WorldWideScience

Sample records for local community study

  1. Communication in Local Community (Koprivnica case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Pavlek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is about an article which, based on the research of the local media in Koprivnica, aims to question the current theoretical attitutes to the role of the media nowadays, changes in communication, ways of connecting politics and journalism, censorship and self-censorship, bigger involvement of citizens in informing themselves via social networks, as well as other aspects of the media influence on the public. The local media in Koprivnica, among others, published articles about the biggest political and economic scandals in Croatia. At the same time, local media is significantly intertwined with local politics. How much and how are these things related? The number of local journalists with a degree in journalism is not satisfactory. How does the local community cope with it? What has changed three years after the research of three local media in Koprivnica finished? Can the local community i.e. the experience of the local media draw attention to illogical, unacceptable and illegal anomalies that create a negative perception of journalism in Croatia as well as the rest of the world nowadays?

  2. Block Study: Learning About Your Local Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, Catherine

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, five lessons using a block of houses in an urban neighborhood help students learn about the history of a neighborhood, the owners of the houses, and the style and architectural features of the homes. Although this unit has been developed for a specific neighborhood, a similar block study could be conducted…

  3. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  4. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  5. A carbon finance fund for local communities: why? how? Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Nicolas; Delbosc, Anais; Dupont, Marion; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at promoting practices of ecological and social transition and sustainable development for local communities, and at developing the North-South solidarity in terms of development and struggle against poverty on issues like access to water and sanitation, and access to electrification by means of renewable energies. The first part describes the role of voluntary offsetting within the carbon finance, gives an overview of the use of carbon finance by local communities. The second part discusses the involvement of local communities in decentralized cooperation for climate-energy projects. The third one reports the analysis of the main benefits and constraints of the implementation of a local carbon fund in relationship with a decentralized cooperation approach

  6. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  7. Rhetoric to action: a study of stakeholder perceptions of aging well in two local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Jo-Anne; Lui, Chi-Wai; Bartlett, Helen; Warburton, Jeni; Cuthill, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study of local perceptions of policy goals and action in relation to aging reports 31 stakeholder interviews within 2 Australian communities exploring (a) the meaning of aging well; and (b) preferred policy actions to achieve positive aging outcomes. Findings suggest that community perceptions of aging well are broadly consistent with the goals of national and international policy frameworks in focusing on 3 dimensions--health, social engagement, and security. Further, participants believe that achievement of positive aging outcomes requires a mix of self-help, community action, and government intervention--particularly government support and encouragement for aging well initiatives.

  8. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  9. Study of community leaders in a nuclear host community: local issues, expectations and support and opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, B.H.

    1977-08-01

    A study of community leaders was undertaken in Hartsville, Tennessee, site of the TVA Hartsville Nuclear Power Plant currently under construction. Leaders were found to be extremely supportive of the plant and of TVA's efforts to mitigate impacts expected to result from construction. Like their citizen counterparts, leaders expect economic benefits and some growth-related disruption to occur as a result of the plant, while environmental impacts are seen as extremely unlikely to occur. Plant-related issues, such as housing availability and traffic congestion, dominate leaders' thinking about current issues. These issues are expected to continue to be important in the future, and new issues dealing with growth and planning, employment and taxation are expected to arise

  10. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  11. Everyday Information Needs and Information Seeking Habits in the Countryside: a Study of a Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The research attempts to provide an insight into the information world of the Slovenian countryside. It presents the first results of an exploratory study of information needs, information seeking habits and types of information sources.Methodology/approach: Brenda Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology was used as the theoretical basis for this research. 25 open structured interviews with inhabitants of a local community were conducted based on purposive sampling. Interview recordings were transcribed, summarised and analysed using the qualitative content analysis approach.Results: The analysis results in recognizing the types of gaps in the context of an individual, economic activities and in the context of a local community. Gap categories are described with regard to questions or problems and the ways of solving them. There are 20 categories describing gaps in the context of an individual, 17 categories which present economic activities – and 6 categories which pertain to a local community. Findings about information needs and the ways of seeking information stress the key role of information sources in farming and prevalence of interpersonal exchange of information and experts' opinion in the context of individual problem solving.Research limitation: The generalisation of results is not possible due to the sample size.Originality/practical implications: The findings contribute to understanding of information needs and ways of information seeking in the Slovenian countryside.

  12. Chinese student mobility, local engagement and transformation of Chinese communities in England: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese st...

  13. The role of community conversations in facilitating local HIV competence: case study from rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nhamo, Mercy; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-17

    This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants' efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic.

  14. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  15. Local GIS: development and assessment of the geoportal for local governments and local communities. Case study of a small town in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medolińska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous applications of GIS, administration and public services count among the main fields of application. They are both the users and the owners of the largest amount of spatial data. Portals for higher authorities have been the subject of extensive discussions, but the development and possible use of GIS systems in the form of geoportals at local levels still seems to have been insufficiently discussed. This article presents the process of designing and developing a portal for the lowest authorities - local authorities and the local community. A small town in Poland, Sokółka, was assumed as the study area. The concept development was preceded by, among others: recognition of the needs of an administrative unit in conducting spatial policy; establishment of the objectives, functionalities and assumptions of the designed GIS; a SWOT analysis of the designed geoportal; and an analysis of data resources. Pilot implementation was completed with an evaluation of the geoportal encompassing various groups of potential users.

  16. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for

  17. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  18. Local Community Versus Globalization Tendencies: Case Study of Czech Villages in Romanian Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šantrůčková Markéta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research question is the relationship between the local community and globalization tendencies and transformation or maintenance of local traditions. The research area is a specific locality of a Czech village in Romanian Banat. The local community has evolved in a relative isolation. Agriculture was the most important activity despite the fact that a mining factory was opened there. Agriculture was and in many features still is traditional, self-supplying, and hard-work. The life-style has always been environmentally friendly as it has been without modern technologies. Nevertheless, modernization exploded dramatically in these villages after 1989, when the communist policies collapsed along with Romania's isolation. People from the Czech Republic have rediscovered Romanian Banat and a rather busy (agro tourism has developed there. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports development projects for making living conditions in the village better. Simultaneously, strong migration from Banat to the Czech Republic has started. People find living conditions in the Czech Republic easier and leave hard work, poverty and unemployment. It brings huge land cover changes because people who remain cannot use all arable land, which is thus abandoned and left for the natural process. One of the distinct manifestations of globalization tendencies is the build-up of wind power plants.

  19. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  1. Fostering Local Economic Development through Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.

  2. An exploratory study of the application of sense of community in a local festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Fengfeng Ke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and measure the empirical relationships between a festival and one of its possible social effects: residents' perceptions of a sense of community (SOC). A mixed research method was utilized to explore how a multicultural festival in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania affected residents' perceived SOC. Survey questionnaires were...

  3. Building Trust in Natural Resource Management Within Local Communities: A Case Study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.

    2007-03-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.

  4. The local community and the nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidskog, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this book social and political scientists discuss different aspects of the selection of a site for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Special attention is given to the preliminary studies that have been performed at a few localities. The authors study the chain of events after a community is proposed for a site study. What powers are set in motion? How do different groups act in order to support or stop the study? Which is the role played by political parties, local environmentalist movements, media and experts? Why is there a forceful opposition in one community and not in another? Why does one local government invite the nuclear waste company to perform the study, while another refuses? The role of the local government has become crucial, since the nuclear waste company have chosen to perform studies only in municipalities that show a positive interest

  5. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    People living in landscapes of high conservation value are trapped between their dependence on natural resources to meet their development aspirations and the international pressure to conserve those resources. Although it is increasingly recognized that the conservation of some natural resources...... cannot happen without providing alternative livelihood solutions for local communities dependent on them, global experiences illustrate that the successful integration of conservation and development continues to be elusive. We adapted the approach based on “participatory vulnerability assessments......” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  6. WIPP and the local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area

  7. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  8. Science literacy in local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko

    2005-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences was established in December, 1990 at Rokkasho, Aomori, as a focal point in the research activities necessary to solve the problems between nuclear energy and the environment. In 2001 the Public Relations and Research Information Office was newly organized in the institute in order to facilitate the communication of scientific knowledge and information with the local inhabitants. The office is expected to play a role, as the communication window opens, to the local community neighboring the nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as other communities in the prefecture. It seems, however, that the methodology for pursuing this aim is not generally provided but needs to be developed on a trial-and-error basis suitable to each situation. The author would like to take this opportunity to consider the given subjects and introduce the experiences, in which the author succeeded in communicating with neighboring people through the common interests regarding the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize is recognized as the greatest honor and authority over the world and is awarded to genuine human wisdom. The public with admiration receives the laureates, and their ways of life along with their arts of thinking are always matters which attract the interest of all the citizens. The people, who sometimes easily understand the scientific background behind the Prizes, always accept the stories of the laureates. The Nobel Prize has played an important role, therefore, not only in disseminating scientific knowledge or information so far, but will function also in cultivating the so-called science literacy'' among the public in the future, even in the issues on acceptance of nuclear energy. (author)

  9. A Global Approach to School Education and Local Reality: A Case Study of Community Participation in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwana, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    In post-Jomtien phase, community participation in school education management has appeared as one of the most prominent features in all educational development programmes at global level. In line with this trend, India has also placed a significant focus on local communities in school management through various programmes such as LokJumbish,…

  10. Building trust in natural resource management within local communities: a case study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Jessica E. Leahy; Dorothy H. Anderson; Pamela J. Jakes

    2007-01-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency's programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A...

