwent TACE using miriplatin alone (36 patients, 70 nodules, June 2010–July 2011. The local control rate was compared between the two groups using the Kaplan–Meier estimator and the log-rank test. Factors affecting local tumor recurrence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Treatment-related toxicity was evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events.Results: The local control rates at 6 months and 1 year were 87% and 65% for the miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin group, and 61% and 43% for the miriplatin group, respectively. Local tumor control rates were significantly better in the miriplatin plus low-dose epirubicin group than in the miriplatin group (P = 0.038. Multivariate analysis showed that the addition of epirubicin was an independent factor associated with better local tumor control (hazard ratio 0.2, P = 0.001. Overall incidence rates for adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Additional usage of low-dose epirubicin for TACE using miriplatin improved local tumor control of hepatocellular carcinoma with adverse effects comparable to those observed with TACE using miriplatin alone.Keywords: combination therapy, local recurrence, liver, embolization, comparative study

  6. MASS TRANSFER CONTROL OF A BACKWARD-FACING STEP FLOW BY LOCAL FORCING- EFFECT OF REYNOLDS NUMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaier MEHREZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of fluid mechanics and mass transfer in separated and reattaching flow over a backward-facing step by a local forcing, is studied using Large Eddy Simulation (LES.To control the flow, the local forcing is realized by a sinusoidal oscillating jet at the step edge. The Reynolds number is varied in the range 10000 ≤ Re≤ 50000 and the Schmidt number is fixed at 1.The found results show that the flow structure is modified and the local mass transfer is enhanced by the applied forcing. The observed changes depend on the Reynolds number and vary with the frequency and amplitude of the local forcing. For the all Reynolds numbers, the largest recirculation zone size reduction is obtained at the optimum forcing frequency St = 0.25. At this frequency the local mass transfer enhancement attains the maximum.

  7. Control of a shock wave-boundary layer interaction using localized arc filament plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nathan Joseph

    Supersonic flight is currently possible, but expensive. Inexpensive supersonic travel will require increased efficiency of high-speed air entrainment, an integral part of air-breathing propulsion systems. Although mixed compression inlet geometry can significantly improve entrainment efficiency, numerous Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interactions (SWBLIs) are generated in this configuration. The boundary layer must therefore develop through multiple regions of adverse pressure gradient, causing it to thicken, and, in severe cases, separate. The associated increase in unsteadiness can have adverse effects on downstream engine hardware. The most severe consequence of these interactions is the increased aerodynamic blockage generated by the thickened boundary layer. If the increase is sufficient, it can choke the flow, causing inlet unstart, and resulting in a loss of thrust and high transient forces on the engine, airframe, and aircraft occupants. The potentially severe consequences associated with SWBLIs require flow control to ensure proper operation. Traditionally, boundary layer bleed has been used to control the interaction. Although this method is effective, it has inherent efficiency penalties. Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are designed to generate perturbations for flow control. Natural flow instabilities act to amplify certain perturbations, allowing the LAFPAs to control the flow with minimal power input. LAFPAs also have the flexibility to maintain control over a variety of operating conditions. This work seeks to examine the effectiveness of LAFPAs as a separation control method for an oblique, impinging SWBLI. The low frequency unsteadiness in the reflected shock was thought to be the natural manifestation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer above the separation region. The LAFPAs were therefore placed upstream of the interaction to allow their perturbations to convect to the receptivity region (near the shear layer origin

  8. Control system of executive mechanisms of a spectrometer on the IBR-2 reactor as a modern local network of controllers CAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V.V.; Kirillov, A.S.; Petukhova, T.B.; Sirotin, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Controllers SMC-32 and SMC-32-CAN as elements of control systems of executive mechanisms of the IBR-2 spectrometers are submitted. The controllers provide management of executive mechanisms of spectrometers on the consecutive communication line RS232, RS422 (SMC-32, SMC-32-CAN), and on the local network CAN (SMC-32-CAN). The control systems of the executive mechanisms are easily modernized due to connection of additional elements of the local network CAN. Dynamic characteristics of the spectrometers' executive mechanisms are essentially improved. For example, it has been possible to increase the rotation frequency of the step motor DSHI-200 up to 10000 pps. (author)

  9. Local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome following IMRT for nasal tumors. An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Yuki [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Janssen, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Glanzmann, Christoph; Studer, Gabriela [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Institute for Radiation Oncology, Lucerne (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    This study aims to evaluate local control and intermediate-term cosmetic outcome in patients with cancer of the nose treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From June 2008 to September 2015, 36 consecutive patients presenting with nasal cavity, ala of the nose, or nasal vestibule tumors were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich either postoperatively (n = 14; 3/14 with nasal ablation) or with definitive IMRT (n = 22). Of these 36 patients, 8 presented with recurrent disease after surgery only and 1/36 with N1 disease. Concurrent systemic therapy was administered in 18/36 patients (50%). Nasal follow-up (FU) imaging documentation of 13 patients with preserved organ and >6 months FU offers a pre/post IMRT FU comparison. In addition, these patients' subjective evaluation of cosmesis was assessed. Mean/median FU was 41/33 months (range 5-92 months). Salvage ablation with curative intent was undergone by 3 patients with local relapse after definitive (n = 2) and postoperative (n = 1) IMRT. The 3-year local control, ultimate local control, and overall survival rates were 90, 97, and 90 %, respectively. Subjective and objective cosmetic outcome after IMRT is very satisfying so far. IMRT for nasal tumors was found to be effective and well tolerated. Intermediate-term cosmetic results are good. Radical surgical procedures may be saved for curative salvage treatment. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der Lokalkontrolle und des mittelfristigen kosmetischen Resultats nach intensitaetsmodulierter Radiotherapie (IMRT) von Patienten mit Nasentumoren. Von Juni 2008 bis September 2015 wurden an der Klinik fuer RadioOnkologie am UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich 36 konsekutive Patienten mit Tumoren der Nasenhoehle, der Nasenfluegel oder des Vestibulum nasi postoperativ (n = 14; 3/14 nach Nasenablation) oder definitiv IMRT-bestrahlt (n = 22). Von diesen 36 Patienten zeigten 8 ein Lokalrezidiv nach alleiniger vorangegangener Chirurgie und

  10. Assessing the variability of outcome for patients treated with localized prostate irradiation using different definitions of biochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric; Ziaja, Ellen; Vicini, Frank; Dmuchowski, Carl; Gonzalez, Jose; Stromberg, Jannifer; Brabbins, Donald; Hollander, Jay; Chen, Peter; Martinez, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical control is rapidly becoming the standard to assess treatment outcome of clinically localized prostate cancer. However, no standardized definition of biochemical control has been established. We reviewed our experience treating patients with localized prostate cancer and applied 3 different commonly used definitions to estimate the variability in rates of biochemical control. Materials and Methods: Between (1(87)) and (12(91)), 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received uniform treatment with external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58 to 70.4 Gy) through a 4 field technique. A total of 14 patients received pelvic nodal RT (median dose 45 Gy). Four hundred seventy patients had post-treatment (posttx) PSA values and 414 patients had pre-treatment (pretx) PSA values. Three different definitions of biochemical control were used: 1) Biochemical control was defined as posttx PSA nadir < 1 ng/ml within 1 year. After achieving nadir, if there were 2 consecutive increases, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase; 2) Biochemical control was defined as posttx PSA nadir < 1.5 ng/ml within 1 year. After achieving nadir, if there were 2 consecutive increases, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase; 3) Posttx PSA nadir < 4 ng/ml without a time limit. Once the nadir was achieved, and it did not rise above normal, the patient was considered controlled. Clinical local control was defined as no palpable prostate nodularity beyond 18 months, no new prostate nodularity, or a negative biopsy. If hormonal therapy was started, the patient was censored for biochemical failure at that time. Results: Median follow-up is 48 months (range 3 to 112 months). Pre-treatment PSA values were correlated with biochemical response using the 3 definitions of biochemical control as well as clinical local

  11. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Miyamoto

    Full Text Available CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  12. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  13. Improving electrical power systems reliability through locally controlled distributed curtailable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbozorgi, Mohammad Reza

    2000-10-01

    Improvements in power system reliability have always been of interest to both power companies and customers. Since there are no sizable electrical energy storage elements in electrical power systems, the generated power should match the load demand at any given time. Failure to meet this balance may cause severe system problems, including loss of generation and system blackouts. This thesis proposes a methodology which can respond to either loss of generation or loss of load. It is based on switching of electric water heaters using power system frequency as the controlling signal. The proposed methodology encounters, and the thesis has addressed, the following associated problems. The controller must be interfaced with the existing thermostat control. When necessary to switch on loads, the water in the tank should not be overheated. Rapid switching of blocks of load, or chattering, has been considered. The contributions of the thesis are: (A) A system has been proposed which makes a significant portion of the distributed loads connected to a power system to behave in a predetermined manner to improve the power system response during disturbances. (B) The action of the proposed system is transparent to the customers. (C) The thesis proposes a simple analysis for determining the amount of such loads which might be switched and relates this amount to the size of the disturbances which can occur in the utility. (D) The proposed system acts without any formal communication links, solely using the embedded information present system-wide. (E) The methodology of the thesis proposes switching of water heater loads based on a simple, localized frequency set-point controller. The thesis has identified the consequent problem of rapid switching of distributed loads, which is referred to as chattering. (F) Two approaches have been proposed to reduce chattering to tolerable levels. (G) A frequency controller has been designed and built according to the specifications required to

  14. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  15. Wireless implantable chip with integrated nitinol-based pump for radio-controlled local drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jeffrey; Xiao, Zhiming; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-02-21

    We demonstrate an active, implantable drug delivery device embedded with a microfluidic pump that is driven by a radio-controlled actuator for temporal drug delivery. The polyimide-packaged 10 × 10 × 2 mm(3) chip contains a micromachined pump chamber and check valves of Parylene C to force the release of the drug from a 76 μL reservoir by wirelessly activating the actuator using external radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. The rectangular-shaped spiral-coil actuator based on nitinol, a biocompatible shape-memory alloy, is developed to perform cantilever-like actuation for pumping operation. The nitinol-coil actuator itself forms a passive 185 MHz resonant circuit that serves as a self-heat source activated via RF power transfer to enable frequency-selective actuation and pumping. Experimental wireless operation of fabricated prototypes shows successful release of test agents from the devices placed in liquid and excited by radiating tuned RF fields with an output power of 1.1 W. These tests reveal a single release volume of 219 nL, suggesting a device's capacity of ~350 individual ejections of drug from its reservoir. The thermal behavior of the activated device is also reported in detail. This proof-of-concept prototype validates the effectiveness of wireless RF pumping for fully controlled, long-lasting drug delivery, a key step towards enabling patient-tailored, targeted local drug delivery through highly miniaturized implants.

  16. Financial Management and Control for Decision Making in Urban Local Bodies in India Using Statistical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sidhakam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam

    2010-10-01

    The council of most of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) has a limited scope for decision making in the absence of appropriate financial control mechanism. The information about expected amount of own fund during a particular period is of great importance for decision making. Therefore, in this paper, efforts are being made to present set of findings and to establish a model of estimating receipts of own sources and payments thereof using multiple regression analysis. Data for sixty months from a reputed ULB in West Bengal have been considered for ascertaining the regression models. This can be used as a part of financial management and control procedure by the council to estimate the effect on own fund. In our study we have considered two models using multiple regression analysis. "Model I" comprises of total adjusted receipt as the dependent variable and selected individual receipts as the independent variables. Similarly "Model II" consists of total adjusted payments as the dependent variable and selected individual payments as independent variables. The resultant of Model I and Model II is the surplus or deficit effecting own fund. This may be applied for decision making purpose by the council.

  17. Temperature behavior and annealing of insulated gate transistors subjected to localized lifetime control by proton implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Love, R.P.; Chang, M.F.; Dyer, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Localized lifetime control by proton implantation can result in a considerable improvement (as much as an order of magnitude or more) in the trade-off between device turn-off time and forward voltage when compared with the unlocalized method of electron irradiation. The physical mechanisms responsible for the qualitative temperature dependences are identified: MOS channel resistance for forward voltage, carrier capture cross-section for turn-off time, and generation and diffusion components of leakage current. Since no catastrophic or unrecoverable behavior is observed, normal device operation within the tested temperature range is possible. Isothermal annealing curves of turn-off time measured after annealing, and corresponding to a few hours annealing time, reveal that a constant turn-off time is reached after about an hour. The constant value increases with temperature, but is still below the unimplanted value after 4 h at 525 0 C. The turn-off time was verified to be constant even after 24 h of annealing at 200 0 C. Lifetime control by proton implantation seems to be more thermally stable than that caused by electron irradiation. (author)

  18. Surgical model-view-controller simulation software framework for local and collaborative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Anderson; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Halic, Tansel; Arikatla, Venkata Sreekanth; Lu, Zhonghua; De, Suvranu

    2011-07-01

    Surgical simulations require haptic interactions and collaboration in a shared virtual environment. A software framework for decoupled surgical simulation based on a multi-controller and multi-viewer model-view-controller (MVC) pattern was developed and tested. A software framework for multimodal virtual environments was designed, supporting both visual interactions and haptic feedback while providing developers with an integration tool for heterogeneous architectures maintaining high performance, simplicity of implementation, and straightforward extension. The framework uses decoupled simulation with updates of over 1,000 Hz for haptics and accommodates networked simulation with delays of over 1,000 ms without performance penalty. The simulation software framework was implemented and was used to support the design of virtual reality-based surgery simulation systems. The framework supports the high level of complexity of such applications and the fast response required for interaction with haptics. The efficacy of the framework was tested by implementation of a minimally invasive surgery simulator. A decoupled simulation approach can be implemented as a framework to handle simultaneous processes of the system at the various frame rates each process requires. The framework was successfully used to develop collaborative virtual environments (VEs) involving geographically distributed users connected through a network, with the results comparable to VEs for local users.

  19. Accurate LC peak boundary detection for ¹⁶O/¹⁸O labeled LC-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Petritis, Konstantinos; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Brianne; Ma, Xuepo; Jin, Yufang; Gao, Shou-Jiang S J; Zhang, Jianqiu Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), parts of LC peaks are often corrupted by their co-eluting peptides, which results in increased quantification variance. In this paper, we propose to apply accurate LC peak boundary detection to remove the corrupted part of LC peaks. Accurate LC peak boundary detection is achieved by checking the consistency of intensity patterns within peptide elution time ranges. In addition, we remove peptides with erroneous mass assignment through model fitness check, which compares observed intensity patterns to theoretically constructed ones. The proposed algorithm can significantly improve the accuracy and precision of peptide ratio measurements.

  20. Effect of local automatic control rods on three-dimensional calculations of the power distribution in an RBMK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosbekyan, L.R.; Lysov, D.A.; Bronitskii, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulators and information systems that support nuclear reactor operators must have fast models to estimate how fuel reloads and control rod displacement affect neutron and power distributions in the core. The consequences of reloads and control rod displacement cannot be evaluated correctly without considering local automatic control-rod operations in maintaining the radial power distribution. Fast three-dimensional models to estimate the effects of reloads and displacement of the control and safety rods have already been examined. I.V. Zonov et al. used the following assumptions in their calculational model: (1) the full-scale problem could be reduced a three-dimensional fragment of a locally perturbed core, and (2) the boundary conditions of the fragment and its total power were constant. The last assumption considers approximately how local automatic control rods stabilize the radial power distribution, but three dimensional calculations with these rods are not considered. These assumptions were introduced to obtain high computational speed. I.L. Bronitskii et al. considered in more detail how moving the local automatic control rods affect the power dimensional in the three-dimensional fragment, because, with on-line monitoring of the reload process, information on control rod positions is periodically renewed, and the calculations are done in real time. This model to predict the three-dimensional power distribution to (1) do a preliminary reload analysis, and (2) prepare the core for reloading did not consider the effect of perturbations from the local automatic control rods. Here we examine a model of a stationary neutron distribution. On one hand it gives results in an acceptable computation time; on the other it is a full-scale three-dimensional model and considers how local automatic control rods affect both the radial and axial power distribution

  1. Identification of Forced Degradation Products of Itopride by LC-PDA and LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Payal; Bhoir, Suvarna; Bhagwat, A. M.; Vishwanath, K.; Jadhav, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Degradation products of itopride formed under different forced conditions have been identified using LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques. Itopride was subjected to forced degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, dry and wet heat, in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization. The stress solutions were chromatographed on reversed phase C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase methanol:water (55:45, v/v) at a detection wavelength of 215 nm. Itop...