  11. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  12. Eigenvector localization as a tool to study small communities in online social networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slanina, František; Konopásek, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2010), s. 699-723 ISSN 0219-5259 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : networks * localization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.213, year: 2010 http://www.worldscinet.com/acs/13/1306/S0219525910002840.html

  13. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  14. Colleges and Communities: Increasing Local Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    Community colleges in Appalachia are helping boost local economies and expand educational opportunities through the national Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). At the heart of RCCI is a nine-step strategic planning process in which a community group moves from vision to action. Kentucky's Southeast Community College has promoted…

  15. YOUNG GENERATION OF NOWA HUTA INHABITANTS. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THEIR LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dargiewicz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Author describes phenomenon of local society among young residents of Nowa Huta - postindustrial district of Crakow. Researcher portrays it by considering four elements:1 degree of identification with the society of Nowa Huta;2 social relationships of people;3 the knowledge about neighbourhood (as well as historical as recent;4 social activity (actions targeted at youth of Nowa Huta and activities of young adults themselves.Author analyses every element of the phenomenon of local society based on participant observation and performance of quality research which includes interviews with young people of the district and experts that deal with the youn generation og Nowa Huta. Writer also analysed two newspaper sources, looking for relevant information about the adolescent residents of Nowa Huta.

  16. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J

    2015-09-01

    In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n=20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners' dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and 'evidence' in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  18. Enhancing community detection by using local structural information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Ju; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Li, Jian-Ming; Hu, Ke; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  19. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  20. A digital local studies collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Resman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local studies and local studies departments reflect the entire spectrum of knowledge within the local community. Transition to the new digital environment means just continuing the basic functions of local studies collections: acquisition, cataloguing and preservation of materials in different formats on different media. The background of each digital library is the technical architecture of system that enables interaction between the user and the library, saving digital material and building a platform for searching and indexing digital objects. Using advanced ICT requests from librarians, designers of digital local studies collections a reflection about traditional roles. A digital local studies collection with new technology enlarges local boarders, local contents become more and more interesting for a wider sphere of people. In collecting of local materials a collaboration with archives and museums, with academic community, with community groups and with individuals comes in forefront. Digital local studies collections with their contents support local diversity, lifelong learning and social inclusion. The crucial elements of a digital local studies collection are attractive local contents with fast and simple access from one place – a portal. In the digital age public libraries become managers of knowledge also by establishing digital local studies collections.

  1. Multiple Drivers of Local (Non- Compliance in Community-Based Marine Resource Management: Case Studies from the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne R. Rohe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of

  2. Local Community Entrepreneurship in Mount Agung Trekking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudana, I. G.; Sutama, I. K.; Widhari, C. I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Since its last major eruption in 1963, Mount Agung in Selat District, Karangasem Regency, the highest mountain in Bali Province began to be visited by tourists climbers. Because of the informal obligation that every climbing/trekking should be guided by local guides, since the 1990s, there have been initiatives from a number of local community members to serve climbing tourists who were keen to climb the volcano/mountain. This study was conducted to understand and describe the entrepreneurial practices which appeared in the local surrounding community. Specifically, Selat Village, in guiding the climbing/trekking. This study used qualitative data analysis and its theories were adapted to data needed in the field. The results of study showed that Mount Agung was considered attractive by climbing tourists not only because of the exotic beauty and challenges of difficulty (as well as the level of danger) to conquer it, but also because it kept certain myths from its status as a holy/sacred mountain to Balinese Hindus. In fact, a number of tourists who did the climbing/trekking without being guided very often got lost, harmed in an accident, or fell to their death. As a direct result, all climbing activities require guidance. Especially guides from local community organizations who really understand the intricacies of climbing and the curvature of the mountain. The entrepreneurial practices of Selat Village community had arisen not only to serve usual climbing activities, but also to preserve the environment of the mountain and the safety of the climbing tourists with the many taboos related to the climb. These facts could be seen clearly from descriptions of local experts and local climbing guides who have been doing their work for years. As a form of entrepreneurship, they basically did their work for the main purpose of seeking livelihoods (or making money) but their responsibility as local people made them commit to guarding the sanctity of the mountain. This was

  3. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  4. Is Local Community the Answer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Olwig, Mette Fog

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines claims that “local community” and “local/traditional knowledge” are vital contributions to safeguarding socio-economic stability and securing sustainable resource uses in times of stress. The empirical focus is on Central Vietnam, but the argument is relevant...

  5. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  6. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  7. Exploring Local Perspectives for Conservation Planning: A Case Study from a Remote Forest Community in Indonesian Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam van Heist

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconciling conservation and livelihoods is a concern wherever forests are important in local people’s lives. We plead for engaging these people in survey activities to clarify what is important to them, as a first step in conservation planning. This will help to address their priorities and gain their guidance and support for interventions. This paper presents the results of such a survey with the community of Kwerba in Mamberamo, a remote and little known part of Indonesian Papua. Views and priorities were explored through interviews, scoring exercises, community mapping and a field survey. Whereas small gardens provided most staple food, culture and livelihoods were linked to the forest. People scored primary forest highest for nearly all use categories. Primary forest was particularly highly valued as a source of construction materials, ornaments and rituals, and as a hunting place. We developed a list of the overall most important plants and animals. Many natural resources were used, but few were commercially exploited. The community had rules to control access to certain areas and resources. Taboos to restrict access to sacred places were also maintained. Our evaluation identified opportunities to achieve conservation outcomes jointly with the Kwerba people. In follow-up activities, the community presented local government with a land-use plan for their territory. The government recognized the value of our approach and requested training to implement it more widely in the region.

  8. Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...

  9. Discourse Communities--Local and Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie

    1992-01-01

    Argues that rhetorical theory needs to keep alive competing concepts of discourse communities, so that alternatives exist in the description and analysis of discourse practices. Proposes distinguishing between two kinds of discourse communities--the local and the global--so that rhetorical analysis can achieve the necessary critical edge,…

  10. Setting up local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larke, Charmian.

    1993-01-01

    A report is given on progress to establish a company in the UK which involves local people at an early stage in the development of wind farms. Particular attention is paid to obtaining local finance for the projects. Because rural communities tend to be relatively poor, larger investors will need to be involved. (UK)

  11. Higher education and local communities | Humphreys | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and advocate for human resource development and the third, as a service provider, building intellectual capital. The article examines the proposition that the most significant contribution that a university or technikon can make to the development of a locality derives from its recruitment of students from the local community.

  12. Local community participatory learning with a nature interpretation system: A case study in Ban Pong, Sansai district, Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raktida Siri

    2017-05-01

    The research employed multiple research methods consisting of surveys, focus group discussion, and participatory observation. Samples used in the study were members of the Agro-tourism Club of Ban Pong community, Ban Pong, Papai sub-district, Sansai district, Chiang Mai province. The community members undertook learning through a four-step participatory learning process; (1 analyzing problems, (2 planning, exploring, and voting, (3 implementation, and (4 evaluation. The results showed that the community members had gained knowledge about tourism interpretation and showed a positive attitude toward the development of tourism interpretation. Moreover, at the end of the study, they had actually developed an interpretative nature trail that was derived from the real needs of their community.

  13. Context Matters: The Importance of Local Culture in Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Aldrich, Daniel; Ayres, Janet; Amberg, Shannon M.; Molloy, Alicia; Saylor, Amber; Thompson, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Encouraging members of the public to get engaged in local decision-making is a key role of Extension educators. The study reported here explores whether local context influences which individuals choose to attend public meetings about the community and the environment. The study surveyed meeting attendees and non-meeting attendees in three…

  14. Finding local communities in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-09-18

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent, making our application useful for biologists who wish to

  15. Finding local communities in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. Results We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. Conclusion The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent

  16. Global and local targeted immunization in networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Zheng, Zhiming; Fang, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    Immunization plays an important role in the field of epidemic spreading in complex networks. In previous studies, targeted immunization has been proved to be an effective strategy. However, when extended to networks with community structure, it is unknown whether the superior strategy is to vaccinate the nodes who have the most connections in the entire network (global strategy), or those in the original community where epidemic starts to spread (local strategy). In this work, by using both analytic approaches and simulations, we observe that the answer depends on the closeness between communities. If communities are tied closely, the global strategy is superior to the local strategy. Otherwise, the local targeted immunization is advantageous. The existence of a transitional value of closeness implies that we should adopt different strategies. Furthermore, we extend our investigation from two-community networks to multi-community networks. We consider the mode of community connection and the location of community where epidemic starts to spread. Both simulation results and theoretical predictions show that local strategy is a better option for immunization in most cases. But if the epidemic begins from a core community, global strategy is superior in some cases. (paper)

  17. Local wisdom in preservation of Lake Toba ecosystems (study on Toba Lake community in the Village of Silalahi I, Sub District of Silahisabungan, Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani Harahap, R.; Humaizi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the perception of Batak Toba community in Silalahi I Village, Silahisabungan Subdistrict to the existence of Lake Toba, local wisdom owned by Batak Toba community in Silalahi I Village, Silahisabungan Sub District in order to preserve Lake Toba and recommend policy to revitalize it which is still running, which runs partially or which has not been done at all. The type of research used in this research is descriptive research with qualitative analysis. Data collection was conducted by interviews with key informants and informants i.e. community leaders, religious leaders and customary leaders in the study sites. The results showed that the perception of the Silalahi I Village community of Silahiabungan subdistrict to the existence of Lake Toba is a source of life. That means Lake Toba is a source of sustenance, a source of livelihood such as a place to fish, where to put floating net cages and as a sustenance of tourism activities. The form of local wisdom in preserving the area of Lake Toba is the existence of some sacred places such as Nauli basa, Partonunan stone (Deang Namora), that the entire area of Lake Toba called Tao Silalahi controlled by aunty (Namboru) Deang Namora is a purified area so prohibited spit, wearing jewelry, doing immoral, bathing over 6 o’clock, bringing and eating pork or dogs, bathing naked in the lake, laughing until laughing, and for women if there is a long hair should tie and If you want to take a bath must first permit the grandmother (oppung) guard lake. All local wisdom is still done because they still believe, although there is also rarely done. An effective way to revitalize the existing wisdom locals is to continue to perform the ritual or ceremony of the Statue of Silahisabungan once a year, and continue to obey the advice given by the King of Silahisabungan called Poda sagu-sagu marlangan.

  18. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  19. SOCIAL ANALYSES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT POTENTIAL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Ткачев

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66

  20. Traditional knowledge for promotion of socioeconomic inclusion of local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Francisco Sorte Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role played by public research institutes for promoting socioeconomic inclusion of local communities based on traditional knowledge and traditional medicine. Nongovernmental organizations and cooperatives have had an important role in raising financial resources, being involved with advocacy of local communities and advancing legislation changes. But strict best manufacturing practices regulations imposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency on the requirements for approval and commercialization of drugs based on herbal medicine products call for the involvement of strong public research institutes capable of supporting community-based pharmacies. Thus, public research institutes are pivotal as they can conduct scientific research studies to evidence the efficacy of herbal medicine products and help building the capacity of local communities to comply with current regulations.

  1. Translating an early childhood obesity prevention program for local community implementation: a case study of the Melbourne InFANT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laws

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT, an obesity prevention program for parents with infants aged 3–18 months. The study explored key factors influencing the translation of the Program into routine practice and the respective role of policy makers, researchers and implementers. Methods Case studies were conducted of five of the eight prevention areas in Victoria, Australia who implemented the Program. Cases were selected on the basis of having implemented the Program for 6 months or more. Data were collected from January to June 2015 and included 18 individual interviews, one focus group and observation of two meetings. A total of 28 individuals, including research staff (n = 4, policy makers (n = 2 and implementers (n = 22, contributed to the data collected. Thematic analysis was conducted using cross case comparisons and key themes were verified through member checking. Results Key facilitators of implementation included availability of a pre-packaged evidence based program addressing a community need, along with support and training provided by research staff to local implementers. Partnerships between researchers and policy makers facilitated initial program adoption, while local partnerships supported community implementation. Community partnerships were facilitated by local coordinators through alignment of program goals with existing policies and services. Workforce capacity for program delivery and administration was a challenge, largely overcome by embedding the Program into existing roles. Adapting the Program to fit local circumstance was critical for feasible and sustainable delivery, however

  2. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  3. Local communities obstruct global consensus: Naming game on multi-local-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Fan, Zhengping; Xiang, Luna

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is essential for social communications, where individuals belonging to the same community are much more actively interacting and communicating with each other than those in different communities within the human society. Naming game, on the other hand, is a social communication model that simulates the process of learning a name of an object within a community of humans, where the individuals can generally reach global consensus asymptotically through iterative pair-wise conversations. The underlying network indicates the relationships among the individuals. In this paper, three typical topologies, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed, which are embedded with the multi-local-world community structure, to study the naming game. Simulations show that (1) the convergence process to global consensus is getting slower as the community structure becomes more prominent, and eventually might fail; (2) if the inter-community connections are sufficiently dense, neither the number nor the size of the communities affects the convergence process; and (3) for different topologies with the same (or similar) average node-degree, local clustering of individuals obstruct or prohibit global consensus to take place. The results reveal the role of local communities in a global naming game in social network studies.

  4. Factors that influence the way communities respond to proposals for major changes to local emergency services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Fulop, Naomi J; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-01-01

    According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions. Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access) if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care). A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception. Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville'), and one where they were not ('Hilltown'). 28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5) and older people (n=6) - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9). Hilltown interviewees (n=8) received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission. Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times. Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the

  5. Factors that influence the way communities respond to proposals for major changes to local emergency services: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Barratt

    Full Text Available According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions.Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care. A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception.Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville', and one where they were not ('Hilltown'.28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5 and older people (n=6 - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9. Hilltown interviewees (n=8 received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission.Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times.Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the

  6. What are the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Australia? A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.

  7. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  8. Historical Changes of Land Tenure and Land Use Rights in a Local Community: A Case Study in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saykham Boutthavong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-titling programs, land and forest allocation programs, and projects on state-allocated land for development and investment in Laos have been key drivers of change in land tenure. These have triggered major shifts in land use rights, from customary, to temporary, and then to permanent land use rights. This article explores how government programs to grant land use rights to individual households have affected the way people have been able to acquire and secure land tenure. For our case study, we selected the village of Napo, the target of many land tenure changes in the past four decades. We collected data from district offices, group discussions with village organizations, and interviews with selected households. The study shows how land use rights shifted over time and reveals that households obtained most of their agricultural land and forestland through a claim process. Original households were mainly land claimers, while migrants were land buyers. The process of formalization and allocation of tenure triggered inequality among households. Attention is needed in future land governance and tenure reforms in order to safeguard the land use rights of local people in an equitable manner.

  9. Design democratization with communities: Drawing toward locally meaningful design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....

  10. Who Manages Space? Eco-DRR and the Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Aini Dalimunthe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (DRR has only recently emerged in Indonesia. The Indonesian central government now adopts some policies related to ecosystem-based DRR with formal commitments from local administrations. At the implementation level, various activities have taken place, such as mangrove planting and restoration along the coastline to address the rising sea level and the “one billion trees” program to address the urgent issue of deforestation. These governmental activities have involved local communities that reside in the high-risk area, while nonlocal actors, particularly from the private and the nongovernmental sectors, have contributed as a third element to development. This paper examines space management in the context of Eco-DRR, paying special attention to uncertainty and anxiety in the local communities as the government and private sectors engage in development activities that have significant impacts on their present and future lives. The present study pursues this purpose by means of in-depth interview and focus group discussions (FGD with local leaders in mangrove planting and restoration programs. The study took place in a small island community in a part of the Jakarta Megapolitan Region, Indonesia. The results point out that the community feels left behind due to lack of trust in managing the conservation space. Another issue to be addressed is how to improve the democratization of environment management and livelihood base of the local community. Therefore, building confidence and ameliorating relationships between actors within/without the local community should lead to a better Eco-DRR initiative.

  11. Local Ancestry Inference in a Large US-Based Hispanic/Latino Study: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sharon R; Grinde, Kelsey; Plantinga, Anna; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Stilp, Adrienne M; Kaplan, Robert C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2016-06-01

    We estimated local ancestry on the autosomes and X chromosome in a large US-based study of 12,793 Hispanic/Latino individuals using the RFMix method, and we compared different reference panels and approaches to local ancestry estimation on the X chromosome by means of Mendelian inconsistency rates as a proxy for accuracy. We developed a novel and straightforward approach to performing ancestry-specific PCA after finding artifactual behavior in the results from an existing approach. Using the ancestry-specific PCA, we found significant population structure within African, European, and Amerindian ancestries in the Hispanic/Latino individuals in our study. In the African ancestral component of the admixed individuals, individuals whose grandparents were from Central America clustered separately from individuals whose grandparents were from the Caribbean, and also from reference Yoruba and Mandenka West African individuals. In the European component, individuals whose grandparents were from Puerto Rico diverged partially from other background groups. In the Amerindian ancestral component, individuals clustered into multiple different groups depending on the grandparental country of origin. Therefore, local ancestry estimation provides further insight into the complex genetic structure of US Hispanic/Latino populations, which must be properly accounted for in genotype-phenotype association studies. It also provides a basis for admixture mapping and ancestry-specific allele frequency estimation, which are useful in the identification of risk factors for disease. Copyright © 2016 Browning et al.