  2. Radiation therapy for T1,2 glottic carcinoma: impact of overall treatment time on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nagata, Yasushi; Okajima, Kaoru; Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shin-ichirou; Ono, Koji; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayosi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Local control probabilities of T1,2 glottic laryngeal cancer were evaluated in relation to dose and fractionation of radiation therapy (RT). Materials and methods: Between 1975 and 1993, 96 T1N0M0 glottic cancers and 32 T2N0M0 glottic cancers were treated with definitive RT. Total RT dose was 60-66 Gy/2 Gy for most of the T1 and T2 tumors, although 10 T2 tumors were treated with hyperfractionation (72-74.4 Gy/1.2 Gy bid). Of the 128 patients, 90 T1 glottic tumors and 30 T2 glottic tumors were followed for >2 years after treatment. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model and a logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the significance of prognostic variables on local control. Results: The 5-year local control probability for T1 tumors was 85%, whereas that for T2 tumors was 71%. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that only overall treatment time (OTT) was a significant variable for local control. Total RT dose, normalized total doses at a fraction size of 2 Gy, and fraction size were not significant. Local control probability of T1 tumors with an OTT of 42-49 days was significantly higher than that of tumors with an OTT of >49 days (P < 0.02). Only a 1-week interruption of RT, due to holidays, significantly reduced the 5-year local control probability of T1 glottic tumors from 89 to 74% (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that OTT is a significant prognostic factor for local control of T1 glottic tumors

  3. Impact of radiation dose and standardized uptake value of (18)FDG PET on nodal control in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Kroon, Petra S; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite local control now exceeding 90% with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT), regional and distant metastases continue to curb survival in locally advanced cervical cancer. As regional lymph nodes often represent first site of metastatic spread, improved nodal control could...... improve survival. The aim of this study was to examine optimal volume and dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to maximize regional control including dose contribution from IGABT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 139 patients from the EMBRACE study were analyzed. Individual nodal dose was determined...

  4. High precision wavefront control in point spread function engineering for single emitter localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemons, M.; Hulleman, C. N.; Thorsen, R. Ø.; Smith, C. S.; Stallinga, S.

    2018-04-01

    Point Spread Function (PSF) engineering is used in single emitter localization to measure the emitter position in 3D and possibly other parameters such as the emission color or dipole orientation as well. Advanced PSF models such as spline fits to experimental PSFs or the vectorial PSF model can be used in the corresponding localization algorithms in order to model the intricate spot shape and deformations correctly. The complexity of the optical architecture and fit model makes PSF engineering approaches particularly sensitive to optical aberrations. Here, we present a calibration and alignment protocol for fluorescence microscopes equipped with a spatial light modulator (SLM) with the goal of establishing a wavefront error well below the diffraction limit for optimum application of complex engineered PSFs. We achieve high-precision wavefront control, to a level below 20 m$\\lambda$ wavefront aberration over a 30 minute time window after the calibration procedure, using a separate light path for calibrating the pixel-to-pixel variations of the SLM, and alignment of the SLM with respect to the optical axis and Fourier plane within 3 $\\mu$m ($x/y$) and 100 $\\mu$m ($z$) error. Aberrations are retrieved from a fit of the vectorial PSF model to a bead $z$-stack and compensated with a residual wavefront error comparable to the error of the SLM calibration step. This well-calibrated and corrected setup makes it possible to create complex `3D+$\\lambda$' PSFs that fit very well to the vectorial PSF model. Proof-of-principle bead experiments show precisions below 10~nm in $x$, $y$, and $\\lambda$, and below 20~nm in $z$ over an axial range of 1 $\\mu$m with 2000 signal photons and 12 background photons.

  5. THE CONTROL OVER LOCAL PUBLIC FINANCES IN ROMANIA AND IN OTHER RELEVANT COUNTRIES OF EU

    OpenAIRE

    NICU MARCU; RALUCA ANTONEAC

    2015-01-01

    Local public finances are an essential component of public finances together with the public finances of the central state administration. Because, besides the right of local representative bodies to decide on issues of local interest, local autonomy implies the right of communities to constitute and manage their own budgets in order to create an accurate and integrated image of the functionality of various systems of territorial administrative organization, we considered opportun...

  6. Controlling disasters: Local emergency management perceptions about Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security actions after September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Sean

    This article examines local emergency manager's beliefs regarding control over tasks during various stages of the hazard cycle since federal policies went into effect following the September 11 attacks. The study considers whether a disparity exists between the actions of local officials during each phase of the "hazard cycle" and the policy expectations of the federal government, which call for greater federal control over activities in emergency management and homeland security. To do so, hypothesis testing investigates the jurisdiction's use of comprehensive emergency management (CEM) practices, the perceived "clarity" of the federal policy demands, and if the local actors feel coerced to comply with federal policy demands so that grant funding is not compromised. Using a model developed from "third-generation" policy implementation research, the results show that the odds of local officials citing federal control over these actions have very limited statistical significance. This signals that the perceived lack of local input into the development of these federal policies and the policies' limited use of traditional CEM measures may not be in concert with what local actors perform in the field. Simply put, the respondents claim to understand the federal policy demands, support the concept of federal control as the policies describe, yet follow their own plans or traditional CEM principles, even if such actions do not support the federal policy demands. These results align with pre-existing research in the emergency management field that show issues with efforts to centralize policies under the Department of Homeland Security and Federal Emergency Management Agency.

  7. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59-95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40-1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications.

  8. Local sharing of cogeneration energy through individually prioritized controls for increased on-site energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing of surplus heat and electricity produced by CHP plants in different types of buildings. • Individually prioritized control of CHP plants with direct local sharing and minimal storage capacity. • Energy sharing reduced primary energy consumption by 1–9% with biogas. • Excess energy minimized by thermal tracking. - Abstract: All over the world, including Japan, there are targets to decrease building energy consumption and increase renewable energy utilization. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants increase energy efficiency and are becoming popular in Japan. CHP plants produce both heat and power simultaneously, but there is not always a need for both. A cluster of several different buildings can increase total efficiency and reduce primary energy (PE) consumption by sharing excess heat and electricity between neighboring buildings. If the generated energy comes from renewable sources, energy sharing makes it easier to reach the net zero energy balance. By adjusting CHP sizes and operation patterns, the wasted heat and primary energy consumption can be minimized. Energy sharing has been explored in situations with identical buildings and centrally administered energy systems before, but not with different building types with separate systems. In this study, a cluster of Japanese office and residential buildings were combined to allow heat and electricity sharing based on cogeneration, using individually prioritized control (IPC) systems. TRNSYS simulation was used to match energy generation with pregenerated demand profiles. Absorption cooling was utilized to increase the benefits of local heat generation. Different CHP operation modes and plant sizes were tested. The benefit of surplus energy sharing depends on the CHP capacities and the fuel type. When using biogas, larger CHP plants provided lower total primary energy consumption, in the most extreme case lowering it by 71%, compared to the conventional case. Using natural gas

  9. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hideomi; Haga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Wataru; Takenaka, Ryousuke; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  10. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  11. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  12. Assessing the variability of outcome for patients treated with localized prostate irradiation using different definitions of biochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Gonzalez, Jose; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Hollander, Jay; Chen, Peter Y.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical control using serial posttreatment serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels is being increasingly used to assess treatment efficacy for localized prostate cancer. However, no standardized definition of biochemical control has been established. We reviewed our experience treating patients with localized prostate cancer and applied three different commonly used definitions of biochemical control to determine if differences in therapeutic outcome would be observed. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and December 1991, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58-70.4) using a four-field or arc technique. Pretreatment and posttreatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Over 86% (414 of 480) of patients had a pretreatment PSA level available. Three different definitions of biochemical control were used: (a) PSA nadir 20), and 5-year actuarial rates of biochemical control were calculated using the three biochemical control and one clinical local control definitions. For Group 1, 5-year actuarial rates of biochemical control were 84%, 90%, and 96% for Definitions 1-3 and clinical local control, respectively. For Group 2, 5-year actuarial control rates were 45%, 54%, 74%, and 92% for the four definitions, respectively. For Group 3, 5-year actuarial control rates were 26%, 31%, 63%, and 100% for the four definitions, respectively. For Group 4, 5-year actuarial control rates were 24%, 24%, 50%, and 100% for the four definitions, respectively. Finally, for Group 5, 5-year actuarial control rates were 5%, 14%, 15%, and 89% for the four definitions, respectively. Depending on the definition used, statistically significant differences overall in outcome rates were observed. Differences between all four definitions for all pairwise comparisons ranged from 5 to 53% (p < 0

  13. Investigating the Agent of Temperature into Acute Toxicity (LC50 96h of Edifenphos in Rutilus Frisii Kutum (Kamensky, 1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edifenphos, a kind of organophosphate toxins, is used as agricultural fungicides in rice fields. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of temperature on lethal concentration of exposure to edifenphos on Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in static condition and based on instructions of OECD within 10 d under controlled water physicochemical factors. Dissolved oxygen was fixed on 7-7.5 ppm, pH: 7 to 7.5 and hardness: 200 ppm. Fish were acclimatized in 70*40*30 cm aquarium for 10 d before the test. Treated aquariums with concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 2, 4, 8, 16 ppm of edifenphos with one control group (no toxic concentration, were performed. In order to test the effect of temperature on acute toxicity, three ranges of 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC were treated and LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The study was carried out in Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Tehran in 2016. Results: LC50 value in 25 ºC was lower than 20 and 15 ºC. LC50 96h edifenphos for Caspian kutum in 15±1, 20±1 and 25±1 ºC was 3.70, 3.61 and 3.26, respectively. Conclusion: Higher temperature increase toxicity rate of edifenphos and the toxin had a positive temperature coefficient on Caspian kutum.

  14. An adaptive PID like controller using mix locally recurrent neural network for robotic manipulator with variable payload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Kumar, Vikas; Gaur, Prerna; Mittal, A P

    2016-05-01

    Being complex, non-linear and coupled system, the robotic manipulator cannot be effectively controlled using classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. To enhance the effectiveness of the conventional PID controller for the nonlinear and uncertain systems, gains of the PID controller should be conservatively tuned and should adapt to the process parameter variations. In this work, a mix locally recurrent neural network (MLRNN) architecture is investigated to mimic a conventional PID controller which consists of at most three hidden nodes which act as proportional, integral and derivative node. The gains of the mix locally recurrent neural network based PID (MLRNNPID) controller scheme are initialized with a newly developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) based optimization method rather than assuming randomly. A sequential learning based least square algorithm is then investigated for the on-line adaptation of the gains of MLRNNPID controller. The performance of the proposed controller scheme is tested against the plant parameters uncertainties and external disturbances for both links of the two link robotic manipulator with variable payload (TL-RMWVP). The stability of the proposed controller is analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. A performance comparison is carried out among MLRNNPID controller, CSA optimized NNPID (OPTNNPID) controller and CSA optimized conventional PID (OPTPID) controller in order to establish the effectiveness of the MLRNNPID controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepek, Joseph M; Chino, Junzo P; Willett, Christopher G; Palta, Manisha; Blazer III, Dan G; Tyler, Douglas S; Uronis, Hope E; Czito, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for gastric cancer. Patients with gastroesophageal (GE) junction (Siewert type II and III) or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73%) had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus) tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75%) underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated

  16. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  17. LC-MSMS assays of urinary cortisol, a comparison between four in-house assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossaud, Julie; Leban, Monique; Corcuff, Jean-Benoit; Boux de Casson, Florence; Leloupp, Anne-Gaëlle; Masson, Damien; Moal, Valérie; Bach-Ngohou, Kalyane

    2018-06-27

    Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) determination can be used for screening and follow-up of Cushing syndrome (CS). As immunoassay methods lack specificity for UFC measurement, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (LC-MSMS) is recommended. The aim of our study was to compare UFC results using four LC-MSMS methods performed in four independent laboratories in order to evaluate interlaboratory agreement. Frozen aliquots of 24-h urine samples (78 healthy volunteers and 20 patients with CS) were sent to four different laboratories for analysis. Following liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, UFC were determined using four different LC-MSMS assay. UFC intra- and interassays variation coefficients were lower than 10% for each centre. External quality control results were not significantly different. UFC normal ranges (established from healthy volunteers) were 17-126, 15-134, 12-118 and 27-157 nmol/day, respectively. Classification of UFC from healthy volunteers and patients with CS using a 95th percentile threshold was similar. However, for extreme UFC values (270 nmol/day), negative or positive bias was noted. Even for highly specific methods such as LC-MSMS, variations of results can be found depending on analytical process. Validation of LC-MSMS methods including determination of the reference range is essential.

  18. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    two LC impedance networks and two isolated dc sources, which can significantly increase the overall system cost and require a more complex modulator for balancing the network inductive voltage boosting. Offering a number of less costly alternatives, this letter presents the design and control of two...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...

  19. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade ≥2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  20. Edge-Localized mode control and transport generated by externally applied magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the subject of edge localized mode (ELM) control using externally applied magnetic perturbations and proposes theoretical mechanisms that may be responsible for the induced transport changes. The first question that must be addressed is: what is the structure of magnetic field within the plasma? Although initial hypotheses focused on the possibility of the creation of a region of stochastic field lines at the tokamak edge, drift magnetohydrodynamics theory predicts that magnetic reconnection is strongly suppressed over the region of the pedestal with steep gradients and fast perpendicular rotation. Reconnection can only occur near the location where the perpendicular electron velocity vanishes, and hence the electron impedance nearly vanishes, or near the foot of the pedestal, where the plasma is sufficiently cold and resistive. The next question that must be addressed is: which processes are responsible for the observed transport changes, nonlinearity, turbulence, or stochasticity? Over the pedestal region where ions and electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, the quasilinear Lorentz force decelerates the electron fluid and accelerates the ion fluid. The quasilinear magnetic flutter flux is proportional to the force and produces an outward convective transport that can be significant. Over the pedestal region where the E x B flow and the electrons rotate in opposite directions relative to the perturbation, magnetic islands with a width on the order of the ion gyroradius can directly radiate drift waves. In addition, the combination of quasilinear electron transport and ion viscous transport can lead to a large net particle flux. Since there are many transport mechanisms that may be active simultaneously, it is important to determine which physical mechanisms are responsible for ELM control and to predict the scaling to future devices (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Local correlations for flap gap oscillatory blowing active flow control technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin NAE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Active technology for oscillatory blowing in the flap gap has been tested at INCAS subsonic wind tunnel in order to evaluate this technology for usage in high lift systems with active flow control. The main goal for this investigation was to validate TRL level 4 for this technology and to extend towards flight testing. CFD analysis was performed in order to identify local correlations with experimental data and to better formulate a design criteria so that a maximum increase in lift is possible under given geometrical constraints. Reference to a proposed metric for noise evaluation is also given. This includes basic 2D flow cases and also 2.5D configurations. In 2.5D test cases this work has been extended so that the proposed system may be selected as a mature technology in the JTI Clean Sky, Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft ITD. Complex post-processing of the experimental and CFD data was mainly oriented towards system efficiency and TRL evaluation for this active technology.

  2. Local control of murine melanoma xenografts in nude mice by neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Corderoy-Buck, S.; Moore, D.E.; Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development and implementation of neutron capture therapy (NCT) for the treatment of cancer. In particular, the boron analogue of the melanin precursor phenylalanine, i.e., DL-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA), has been used to demonstrate the regression and cure of Harding-Passey (HP) melanoma in syngeneic mice. However, 18 to 25% cures were obtained for neutron irradiations without boron, suggesting that the neutron dose alone plays an important role. Neutron capture therapy of B-16 melanoma xenografts in nude mice showed substantial tumor regression over 35 days, but the survival rate of NCT treated mice after 7 weeks was only 40-60%. In this paper the authors demonstrate the equivalence of the nude mouse model with a syngeneic model, using the same Harding-Passey murine melanoma line, and delineate the conditions required for maximum differential response between neutron irradiation with and without BPA administration, with complete local control as the end point

  3. Study of flow control by localized volume heating in hypersonic boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. A.; Kloker, M. J.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Boundary-layer flow control is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient operation of future hypersonic transport systems. Here, the influence of an electric discharge—modeled by a heat-source term in the energy equation—on laminar boundary-layer flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient at Mach 3, 5, and 7 is investigated numerically. The aim was to appraise the potential of electro-gasdynamic devices for an application as turbulence generators in the super- and hypersonic flow regime. The results with localized heat-source elements in boundary layers are compared to cases with roughness elements serving as classical passive trips. The numerical simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT (by ITAM) and the high-order finite-difference DNS code NS3D (by IAG), the latter allowing for the detailed analysis of laminar flow instability. For the investigated setups with steady heating, transition to turbulence is not observed, due to the Reynolds-number lowering effect of heating.

  4. The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium Approach to Far-From-Local-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Metghalchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE method for the description of the time-dependent behavior of dynamical systems in non-equilibrium states is a general, effective, physically based method for model order reduction that was originally developed in the framework of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. A generalized mathematical formulation is presented here that allows including nonlinear constraints in non-local equilibrium systems characterized by the existence of a non-increasing Lyapunov functional under the system’s internal dynamics. The generalized formulation of RCCE enables to clarify the essentials of the method and the built-in general feature of thermodynamic consistency in the chemical kinetics context. In this paper, we work out the details of the method in a generalized mathematical-physics framework, but for definiteness we detail its well-known implementation in the traditional chemical kinetics framework. We detail proofs and spell out explicit functional dependences so as to bring out and clarify each underlying assumption of the method. In the standard context of chemical kinetics of ideal gas mixtures, we discuss the relations between the validity of the detailed balance condition off-equilibrium and the thermodynamic consistency of the method. We also discuss two examples of RCCE gas-phase combustion calculations to emphasize the constraint-dependent performance of the RCCE method.