  12. LOCAL COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON PROSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anallely BELLO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.

  13. Putting newborn hearing screening on the political agenda in Belgium: local initiatives toward a community programme - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Bénédicte; Lagasse, Raphaël; Levêque, Alain

    2014-07-01

    The Kingdon model, based on the convergence of three streams (problem, policy, and politics) and the opening of a policy window, analyses the process by which a health issue is placed on the political agenda. We used this model to document the political agenda-setting process of the newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium. A qualitative study based on a document review and on semi-directed interviews was carried out. The interviews were conducted with nine people who had played a role in putting the issue in question on the political agenda, and the documents reviewed included scientific literature and internal reports and publications from the newborn hearing screening programme. The thematic analysis of the data collected was carried out on the basis of the Kingdon model's three streams. The political agenda-setting of this screening programme was based on many factors. The problem stream included factors external to the context under study, such as the technological developments and the contribution of the scientific literature which led to the recommendation to provide newborn hearing screening. The two other streams (policy and politics) covered factors internal to the Belgian context. The fact that it was locally feasible with financial support, the network of doctors convinced of the need for newborn hearing screening, the drafting of various proposals, and the search for financing were all part of the policy stream. The Belgian political context and the policy opportunities concerning preventive medicine were identified as significant factors in the third stream. When these three streams converged, a policy window opened, allowing newborn hearing screening onto the political agenda and enabling the policy decision for its introduction. The advantage of applying the Kingdon model in our approach was the ability to demonstrate the political agenda-setting process, using the three streams. This made it possible to identify the many factors involved in

  14. Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble ... findings of the study showed that rural people in the Soye district have identifiable information needs mainly in the areas of agriculture, health, government programmes and small scale industries.

  15. Tungiasis in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...

  16. Hot yoga establishments in local communities serving pregnant women: a pilot study on the health implications of its practice and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D

    2014-10-01

    Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice.

  17. Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katikiro, R.E.; Macusi, E.D.; Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how the history and process of establishing a marine protected area (MPA) under the control of the state has led to limited interest in community-based management amongst local stakeholders. The study contributes to the understanding of historical events that have discouraged

  18. Local embeddedness in community energy projects. A social entrepreneurship perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.

  19. Prehistoric Agricultural Communities in West Central Alabama. Volume 2. Studies of Material Remains from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    and excessive calculus deposits which promoted periodontal disease , was not observed in the sample. In a survey of caries experience in populations of...class. General categories such as large mammal (e.g., deer or bear), medium mammal (e.g., raccoon or dog sized), and small mammal (e.g., mouse or rabbit...sample from the Lubbub Creek Archaeological Locality. We know from ethnohistoric accounts and from archaeological remains that dogs were commensals

  20. Building local communities: Place-shaping as nation-building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Lyons Inquiry into Local Government has introduced the English local government community to the concept of ‘place-shaping’. Place-shaping refers to the new role for local governments in promoting the well-being of communities and citizens. The processes of place-shaping are

  1. What affects local community hospitals' survival in turbulent times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing

    2015-06-01

    Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  2. Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism and community development: a case study of Olumirin Waterfall, ... of ecotourism to the community development of the host community and her environs. ... Tourist survey, staff survey, local business sector survey and community ...

  3. ECOLOGICAL ETHICS. VALUES AND NORMS IN LOCAL RURAL COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzimierz Kaczocha; Jan Sikora

    2016-01-01

    An important role in sustainable rural development, involving economy, local communities and nature, should be played by ethics. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical characterization of basic problems of ecological ethics. First and foremost, the study characterizes the philosophical fundamentals of this ethics, with emphasis on ontological and anthropological views of selected thinkers. A universal concept of ecological ethics was proposed, containing values and moral norms that p...

  4. Local Community Detection Algorithm Based on Minimal Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.

  5. The effect of the PROSPER partnership model on cultivating local stakeholder knowledge of evidence-based programs: a five-year longitudinal study of 28 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve R

    2012-02-01

    A substantial challenge in improving public health is how to facilitate the local adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). To do so, an important step is to build local stakeholders' knowledge and decision-making skills regarding the adoption and implementation of EBIs. One EBI delivery system, called PROSPER (PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience), has effectively mobilized community prevention efforts, implemented prevention programming with quality, and consequently decreased youth substance abuse. While these results are encouraging, another objective is to increase local stakeholder knowledge of best practices for adoption, implementation and evaluation of EBIs. Using a mixed methods approach, we assessed local stakeholder knowledge of these best practices over 5 years, in 28 intervention and control communities. Results indicated that the PROSPER partnership model led to significant increases in expert knowledge regarding the selection, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. Findings illustrate the limited programming knowledge possessed by members of local prevention efforts, the difficulty of complete knowledge transfer, and highlight one method for cultivating that knowledge.

  6. Internal Guidelines for interactions with communities and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    These Guidelines provide principles for interactions with local populations. Interaction with communities and local govenments are the responsibility of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Wastes Management program's implementing offices. The Guidelines provide policy direction to these implementing offices, while preserving their ability to tailor local interactions to fit a given situation, taking into account the social and political context and the history of local involvement in the program. Project Offices conduct community and local interactions within overall program resources which must be husbanded prudently. Careful planning by implementing offices should ensure that adequate resources are available to foster effective interactions with local representatives

  7. Facilitating the Growth of Local Energy Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Willem Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Energietransitie staat hoog op de agenda. Op de route naar een duurzamer energiesysteem zien we de laatste jaren een grote toename van het aantal lokale energie communities. Deze energie communities streven naar duurzaamheid door middel van het stimuleren van energiebesparingen en het realiseren van

  8. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  9. Strategies for local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Garry

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)

  10. Indigenous knowledge systems, local community and community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...

  11. Local Food Systems Supported by Communities Nationally and Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Mária Bakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.

  12. LOCAL COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM DEVEOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of community participation in tourism development has been brought in front of the sector decision makers and researchers mostly during the last period of time. It could be a source of benefits and it could also create a better relationship between the tourism companies and the community groups. In this paper the author writes a literature review on this subject in order to draw attention on this issue in the Romanian tourism literature and to create an analysis framework for specific cases of tourism development plans.

  13. Experiencing local community resilience in action : Learning from post-disaster communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing attention has been given to the need to engage local communities and facilitate community resilience, discrepancies between theory and practice remain evident. Myths, misconceptions and mistakes persist in post-disaster emergency operations, and in the reconstruction and

  14. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This ana...

  15. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  16. Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community-Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…

  17. Emergency preparedness training for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, M.J.; Thompson, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Detroit Edison, in cooperation with Monroe County, has developed a comprehensive training program for local emergency workers in the area surrounding the Fermi 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Using expertise from both organizations, a program consisting of two videotapes, two slide-tapes and nine narrated slide series was produced to address the worker-specific training needs of county emergency workers. In June of 185, the program was approved by Detroit Edison and the Monroe County Board of Commissioners. To date, Monroe County has trained more than 1000 emergency workers. This program has been so well received that the county staff has developed and presented a modified version of this program to the general public. The result of this cooperative effort is increased public confidence in emergency preparedness at the state, local and utility level and a renewed spirit of cooperation and trust between the utility and local units of government

  18. Local community participation in enhanced landfill mining: the challenge to bridge between communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Ballard, M.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  19. National labs working with local communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Existing Buildings Efficiency Research Program

    1996-10-01

    In mid September Argonne National Laboratory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary with an open house in which more than 20,000 people toured the site and viewed some 100 demonstrations, exhibits and presentations of the scientific and engineering programs currently being pursued at Argonne. During the course of the open house it became obvious that to even long time residents of the Chicago area the activities of ANL were unknown or unclear. Part of this lack of knowledge about the scientific and engineering research occurring at DOE national laboratories is the remoteness of most research programs from the everyday lives of citizens. It is both the discussions that are remote as well as a remoteness of impacts on ordinary lives that often leads people to miss the exciting research activity occurring nearby. However, at least one research program at Argonne is structured to be purposefully different. The Existing Buildings Efficiency Research (EBER) program pursues its scientific work in concert with architects, engineers, and community developers as they attempt to provide high quality energy efficient, high performance buildings at reasonable cost. Instead of conducting experiments inside the barbed wire fences of secure facilities, technical assistance for the inclusion of DOE tools, techniques, and technologies is offered at the construction site within the community and research results are drawn back as projects are monitored for the performance of the energy conservation measures. In this report several projects at ANL are briefly discussed to give a sense of the possibilities for the laboratory and broader scientific community to work one-on-one with community-based organizations and the agencies that directly serve the needs of low-income neighborhoods.