  5. Local Control of Perivascular Malignant Liver Lesions Using Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation: Initial Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Achim, E-mail: Achim.Eller@uk-erlangen.de; Schmid, Axel, E-mail: axel.schmid@uk-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Schmidt, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.schmidt@kfa.imed.uni-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Anesthesiology (Germany); May, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.may@uk-erlangen.de; Brand, Michael, E-mail: michael.brand@uk-erlangen.de; Saake, Marc, E-mail: marc.saake@uk-erlangen.de; Uder, Michael, E-mail: michael.uder@uk-erlangen.de; Lell, Michael, E-mail: michael.lell@uk-erlangen.de [University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess efficacy and safety in the treatment of perivascular malignant liver lesions using percutaneous, computed tomography (CT)-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE).MethodsFourteen patients (mean age 58 ± 11 years) with 18 malignant liver lesions were consecutively enrolled in this study. IRE was performed in patients not eligible for surgery and lesions abutting large vessels or bile ducts. Follow-up exams were performed using multislice-CT (MS-CT) or MRI.ResultsMedium lesion diameter was 20 ± 5 mm. Ten of 14 (71 %) were successfully treated with no local recurrence to date (mean follow-up 388 ± 160 days). One case left initial tumor control unclear and additional RFA was performed 4 weeks after IRE. Complications occurred in 4 of 14 (29 %) cases. In one case, intervention was terminated and abdominal bleeding required laparotomy. In two cases, a postinterventional hematothorax required intervention. In another case, abdominal bleeding could be managed conservatively. No complications related to the bile ducts occurred.ConclusionsPercutaneous IRE seems to be effective in perivascular lesions but is associated with a higher complication rate compared with thermoablative techniques.

  6. Combined radiotherapy and surgery : Local control and complications in early carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbaulet, A.L.; Haie, C.; Michel, G.; Prade, M.; Lhomme, C.; Masselot, M.; Albano, M.; Dutreix, A.; Chassagne, D.; Kunkler, I.H.; Kerr, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    From January 1975 to December 1984, 41 patients were treated by combined radiotherapy and surgery at Institut Gustave Roussy for Stage IB (288) and II (proximal) (103) carcinoma of uterine cervix. Standard treatment consisted of pre-operative utero-vaginal brachytherapy (60 Gy) using a mould technique followed by colpho-hysterectomy and external iliac lymphadenectomy. Overall 5 year actuarial survival for whole population was 87% and disease-free survival 85%. Locoregional relapse occurred in 23 patients (5%). Of these, 12 where central pelvic failures, 8 regional failures and 3 combined central and regional failures. Of 36 systemic relapses (8%), 12 relapsed concurrently in pelvis. Five year actuarial pelvic disease-free, disease-free and overall survival was 87, 85 and 87%, resp., for the whole population. 340 patients developed one or more complications [Grade 1: 198/441 (44%), Grade 2: 121/441 (27%) and Grade 3 or 4: 21/441 (4.7%)]. Five year actuarial survival for the whole population was poorer for histologically node positive than for node negative (89 vs. 55%, p<0.0001). Pre-operative brachytherapy by surgery can provide good local control with acceptable morbidity in early cervical cancer. (author). 39 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor control for HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    This preclinical study examines four dosimetric quantities (light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching ratio, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx)) to predict local control rate (LCR) for 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (135, 250 and 350 J/cm2) and in-air fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) at 0.25 mg/kg HPPH and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 665 nm wavelength. A macroscopic model was used to calculate ([1O2]rx)) based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the initial tissue oxygenation, photosensitizer concentration, and tissue optical properties. PDT dose was defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate (φ) at a 3 mm tumor depth. Light fluence rate was calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. The tumor volume of each mouse was tracked for 30 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for four dose metrics: fluence, HPPH photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and ([1O2]rx)). The results of this study showed that ([1O2]rx)) is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR.

  8. Is sterilisation of the operating theatre, after radio-chemotherapy of locally advanced oesophageal cancers, predictive of a better local control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubiere, Amandine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose and objectives: To search if the pathological complete response (pCR) of the 102 patients treated at the University Hospital Center of Tours between 1990 and 2010 with concomitant radio-chemotherapy for an esophageal cancer is correlated to an increase of local control, with correct R0 resection and acceptable mortality rate. To analyze the Impact of histological tumor or nodal down-staging on the loco regional control and the disease free survival. Search if there are some predictive factors of pCR. Materials and methods: The combined preoperative treatment was based on an association of two cycles of 5FU R and cisplatin R with concomitant radiotherapy at the dose of 40 to 44 Gy. The survival curves of both recurrence free survival and disease free survival were calculated and then analyzed according to the histological response. Results: With a mean follow-up of 38 months, 70 patients were dead, 47 of their cancer. Thirty patients were still alive and 26 without recurrence. The postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were respectively of 53% and 27%. The median of survival was estimated to 27 months. Overall survival (p= 0.33), disease free survival (p= 0.14), were analysed with no statistical difference between our 3 groups (pCR, near pCR and other). However, there was an interest in doing the combined treatment for the responders (p R , Cisplatin R , and external beam radiotherapy at the dose of 40 to 44 Gy for the patients with a locally advanced esophageal cancer allow us to obtain the same results on survival, tolerance, morbidity and mortality rates than in the literature. The pCR seems to increase the local control and the disease free survival. Tumor or nodal down-staging is a major prognostic factor. (author)

  9. Malignant melanoma and radiotherapy: past myths, excellent local control in 146 studied lesions at Georgetown University, and improving future management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahanshahi, Pooya; Nasr, Nadim; Unger, Keith; Batouli, Ali; Gagnon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Once thought to be radioresistant, emerging cellular and clinical evidence now suggests melanoma can respond to large radiation doses per fraction. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy at Georgetown University Hospital from May 2002 through November 2008 and studied the classic extrapolated total dose corrected for volume (ETD vol ) model for predicting melanoma tumor response. Region-specific tumor outcomes were categorized by RECIST criteria and local control curves were estimated and analyzed when stratified by ETD vol thresholds by use of the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Follow-up information was available for 78 lesions (49 intracranial, 8 spinal, and 21 body) with mean follow-up period of 9.2 (range, 2–36) months. 1-year local control rates for intracranial, spinal, and body tumors were 84, 100, and 72%, respectively. Treatments in general were well-tolerated. Increased ETD vol (p < 0.001) among intracranial sites resulted from larger (p < 0.001) doses per fraction combined with smaller (p < 0.001) tumor diameters. Intracranial 6-, 12-, and 24-month local control rates when treated above ETD vol threshold of 230 Gy were all 90 vs. 89, 80, and 53% below this threshold. Body 6- and 12-month local control rates when treated above ETD vol threshold of 100 Gy were 100 and 80% vs. 74 and 59% below this threshold. Discussion: By tailoring to melanoma’s unique radiobiology with large radiation doses per fraction, favorable local control was safely achieved. The ETD vol model combines the important factor of dose per fraction in melanoma treatment with a volume correction factor to predict tumor response. Although limited sample size may have prevented reaching statistical significance for local control improvements using ETD vol thresholds, optimal thresholds may exist to improve future tumor responses and further research is required.

  10. Localization of indium-111 in human malignant tumor xenografts and control by chelators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo; Inoue, Tomio; Tanada, Shuji; Murata, Hajime; Kim, E. Edmund; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of soluble indium-111 ( 111 In) in human malignant tumor xenografts and cells was investigated in combination with chelators. Firstly, without chelator, the kinetics of 111 In-chloride was investigated in vitro and in vivo using four human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-MC, pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma NCI-H441, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma PC 9, and colon adenocarcinoma LS 180 cells and xenografts. 111 In was incorporated into tumor cells in vitro to a maximum level during a 60-min incubation. A maximum level of radioactivity was demonstrated in vivo in four human malignant tumors xenografted into nude mice at 24 h postinjection of 111 In-chloride. Secondly, the effect of edetate calcium disodium (CaNa 2 EDTA) on radioactivity in 111 In-labeled tumors xenografts and cells was studied in vitro and in vivo. CaNa 2 EDTA significantly reduced 111 In-activity from the labeled tumor xenografts, whereas it had no affect on the radioactivity in the labeled cells. Thirdly, the effect of CaNa 2 EDTA on radioactivity in human malignant tumors xenografted into nude mice injected with 111 In-chloride was investigated. In one group of mice CaNa 2 EDTA administered intraperitoneally at 1, 22, 34, 46, 58, and 70 h after injection of 111 In-chloride (postadministration), the localization of 111 In at the tumors was significantly decreased at 72 h compared with the control in all four tumor types. In the other group of mice, CaNa 2 EDTA administered intraperitoneally at 12 and 1 h before injection of 111 In-chloride and 1, 22, 34, 46, 58, and 70 h postinjection (pre- and postadministration), the radioactivity of tumors was also significantly decreased at 72 h, and the reduction was greater than that with use of postadministration. In a comparative study, CaNa 3 DTPA had a more powerful effect than CaNa 2 EDTA. In conclusion, 111 In-activity in tumors consists of intracellular and extracellular components, and the extracellular 111 In may be cleared by

  11. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU–based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1–7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1–6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant

  12. Smart Control of Air Climatization System in Function on the Values of Mean Local Radiant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal comfort indoor conditions are defined as: those environmental conditions in which an individual exposed, expresses a state of satisfaction. These conditions cannot always be achieved anywhere in an optimal way and economically; in some cases they can be obtained only in work environments specific areas. This could be explained because of air conditioning systems designing is generally performed both on the basis of the fundamental parameters’ average values, such as temperature, velocity and relative humidity (Ta, va e φa and derived parameters such as operating temperature and mean radiant one (Top eTmr. However, in some specific cases - large open-spaces or in case of radiating surfaces - the descriptors defining indoor comfort conditions, based on average values, do not provide the optimum values required during the air conditioning systems design phase. This is largely due to the variability of real environmental parameters values compared to the average ones taken as input in the calculation. The results obtained in previous scientific papers on the thermal comfort have been the driving element of this work. It offers a simple, original and clever way of thinking about the new domotic systems for air conditioning, based on the “local mean radiant temperature.” This is a very important parameter when one wants to analyze comfort in environments characterized by the presence of radiating surfaces, as will be seen hereinafter. In order to take into account the effects of radiative exchanges in the open-space workplace, where any occupant may find themselves in different temperature and humidity conditions, this paper proposes an action on the domotic climate control, with ducts and vents air distribution placed in different zones. Comparisons were performed between the parameters values representing the punctual thermal comfort, with the Predicted Mean Vote PMV, in an environment marked by radiating surfaces (i

  13. Optimizing operation costs of the heating system of a household using model predictive control considering a local PV installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive controller developed in order to minimize the cost of grid energy consumption and maximize the amount of energy consumed from a local photovoltaic (PV) installation. The usage of as much locally produced renewable energy sources (RES) as possible, diminishes...... the effects of their large penetration in the distribution grid and reduces overloading the grid capacity, which is an increasing problem for the power system. The controller uses 24 hour prediction data for the ambient temperature, the solar irradiance, and for the PV output power. Simulation results...

  14. Overexpression of maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc affects rice fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Shen, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Yu; Li, Jian-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen independent transgenic rice plants with the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the CaMV 35S promoter were obtained and verified by molecular identification. Ten plants showed red spikelets during early development of florets, and the degenerate florets were still red after heading. Additionally, these plants exhibited intense pigmentation on the surface of the anther and the bottom of the ovary. They were unable to properly bloom and were completely sterile. Following pollination with normal pollen, these plants yielded red caryopses but did not mature normally. QRT-PCR analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of the CHS-like gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein was increased significantly in the sterile plant. This is the first report to suggest that upregulation of the CHS gene expression may result in rice sterility and affect the normal development of rice seeds.

  15. Can we optimize chemo-radiation and surgery in locally advanced stage III non-small cell lung cancer based on evidence from randomized clinical trials? A hypothesis-generating study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruysscher, Dirk; Dehing, Cary; Bentzen, Soren M.; Houben, Ruud; Dekker, Andre; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques; Hochstenbag, Monique; Boersma, Liesbeth; Geskes, Gijs; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Lammering, Guido; Lambin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Improved local tumor control (LC) improves survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We estimated the capability of surgical and non-surgical options to improve LC further in this disease. Methods: Eligible studies were phase III trials reporting 2-year survival data as well as the incidence of LC and/or distant metastases. Effect estimates, as well as the statistical uncertainty of these, were combined in order to estimate the benefit in terms of LC from combining multiple modalities. Results: It was estimated that the highest rates of LC can be obtained with high-dose concurrent chemo-radiation followed by surgery. In this situation, escalating the pre-operative radiation dose from 45 to 66 Gy, delivered concurrently with chemotherapy, could increase LC from 58% to 76%. Toxicity may also be higher, but could not be estimated. Without surgery, the gain in LC from concurrent chemo-radiation versus sequential, corresponds to a radiation dose increase from 65 to 72 Gy. Conclusions: We hypothesize that high-dose concurrent chemo-radiation followed by surgery could be superior to other current treatment approaches for selected patients with stage III NSCLC, provided toxicity would be low. At present, high-dose concurrent chemo-radiation followed by surgery should be considered experimental.

  16. Solution Structure of LC4 Transmembrane Segment of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescdence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 ...

  17. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  18. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; Winters, Jan C.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Meyboom-deJong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and leads to wrist pain and to impaired function of the wrist and hand. It can be treated by splinting, local corticosteroid injection and operation. In this study effectiveness of local

  19. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 2 – Human response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Pastuszka, Zuzanna; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    The response of 24 subjects to the local environment established by localized chilled beam combined with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) was studied and compared with response to the environment generated by mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV) at two temperature conditions of 26°C and...

  20. Method of preliminary localization of the iris in biometric access control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.

  1. Control and monitoring of the localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, J.; Holmes, D.; Yau, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium in acidic chloride solutions which are contaminated with ferric or cupric cations is prone to localized corrosion. This tendency can be reduced by ensuring that the zirconium surface is clean and smooth. In this paper, the effect of surface condition on the localized corrosion of zirconium in acidic chloride solutions is predicted with potentiodynamic scans. These predictions are confirmed by weight loss tests on various combinations of surface finish and acid concentrations. A real time indication of localized corrosion is seen by monitoring the electrochemical noise produced between two similar electrodes immersed in an acidic chloride solutions. Electrochemical noise monitoring correlates well with the predictions from potentiodynamic and weight loss experiments. The electrochemical noise results show that while an elevated (more anodic) potential caused by ferric ion contamination may be a necessary condition for localized corrosion, it is not a sufficient condition: A smooth, clean zirconium surface reduces the localized corrosion of zirconium

  2. Potential human factors deficiencies in the design of local control stations and operator interfaces in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, C.S.; Levy, I.S.; Fecht, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a project to identify human factors deficiencies in safety-significant control stations outside the control room of a nuclear power plant and to determine whether NUREG-0700, Guidelines for Control Room Design Reviews, would be sufficient for reviewing those local control stations (LCSs). The project accomplished this task by first, reviewing existing data pertaining to human factors deficiencies in LCSs involved in significant safety actions; second, surveying LCSs environments and design features at several operating nuclear power plants; and third, assessing the results of that survey relative to the contents of NUREG-0700

  3. Myosins and DYNLL1/LC8 in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calábria, Luciana Karen; Peixoto, Pablo Marco Veras; Passos Lima, Andreia Barcelos; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; de Moraes, Viviane Rodrigues Alves; Teixeira, Renata Roland; Dos Santos, Claudia Tavares; E Silva, Letícia Oliveira; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Rodrigues; dos Santos, Ana Alice Diniz; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Martins, Antônio Roberto; Espreafico, Enilza Maria; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2011-09-01

    Honey bees have brain structures with specialized and developed systems of communication that account for memory, learning capacity and behavioral organization with a set of genes homologous to vertebrate genes. Many microtubule- and actin-based molecular motors are involved in axonal/dendritic transport. Myosin-Va is present in the honey bee Apis mellifera nervous system of the larvae and adult castes and subcastes. DYNLL1/LC8 and myosin-IIb, -VI and -IXb have also been detected in the adult brain. SNARE proteins, such as CaMKII, clathrin, syntaxin, SNAP25, munc18, synaptophysin and synaptotagmin, are also expressed in the honey bee brain. Honey bee myosin-Va displayed ATP-dependent solubility and was associated with DYNLL1/LC8 and SNARE proteins in the membrane vesicle-enriched fraction. Myosin-Va expression was also decreased after the intracerebral injection of melittin and NMDA. The immunolocalization of myosin-Va and -IV, DYNLL1/LC8, and synaptophysin in mushroom bodies, and optical and antennal lobes was compared with the brain morphology based on Neo-Timm histochemistry and revealed a distinct and punctate distribution. This result suggested that the pattern of localization is associated with neuron function. Therefore, our data indicated that the roles of myosins, DYNLL1/LC8, and SNARE proteins in the nervous and visual systems of honey bees should be further studied under different developmental, caste and behavioral conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Local corticosteroid versus autologous blood injections in lateral epicondylitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Ricca, Flavia; DI Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common painful elbow disorder. Several approaches to treatment have been proposed, with a local injection of corticosteroids being the most frequently used. Recent insights into the pathophysiology encouraged the introduction of autologous blood injections as an alternative treatment method. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize quantitatively the evidence regarding the efficacy of corticosteroids and autologous blood injections for treatment of pain in lateral epicondylitis. Studies were considered eligible based on the following inclusion criteria: adult human, diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, randomized controlled trials comparing corticosteroids versus autologous blood injections, pain assessment. Exclusion criteria were previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis or for other elbow disorders, concurrent treatment with drugs or physiotherapy, diagnosis of musculoskeletal systemic disorder. A systematic search of literature was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Effect size of each included study was calculated and analyzed in a random-effects model. Four studies, enrolling total of 218 patients (139 females and 79 males), were included in quantitative analysis. At 2 weeks, there was a trend towards a reduction of VAS score in the corticosteroid group (WMD=2.12 [95% CI: 4.38 to 0.14], P=0.07). No significant differences were recorded in the medium-term (4-12 weeks; WMD=0.85 [95% CI: -0.44 to 2.15], P=0.19) and long-term (24 weeks; WMD=0.63 [95% CI: -2.40 to 3.66], P=0.68) follow-up. Few high-quality trials compare the efficacy of corticosteroid and autologous blood injections in the control of pain related to lateral epicondylitis. Available data indicate that corticosteroids tend to reduce VAS score in short-term follow-up, although these data are not statistically significant. No differences were recorded in the medium and long term. Contrary to popular opinion among medical professionals, and despite

  5. Factors affecting the local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting local control of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors including primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors. Between June 2006 and June 2009, 159 lung tumors in 144 patients (primary lung cancer, 128; metastatic lung tumor, 31) were treated with SBRT with 48-60 Gy (mean 50.1 Gy) in 4-5 fractions. Higher doses were given to larger tumors and metastatic tumors in principle. Assessed factors were age, gender, tumor origin (primary vs. metastatic), histological subtype, tumor size, tumor appearance (solid vs. ground glass opacity), maximum standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography using 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and SBRT doses. Follow-up time was 1-60 months (median 18 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year local failure-free rates of all lesions were 90, 80, and 77%, respectively. On univariate analysis, metastatic tumors (p<0.0001), solid tumors (p=0.0246), and higher SBRT doses (p=0.0334) were the statistically significant unfavorable factors for local control. On multivariate analysis, only tumor origin was statistically significant (p=0.0027). The 2-year local failure-free rates of primary lung cancer and metastatic lung tumors were 87 and 50%, respectively. A metastatic tumor was the only independently significant unfavorable factor for local control after SBRT. (author)

  6. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  7. Development of field simulator to test and qualify the gyrotron local control unit for ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ronak; Mandge, Deepak; Rathod, Vipal; Parmar, Rajvi; Dilip, E. Sharan; Yadav, Amit; Sharma, Anjali; Rao, S.L.

    2017-01-01

    High power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system are operated at required output parameter by using various auxiliary power supplies, High voltage power supplies, auxiliary services and a dedicated Local Control Unit (LCU). These sub-systems must be operated in synchronous and safe way to control the gyrotron output parameters. The LCU performs remote, synchronous and safe operation of the all the gyrotron sub-systems. Broadly the LCU functions are operational control, data acquisition, protection and safety of the gyrotron system. At ITER-India gyrotron Test Facility (IIGTF) a local control unit (LCU) is being developed to operate the complete gyrotron system. This paper presents the design, development and various features of the field simulator. It also discuss LCU functionality test cases and results obtained using field simulator

  8. Clinicopathological Profiling of LC3B, an Autophagy Marker, and ESRRA (Estrogen-related Receptor-alpha) in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sup; Lee, Adam Jaehyeok; Yeo, Min-Kyung; Na, Yong Gil; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Moon-June; Kim, Jun-Sang; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Jin-Man

    2018-04-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), an autophagy marker, has been used as a promising marker in various cancer types. However, the expression of LC3B in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and its prognostic significance have not been investigated. Recent studies pointed to the involvement of ESRRA in regulating autophagy via both transcriptional and post-translational control. In the current study, prognostic importance of LC3B and ESRRA in MIBC was investigated. We immunohistochemically studied the expression of LC3B and ESRRA in 56 MIBC samples. LC3B was stained high in 16 patients (28.6%) and low or negative in 40 patients (71.4%). ESRRA expression was high for 20 patients (35.7%) and low for 36 patients (64.3%). Both LC3B (p=0.003) and ESRRA (p=0.026) expression correlated significantly with disease-free survival rates. Double-positive LC3B and ESRRA correlated with poor overall survival (p=0.007) and disease-free survival (p=0.001) in MIBC patients. LC3B and ESRRA might be a useful prognostic factor in patients with MIBC. The co-expression of LC3B and ESRRA might be a prognostic and therapeutic target for patients with bladder cancer. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Internal Associations of the Acidic Region of Upstream Binding Factor Control Its Nucleolar Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueshima, Shuhei; Nagata, Kyosuke; Okuwaki, Mitsuru

    2017-11-15

    Upstream binding factor (UBF) is a member of the high-mobility group (HMG) box protein family, characterized by multiple HMG boxes and a C-terminal acidic region (AR). UBF is an essential transcription factor for rRNA genes and mediates the formation of transcriptionally active chromatin in the nucleolus. However, it remains unknown how UBF is specifically localized to the nucleolus. Here, we examined the molecular mechanisms that localize UBF to the nucleolus. We found that the first HMG box (HMG box 1), the linker region (LR), and the AR cooperatively regulate the nucleolar localization of UBF1. We demonstrated that the AR intramolecularly associates with and attenuates the DNA binding activity of HMG boxes and confers the structured DNA preference to HMG box 1. In contrast, the LR was found to serve as a nuclear localization signal and compete with HMG boxes to bind the AR, permitting nucleolar localization of UBF1. The LR sequence binds DNA and assists the stable chromatin binding of UBF. We also showed that the phosphorylation status of the AR does not clearly affect the localization of UBF1. Our results strongly suggest that associations of the AR with HMG boxes and the LR regulate UBF nucleolar localization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Identification of Forced Degradation Products of Itopride by LC-PDA and LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Payal; Bhoir, Suvarna; Bhagwat, A M; Vishwanath, K; Jadhav, R K

    2011-05-01

    Degradation products of itopride formed under different forced conditions have been identified using LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques. Itopride was subjected to forced degradation under the conditions of hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, dry and wet heat, in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization. The stress solutions were chromatographed on reversed phase C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase methanol:water (55:45, v/v) at a detection wavelength of 215 nm. Itopride degraded in acid, alkali and oxidative stress conditions. The stability indicating method was developed and validated. The degradation pathway of the drug to products II-VIII is proposed.

  11. Role of EphA4 and EphrinB3 in local neuronal circuits that control walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullander, Klas; Butt, Simon J B; Lebret, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Local circuits in the spinal cord that generate locomotion are termed central pattern generators (CPGs). These provide coordinated bilateral control over the normal limb alternation that underlies walking. The molecules that organize the mammalian CPG are unknown, isolated spinal cords from mice...

  12. Radiotherapy for spinal metastases from breast cancer with emphasis on local disease control and pain response using repeated MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Switlyk

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: RT provided excellent local tumor control in patients with SM. Most patients benefit from RT even in cases of progressive vertebral fracture. Pain response was not associated with imaging findings and MRI cannot be used to select patients at risk of not responding to RT.

  13. Dynamics of Spontaneous Emission Controlled by Local Density of States in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Nikolaev, Ivan S.; van Driel, A. Floris

    2006-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter....

  14. Effects of short- and long-term Mediterranean-based dietary treatment on plasma LC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling of subjects with metabolic syndrome features: The Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Martinez, José Alfredo; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, Kati; Zulet, Maria de los Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics approach may contribute to identify beneficial associations of metabolic changes affected by Mediterranean diet-based interventions with inflammatory and oxidative-stress markers related to the etiology and development of the MetS. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight-MS metabolic profiling was applied to plasma from a 6-month randomized intervention with two sequential periods, a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, and a 4-month self-control period, with two energy-restricted diets; the RESMENA diet (based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the Control diet (based on the American Heart Association guidelines), in 72 subjects with a high BMI and at least two features of MetS. The major contributing biomarkers of each sequential period were lipids, mainly phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between metabolic changes and clinical variables after 2 and 6 month of intervention, with a highly interconnected network during the nutritional-learning intervention period of the study. The 2-month RESMENA diet produced significant changes in the plasma metabolic profile of subjects with MetS features. However, at the end of the 6-month study, most of the associations between metabolic and clinical variables disappeared; suggesting that adherence to healthy dietary habits had declined during the self-control period. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL MORALITY AND INTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PROPENSITY TO COMMIT FRAUD: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Puspasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.

  16. Radiation Therapy for Control of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Resected With Positive Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaney, Thomas F.; Kepka, Lucyna; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Yoon, Sam S.; Springfield, Dempsey S.; Raskin, Kevin A.; Harmon, David C.; Kirsch, David G.; Mankin, Henry J.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Suit, Herman D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Positive margins (PM) remain after surgery in some soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. We investigated the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in STS patients with PM. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was performed on 154 patients with STS at various anatomic sites with PM, defined as tumor on ink, who underwent RT with curative intent between 1970 and 2001. Local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were evaluated by univariate (log-rank) and multivariate analysis of prognostic and treatment factors. Results: At 5 years, actuarial LC, DFS, and OS rates were: 76%, 46.7%, and 65.2%, respectively. LC was highest with extremity lesions (p 64 Gy (p 64 Gy had higher 5-year LC, DFS, and OS rates of 85%, 52.1%, and 67.8% vs. 66.1%, 41.8%, and 62.9% if ≤64 Gy, p 50), also significantly influenced OS. By multivariate analysis, the best predictors of LC were site (extremity vs. other), p 64 vs. ≤64 Gy), p 64 Gy, superficial location, and extremity site are associated with improved LC. OS is worse in patients with tumors with lesions >5 cm, grossly positive margins, and after local failure

  17. On-line coupled LC-LC-GC for irradiation detection in complex lipid matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Since sample preparation with HPLC coupled on-line to the GC has been performed for only a few weeks in our laboratory, the results presented give a first look at what can be done by means of this technique. Even difficult samples as the described fish species, where an unequivocal identification regarding an irradiation treatment seemed to become a hopeless enterprise, could be managed. Because of the greater variety of fatty acids in fish ''new'' radiation-induced hydrocarbons were available. According to the theory of Nawar in addition to 16:2 and 17:2 hydrocarbons we have looked for in irradiated meat, further alkadienes appeared in irradiated fish, which were 14:2, 18:2 and 20:2. Analysis of the alkadiene-fraction, transferred to the GC after a two step LC clean up, resulted in an unequivocal identification of all fish samples as well as the fruits and sponge cake. For fruits and sponge cake the detection limit seems to be clearly below 0.5 kGy. It can further be lowered by increasing the amount of lipid whereas the upper limit for a certain LC column has to be determined. In contrast to these samples only qualitative results were obtained for fish. In the case of sponge cake for the first time irradiation of a component of a heat treated food was detected. Further investigations regarding reproducibility, dose dependence and detection limit have to be done. On-line coupled (LC-)LC-GC was proved to be a highly efficient method for analysis of complex samples. In contrast to off-line Florisil column chromatography only a small part of the initial lipid material is needed because the complete hydrocarbon fraction is transferred on-line to the GC. This offers the possibility to analyze even foods with a low fat content like various seafoods. Classification of the hydrocarbon fraction by a two step LC may facilitate the identification of the radiolytic products also if no mass spectrometric detection system is available. (orig./vhe)

  18. Integrated analysis of CFD data with K-means clustering algorithm and extreme learning machine for localized HVAC control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongming; Soh, Yeng Chai; Wu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a desired comfort level while minimizing the total energy consumed is an interesting optimization problem in Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system control. This paper proposes a localized control strategy that uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results and K-means clustering algorithm to optimally partition an air-conditioned room into different zones. The temperature and air velocity results from CFD simulation are combined in two ways: 1) based on the relationship indicated in predicted mean vote (PMV) formula; 2) based on the relationship extracted from ASHRAE RP-884 database using extreme learning machine (ELM). Localized control can then be effected in which each of the zones can be treated individually and an optimal control strategy can be developed based on the partitioning result. - Highlights: • The paper provides a visual guideline for thermal comfort analysis. • CFD, K-means, PMV and ELM are used to analyze thermal conditions within a room. • Localized control strategy could be developed based on our clustering results

  19. Effect of External Boost Volume in Breast-Conserving Therapy on Local Control With Long-Term Follow-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobsen, Jan J.; Palen, Job van der; Ong, Francisca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of boost volume (BV) in relation to margin status and tumor size on the development of local recurrence with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1995, 1,073 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent 1,101 breast-conserving therapies. Of these 1,101 BCTs, 967 were eligible for analysis. The BV was categorized into tertiles: 3 (n = 330), 66-98 cm 3 (n = 326), and >98 cm 3 (n = 311). The median follow-up was 141 months. Separate analyses were done for women ≤40 years and >40 years. Results: No significant difference in local recurrence was shown between the tertiles and the recurrence site. The 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 87.9% for the first tertile, 88.7% for the second, and 89% for the third. For women ≤40 years old, the corresponding 15-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 80%, 74.5%, and 69.2%. For women >40 years old, the corresponding rate was 88.7%, 89.5%, and 90.9%. At 5 years, women >40 years old had significantly more local failures in the first tertile; this difference disappeared with time. A test for trend showed significance at 5 years (p = 0.0105) for positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ in women >40 years of age. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the size of the external BV has no major impact on local control. For women >40 years old, positive margins for ductal carcinoma in situ showed a trend with respect to BV at 5 years. The BV had no influence on local control in the case of positive margins for invasive carcinoma

  20. Edge localized mode control by resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orain, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The growth of plasma instabilities called Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamaks results in the quasi-periodic relaxation of the edge pressure profile. These relaxations induce large heat fluxes which might be harmful for the divertor in ITER, thus ELM control is mandatory in ITER. One of the promising control methods planned in ITER is the application of external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), already efficient for ELM mitigation/suppression in current tokamak experiments. However a better understanding of the interaction between ELMs, RMPs and plasma flows is needed to explain the experimental results and make reliable predictions for ITER. In this perspective, non-linear modeling of ELMs and RMPs is done with the reduced MHD code JOREK, in toroidal geometry including the X-point and the Scrape-Off Layer. The initial model has been further developed to describe self-consistent plasma flows - with the addition of the bi-fluid diamagnetic drifts, the neoclassical friction and a source of parallel rotation - and to simulate the RMP penetration consistently with the plasma response. As a first step, the plasma response to RMPs (without ELMs) is studied for JET, MAST and ITER realistic plasma parameters and geometry. The general behaviour of the plasma/RMP interaction is similar for the three studied cases: RMPs are generally screened by the formation of response currents, induced by the plasma rotation on the resonant surfaces. RMPs however penetrate at the very edge where an ergodic zone is formed. The amplification of the non-resonant spectrum of the magnetic perturbations is also observed in the core. The edge ergodization induces an enhanced transport at the edge, which slightly degrades the pedestal profiles. RMPs also generate the 3D-deformation of the plasma boundary with a maximum deformation near the X-point where lobe structures are formed. Then the full dynamics of a multi-ELM cycle (without RMPs) is modeled for the first time in realistic

  1. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahrai, Mostafa; Tajalli, Habib; Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for subwavelength localization of an atom conditioned upon the absorption of a weak probe field at a particular frequency. Manipulating atom-field interaction on a certain transition by applying drive fields on nearby coupled transitions leads to interesting effects in the absorption spectrum of the weak probe field. We exploit this fact and employ a four-level system with three driving fields and a weak probe field, where one of the drive fields is a standing-wave field of a cavity. We show that the position of an atom along this standing wave is determined when probe-field absorption is measured. We find that absorption of the weak probe field at a certain frequency leads to subwavelength localization of the atom in either of the two half-wavelength regions of the cavity field by appropriate choice of the system parameters. We term this result as sub-half-wavelength localization to contrast it with the usual atom localization result of four peaks spread over one wavelength of the standing wave. We observe two localization peaks in either of the two half-wavelength regions along the cavity axis

  2. Local control and survival after external irradiation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangala, N.; Cox, J.D.; Byhardt, R.W.; Wilson, J.F.; Greenberg, M.; Conceicao, A.L.D.