  20. Local community perceptions of conservation policy: rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions have provoked a wide range of mostly negative reactions amongst local villagers ... conservation, afin notamment que ces actions soient efficaces. Cette étude se focalise .... since the 1980s, there has been a gradual move towards more in- .... getting as equal a representation of male and female informants as well as ...

  1. Small heating reactors for local heating of communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1985-08-01

    The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)

  2. SHARING TOURISM BENEFITS WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-12

    Mar 12, 2012 ... Local communities' participation in tourism benefit-sharing is central to tourism ... potential to provide economic benefits through ..... tours with a combination of both cultural and ... resources, also has a system of employing.

  3. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  4. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K.; Fordyce, James A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that...

  5. Supporting local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through giant reed (Arundo donax L.) cultivation: An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A; Impagliazzo, A; Fiorentino, N; Langella, G; Mori, M; Fagnano, M

    2017-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are well known for their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the soil carbon stock. Although such crops are often held to be in competition with food crops and thus raise the question of current and future food security, at the same time mitigation measures are required to tackle climate change and sustain local farming communities and crop production. However, in some cases the actions envisaged for specific pedo-climatic conditions are not always economically sustainable by farmers. In this frame, energy crops with high environmental adaptability and yields, such as giant reed (Arundo donax L.), may represent an opportunity to improve farm incomes, making marginal areas not suitable for food production once again productive. In so doing, three of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations would be met, namely SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, SDG 7 on reliable, sustainable and modern energy, and SDG 13 on action to combat climate change and its impacts. In this work, the response of giant reed in the marginal areas of an agricultural district of southern Italy (Destra Sele) and expected farm incomes under climate change (2021-2050) are evaluated. The normalized water productivity index of giant reed was determined (WP; 30.1gm -2 ) by means of a SWAP agro-hydrological model, calibrated and validated on two years of a long-term field experiment. The model was used to estimate giant reed response (biomass yield) in marginal areas under climate change, and economic evaluation was performed to determine expected farm incomes (woodchips and chopped forage). The results show that woodchip production represents the most profitable option for farmers, yielding a gross margin 50% lower than ordinary high-input maize cultivation across the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  7. Local and Community History: Some Cautionary Remarks on an Idea Whose Time Has Returned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes past local history movements and addresses benefits and problems for historical studies and history teaching in the current upsurge of interest in local and community history. Concludes that local history must transcend parochialism in order to see the larger picture. (KC)

  8. Can Online Forums Be Designed to Empower Local Communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerill Dunne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing concern regarding political disengagement among citizens within western representative democracies. This concern has brought about calls for local communities to be empowered by giving citizens more control over local decision making. The objective of this paper is to examine if local political online forums can be built to empower local communities. That is to say, this paper will test if the E-Democracy.org’s Local Issues Forum Guidebook recommendations (A to do list for building successful online forums actually work and produce forums which facilitate citizens to have a greater say on local decision making and thus, induce empowerment. In order to test these recommendations a two-pronged methodological approach was taken. Firstly, using these recommendations an online forum was constructed in-conjunction with a local authority within the UK. Secondly, the recommendations were tested again except in this second approach a sample of online forums from around the world was examined. This paper argues that the E-Democracy.org’s recommendations do not always produce forums which empower local communities - Based on lessons learned from both experiments new guidelines are provided.

  9. Multi-level natural resources governance based on local community: A case study on semi-natural grassland in Tarōji, Nara, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Japan is facing a bio-diversity crisis as a result of rapid industrialisation. The Japanese Ministry of the Environment formulated a National Biodiversity Strategy based on the Convention on Biological Diversity signed at the Earth Summit in 1992. After an amendment in 2002, the National Biodiversity Strategy addressed three crises in biodiversity: over-exploitation and development that destroys habitats, underutilisation (the satoyama problem and artificially introduced factors (chemicals, alien species and so on. This paper focuses on the second problem. Secondary natural environments called satoyama have been created and maintained over the centuries by human activity. Because natural environments in Japan have been affected by human-induced disturbances for 35,000 years, many species have evolved in response to these disturbances. If the human activities cease, many of the species that have evolved to survive in managed environments become threatened. Many satoyama have been managed as commonage or common lands, called iriai in Japan. One natural resource system created by commoners is semi-natural grassland, and economic modernisation has led to abandonment of traditional management practices on these grasslands – one of the more evident changes in Japanese iriai practices. Before industrialisation, semi-natural grasslands were managed as a source of green manure, as a harvest for roofing materials (thatch and as pasture for animals. After industrialisation, however, introduction of chemical fertilizers, changes in building practices and importation of animal feeds rapidly decreased the use value of these grasslands for local residents. On the other hand, their value as public goods – as historical, cultural landscapes and places of biodiversity – which concern a much broader population than the local community – became relatively more important. The resulting problem is how to manage this resource with its new value for new

  10. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binda Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.. One taxon (Borago officinalis in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having

  11. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  12. Does stability in local community composition depend on temporal variation in rates of dispersal and connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf

    2015-04-01

    In ecology understanding variation in connectivity is central for how biodiversity is maintained. Field studies on dispersal and temporal dynamics in community regulating processes are, however, rare. We test the short-term temporal stability in community composition in a soft-sediment benthic community by determining among-sampling interval similarity in community composition. We relate stability to in situ measures of connectivity (wind, wave, current energy) and rates of dispersal (quantified in different trap types). Waves were an important predictor of when local community taxa are most likely to disperse in different trap-types, suggesting that wave energy is important for connectivity in a region. Community composition at the site was variable and changed stochastically over time. We found changes in community composition (occurrence, abundance, dominance) to be greater at times when connectivity and rates of dispersal were low. In response to periods of lower connectedness dominant taxa in the local community only exhibited change in their relative abundance. In contrast, locally less abundant taxa varied in both their presence, as well as in relative abundance. Constancy in connectivity and rates of dispersal promotes community stability and persistence, suggesting that local community composition will be impacted by changes in the spatial extent over which immigration and emigration operates in the region. Few empirical studies have actually measured dispersal directly in a multi-species context to demonstrate the role it plays in maintaining local community structure. Even though our study does not evaluate coexistence over demographic time scales, it importantly demonstrates that dispersal is not only important in initial recruitment or following a disturbance, but also key in maintaining local community composition.

  13. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga

    Full Text Available With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs, the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities' and PA staff's views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation.

  14. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  15. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-22

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.

  17. A Parameter Study of Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Stephen Mester

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been done on the vibration characteristics of perfectly periodic structures. Disorder in the periodic pattern has been found to lead to localization in one-dimensional periodic structures. It is important to understand localization because it causes energy to be concentrated near the disorder and may cause an overestimation of structural damping. A numerical study is conducted to obtain a better understanding of localization. It is found that any mode, even the first, can localize due to the presence of small imperfections.

  18. Comparing Effectiveness of New Training Program of Local Trainers of Community-Based Rehabilitation Program with the Current Program: A Knowledge, Attitude and Skills Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Iravani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research aimed at comparison effects of a new and current "training program for community rehabilitation workers of Community Based Rehabilitation", in enhancing their knowledge, attitude and skills. Materials & Methods: In this experimental field trial, a total number of 34 newly engaged local trainers in Lorestan province were divided randomly in two (16 and 18 peoplesinterventional groups based on geographical location of their work places Teaching methods were roll playing, problem solving, and learning by doing in new program and the booklets were revised in terms of fluency and a guideline booklet for trainers were added in this program but the teaching method was reading booklets and demonstration of the skills in current program. Knowledge, Attitude and Skills of trainees assessed just before and after the training course based on the material which were used for the training course. K.A.P. changes of two groups were compared by independent t-test, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon & Chi square. Results: Mean knowledge and skills scores increments were remarkably more significant after attending new course than after passing the current course (P<0.001 and more rehabilitation workers who attending new course use practical guides in addition to verbal instructions to train disabled people and their families (P=0.028. There were no significant differences in attitude changes among the two groups. Conclusion: As trainees learned more by means of the new training course and the two courses were not so different in the resource allocation, substituting the new method to the current one should get consideration.

  19. Capacity issues in local communities for integral urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđenović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in wider sense is organizational-communication capacity of local communities in Serbia in the frame of sustainable development. Along with this, the paper will explore potentialities of Faludi's model of multiplanning agencies as well as Healey's collaborative theory for better efficiency and effectiveness of planning in the process of urban regeneration. Specifically the paper will research relation between organizational structure of local communities in Serbia and their potentialities to provide adequate communication towards integral information for urban regeneration. Research is framed with a problem of efficiency and effectiveness in creating urban regeneration policies, strategies, designs, and technical solutions. The problem will be focused to Serbian context; characterized with inadequate, transitional, system of governance that is moving from centralistic towards decentralist model. This will be further explored through level and type of participation in the process of urban regeneration. The hypothesis of the research explores the nature of the relation between number and types of communication channels, provided by organizational structure of local communities that should enable effectiveness and efficiency of urban regeneration. In other words the hypothesis is: number and types of communication channels (variable A influences the effectiveness and efficiency of urban planning for sustainable urban regeneration (variable B. The aims of the paper are identification of the regulations between the variables. Expected result is establishing the model for measuring the capacity of local communities for integral urban regeneration.