    1982-01-01

    From 1966 through 1978, 128 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent external irradiation to the entire pelvis followed by additional irradiation with a field that encompassed the entire prostate with generous margins. Local recurrence was diagnosed when palpable regrowth occurred and was confirmed by biopsy. Eighteen patients (14%) had local recurrence. Actuarial (life table) local recurrence rates, however, were 24% for both for Stage B and C patients. Actuarial five year survival was 100% for the 10 Stage A patients, 91% for the 25 Stage B, and 78% for the 93 Stage C patients. Actuarial five year disease-free survival was 59% for Stage B and 69% for Stage C patients. Local recurrence was affected by the total dose to the whole pelvis and the dose at the center of the prostate. Disease-free survival was influenced by differentiation. High dose external irradiation to the prostate and regional lymph nodes offers the greatest probability of long-term disease-free survival for patients with localized disease. Late bowel complications were seen in 14 patients (11%), two of whom required colostomies. Late urinary tract complications were observed in five patients (4%)

  3. Analysis of the relationship between tumor dose inhomogeneity and local control in patients with skull base chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terahara, Atsuro; Niemierko, Andrzej; Goitein, Michael; Finkelstein, Dianne; Hug, Eugen; Liebsch, Norbert; O'Farrell, Desmond; Lyons, Sue; Munzenrider, John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: When irradiating a tumor that abuts or displaces any normal structures, the dose constraints to those structures (if lower than the prescribed dose) may cause dose inhomogeneity in the tumor volume at the tumor-critical structure interface. The low-dose region in the tumor volume may be one of the reasons for local failure. The aim of this study is to quantitate the effect of tumor dose inhomogeneity on local control and recurrence-free survival in patients with skull base chordoma. Methods and Materials: 132 patients with skull base chordoma were treated with combined photon and proton irradiation between 1978 and 1993. This study reviews 115 patients whose dose-volume data and follow-up data are available. The prescribed doses ranged from 66.6 Cobalt-Gray-Equivalent (CGE) to 79.2 CGE (median of 68.9 CGE). The dose to the optic structures (optic nerves and chiasma), the brain stem surface, and the brain stem center was limited to 60, 64, and 53 CGE, respectively. We used the dose-volume histogram data derived with the three-dimensional treatment planning system to evaluate several dose-volume parameters including the Equivalent Uniform Dose (EUD). We also analyzed several other patient and treatment factors in relation to local control and recurrence-free survival. Results: Local failure developed in 42 of 115 patients, with the actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years being 59% and 44%. Gender was a significant predictor for local control with the prognosis in males being significantly better than that in females (P 0.004, hazard ratio = 2.3). In a Cox univariate analysis, with stratification by gender, the significant predictors for local control (at the probability level of 0.05) were EUD, the target volume, the minimum dose, and the D 5cc dose. The prescribed dose, histology, age, the maximum dose, the mean dose, the median dose, the D 90% dose, and the overall treatment time were not significant factors. In a Cox multivariate analysis, the

  4. Sub-half-wavelength localization of an atom via trichromatic phase control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Hu Xiangming

    2007-01-01

    We show that the trichromatic manipulation of the absorption spectrum leads to sub-half-wavelength atom localization. In particular, a three-level atom in the Λ configuration is considered, in which one transition is coupled by a trichromatic field with one sideband component being a standing-wave field while the other transition is probed by a weak monochromatic field. By varying the sum of relative phases of the sideband components of the trichromatic field to the central component, the atom is localized in either of the two half-wavelength regions with 50% detecting probability when the absorption spectrum is measured

  5. Sub-half-wavelength atom localization via phase control of a pair of bichromatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Hu Xiangming

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme of atom localization based on the interaction of the atom in the Λ configuration with a strong bichromatic coupling field and a weak bichromatic probe field with equal frequency difference. One of the bichromatic coupling components is a standing-wave field, which imposes position information on the Rabi frequency. By varying the difference between the relative phases of the two bichromatic fields, the atom is localized in either of the two half-wavelength regions with 50% probability provided the population in the upper state is detected

  6. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method to quantify lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), iso-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, and nor-LSD and identify novel metabolites in plasma samples in a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Liechti, Matthias E; Rentsch, Katharina M

    2018-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a widely used recreational drug. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of LSD, iso-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD (O-H-LSD), and nor-LSD in plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects after controlled administration of 100 μg LSD in a clinical trial. In addition, metabolites that have been recently described in in vitro studies, including lysergic acid monoethylamide (LAE), lysergic acid ethyl-2-hydroxyethylamide (LEO), 2-oxo-LSD, trioxylated-LSD, and 13/14-hydroxy-LSD, should be identified. Separation of LSD and its metabolites was achieved on a reversed phase chromatography column after turbulent-flow online extraction. For the identification and quantification, a triple-stage quadrupole LC-MS/MS instrument was used. The validation data showed slight matrix effects for LSD, iso-LSD, O-H-LSD, or nor-LSD. Mean intraday and interday accuracy and precision were 105%/4.81% and 105%/4.35% for LSD, 98.7%/5.75% and 99.4%/7.21% for iso-LSD, 106%/4.54% and 99.4%/7.21% for O-H-LSD, and 107%/5.82% and 102%/5.88% for nor-LSD, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.05 ng/mL for LSD, iso-LSD, and nor-LSD and 0.1 ng/mL for O-H-LSD. The limit of detection was 0.01 ng/mL for all compounds. The method described herein was accurate, precise, and the calibration range within the range of expected plasma concentrations. LSD was quantified in the plasma samples of the 24 subjects of the clinical trial, whereas iso-LSD, O-H-LSD, nor-LSD, LAE, LEO, 13/14-hydroxy-LSD, and 2-oxo-LSD could only sporadically be detected but were too low for quantification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of therapeutic factors on local control in T2-T3 anal carcinoma treated by radiation or radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allal, Abdelkarim S.; Mermillod, Bernadette; Kurtz, John M.; Marti, Marc-Claude

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of therapeutic parameters on local control in T2-T3 anal carcinoma treated by chemo-radiotherapy or radiation therapy alone. Materials and Methods: From 1976 to 1993, 137 patients with anal carcinoma staged T2 (85) or T3 (52) completed curative sphincter-conservating treatment, 54 with radiotherapy alone and 83 with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was delivered in two sequences with a median gap of 46 days. The two main techniques used for the first sequence were a direct perineal cobalt field ± a sacral arc field with a median dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions/19 days (27.7%) and two antero-posterior opposed pelvic fields (≥ 6 MV photons) with a median dose of 40 Gy/20 fractions/31 days (62%). Iridium-192 implant boost was used in 116 patients (median dose 20 Gy, Paris system) and external radiation boost in 21 patients (median dose 20 Gy/10 fractions/13 days). Generally the chemoradiotherapy patients received starting on day 1 an IV bolus of Mitomycin-C (0.4 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg) and a 5-day continuous infusion of 5-fluorourcil 600-800 mg/m 2 /day. For surviving patients median follow-up was 65 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine therapeutic parameters affecting local control after adjustment for clinical factors. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control was 77%. Factors associated with a decrease of local control in univariate analysis included: age less than 66 years (67% vs 85%), male gender (65% vs 81%), tumor extension more than (1(3)) circumference of the anal canal (68% vs 90%), lymph node involvement (64% vs 81%), use of external irradiation for the boost (62% vs 79%), and overall treatment time more than 74 days (69% vs 85%). In a multivariate analysis none of the therapeutic parameters remained significant when adjusted for the four significant clinical factors. The only therapeutic factor which might have had an impact was overall treatment time (p = .09

  8. Effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajanti, Mikael; Kaleta, Remigiusz; Kankaanranta, Leena; Muhonen, Timo; Holsti, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and fifty-three patients with inoperable esophageal cancer (tumor length ≤ 10 cm in all cases) treated during 1963-1988 by radical radiotherapy alone either as continuous or split-course therapy. The overall treatment time varied from 35 to 55 days and the total dosage from 50 to 71 Gy in the continuous therapy group (n = 138), and in the split-course group (n = 215) with a planned 3-week rest interval in the middle of the treatment from 56 to 70 days and from 55 to 70 Gy, respectively. The logit method of the linear-quadratic formula for local control at 1 year was used to examine the effect of treatment time on local control. All patients were pooled to obtain a wide range of overall treatment times. Results: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates according to the T-stage in the continuous therapy group from the first day of the radiotherapy were: 57%, 32%, and 10% for the T1 tumors and 23%, 8%, and 5% for the T2 tumors. The corresponding figures for the split-course group were: 50%, 19%, and 4% for the T1 tumors and 17%, 6%, and 3% for the T2 tumors. The 1-year local control rate was 56% for the T1 tumors and 15% for the T2 tumors in the continuous therapy group and 48% for the T1 tumors and 10% for the T2 tumors in the split-course group. The results of the logit method did not fit well with the T1 tumors. For the T2 tumors, they showed Dprolif to be about 0.24 Gy/day for local control at 1 year. As a consequence, protraction of overall time by 1 week should be compensated by increasing the total dose by 1.8 Gy for 1 year local control. Conclusions: More attention should be focused on repopulation. Shortening of overall treatment time might be beneficial for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

  9. Examining perimeter gating control of urban traffic networkswith locally adaptive traffic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Gao, X.; Gayah, V.V.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, urban traffic is controlled by traffic lights. Recent findings of the Macroscopic or Network Fundamental Diagram (MFD or NFD) have led to the development of novel traffic control strategies that can be applied at a networkwide level. One pertinent example is perimeter flow control

  10. Evaluation of Normalization Methods to Pave the Way Towards Large-Scale LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Profiling Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborg, Dirk; Baggerman, Geert; Vanaerschot, Manu; Witters, Erwin; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Berg, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Combining liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics experiments that were collected over a long period of time remains problematic due to systematic variability between LC-MS measurements. Until now, most normalization methods for LC-MS data are model-driven, based on internal standards or intermediate quality control runs, where an external model is extrapolated to the dataset of interest. In the first part of this article, we evaluate several existing data-driven normalization approaches on LC-MS metabolomics experiments, which do not require the use of internal standards. According to variability measures, each normalization method performs relatively well, showing that the use of any normalization method will greatly improve data-analysis originating from multiple experimental runs. In the second part, we apply cyclic-Loess normalization to a Leishmania sample. This normalization method allows the removal of systematic variability between two measurement blocks over time and maintains the differential metabolites. In conclusion, normalization allows for pooling datasets from different measurement blocks over time and increases the statistical power of the analysis, hence paving the way to increase the scale of LC-MS metabolomics experiments. From our investigation, we recommend data-driven normalization methods over model-driven normalization methods, if only a few internal standards were used. Moreover, data-driven normalization methods are the best option to normalize datasets from untargeted LC-MS experiments. PMID:23808607

  11. BatMass: a Java Software Platform for LC-MS Data Visualization in Proteomics and Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomov, Dmitry M; Raskind, Alexander; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2016-08-05

    Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to liquid chromatography (LC) is a commonly used technique in metabolomic and proteomic research. As the size and complexity of LC-MS-based experiments grow, it becomes increasingly more difficult to perform quality control of both raw data and processing results. In a practical setting, quality control steps for raw LC-MS data are often overlooked, and assessment of an experiment's success is based on some derived metrics such as "the number of identified compounds". The human brain interprets visual data much better than plain text, hence the saying "a picture is worth a thousand words". Here, we present the BatMass software package, which allows for performing quick quality control of raw LC-MS data through its fast visualization capabilities. It also serves as a testbed for developers of LC-MS data processing algorithms by providing a data access library for open mass spectrometry file formats and a means of visually mapping processing results back to the original data. We illustrate the utility of BatMass with several use cases of quality control and data exploration.

  12. Pulse-mediated chemotherapy enhances local control and survival in a spontaneous canine model of primary mucosal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Onori, Nicoletta; Citro, Gennaro; Baldi, Alfonso

    2006-02-01

    Mucosal melanomas account for 1% of all malignant melanomas in humans. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation therapy; however, local recurrence and distant dissemination are still frequent. We treated locally aggressive spontaneous canine oral melanomas that, because of their advanced stage, were not treatable with conventional strategies. A cohort of 10 dogs with oral melanoma was enrolled over a 4-year period. The dogs received two sessions of local bleomycin, followed by the application of trains of biphasic pulses. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in an overall response rate of 80% with 50% long-term control. Of interest, only one of the dogs died of metastatic disease, and four of the long-term survivors showed a vitiligo-like discoloration at the site of treatment, potentially suggesting a recruitment of the immune system by the therapy. Further studies are needed to characterize this approach and to determine its suitability for head and neck mucosal melanoma.

  13. Two-dimensional atom localization based on coherent field controlling in a five-level M-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Li, Jinjiang; Sun, Xiudong

    2017-12-11

    We study two-dimensional sub-wavelength atom localization based on the microwave coupling field controlling and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) effect. For a five-level M-type atom, introducing a microwave coupling field between two upper levels and considering the quantum interference between two transitions from two upper levels to lower levels, the analytical expression of conditional position probability (CPP) distribution is obtained using the iterative method. The influence of the detuning of a spontaneously emitted photon, Rabi frequency of the microwave field, and the SGC effect on the CPP are discussed. The two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization with high-precision and high spatial resolution is achieved by adjusting the detuning and the Rabi frequency, where the atom can be localized in a region smaller thanλ/10×λ/10. The spatial resolution is improved significantly compared with the case without the microwave field.

  14. Control of a local neural network by feedforward and feedback inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, M.W.H.; Wadman, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The signal transfer of a neuronal network is shaped by the local interactions between the excitatory principal cells and the inhibitory interneurons. We investigated with a simple lumped model how feedforward and feedback inhibition in.uence the steady-state network signal transfer. We analyze how

  15. High precision wavefront control in point spread function engineering for single emitter localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, M.E.; Thorsen, R.Ø; Smith, C.S.; Stallinga, S.

    2018-01-01

    Point spread function (PSF) engineering is used in single emitter localization to measure the emitter position in 3D and possibly other parameters such as the emission color or dipole orientation as well. Advanced PSF models such as spline fits to experimental PSFs or the vectorial PSF model can

  16. Compressing Sensing Based Source Localization for Controlled Acoustic Signals Using Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the accuracy of sound source localization in noisy and reverberant environments, this paper proposes an adaptive sound source localization method based on distributed microphone arrays. Since sound sources lie at a few points in the discrete spatial domain, our method can exploit this inherent sparsity to convert the localization problem into a sparse recovery problem based on the compressive sensing (CS theory. In this method, a two-step discrete cosine transform- (DCT- based feature extraction approach is utilized to cover both short-time and long-time properties of acoustic signals and reduce the dimensions of the sparse model. In addition, an online dictionary learning (DL method is used to adjust the dictionary for matching the changes of audio signals, and then the sparse solution could better represent location estimations. Moreover, we propose an improved block-sparse reconstruction algorithm using approximate l0 norm minimization to enhance reconstruction performance for sparse signals in low signal-noise ratio (SNR conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation results and experimental results where substantial improvement for localization performance can be obtained in the noisy and reverberant conditions.

  17. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 1 – Physical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kosonen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the indoor environment generated by localized chilled beam coupled with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) and compares it with the environment generated by mixing ventilation coupled with chilled ceiling (CCMV). The experiments were performed in a mock-up of single office (4.1 m × 4...

  18. Phase controllable dynamical localization of a quantum particle in a driven optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Navinder

    2012-01-01

    The Dunlap–Kenkre (DK) result states that dynamical localization of a driven quantum particle in a periodic lattice happens when the ratio of the field magnitude to the field frequency of the diagonal drive is a root of the ordinary Bessel function of order 0. This has been experimentally verified. A generalization of the DK result is presented here. The hitherto considered DK model contains only the diagonal forcing. In the present extended version of the DK model we consider both off-diagonal and diagonal driving fields with different frequencies and a definite relative phase between them. We analytically show that new dynamical localizations conditions exist where an important role is played by the relative phase. In appropriate limits our results reduce to DK result. -- Highlights: ► We give a generalization of the Dunlap–Kenkre result on dynamical localization. ► We consider the case of both off-diagonal and diagonal fields with a relative phase. ► We show that new dynamical localizations conditions exist. ► An important role is played by the hitherto neglected relative phase.

  19. Process Control System of a 500-MW Unit of the Reftinskaya Local Hydroelectric Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekhov, L. L.; Bilenko, V. A.; Derkach, N. N.; Galperina, A. I.; Strukov, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    The results of the installation of a process control system developed by the Interavtomatika Company (Moscow) for controlling a 500-MW pulverized coal power unit with the use of the Teleperm ME and OM650 equipment of the Siemens Company are described. The system provides a principally new level of automation and process control through monitors comparable with the operation of foreign counterparts with complete preservation of the domestic peripheral equipment. During the 4.5 years of operation of the process control system the intricate algorithms for control and data processing have proved their operational integrity

  20. Determination of toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning in the Pacific by LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Sugiyama, Kiminori; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most extensive and difficult to control of the seafood poisonings. To facilitate monitoring of fish toxicity, toxin profiles were investigated by an LC/MS/MS method using 14 reference toxins on eight representative species of fish collected in four different areas of the Pacific. Snappers and groupers from Okinawa contained ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B) and two deoxy congeners at variable but species-specific ratios, while red snapper, Lutjanus bohar, from Minamitorishima, and amberjack, Seriola dumerili, from Hawaii, contained both CTX1B-type and CTX3C-type toxins. Spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, from Okinawan waters, contained mainly CTX4A and CTX4B, but the same species caught at Miyazaki was contaminated primarily with the CTX3C-type toxins. Otherwise, the toxin profiles were consistently species-specific in fish collected from various locations around Okinawa over 20 years. The LC/MS/MS and mouse bioassay results agreed well, indicating the LC/MS/MS method is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay. Pure CTX1B and CTX3C were prepared for use in future LC/MS/MS analysis.

  1. Video-microscopy of NCAP films: the observation of LC droplets in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Robert H.; Montoya, Wayne; Wong, Abraham

    1992-06-01

    We have used video-microscopy to observe the behavior of liquid crystal (LC) droplets within nematic droplet-polymer films (NCAP) as the droplets respond to an applied electric field. The textures observed at intermediate fields yielded information about the process of liquid crystal orientation dynamics within droplets. The nematic droplet-polymer films had low LC content (less than 1 percent) to allow the observation of individual droplets in a 2 - 6 micrometers size range. The aqueous emulsification technique was used to prepare the films as it allows the straightforward preparation of low LC content films with a controlled droplet size range. Standard electro-optical (E-O) tests were also performed on the films, allowing us to correlate single droplet behavior with that of the film as a whole. Hysteresis measured in E-O tests was visually confirmed by droplet orientation dynamics; a film which had high hysteresis in E-O tests exhibited distinctly different LC orientations within the droplet when ramped up in voltage than when ramped down in voltage. Ramping the applied voltage to well above saturation resulted in some droplets becoming `stuck'' in a new droplet structure which can be made to revert back to bipolar with high voltage pulses or with heat.

  2. LC Data QUEST: A Technical Architecture for Community Federated Clinical Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A; Lin, Ching-Ping; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Echo-Hawk, Abigail; Keppel, Gina A; Buchwald, Dedra; Whitener, Ron J; Korngiebel, Diane M; Berg, Alfred O; Black, Robert A; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Institute of Translational Health Sciences is engaged in a project, LC Data QUEST, building data sharing capacity in primary care practices serving rural and tribal populations in the Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, Idaho region to build research infrastructure. We report on the iterative process of developing the technical architecture for semantically aligning electronic health data in primary care settings across our pilot sites and tools that will facilitate linkages between the research and practice communities. Our architecture emphasizes sustainable technical solutions for addressing data extraction, alignment, quality, and metadata management. The architecture provides immediate benefits to participating partners via a clinical decision support tool and data querying functionality to support local quality improvement efforts. The FInDiT tool catalogues type, quantity, and quality of the data that are available across the LC Data QUEST data sharing architecture. These tools facilitate the bi-directional process of translational research.

  3. Active control of annular flow-induced vibration of axisymmetric elastic beam by the local gap width control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Shintani, Atsuhiko; Ito, Tomohiro; Fujita, Katsuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration may occur in the structures such as elastic beams subjected to annular flow in the narrow passage. Once the flow-induced vibration occurs, vibration amplitude becomes larger, consequently it causes a lot of troubles such as fatigue or failure in mechanical structures. In this paper, for the purpose to avoid these troubles, the active control of vibration of an axisymmetric elastic beam subjected to annular flow is investigated. An air-pressured actuator is attached on the surface of the circular cylinder for the vibrational control. As the shape of the actuator changes by control, the gap width in narrow passage changes, which causes the change of the fluid pressure. Therefore, the vibration of the fluid-structure coupled system can be suppressed. The fluid-structure coupled equation based on the Euler-Bernoulli type of partial differential equation and the Navier-Stokes equations is analytically derived including control terms. By applying the optimal control law to the coupled system, the unstable behavior is stabilized. The stability of the coupled system is investigated by eigenvalue analyses of controlled coupled equations. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the efficiency of the proposed control method. (author)

  4. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  5. Local Control and Survival Following Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in Inoperable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Herschtal, Alan; Wheeler, Greg; Mac Manus, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Michael, Michael; Hogg, Annette; Drummond, Elizabeth; Ball, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) increases survival rates compared with radical radiotherapy alone (RT) in Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as a result of improved local control. The effect of CRT on local control in Stage I NSCLC is less well documented. We retrospectively reviewed local control and survival following CRT or RT for inoperable Stage I NSCLC patients. Methods and materials: Eligible patients had histologically/cytologically proved inoperable Stage I NSCLC and had undergone complete staging investigations including an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. Radiotherapy was planned as (1) 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks with or without concomitant chemotherapy or (2) 50-55 Gy in 20 fractions without chemotherapy. Results: Between 2000 and 2005, 73 patients met the eligibility criteria and were treated as follows: CRT (60 Gy)-39; RT (60 Gy)-23; RT (50-55 Gy)-11. The median follow-up time for all patients was 18 months (range, 1-81 months). Survival analysis was based on intent to treat. Local progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 years was 66% with CRT and 55% with RT. The 2-year distant PFS was 60% following CRT and 63% after RT. The 2-year PFS rates were 57% and 50%, respectively. The 2-year survival rate for patients treated with CRT was 57% and 33% in patients receiving RT. Conclusions: Despite the use of CRT and routine staging with FDG-PET, both local and distant recurrences remain important causes of treatment failure in patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC.

  6. Limited Margin Radiation Therapy for Children and Young Adults With Ewing Sarcoma Achieves High Rates of Local Tumor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talleur, Aimee C.; Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); McCarville, M. Beth [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, John; Mao, Shenghua [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neel, Michael D. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of local failure using focal conformal, limited margin radiation therapy (RT) and dose escalation for tumors ≥8 cm (greatest dimension at diagnosis) in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma (EWS). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with EWS were treated on a phase 2 institutional trial of focal conformal, limited margin RT using conformal or intensity modulated techniques. The treatment volume incorporated a 1-cm constrained margin around the gross tumor. Unresected tumors, <8 cm at diagnosis, received a standard dose of 55.8 Gy and tumors ≥8 cm, an escalated dose to 64.8 Gy. Patients with microscopic residual disease after resection received adjuvant RT to 50.4 Gy. Adjuvant brachytherapy was permitted in selected patients. Results: Forty-five patients were enrolled: 26 with localized and 19 with metastatic disease. Median (range) age, tumor size, and follow-up were 13.0 years (2.9-24.7 years), 9.0 cm (2.4-17.0 cm), and 54.5 months (1.9-122.2 months), respectively. All patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median (range) RT dose for all patients was 56.1 Gy (45-65.5 Gy). Seventeen patients received adjuvant, 16 standard-dose, and 12 escalated-dose RT. Failures included 1 local, 10 distant, and 1 local/distant. The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 4.4% ± 3.1%, with no statistical difference seen between RT treatment groups and no local failures in the escalated-dose RT treatment group. Conclusions: Treatment with focal conformal, limited margin RT, including dose escalation for larger tumors, provides favorable local tumor control in EWS.

  7. Limited Margin Radiation Therapy for Children and Young Adults With Ewing Sarcoma Achieves High Rates of Local Tumor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talleur, Aimee C.; Navid, Fariba; Spunt, Sheri L.; McCarville, M. Beth; Wu, John; Mao, Shenghua; Davidoff, Andrew M.; Neel, Michael D.; Krasin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of local failure using focal conformal, limited margin radiation therapy (RT) and dose escalation for tumors ≥8 cm (greatest dimension at diagnosis) in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma (EWS). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients with EWS were treated on a phase 2 institutional trial of focal conformal, limited margin RT using conformal or intensity modulated techniques. The treatment volume incorporated a 1-cm constrained margin around the gross tumor. Unresected tumors, <8 cm at diagnosis, received a standard dose of 55.8 Gy and tumors ≥8 cm, an escalated dose to 64.8 Gy. Patients with microscopic residual disease after resection received adjuvant RT to 50.4 Gy. Adjuvant brachytherapy was permitted in selected patients. Results: Forty-five patients were enrolled: 26 with localized and 19 with metastatic disease. Median (range) age, tumor size, and follow-up were 13.0 years (2.9-24.7 years), 9.0 cm (2.4-17.0 cm), and 54.5 months (1.9-122.2 months), respectively. All patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median (range) RT dose for all patients was 56.1 Gy (45-65.5 Gy). Seventeen patients received adjuvant, 16 standard-dose, and 12 escalated-dose RT. Failures included 1 local, 10 distant, and 1 local/distant. The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 4.4% ± 3.1%, with no statistical difference seen between RT treatment groups and no local failures in the escalated-dose RT treatment group. Conclusions: Treatment with focal conformal, limited margin RT, including dose escalation for larger tumors, provides favorable local tumor control in EWS.

  8. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  9. Racial Isolation, Poverty and the Limits of Local Control as a Means for Holding Public Schools Accountable

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on research in Oakland, California over a twenty-year period, Noguera considers how poverty and racial isolation have contributed to the problems confronted by schools in that district and other inner-city communities around the state. He illuminates the factors that hinder the development of social capital in low-income communities, and, in doing so, demonstrates why local control does not make it easier for school systems to address the academic needs of poor students. The wide vari...

  10. Evaluation of local exhaust ventilation system performance for control of Fe2O3 dust at an iron making unit

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Jamshidi Rastani; Farshid Ghorbani Shahna; Abdolrahman Bahrami; Somayeh Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adherence to the design values and ventilation standards (VS) after installing and also maintaining continuous work of ventilation system with maximum performance throughout its life are amongst the reasons of ventilation systems monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate performance of local exhaust ventilation system for control of dust by measuring the operating parameters and also to compare it with ventilation standards (VS) and design values. Material...

  11. Ear acupuncture or local anaesthetics as pain relief during postpartum surgical repair: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Klünder, L; Strøm, J

    2009-01-01

    -hour hands-on training in the use of ear acupuncture. All midwives (n= 36) in the department had previous experience in using acupuncture for obstetric pain relief. Pain and wound healing were evaluated using validated scores. Data collection was performed by research assistants blinded towards...... treatment allocation. Randomisation was computer assisted. A total of 207 women were randomised to receive ear acupuncture (105) and local anaesthetics (102), respectively. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was pain during surgical repair. Secondary outcomes were wound healing at 24-48 hours and 14...... days postpartum, participant satisfaction, revision of wound or dyspareunia reported 6 months postpartum. Results Pain during surgical repair was more frequently reported by participants allocated to ear acupuncture compared with participants receiving local anaesthetics (89 versus 54%, P

  12. Excision margin status: does it impact on local control of breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoury, G.; Morgan, G.; Ward, R.

    2003-01-01

    Whilst many patients treated with breast conservation undergo re-excision(s) to obtain clear margins, the relationship between clear margins and local recurrence remains unclear. We aimed to determine the impact of final pathological margin status on local recurrence and other breast cancer outcomes. Our study cohort consisted of 755 consecutive patients treated with breast conservation between January 1984 and December 1995. Pathology reports were available for review in 681subjects (90%). Patients were stratified into 8 groups based on final pathological margin status: 1) negative (>3mm, n = 307), close [further divided into two groups 2) >0 1< 2mm, (n = 67)], 4) positive (n= 79), 5) indeterminate (n= 144), 6) low grade DCIS at the margin (n= 3), 7) high grade DCIS at the margin (n= 23) and 8) LCIS at the margin (n= 4). There were no differences between the groups based on histology, T size, grade, LN positivity or total radiation dose. At a median follow-up of 71 months, the breast relapse free survival (BRFS) was 97%, the distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) 78% and the overall survival (OS) 86%, for the entire cohort. There were no statistically significant differences between the negative, close, and positive groups in terms of BRFS: 96% vs. 94% vs. 93% (p=0.59), MFS: 98% vs. 97% vs. 98% (p=0.87) or OS: 84%vs. 85% vs. 86% (p=0.78). Although not statistically significant, the presence of EIC, in the context of close or positive margins, impacted adversely upon local and overall disease free survival. Patients undergoing breast conservation carry a lifelong risk of local recurrence. It is still not clear whether obtaining a radical margin decreases this risk. Tissue microarray analysis will be performed to further elucidate the causes of ipsilateral recurrence at a molecular and genetic level

  13. Gold Nanoparticles with Externally Controlled, Reversible Shifts of Local Surface Plasmon Resonance Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Jensen, Gary C.; Penaloza, David P.; Seery, Thomas A. P.; Pendergraph, Samuel A.; Rusling, James F.; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    We have achieved reversible tunability of local surface plasmon resonance in conjugated polymer functionalized gold nanoparticles. This property was facilitated by the preparation of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) containing polynorbornene brushes on gold nanoparticles via surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization. Reversible tuning of the surface plasmon band was achieved by electrochemically switching the EDOT polymer between its reduced and oxidized states. PMID:19839619

  14. The role of Ki67 proliferation assessment in predicting local control in bladder cancer patients treated by radical radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.C.; Gonzalez, G.; Rey, A.; Apolinario, R.; Santana, C.; Afonso, J.L.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether tumour proliferation as measured by Ki67 immunostaining has any predictive value for local control in bladder cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Fifty-five patients suffering from infiltrating bladder carcinoma recommended for radical radiotherapy (66 Gy/6-7weeks) were included in this study. Paraffin-embedded pre-treatment tumour sections were stained with the Ki67 antibody. The percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was correlated with established prognostic factors, local control and survival. Results27%) Ki67 expression indices (31.5%) (P<0.05; log-rank test). Conclusions: Ki67 immunostaining was a feasible method to estimate tumour proliferation. Patients with very low proliferating tumours seemed to achieve better local control after fractionated radiotherapy compared to other patients. Further studies are needed with a greater number of patients to accurately define the role of Ki67 expression in predicting tumour repopulation during fractionated radiotherapy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. A score combining baseline neutrophilia and primary tumor SUV{sub peak} measured from FDG PET is associated with outcome in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Sun, Roger; Chargari, Cyrus [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Reuze, Sylvain [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France); Orlhac, Fanny [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Buvat, Irene [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Dercle, Laurent [Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1015, Villejuif (France); Limkin, Elaine [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Escande, Alexandre; Haie-Meder, Christine [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Deutsch, Eric [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Robert, Charlotte [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France)

    2018-02-15

    We investigated whether a score combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker could predict outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Patients homogeneously treated with definitive chemoradiation plus image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. We divided patients into two groups depending on the PET device used: a training set (TS) and a validation set (VS). Primary tumors were semi-automatically delineated on PET images, and 11 radiomics features were calculated (LIFEx software). A PET radiomic index was selected using the time-dependent area under the curve (td-AUC) for 3-year local control (LC). We defined the neutrophil SUV grade (NSG = 0, 1 or 2) score as the number of risk factors among (i) neutrophilia (neutrophil count >7 G/L) and (ii) high risk defined from the PET radiomic index. The NSG prognostic value was evaluated for LC and overall survival (OS). Data from 108 patients were analyzed. Estimated 3-year LC was 72% in the TS (n = 69) and 65% in the VS (n = 39). In the TS, SUV{sub peak} was selected as the most LC-predictive biomarker (td-AUC = 0.75), and was independent from neutrophilia (p = 0.119). Neutrophilia (HR = 2.6), high-risk SUV{sub peak} (SUV{sub peak} > 10, HR = 4.4) and NSG = 2 (HR = 9.2) were associated with low probability of LC in TS. In multivariate analysis, NSG = 2 was independently associated with low probability of LC (HR = 7.5, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 5.8, p = 0.001) in the TS. Results obtained in the VS (HR = 5.2 for OS and 3.5 for LC, p < 0.02) were promising. This innovative scoring approach combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker provides an independent prognostic factor to consider for further clinical investigations. (orig.)

  16. The concept of estimation of elevator shaft control measurement results in the local 3D coordinate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak-Kowszyk Daria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic control measurements play an important part because they provide information about the current state of repair of the construction, which has a direct impact on the safety assessment of its exploitation. Authors in this paper have focused on control measurements of the elevator shaft. The article discusses the problem of determining the deviation of elevator shaft walls from the vertical plane in the local 3D coordinate system. It presents a concept of estimation of measurements results base on the parametric method with conditions on parameters. The simulated measurement results were used to verify the concept presented in the paper.

  17. Control of cell division and the spatial localization of assembled gene products in Caulobacter crescentus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments are described that examine the role of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the regulation of cell division in Caulobacter crescentus; and the spatial localization of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in C. crescentus swarmer and predivisional cells. In the analysis of PBP function, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus PBPs with [ 3 H] penicillin G in wild type strain CB15, in a series of conditional cell division mutants and in new temperature sensitive cephalosporin C resistant mutants PC8002 and PC8003. 14 PBPs are characterized and a high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1B) that is required for cell division is identified. PBP 1B competes for β-lactams that induce filament formation and may be a high affinity binding protein. A second high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1C) is also associated with defective cell division. The examination of PBP patterns in synchronous swarmer cells reveals that the in vivo activity of PBP 1B and PBP 1C increases at the time that the cell division pathway is initiated. None of the PBPs, however, appear to be differentially localized in the C. crescentus cell. In the analysis of MCP localization, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus MCPs with methyl- 3 H. MCPs are examined in flagellated and non-flagellated vesicles prepared from cells by immunoaffinity chromatography

  18. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Routing power flows in distribution networks using locally controlled power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelink, J.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Groot, de R.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The power grid has gradually changed its operation during the recent decades. These developments have encouraged a shift from centralized to decentralized power flow control. A research has been carried out to investigate the possibilities to control power flows using the Smart Power Router (SPR) in

  20. T1/T2 glottic cancer managed by external beam radiotherapy - the influence of pretreatment hemoglobin on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, P.R.; O'Sullivan, B.; Panzarella, T.; Keane, T.J.; Gullane, P.; Payne, D.; Liu, F.-F.; McLean, M.; Waldron, J.; Cummings, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level has been reported to be an important prognostic factor for local control and survival in various malignancies. However in many settings, the adverse effect of a low Hb may be related to more advanced disease and the purpose of this analysis was to assess the influence of pretreatment Hb on local control in a large series of patients with a localised cancer (T1/T2 glottic cancer, AJCC 1992) treated in a standard fashion. Materials and Methods: Between Jan 1981 and Dec 1989, 735 patients (median age 63, 657 males 78 females) with T1/T2 glottic cancer were treated with RT. The standard RT prescription was 50Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks (97% patients). Factors studied for prognostic importance for local failure included pretreatment Hb (assessed as a continuous variable) age, sex, T category, anterior commissure involvement, subglottic extension, tumour bulk (presence of visible tumour vs subclinical disease), treatment time and RT technique (Cobalt vs 6 MV). Results: With a median follow-up of 6.8 years (range 0.2 - 14.3), 131 patients have relapsed for an actuarial 5-year relapse free rate of 81.7%. The 5-year actuarial survival was 75.8%, cause specific survival - 92.4%. The median pretreatment hemoglobin level was 14.8 g/dl and was the same in all T categories. On multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, pretreatment Hb (p=0.001) predicted for local failure after RT. The relative risk (RR) for relapse was calculated for various Hb levels eg the RR for a Hb of 12 g/dl vs a Hb of 15 g/dl was 1.8, (95% C.I. 1.3 - 2.7). Previously noted factors including gender (p=0.0038), T category (p=0.007)) as well as tumour bulk (p=0.02) were also prognostically important for local control. Conclusions: This analysis, in a large number of similarly treated patients, indicates that pretreatment Hb is an independent prognostic factor for local control in patients with T1/T2 carcinoma of the glottis treated with

  1. Using routinely collected data to evaluate a leaflet campaign to increase the presentation of people with memory problems to general practice: a locality based controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Chan

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions During a leaflet campaign the recording and management ofmemory problems increased. However, there was greater improvement in the control locality. This study demonstrates the importance of including a control group and the strengths of routine primary care data.