  20. ACHP |Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Heritage Tourism arrow Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance for Federal Agencies Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in historic places. Such tourism - heritage tourism -can result in a variety of tangible and intangible

  1. Local Safety Toolkit: Enabling safe communities of opportunity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtmann, B

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available remain inadequate to achieve safety. The Local Safety Toolkit supports a strategy for a Safe South Africa through the implementation of a model for a Safe Community of Opportunity. The model is the outcome of work undertaken over the course of the past...

  2. VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niewolny, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This document is a chart illustrating the Virginia Cooperative Extension model for food systems at the community, local and regional level. This chart shows an interrelationship between basic and applied research, leveraging of resources and opportunities, communication and marketing, assessment, evaluation and impact, knowledge, skills, and social change, facilitation of partnerships, and also teaching.

  3. ENCOURAGING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, A TRAINING GUIDE FOR LOCAL WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDDLE, LOUREIDE J.; BIDDLE, WILLIAM W.

    THIS TRAINING GUIDE IS WRITTEN TO MEET THE NEEDS OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO WHICH THE PEACE CORPS, VISTA, CHURCHES, AND OTHER VOLUNTEER-USING AGENCIES TURN FOR HELP IN TRAINING THE NONPROFESSIONAL OR PREPROFESSIONAL LOCAL WORKER IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE LESSONS ARE DIRECTED TO THE "ENCOURAGER" WHO LIVES WITH THE PEOPLE PARTICIPATING IN…

  4. Green Richland: Building Sustainable Local and World Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Carole N.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares the college's experiences and the lessons learned in the creation of the GREENRichland Program and the other approaches to building sustainability. These programs directly support the college's vision to be the best place to learn, teach, and build sustainable local and world community. This discussion features details…

  5. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  6. The Use of Information by Policymakers at the Local Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Evelyn; DeMartini, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of decision making focuses on a study that was conducted to examine how policymakers at the local community level use social science information in making decisions. The use of social science information and other information sources in two communities examining health care issues is described. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  7. Why do local communities support or oppose seawater desalination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Heck, N.; Faraola, S.; Paytan, A.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater shortages have become a global problem due to increasing water consumption and environmental changes which are reducing the reliability of traditional water resources. One option to address water shortages in coastal areas is the use of seawater desalination. Desalination technology is particularly valued for the production of high quality drinking water and consistent production. However, seawater desalination is controversial due to potential environmental, economic, and societal impacts and lack of public support for this water supply method. Compared to alternative potable water production methods, such as water recycling, little is known about public attitudes towards seawater desalination and factors that shape local support or rejection. Our research addresses this gap and explores variables that influence support for proposed desalination plants in the Monterey Bay region, where multiple facilities have been proposed in recent years. Data was collected via a questionnaire-based survey among a random sample of coastal residents and marine stakeholders between June-July, 2016. Findings of the study identify the influence of socio-demographic variables, knowledge about desalination, engagement in marine activities, perception of the environmental context, and the existence of a National Marine Sanctuary on local support. Research outcome provide novel insights into public attitudes towards desalination and enhances our understanding of why communities might support or reject this water supply technology.

  8. From Sociocultural Disintegration to Community Connectedness Dimensions of Local Community Concepts and Their Effects on Psychological Health of Its Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of community mental health promotion studies in Lofoten, Norway, the concept of sociocultural integration is used to describe properties of a local community that are related to people's psychological health. Starting with Durkheim's description of a cohesive society, we compare different concepts that are related to sociocultural integration, for example, sense of community, social capital, and social cohesion. We then examine the relationship of various individual oriented social psychological concepts to sociocultural integration. These concepts often share theoretical and operational definitions. The concept of sociocultural integration in the Lofoten studies was proved to be very valuable in understanding how the properties of a community can affect people's mental health and their social psychological properties. It has also shown its value in the planning of mental health services and demonstrating its success in concrete community-based mental health promotion projects. Thus they could make important contributions to further studies and actions in local communities where the intersection between the individual, their social network, and their local community occurs.

  9. [Local health systems. Moral rationality of community decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, J C

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the points of convergence between local health systems and bioethics in three basic areas: structural or institutional, methodological or justificatory, and regulatory or normative. Comparisons are drawn between the decentralization of the health system posed by local health systems and deconcentration of the power vested in multidisciplinary ethics committees; the strategy of social participation and the movement in the United States of community decision-making in the area of health; and the basic concepts of primary health care and the principle of justice. The theories of Pellegrino and Thomasma on the philosophic bases for medical practice provide the framework of this comparative analysis. The article concludes with a call for a local health systems-bioethical nexus in which this discipline can provide the basis for infusing an ethical component into participatory planning and community decision-making.

  10. Impacts of Educational Tourism on Local Community: The Case of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus.

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyeva, Gunay

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of educational tourism on the local community of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus through the cultural exchange that took place between local and international students. The study used an inductive approach in order to achieve a qualitative understanding of the research area. Semi-structured interviews with Turkish Cypriot students supplied valuable information about the experiences, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and perspectives of the local students.The findings ...

  11. Re-embedding science in the realities of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Eames, Malcolm

    leads to sustainable solutions. A major question facing the S&T policy community, and indeed society at large, is therefore how science and technology can be more effectively harnessed to addressing the sustainability needs and priorities of particular communities. It is in this context that this paper...... in particular times and places, in particular practices and communities of actors. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that science, technology and innovation have a critical role to play in addressing the challenges of sustainable development it is far from evident that investment in science and technology per se...... examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between local communities and academia. Building on the insights from critical theory; mode-2 conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science...

  12. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  13. Rapid adjustment of bird community compositions to local climatic variations and its functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover

  14. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  15. Resilience and adaptability of rice terrace social-ecological systems: a case study of a local community's perception in Banaue, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Castonguay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems of rice terraces across Southeast Asia are the result of centuries of long-term interactions between human communities and their surrounding ecosystems. Processes and structures in these systems have evolved to provide a diversity of ecosystem services and benefits to human societies. However, as Southeast Asian countries experience rapid economic growth and related land-use changes, the remaining extensive rice cultivation systems are increasingly under pressure. We investigated the long-term development of ecosystem services and the adaptive capacity of the social-ecological system of rice terrace landscapes using a case study of Banaue (Ifugao Province, Northern-Luzon, Philippines. A set of indicators was used to describe and assess changes in the social-ecological state of the study system. The resilience of the rice terraces and the human communities that maintain them was examined by comparing the current state of the system with results from the literature. Our findings indicate that, although the social-ecological system has not yet shifted to an alternative state, pressures are increasing and some cultural ecosystem services have already been lost.

  16. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE

  17. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE.

  18. Building sustainable health and education partnerships: stories from local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. © 2015 Institute for Educational Leadership. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.

  19. The role local initiatives in community based disaster risk management in Kemijen, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.

    2017-06-01

    Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.

  20. Participation in design between public sector and local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...

  1. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    people in need, but a process of empowerment where rural communities can acquire mastery over their .... in each zone to make the study more interactive and participatory oriented. Items discussed were .... Friends and neighbours. 22.00. 3 ... communities because of their high influence on the people. When extension ...

  2. What we might accomplish by engaging in our local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Sue Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As we learn more about the importance of social determinants of health—describing how poverty, neighborhood, access to healthy food, and education, all play important roles in health—having an educator who can teach about the specific local community assets and influences on health may be as important as teaching which antibiotic to use. Academia and funders could increase this kind of knowledge acquisition and dissemination by rewarding and valuing these clinicians.

  3. Urban shrinkage, local housing markets and the role of voluntary community organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of that municipalities’ tax income drop and they therefore need to reduce or completely withdraw public services. The aim of the paper is to explore what options, if any, are available to local communities and local governments to counteract these detrimental economic, spatial and social developments? It is discussed...... why and how communities’ social capital enables voluntary initiatives to grow and if there are options available to local government to encourage and strengthen voluntary community-based organisations. Evidence from two case studies shows a number of successful initiatives by both municipalities...

  4. Local community and ethical citizenship: Neoliberal configurations of social protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Čarna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the consequences of redefining citizenship as an ethical category during social protection reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. Ethical citizenship refers to a particular way of defining the relationship between the state and a person; a special politics of behavior that seeks to redefine citizens as moral subjects of responsible communities. The article ethnographically demonstrates that a local community, imagined as a collective of ethical actors, was expected to take over a major portion of financing and organizing social protection. Translating neoliberal policies to BiH, under supervision of the international community, created an ambiguous environment without a «clear system or model» in which personal relationships gained a special relevance. The article argues that favors and informal practices, such as veze and stela, were not strategies people used to overcome problems of postsocialist markets and democracies. Veze and stela have become particularly important for the organization social protection because neoliberal reforms left undefined roles, responsibilities, and procedures of protection. The very need to personalize social protection was a constitutive element of contemporary, global, neoliberal ideas about the relationship between the state and society, while veza and stela enabled people to actively negotiate roles, responsibilities, and procedures of social protection within their local communities.