  2. Perceived control among migrant live-in and local live-out home care workers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Ayalon, Liat

    2017-11-20

    To examine perceived control among live-in and live-out home care workers and to identify factors that contribute to perceived control among both types of caregiving. 338 migrant live-in home care workers and 185 local live-out home care workers were asked to report their perceived control. Burnout, satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family, and satisfaction with social relationship were also gathered. Both types of caregivers reported high levels of perceived control, although live-in home care workers expressed more perceived control. Higher age, higher levels of satisfaction with the relationship with the care recipient and the care recipient's family and lower levels of burnout, predicted perceived control. Satisfaction with social relationship was a stronger predictor of one's perceived control among live-in home care workers. Promoting social relationships outside the home care context by allowing migrant live-in home care workers to take part in social gatherings is recommended as this can strengthen their sense of perceived control.

  3. Decreased local control following radiation therapy alone in early-stage glottic carcinoma with anterior commissure extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouhair, A.; Azria, D.; Coucke, P.; Matzinger, O.; Mirimanoff, R.O.; Ozsahin, M.; Bron, L.; Moeckli, R.; Do, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to assess the patterns of failure in the treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. Patients and methods: between 1983-2000, 122 consecutive patients treated for early laryngeal cancer (UICC T1N0 and T2N0) by radical radiation therapy (RT) were retrospectively studied. Male-to-female ratio was 106: 16, and median age 62 years (35-92 years). There were 68 patients with T1a, 18 with T1b, and 36 with T2 tumors. Diagnosis was made by biopsy in 104 patients, and by laser vaporization or stripping in 18. Treatment planning consisted of three-dimensional (3-D) conformal RT in 49 (40%) patients including nine patients irradiated using arytenoid protection. A median dose of 70 Gy (60-74 Gy) was given (2 Gy/fraction) over a median period of 46 days (21-79 days). Median follow-up period was 85 months. Results: the 5-year overall, cancer-specific, and disease-free survival amounted to 80%, 94%, and 70%, respectively. 5-year local control was 83%. Median time to local recurrence in 19 patients was 13 months (5-58 months). Salvage treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (one patient refused salvage and one was inoperable; total laryngectomy in eleven, and partial laryngectomy or cordectomy in six patients). Six patients died because of laryngeal cancer. Univariate analyses revealed that prognostic factors negatively influencing local control were anterior commissure extension, arytenoid protection, and total RT dose < 66 Gy. Among the factors analyzed, multivariate analysis (cox model) demonstrated that anterior commissure extension, arytenoid protection, and male gender were the worst independent prognostic factors in terms of local control. Conclusion: for early-stage laryngeal cancer, outcome after RT is excellent. In case of anterior commissure extension, surgery or higher RT doses are warranted. Because of a high relapse risk, arytenoid protection should not be attempted. (orig.)

  4. Local control rate and prognosis after sequential chemoradiation for small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Richard P.; Meinhardt, Wim; Poel, Henk G. van der; Rhijn, Bas W. van; Kerst, J. Martijn; Pos, Floris J.; Horenblas, Simon; Bex, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term outcome and the risk for local recurrence of patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by external beam radiotherapy (sequential chemoradiation). All consecutive patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the bladder (n=66), treated in our institution between 1993 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated from an institutional database. Only patients with limited disease (Tx-4N0-1M0) small cell carcinoma of the bladder treated with sequential chemoradiation (n=27) were included in this study. Recurrence rates, overall survival and cancer-specific survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median time to recurrence was 20 months, median overall survival 26 months, 5-year overall survival 22.2%, median cancer-specific survival 47 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 39.6%. For complete responders after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=19), median cancer-specific survival was 52 months with a 5-year cancer-specific survival 45.9% versus a median cancer-specific survival of 22 months and 5-year cancer-specific survival 0.0% for incomplete responders (n=8; P=0.034). Eight patients (29.6%) underwent transurethral resections (TUR-BT) for local recurrences in the bladder. At the end of follow up, four patients had undergone cystectomy for recurrence of disease resulting in a bladder-preservation rate of 85.2%. Median time to local recurrence was 29 months and median time to distant recurrence was 10 months. Sequential chemoradiation for limited disease small cell carcinoma of the bladder results in a reasonable outcome with a high bladder preservation rate. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy represents a significant prognostic factor in this patient population. (author)

  5. Suspended graphene devices with local gate control on an insulating substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Florian R; Cui, Zheng; Vojvodin, Cameron; Papaj, Michał; Deng, Chunqing; Bal, Mustafa; Lupascu, Adrian; Yurtalan, Muhammet A; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc F X

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for graphene-based devices where a graphene monolayer is suspended above a local metallic gate placed in a trench. As an example we detail the fabrication steps of a graphene field-effect transistor. The devices are built on a bare high-resistivity silicon substrate. At temperatures of 77 K and below, we observe the field-effect modulation of the graphene resistivity by a voltage applied to the gate. This fabrication approach enables new experiments involving graphene-based superconducting qubits and nano-electromechanical resonators. The method is applicable to other two-dimensional materials. (paper)

  6. VVER-440 control rod follower induced local power peaking computational benchmark: MCNP and KARATE solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, G.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraczy, C.; Temesvari, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the linear pin power calculation in the KARATE-440 code system are presented. The calculation results show that: 1) The coupler mathematical benchmark was solved by the KARATE code system using the same methods and approximations as in case of NPP applications. 2) Without Hf plate in the fuel pin row next to the problematic coupler section pronounced local power peak arises. 4) Though the underprediction of the peak by KARATE-SADR is 4%, it is in accordance with the applied uncertainty of KARATE-SADR. 5) The application of Hf plate solves the problem.

  7. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    . NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription. Introduction of NFIA into myoblasts...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat...

  8. Subwavelength atom localization via amplitude and phase control of the absorption spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Sahrai, Mostafa; Tajalli, Habib; Kapale, Kishore T.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01

    We propose a scheme for subwavelength localization of an atom conditioned upon the absorption of a weak probe field at a particular frequency. Manipulating atom-field interaction on a certain transition by applying drive fields on nearby coupled transitions leads to interesting effects in the absorption spectrum of the weak probe field. We exploit this fact and employ a four-level system with three driving fields and a weak probe field, where one of the drive fields is a standing-wave field o...

  9. Localized Power Control for Multihop Large-Scale Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    cooperation in conjunction with multihop communications. However, we show that blind cooperation is actually inefficient unless power control is applied. Inefficiency in this paper is projected in terms of the transport rate normalized to energy consumption

  10. Matrix effects break the LC behavior rule for analytes in LC-MS/MS analysis of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nianbai; Yu, Shanggong; Ronis, Martin Jj; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-04-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-peak with reliable retention time (Rt.). However, in the current study, we have found that under the same LC-MS conditions, the Rt. and shape of LC-peaks of bile acids in urine samples from animals fed dissimilar diets differed significantly among each other. To verify this matrix effect, 17 authentic bile acid standards were dissolved in pure methanol or in methanol containing extracts of urine from pigs consuming either breast milk or infant formula and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The matrix components in urine from piglets fed formula significantly reduced the LC-peak Rt. and areas of bile acids. This is the first characterization of this matrix effect on Rt. in the literature. Moreover, the matrix effect resulted in an unexpected LC behavior: one single compound yielded two LC-peaks, which broke the rule of one LC-peak for one compound. The three bile acid standards which exhibited this unconventional LC behavior were chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and glycocholic acid. One possible explanation for this effect is that some matrix components may have loosely bonded to analytes, which changed the time analytes were retained on a chromatography column and interfered with the ionization of analytes in the MS ion source to alter the peak area. This study indicates that a comprehensive understanding of matrix effects is needed towards improving the use of HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of analytes in pharmacokinetics, proteomics/metabolomics, drug development, and sports drug testing, especially when LC-MS/MS data are analyzed by automation software where identification of an analyte is based on its exact molecular weight and Rt

  11. Management of locally recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma after prior surgery and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Mylin A.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Butler, Charles E.; Feig, Barry W.; Cormier, Janice N.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Pollock, Raphael E.; Pisters, Peter W.; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome and treatment toxicity after wide local re-excision (WLE), with or without additional radiation therapy, for patients with isolated first local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma arising within a previously irradiated field. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 62 consecutive patients. All patients underwent prior resection and external beam radiation. For recurrent disease, 25 patients were treated with WLE alone, and 37 patients were treated with WLE and additional radiation (45- 64 Gy). In 33 patients, the radiation was delivered via an afterloaded brachytherapy, single-plane implant. Results: The 5-year disease specific and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 65% and 73%, respectively. Local control (LC) at 5 years was 51%, and on multivariate analysis, a positive surgical resection margin (p< 0.001) was associated with a lower rate of LC. Reirradiation was not associated with improved LC; however complications requiring outpatient or surgical management were more common in patients who had undergone reirradiation (80% vs. 17%, p < 0.001). Amputation was also more common in the subgroup of patients who underwent extremity reirradiation (35% with radiation vs. 11% without, p = 0.05), although only one amputation was performed to resolve a treatment complication. Conclusion: Conservative surgery alone results in LC in a minority of patients who have failed locally after previous excision and external beam radiation. Although selection biases and small patient numbers confound the analysis, local treatment intensification with additional radiation does not clearly improve outcome after surgical excision alone, and is associated with an increase in complications

  12. Large funding inflows, limited local capacity and emerging disease control priorities: a situational assessment of tuberculosis control in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Schwanke-Khilji, Sara; Yoong, Joanne; Tun, Zaw Myo; Watson, Samantha; Coker, Richard James

    2017-10-01

    There are numerous challenges in planning and implementing effective disease control programmes in Myanmar, which is undergoing internal political and economic transformations whilst experiencing massive inflows of external funding. The objective of our study-involving key informant discussions, participant observations and linked literature reviews-was to analyse how tuberculosis (TB) control strategies in Myanmar are influenced by the broader political, economic, epidemiological and health systems context using the Systemic Rapid Assessment conceptual and analytical framework. Our findings indicate that the substantial influx of donor funding, in the order of one billion dollars over a 5-year period, may be too rapid for the country's infrastructure to effectively utilize. TB control strategies thus far have tended to favour medical or technological approaches rather than infrastructure development, and appear to be driven more by perceived urgency to 'do something' rather informed by evidence of cost-effectiveness and sustainable long-term impact. Progress has been made towards ambitious targets for scaling up treatment of drug-resistant TB, although there are concerns about ensuring quality of care. We also find substantial disparities in health and funding allocation between regions and ethnic groups, which are related to the political context and health system infrastructure. Our situational assessment of emerging TB control strategies in this transitioning health system indicates that large investments by international donors may be pushing Myanmar to scale up TB and drug-resistant TB services too quickly, without due consideration given to the health system (service delivery infrastructure, human resource capacity, quality of care, equity) and epidemiological (evidence of effectiveness of interventions, prevention of new cases) context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  13. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM 0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate blood pressure changes in patients undergoing extraction under local anesthesia with vasopressor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeda, Marcelo José; Moura, Brenda; Louro, Rafael Seabra; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana

    2014-05-01

    The control of hypertensive patients' blood pressure and heart rate using vasoconstrictors during surgical procedures under anesthesia is still a major concern in everyday surgical practice. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the variation of blood pressure and heart rate in nonhypertensive and controlled hypertensive voluntary subjects undergoing oral surgery under local anesthesia with lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine at 1:100,000 (Alphacaine; DFL, Brazil), performed in the Oral Surgery Department, Dentistry School, Fluminense Federal University. In total, 25 voluntary subjects were divided into 2 groups: nonhypertensive (n = 15) and controlled hypertensives (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at 4 different times: T0, in the waiting room; T1, after placement of the surgical drapes; T2, 10 minutes after anesthesia injection; and T3, at the end of the surgical procedure. A statistically significant difference (P 0.05) between the amount administered to nonhypertensive and hypertensive subjects. It was concluded that the local anesthetics studied could safely be used in controlled hypertensive and nonhypertensive patients in compliance with the maximum recommended doses.

  15. Neuroanatomical localization of endocrine control of reproductive behavior in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.T. III.

    1989-01-01

    Steroid autoradiography and systematic and intracranial steroid treatment were undertaken to determine the neuroanatomical loci which are sufficient to activate steroid sensitive behaviors in the Japanese quail. (1) Autoradiographic localization of steroid binding cells was performed on male and female quail brains using tritiated ( 3 H) testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The distributions of labelled cells in the quail brain following 3 H-T or 3 H-E2 injection and autoradiography were similar to one another. The distribution of labelled cells following 3 H-DHT autoradiography was limited in comparison to that following 3 H-T autoradiography. Males were found to have more labelled cells than females in nucleus taeniae. (2) Intracranial implantation of minute pellets of testoterone propionate (TP) and estradiol benzoate (EB) was performed to determine neuroanatomical loci at which steroids activate sexual behavior. Both TP and EB implants in the preoptic area (POA) activated male copulatory behavior. (3) Systematic injection of aromatase inhibitor prior to and concurrent with implantation completely blocked copulatory behavior in males with TP implants in the POA but failed to block copulation in males with EB implants in the POA. (4) Intact males and castrated males given 5 dosages of systematic EB treatment were tested for sexual behavior, and blood samples from each group were assayed for E2 concentration. (5) Midbrain DHTP implants were activated crowing without significantly stimulating peripheral androgen-sensitive tissues, but the effect on crowing was not localized to any one nucleus

  16. Biomaterials for Local, Controlled Drug Delivery to the Injured Spinal Cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Ziemba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Affecting approximately 17,000 new people each year, spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating injury that leads to permanent paraplegia or tetraplegia. Current pharmacological approaches are limited in their ability to ameliorate this injury pathophysiology, as many are not delivered locally, for a sustained duration, or at the correct injury time point. With this review, we aim to communicate the importance of combinatorial biomaterial and pharmacological approaches that target certain aspects of the dynamically changing pathophysiology of SCI. After reviewing the pathophysiology timeline, we present experimental biomaterial approaches to provide local sustained doses of drug. In this review, we present studies using a variety of biomaterials, including hydrogels, particles, and fibers/conduits for drug delivery. Subsequently, we discuss how each may be manipulated to optimize drug release during a specific time frame following SCI. Developing polymer biomaterials that can effectively release drug to target specific aspects of SCI pathophysiology will result in more efficacious approaches leading to better regeneration and recovery following SCI.

  17. Working memory capacity and Stroop interference: global versus local indices of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E; Kane, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined the relations among working memory capacity (WMC), congruency-sequence effects, proportion-congruency effects, and the color-word Stroop effect to test whether congruency-sequence effects might inform theoretical claims regarding WMC's prediction of Stroop interference. In Experiment 1, subjects completed either a high-congruency or low-congruency Stroop task that restricted trial-to-trial repetitions of stimulus dimensions to examine WMC's relation to congruency-sequence effects while minimizing bottom-up, stimulus-driven contributions. Congruency-sequence effects and congruency-proportion effects were significant but did not interact. WMC predicted global Stroop interference under low-congruency conditions but neither local congruency-sequence effects nor global Stroop interference under high-congruency conditions, contrary to previous studies (e.g., Kane & Engle, 2003). A high-congruency Stroop task in Experiment 2 removed the Experiment 1 task constraints, and, here, we obtained the typical, global association between WMC and Stroop interference but still no relation between WMC and congruency-sequence effects. We thus examined the methodological differences between Experiments 1 and 2 to determine whether any of these were locally responsible for the global WMC-related differences. They were not, suggesting that the changes between Experiments 1 and 2 created a general task context that engaged (or disengaged) the executive processes associated with WMC.

  18. Local control on precipitation in a fully coupled climate-hydrology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Morten A D; Christensen, Jens H; Drews, Martin; Butts, Michael B; Refsgaard, Jens C

    2016-03-10

    The ability to simulate regional precipitation realistically by climate models is essential to understand and adapt to climate change. Due to the complexity of associated processes, particularly at unresolved temporal and spatial scales this continues to be a major challenge. As a result, climate simulations of precipitation often exhibit substantial biases that affect the reliability of future projections. Here we demonstrate how a regional climate model (RCM) coupled to a distributed hydrological catchment model that fully integrates water and energy fluxes between the subsurface, land surface, plant cover and the atmosphere, enables a realistic representation of local precipitation. Substantial improvements in simulated precipitation dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales is seen for a simulation period of six years and can be attributed to a more complete treatment of hydrological sub-surface processes including groundwater and moisture feedback. A high degree of local influence on the atmosphere suggests that coupled climate-hydrology models have a potential for improving climate projections and the results further indicate a diminished need for bias correction in climate-hydrology impact studies.