  5. CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Gandiwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.

  6. Security Sector Reform, Local Ownership and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

  7. Elevation modulates how Arctic arthropod communities are structured along local environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds

    2017-01-01

    The organisation of ecological communities along local environmental gradients provides important information about how such communities may respond to environmental change. In the Arctic, the importance of gradients in shrub cover and soil moisture for non-marine arthropod communities has been...... clearly demonstrated. By replicating studies along shrub and moisture gradients at multiple elevations and using space-for-time substitution, it is possible to examine how arthropod communities may respond to future environmental change. We collected and identified 4640 adult specimens of spiders...... and beetles near Narsarsuaq, South Greenland between 8 July and 25 August, 2014 from 112 pitfall traps. The traps were arranged in eight plots covering local gradients in either soil moisture or tall shrub dominance at both low and high elevation. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed that community...

  8. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  9. Reaching out: medical students leading in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Aidan; O'Hare, Niamh; Corr, Michael; Sterling, Margaret; Gormley, Gerard J

    2015-06-01

    Queen's University Red Cross is a medical student-led volunteer group with a key aim of promoting social change within local communities and empowering young people to aspire to higher education. We describe 'The Personal Development Certificate', a 12-week community development programme devised by third-year medical students at Queen's University Belfast to target young people who are lacking educational motivation, are disengaged at home or are marginalised through social circumstances. Community-based education is of increasing importance within undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the UK, and further afield. We evaluated the perceived improvements in key skills such as teamwork, leadership, communication, and problem solving in students following participation in this programme, and the extent to which their attitude and appreciation of community-based medicine changed. [Students] appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments Following facilitation of this community-based initiative, all students reported a perceived improvement in the acquired skill sets. Students made strong links from this programme to previous clinical experiences and appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments and interactions. The students' appreciation and understanding of community-based medicine was the single most improved area of our evaluation. We have demonstrated that medical students possess the skills to develop and facilitate their own educational projects. Non-clinical, student-led community projects have the potential to be reproduced using recognised frameworks and guidelines to complement the current undergraduate medical curriculum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Primary assembly of soil communities: disentangling the effect of dispersal and local environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsdóttir, María; Caruso, Tancredi; Ripa, Jörgen; Magnúsdóttir, Olöf Birna; Migliorini, Massimo; Hedlund, Katarina

    2012-11-01

    It has long been recognised that dispersal abilities and environmental factors are important in shaping invertebrate communities, but their relative importance for primary soil community assembly has not yet been disentangled. By studying soil communities along chronosequences on four recently emerged nunataks (ice-free land in glacial areas) in Iceland, we replicated environmental conditions spatially at various geographical distances. This allowed us to determine the underlying factors of primary community assembly with the help of metacommunity theories that predict different levels of dispersal constraints and effects of the local environment. Comparing community assembly of the nunataks with that of non-isolated deglaciated areas indicated that isolation of a few kilometres did not affect the colonisation of the soil invertebrates. When accounting for effects of geographical distances, soil age and plant richness explained a significant part of the variance observed in the distribution of the oribatid mites and collembola communities, respectively. Furthermore, null model analyses revealed less co-occurrence than expected by chance and also convergence in the body size ratio of co-occurring oribatids, which is consistent with species sorting. Geographical distances influenced species composition, indicating that the community is also assembled by dispersal, e.g. mass effect. When all the results are linked together, they demonstrate that local environmental factors are important in structuring the soil community assembly, but are accompanied with effects of dispersal that may "override" the visible effect of the local environment.

  11. Cosmopolitans or Locals: Who Will Lead the Next Generation of Community Colleges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melanie Oakes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of cosmopolitan and local latent social roles on different professional occupations and organizational behavior has been studied since Gouldner's seminal study was published in 1957. This study was conducted to understand the relationship between the latent social role of the public community college chief academic officer and his…

  12. Evaluating the engagement of universities in capacity building for sustainable development in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Chris; Leal Filho, Walter; do Paço, Arminda; Brandli, Luciana

    2016-02-01

    Universities have the potential to play a leading role in enabling communities to develop more sustainable ways of living and working however, sustainable communities may only emerge with facilitation, community learning and continual efforts to build their capacities. Elements of programme planning and evaluation on the one hand, and capacity building on the other, are needed. The latter entails approaches and processes that may contribute to community empowerment; universities may either lead such approaches, or be key partners in an endeavour to empower communities to address the challenges posed by the need for sustainable development. Although capacity building and the promotion of sustainable development locally, are on the agenda for universities who take seriously regional engagement, very little is published that illustrates or describes the various forms of activities that take place. Further, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the work performed by universities in building capacity for sustainable development at the local level. This paper is an attempt to address this need, and entails an empirical study based on a sample of universities in the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal and Brazil. The paper examines the extent to which capacity building for sustainable development is being undertaken, suggests the forms that this might take and evaluates some of the benefits for local communities. The paper concludes by reinforcing that universities have a critical role to play in community development; that role has to prioritise the sustainability agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  14. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    of the area), formations and dissolutions of families, being either marriages or co-resident couples and sociodemographic background. The pivot for the study is that there is a lack of knowledge about whether local communities differ from neighbourhood to neighbourhood, how they are influenced......In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...... of the research question for an ongoing study on ‘Local community, mobility and belonging’ in Aalborg, from which we report. Contemporary municipality of Aalborg, which is the third largest in Denmark, comprises many various types of communities – from partly segregated neighbourhoods in the City, through...

  15. MANGROVE RESOURCE USES BY LOCAL COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelagic country of more than 17,504 islands (28 big islands and 17,475 small islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km, which bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They are estimated at 3.2 million hectares growing extensively in the five big islands (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua with various community types comprising of about 157 species (52 species of trees, 21 species of shrubs, 13 species of lyana, seven species of palms, 14 species of grasses, eight species of herbs, three species of parasites, 36 species of epiphytes, three species of ferns. The mangroves resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna, and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs, especially for local community living in surrounding mangroves. For centuries, the Indonesian people have traditionally utilized mangroves. The most significant value of mangrove utilization is the gathering of forest products, classified into timber and non-timber products. The timber refers to poles and firewood, charcoal, and construction materials (e.g. housing material and fishing gears; the latter include tannin, medicines, dye, nypa thatch and shingles, nypa sap for vinegar and winemaking, and food drinks. Traditional uses of mangrove forest products are mainly the direct utilization of the products, usually in small scale. Beside of those, local community are used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for signicantly supporting the welfare of coastal community

  16. LOCAL COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT IN THE SPECIAL AUTONOMY LAW IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pakasi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the 2001 Special Autonomy Law in Papua Province is not exempted from economic, political and socio-cultural problems. The law is intended to empower the people by preserving their interests and upholding the basic rights of native Papuans. This research aims at finding out a theoretical understanding on the forms of local community empowerment during the implementation of special autonomy in Papua Province. The study is performed through a qualitative approach with a phenomenological strategy. The research was conducted at a location in Jayapura. Empirical data were obtained using the techniques of observation, in-depth interviews, and other secondary data. The implementation of Special Autonomy in Papua Province has brought forth a fundamental change in the approaches and policies of community development, particularly local community empowerment that includes indigenous communities, women, and religion. Local community empowerment in the economic and socio-cultural aspects represents the effort to improve the welfare and sense of justice within the local community in development.

  17. Developing a scale to measure "attachment to the local community" in late middle aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."

  18. AIRPORT NOISE CHARGES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES: APPLICATION TO REGIONAL AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MANTECCHINI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  19. Evaluating the Struggles with International Students and Local Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, Weronika A.

    2015-01-01

    International students are not only important for universities, but even more so to the host communities, towns and regions where higher education institutions are located. This pilot study looked at a public university located in a small college town in Ohio. The study explored the relationship between international students and the local…

  20. An Applied Using Local Wisdom to Making Ironware for Community Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chalor Yaekkhoksung; Songkoon Chantachon; Prasopsuk Ritthidet

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Arts and craft were important for economics and society of northeastern people in Thailand: For all that, local wisdom to make ironware lack interest from society. This research aimed to an applied using local wisdom to make ironware for community economic development. Approach: Research method was a qualitative research which studied populations who lived in 5 provinces: Khai village, Chaiyaphum; Pai village, Buriram province; Muang Wan village, Khonkaen province; Phon vil...

  1. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  2. Creating Community Engagements Between People with Disability and the Local Community Through Digital Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Funaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.