  19. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2017-07-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. No human subjects. Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  20. Response of SO2 and Particulate Air Pollution to Local and Regional Emission Controls: A Case Study in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Vinnikov, Konstantin Y.; Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay Anatoly; Jongeward, Andrew R.; Li, Zhanqing; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Hains, Jennifer; Dickerson, RUssell R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions of what effect local regulations can have on pollutants with different lifetimes and how surface observations and remotely sensed data can be used to determine the impacts. We investigated the decadal trends of tropospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and aerosol pollution over Maryland and its surrounding states, using surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Aircraft measurements indicated fewer isolated SO2 plumes observed in summers, a 40 decrease of column SO2, and a 20 decrease of atmospheric optical depth (AOD) over Maryland after the implementation of local regulations on sulfur emissions from power plants (90 reduction from 2010). Surface observations of SO2 and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in Maryland show similar trends. OMI SO2 and MODIS AOD observations were used to investigate the column contents of air pollutants over the eastern U.S.; these indicate decreasing trends in column SO2 (60 decrease) and AOD (20 decrease). The decrease of upwind SO2 emissions also reduced aerosol loadings over the downwind Atlantic Ocean near the coast by 20, while indiscernible changes of the SO2 column were observed. A step change of SO2 emissions in Maryland starting in 20092010 had an immediate and profound benefit in terms of local surface SO2 concentrations but a modest impact on aerosol pollution, indicating that short-lived pollutants are effectively controlled locally, while long-lived pollutants require regional measures.

  1. Barrier Function-Based Neural Adaptive Control With Locally Weighted Learning and Finite Neuron Self-Growing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zi-Jun; Song, Yong-Duan

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to construct neural adaptive control for uncertain nonaffine systems. By integrating locally weighted learning with barrier Lyapunov function (BLF), a novel control design method is presented to systematically address the two critical issues in neural network (NN) control field: one is how to fulfill the compact set precondition for NN approximation, and the other is how to use varying rather than a fixed NN structure to improve the functionality of NN control. A BLF is exploited to ensure the NN inputs to remain bounded during the entire system operation. To account for system nonlinearities, a neuron self-growing strategy is proposed to guide the process for adding new neurons to the system, resulting in a self-adjustable NN structure for better learning capabilities. It is shown that the number of neurons needed to accomplish the control task is finite, and better performance can be obtained with less number of neurons as compared with traditional methods. The salient feature of the proposed method also lies in the continuity of the control action everywhere. Furthermore, the resulting control action is smooth almost everywhere except for a few time instants at which new neurons are added. Numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  3. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  4. Regulation of the autophagy protein LC3 by phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherra, Salvatore J.; Kulich, Scott M.; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Mountzouris, John; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a major catabolic pathway that impacts cell survival, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration. Although bulk degradation sustains carbon sources during starvation, autophagy contributes to shrinkage of differentiated neuronal processes. Identification of autophagy-related genes has spurred rapid advances in understanding the recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in autophagy induction, although braking mechanisms remain less understood. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a direct protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site on LC3 that regulates its participation in autophagy. Both metabolic (rapamycin) and pathological (MPP+) inducers of autophagy caused dephosphorylation of endogenous LC3. The pseudophosphorylated LC3 mutant showed reduced recruitment to autophagosomes, whereas the nonphosphorylatable mutant exhibited enhanced puncta formation. Finally, autophagy-dependent neurite shortening induced by expression of a Parkinson disease–associated G2019S mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 was inhibited by dibutyryl–cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cytoplasmic expression of the PKA catalytic subunit, or the LC3 phosphorylation mimic. These data demonstrate a role for phosphorylation in regulating LC3 activity. PMID:20713600

  5. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping

  6. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ars, Sébastien; Broquet, Grégoire; Yver Kwok, Camille; Roustan, Yelva; Wu, Lin; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Bousquet, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping with the distances

  7. Calculation of the local power peaking near WWER-440 control assemblies with Hf plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, Gy.; Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maraszy, Cs.; Temesvari, E.

    2003-01-01

    The original coupler design of the WWER-440 assemblies had the following well known deficiency: The relatively large amount of water in the coupler between the absorber and fuel port of the control assembly can cause undesirably sharp power peaking in the fuel rods next to the coupler. The power peaking can be especially high after control rod withdrawal when the coupler reached low burnup level region of the adjacent assembly. The modernized coupler design overcomes the original problem by applying a thin Hf plate in the critical region. The very complicated structure of the coupler requires the verification of the core design methods by high precision 3D Monte Carlo calculations. The paper presents an MCNP reference calculation on the control rod coupler benchmark with Hf absorber plates. The benchmark solution with the KARATE-440 code system is also presented. The need for treating the Hf burnout in the reflector region is investigated (Authors)

  8. Investigation of a frequency dependent transfer function and its application to control rod localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garis, N.S.; Pazsit, I.

    1997-02-01

    Control rod vibrations can be detected via the fluctuations they generate in the neutron flux, i.e. the neutron noise. In a previous paper, a neural network-based algorithm for locating a vibrating control rod from the measured neutron noise was developed. The transfer function used for the core model was based on the so called power-reactor approximation resulting in a simple, real-valued solution which means that the phase delay of the signal propagation is neglected. In the present work a more realistic transfer function is used, without the approximations of the previous model. The transfer function is calculated from the Fourier transformed diffusion equation with a complex, frequency dependent buckling leading to a complex solution. In physical terms, this means that the phase delay of the signal propagation is accounted for. Using such a complex core model, the present paper investigates the effectiveness of applying neural networks for control rod localisation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  9. Relationship between plasma and salivary melatonin and cortisol investigated by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Faassen, Martijn; Bischoff, Rainer; Kema, Ido P

    2017-08-28

    Disturbance of the circadian rhythm has been associated with disease states, such as metabolic disorders, depression and cancer. Quantification of the circadian markers such as melatonin and cortisol critically depend on reliable and reproducible analytical methods. Previously, melatonin and cortisol were primarily analyzed separately, mainly using immunoassays. Here we describe the validation and application of a high-throughput liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the combined analysis of melatonin and cortisol in plasma and saliva. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to international validation guidelines. We used this method to analyze total plasma, free plasma (as obtained by equilibrium dialysis) and saliva melatonin and cortisol in healthy adults. Validation results for plasma and saliva melatonin and cortisol were well within the international validation criteria. We observed no difference between saliva collected by passive drooling or Salivette. Moreover, we noted a significant difference in saliva vs. free plasma melatonin. We observed on average 36% (95% CI: 4%-60%) higher salivary melatonin levels in comparison to free plasma melatonin, suggestive of local production of melatonin in the salivary glands. The novel outcome of this study is probably due to the high precision of our LC-MS/MS assay. These outcomes illustrate the added value of accurate and sensitive mass spectrometry based methods for the quantification of neuroendocrine biomarkers.

  10. The Role of Ca2+ and BK Channels of Locus Coeruleus (LC) Neurons as a Brake to the CO2 Chemosensitivity Response of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Ann N; Patrone, Luis G A; Li, Ke-Yong; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Putnam, Robert W

    2018-06-15

    The cellular mechanisms by which LC neurons respond to hypercapnia are usually attributed to an "accelerator" whereby hypercapnic acidosis causes an inhibition of K + channels or activation of Na + and Ca +2 channels to depolarize CO 2 -sensitive neurons. Nevertheless, it is still unknown if this "accelerator" mechanism could be controlled by a brake phenomenon. Whole-cell patch clamping, fluorescence imaging microscopy and plethysmography were used to study the chemosensitive response of the LC neurons. Hypercapnic acidosis activates L-type Ca 2+ channels and large conductance Ca-activated K + (BK) channels, which function as a "brake" on the chemosensitive response of LC neurons. Our findings indicate that both Ca 2+ and BK currents develop over the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in rat LC slices and that this brake pathway may cause the developmental decrease in the chemosensitive firing rate response of LC neurons to hypercapnic acidosis. Inhibition of this brake by paxilline (BK channel inhibitor) returns the magnitude of the chemosensitive firing rate response from LC neurons in rats older than P10 to high values similar to those in LC neurons from younger rats. Inhibition of BK channels in LC neurons by bilateral injections of paxilline into the LC results in a significant increase in the hypercapnic ventilatory response of adult rats. Our findings indicate that a BK channel-based braking system helps to determine the chemosensitive respiratory drive of LC neurons and contributes to the hypercapnic ventilatory response. Perhaps, abnormalities of this braking system could result in hypercapnia-induced respiratory disorders and panic responses. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. With or without reirradiation in advanced local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Tang, Lin-Quan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Hong, Ming-Huang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome in patients with advanced local recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with or without reirradiation. A total of 44 patients treated without reirradiation (non-RT + chemotherapy) were matched with 44 patients treated with reirradiation (re-RT+/-chemtherapy) by age, sex, Karnosky performance score (KPS), rT stage, rN stage, and time interval between initial radiation and recurrence (TI). Overall survival (OS) rate and time to progression (TTP) rate were assessed using Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis. From March 2008 to December 2013, a total of 88 well-balanced rT3–4 N0-1 NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. After a median follow-up of 27 months (range: 6–85), the 5-year OS rate and TTP rate was 23.4 %, 39.0 % in the non-RT + chemotherapy group and 27.5 %, 49.8 % in the re-RT+/-chemtherapy group, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that significant toxic effect was the only significant prognosticator correlated with OS (HR: 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.02–4.53, p = 0.044). No statistically significant survival differences were observed between the two treatment groups in either univariate or multivariate analyses. Compared with reiradiation, treating advanced local recurrent NPC with chemotherapy alone warrants further validation in the view of its similar survival and more acceptable toxicities. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2803-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  12. LC-MS-based quantification method for Achyranthes root saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Yuki; Hoshino, Tatsuro; Morimoto, Hidetaka; Shinizu, Tomofumi; Narukawa, Yuji; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of Achyranthes root saponins: chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2), achyranthosides B (3), C (4), D (5), E (6), and G (7), sulfachyranthosides B (8) and D (9), and betavulgarosides II (10) and IV (11). Satisfactory separation of the saponins was achieved with the use of a volatile ion-pair reagent (dihexyl ammonium acetate) on a phenyl-hexylated silica gel column, and the amounts of saponins extracted under three different conditions were determined. When Achyranthes root was extracted with water at room temperature, achyranthosides B (3) and D (5) were the major saponins, and smaller amounts of other saponins (4, 6-11) were present. However, the amounts of chikusetsusaponins (1 and 2) were negligible. Under the condition to make a standard decoction of a Kampo formula, the major saponins were achyranthosides B (3), C (4), and D (5), and small amounts of chikusetsusaponins IVa (1) and V (2) appeared, whereas prolonged heating largely increased the amounts of chikusetsusaponins. This method can be used for quality control of Achyranthes root.

  13. A versatile local control system for the LEIR/AD electron cooler

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaferri, R

    1999-01-01

    With the end of antiproton physics at LEAR in 1996, the electron cooling device was modified in order that it could be used for experiments with lead ions in 1997 in LEIR and then for installation in the AD machine the following year. As a consequence, as well as the mechanical modifications to the cooler, the control system also needed to be upgraded and it was decided to build a system that could run either from a PC or from a Workstation as used in the accelerator control rooms. This turned out to be the most efficient solution as no support was given for the maintenance of the old control system during the experiments with lead ions. The PC system was realised during the shutdown before the machine experiments started, leaving time during the rest of 1997 to build the VME interface for installation in the AD. In this paper the hardware and software implementations of this new control system are described and some ideas for the near future are also presented.

  14. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  15. Controlling and optimizing of energy streams in local buildings in a field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Nykamp, Stefan; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Reinelt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management is one of the novel techniques enabled by introducing ICT in the distribution grid. Controllable assets and energy buffers make it possible to maintain a properly functioning grid, improve the efficiency of the grid and prolong the current grid infrastructure. This work

  16. Localized Power Control for Multihop Large-Scale Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, we promote the use of multihop networking in the context of large-scale Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, we advocate the use of blind cooperation in conjunction with multihop communications. However, we show that blind cooperation is actually inefficient unless power control is applied. Inefficiency in this paper is projected in terms of the transport rate normalized to energy consumption. To that end, we propose an uncoordinated power control mechanism whereby each device in a blind cooperative cluster randomly adjusts its transmit power level. We derive an upper bound on the mean transmit power that must be observed at each device. We also devise a practical mechanism for each device to infer about the size of its neighborhood; a requirement necessary for the operation of the power control scheme. Finally, we assess the performance of the developed power control mechanism and demonstrate how it consistently outperforms the point-to-point case.

  17. Localized Power Control for Multihop Large-Scale Internet of Things

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-08-04

    In this paper, we promote the use of multihop networking in the context of large-scale Internet of Things (IoT). Recognizing concerns related to the scalability of classical multihop routing and medium access techniques, we advocate the use of blind cooperation in conjunction with multihop communications. However, we show that blind cooperation is actually inefficient unless power control is applied. Inefficiency in this paper is projected in terms of the transport rate normalized to energy consumption. To that end, we propose an uncoordinated power control mechanism whereby each device in a blind cooperative cluster randomly adjusts its transmit power level. We derive an upper bound on the mean transmit power that must be observed at each device. We also devise a practical mechanism for each device to infer about the size of its neighborhood; a requirement necessary for the operation of the power control scheme. Finally, we assess the performance of the developed power control mechanism and demonstrate how it consistently outperforms the point-to-point case.

  18. Controlled local drug delivery strategies from chitosan hydrogels for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elviri, Lisa; Bianchera, Annalisa; Bergonzi, Carlo; Bettini, Ruggero

    2017-07-01

    The main target of tissue engineering is the preparation and application of adequate materials for the design and production of scaffolds, that possess properties promoting cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The use of natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan, to prepare hydrogels for wound healing and controlled drug delivery is a research topic of wide and increasing interest. Areas covered: This review presents the latest results and challenges in the preparation of chitosan and chitosan-based scaffold/hydrogel for wound healing applications. A detailed overview of their behavior in terms of controlled drug delivery, divided by drug categories, and efficacy was provided and critically discussed. Expert opinion: The need to establish and exploit the advantages of natural biomaterials in combination with active compounds is playing a pivotal role in the regenerative medicine fields. The challenges posed by the many variables affecting tissue repair and regeneration need to be standardized and adhere to recognized guidelines to improve the quality of evidence in the wound healing process. Currently, different methodologies are followed to prepare innovative scaffold formulations and structures. Innovative technologies such as 3D printing or bio-electrospray are promising to create chitosan-based scaffolds with finely controlled structures with customizable shape porosity and thickness. Chitosan scaffolds could be designed in combination with a variety of polysaccharides or active compounds with selected and reproducible spacial distribution, providing active wound dressing with highly tunable controlled drug delivery.

  19. The local microenvironment surrounding dansyl molecules attached to controlled pore glass in pure and alcohol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Phillip M; McCarty, Taylor A; Munson, Chase A; Bright, Frank V

    2008-06-01

    We report on the local microenvironment surrounding a free dansyl probe, dansyl attached to controlled pore glass (D-CPG), and dansyl molecules attached to trimethylsilyl-capped CPG (capped D-CPG) in pure and alcohol-modified supercritical CO2. These systems were selected to provide insights into the local microenvironment surrounding a reactive agent immobilized at a silica surface in contact with pure and cosolvent-modified supercritical CO2. Local surface-bound dansyl molecule solvation on the CPG surface depends on the dansyl molecule surface loading, the surface chemistry (uncapped versus capped), the bulk fluid density, and the alcohol gas phase absolute acidity. At high dansyl loadings, the surface-bound dansyl molecules are largely "solvated" by other dansyl molecules and these molecules are not affected significantly by the fluid phase. When the dansyl surface loading decreases, dansyl molecules can be accessed/solvated/wetted by the fluid phase. However, at the lowest dansyl loadings studied, the dansyl molecules are in a fluid inaccessible/restrictive environment and do not sense the fluid phase to any significant degree. In uncapped D-CPG, one can poise the system such that the local concentration of an environmentally less responsible cosolvent (alcohol) in the immediate vicinity of surface-immobilized dansyl molecules can approach 100% even though the bulk solution contains orders of magnitude less of this less environmentally responsible cosolvent. In capped C-CPG, the surface excess is attenuated in comparison to that of uncapped D-CPG. The extent of this cosolvent surface excess is discussed in terms of the dansyl surface loading, the local density fluctuations, the cosolvent and surface silanol gas phase acidities, and the silica surface chemistry. These results also have implications for cleanings, extractions, heterogeneous reactions, separations, and nanomaterial fabrication using supercritical fluids.

  20. Role of radiotherapy in local control of non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients in Korea: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Il Han

    2012-01-01

    There has been no definite consensus on standard treatment, either local or systemic, for the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Radiotherapy (RT) can be a good local therapeutic choice especially in non-AIDS associated KS (NAKS) for its indolent behavior. Medical records of 17 KS patients treated with RT at the Seoul National University Hospital from February 1998 to January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. One human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ patient with 3 lesions was excluded. The total number of the lesion was 23 among the 16 patients. The median follow-up period was 27.9 months. Correlation between response and variables was analyzed using the logistic regression model. Median age of the patients was 75 years. All the 23 lesions were located at the extremities. Fourteen (61%) of those had pain or local swelling as the initial presentation. Ten patients had possible causes of immunodeficiency and were regarded as iatrogenic, and other 6 were classic KS. Median dose of RT was 36 Gy. No KS-related death was observed. Excluding 2 with short-term follow-up only, complete response and partial response were obtained in 2 (9%) and 19 (73%) lesions, respectively. Of those, 3 lesions underwent l