  3. Local responses to global technological change – Contrasting restructuring practices in two rural communities in Austria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Lang, R..; Harms, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial

  4. Evaluating School-Community Participation in Developing a Local Sustainability Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, international and national statements are calling for the development of local sustainability scenarios within partnerships between schools and their communities. The present study addresses the question of reciprocity in such partnerships, by comparing the sustainability agendas underlying schools' educational programs to the…

  5. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  6. The Community Development Process: The Rediscovery of Local Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, William W.; Biddle, Loureide J.

    The development process in two communities, a mining county in rural Appalachia and a deteriorating neighborhood in a northern industrial city, is presented in case-study form. Concepts and commonly used terms are defined; a process of development is identified that can be used in groups small enough to permit attention to the growth of persons.…

  7. Compensations to Local Communities in the Krsko NPP Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Knapp, A.; Lokner, V.

    2010-01-01

    In Slovenia, direct financial compensations (for 'limited land use') to local communities hosting nuclear facilities were initially specified by a government Decree from 2003. In Croatia, a possibility of direct financial compensations had been indicated in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository siting about a decade earlier, but the topic was subsequently abandoned together with the repository project. In 2004, the joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 (the 1st revision of the joint Program) conservatively included the compensation amounts from the Slovenian Decree into the cost estimates of LILW and SF repositories, although their location was entirely unspecified ('in Slovenia or in Croatia'). Shortly before the 2nd revision of the joint Program started in the fall of 2008, the Slovenian government had amended its Decree, practically doubling the amounts of the repository compensations. Assuming that some (or possibly all) nuclear facilities and waste, dealt with in the Program, may be located in Slovenia, the revision has adopted a conservative approach to include all compensations to local communities that may be required by the Slovenian regulations into the Program costs. This paper discusses the Slovenian government Decree, its impact on the joint Program costs, and its implications on RW and SF management in the region. The Decree suffers from the lack of self-consistency, clarity, and consistency with the more general legal provisions on which it should have been based, but it may have an important supporting role in the process of RW and SF management facilities siting. The Decree introduced significant additional costs into the joint Program, which have grown from about one hundred million eur in the 1st revision to about half a billion in this revision (depending on the Program scenario). Besides, application of the Decree in the joint Program has set a precedent

  8. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  9. Civic engagement and local government strategies for sustainable local community development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Across Europe more and more citizens involve in voluntary grassroots and NGO activity. Concurrently, more local and national governments express an interest in increasing collaboration with voluntary organisations. The curiosity and interest as regards voluntary labour from public bodies seems...... to have grown as the financial crisis puts more and more pressure on municipal and national budgets. As such, the contribution of voluntary associations is seem as a supplement to more and more reduced public services, particularly within the social services field, care for the elderly, etc. but even...... in local communities and in relation to social capital, the diversity within the world of voluntary organisations, and the difference in views between public planners and volunteers of the role of volunteers. Three cases illustrate this as well as the need for capacity building of VCOs and the urban...

  10. Community financing of local ivermectin distribution in Nigeria: potential payment and cost-recovery outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, O E; Shu, E N; Okonkwo, P O

    2000-04-01

    The preferred payment mechanism in a community financing scheme for local ivermectin distribution was elicited from randomly selected household heads from three communities in Nigeria using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The majority of the respondents in the three communities were prepared to pay for local ivermectin distribution. Additionally, the average amounts the respondents were prepared to pay per person treated ($0.28, $0.30 and $0.38 in Nike, Achi and Toro, respectively) were all more than the $0.20 ceiling recommended by the partners of the African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Thus, the cost-recovery outlook is bright in these communities. However, the preferred payment modality varied. Fee-for-service was the predominant payment modality in the Achi and Nike communities, while the Toro community preferred pre-payment. This study demonstrates that many communities have different payment preferences for endemic disease control efforts. This knowledge will help in developing acceptable and sustainable schemes. The imposition of unacceptable payment mechanisms will lead to an unwillingness to pay.

  11. Extent and patterns of community collaboration in local health departments: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher John W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local public health departments (LHDs in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active partnering are ongoing, and there are numerous examples of LHD collaboration with a specific organization for a specific purpose or program. However, no existing research has attempted to characterize collaboration, for the defined purpose of setting community health status priorities, between a defined population of local officials and a defined group of alternative partnering organizations. The specific aims of this study were to 1 determine the range of collaborative involvement exhibited by a study population of local public health officials, and, 2 characterize the patterns of the selection of organizations/individuals involved with LHDs in the process of setting community health status priorities. Methods Local health department officials in North Carolina (n = 53 responded to an exploratory survey about their levels of involvement with eight types of possible collaborator organizations and individuals. Descriptive statistics and the stochastic clustering technique of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM were used to characterize their collaboration. Results Local health officials vary extensively in their level of collaboration with external collaborators. While the range of total involvement varies, the patterns of involvement for this specific function are relatively uniform. That is, regardless of the total level of involvement (low, medium or high, officials maintain similar hierarchical preference rankings with Community Advisory Boards and Local Boards of Health most involved and Experts and Elected Officials least involved. Conclusion The extent and patterns of collaboration among LHDs with other community stakeholders for a specific function can be described and ultimately related to outcome measures of LHD performance.

  12. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  13. Local communities and health disaster management in the mining sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cronjé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.

  14. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  15. Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Govern- ance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    ments in women's land rights and their participation in local decision-making processes. In parallel, the teams are conducting country-specific studies in ... methods is being used, such as baseline & post- service surveys and focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and direct observation. • In Uganda, LEMU has ...

  16. Local Stakeholder Perception on Community Participation in Marine Protected Area Management: A Q-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Jamual Fawaeed, P. S.; Daim, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Local stakeholder involvement in Marine Protected Area (MPA) management can bring to a successful MPA. Generally, participatory research in marine protected area management is exploring the relationship between marine protected area management approach adopted by the management agencies and the level of participation of local stakeholder whom reside within the marine protected areas. However, the scenario of local community participation in MPA management in Malaysia seems discouraging and does not align with the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020. In order to achieve the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020, this paper attempts to explore the methodology on participatory research towards the local stakeholder of Pulau Perhentian Marine Park (PPMP), Terengganu, Malaysia. A Q-methodology is used to investigate the perspective of local stakeholder who represents different stances on the issues, by having participants rank and sort a series of statements by comply quantitative and qualitative method in collecting the data. A structured questionnaire will be employed across this study by means of face-to-face interview. In total, 210 respondents from Kampung Pasir Hantu are randomly selected. Meanwhile, a workshop with the agency (Department of Marine Park) had been held to discuss about the issues faces on behalf of management that manage the PPMP. Using the Q-method, researcher acknowledged wise viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders’ perception and opinion about community participation with highlights the current level of community participation in MPA. Thus, this paper describes the phases involved in this study, methodology and analysis used in making a conclusion .

  17. Perceptions of Local Communities on the Economic Impacts of Tourism Development in Langkawi, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Norjanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langkawi Island is a popular tourist destination in Malaysia, which development started in the 1990s. To date, it is among the ten islands most visited by local and foreign tourists. The development of Langkawi Island has influenced the economic structure of local community, of which, envisaged as a symbol to help the community especially in the changing economic environment due to its ability to generate income, employment and raise living standards. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the local community’s involvement and perceptions on changes in employment pattern and incomes stimulated by the tourism development in Langkawi. This study conducted a self-administered household survey and had successfully retrieved 398 respondents. From the findings, results showed that local community experienced employment opportunities which in return contributed to an increase in household income. It is therefore, notable investment on tourism development should be of interests to the government as this helps in ensuring the local community’s economic benefits.

  18. Formation of a Community of Practice in the Watershed Scale, with Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities around the world face formidable problems such as resource depletion, environmental degradation and economic decline. While the term ‘community’ is often used without clear definition or context, it can be viewed as a group of people emerging through social interaction. Through a series of collaborative action toward a shared goal, a community of practice can be formed. This paper proposes a hypothetical framework of integrated local environmental knowledge (ILEK, and applies it to analyze the processes of collaborative actions in the case of the Nishibetsu Watershed in Hokkaido, Japan. The case study identified several phases of actions, all initiated by a group of local residents on a grassroots and voluntary basis. These local resident-initiated collaborative actions had a particular confluence of elements to facilitate gradual strengthening of formal and informal institutions in the watershed scale beyond jurisdictional boundaries, making this a worthy case to study. The local residents used diverse types of knowledge, including livelihood-based technologies and skills of working as a group and with local governments, for establishing and strengthening various institutions for collaborative actions, with such knowledge being used in the manner of tools in a box of bricolage for community formation.

  19. Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozano, Kim; Simkhada, Padam; Thann, Khem; Khatri, Rose

    2018-01-06

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives. Qualitative methodology was used to capture the experiences of CHWs in Kratie and Mondulkiri provinces. Two participatory focus groups with CHWs in Mondulkiri and ten semi-structured interviews in Kratie were conducted. Results from both studies were used to identify common themes. Participants were CHWs, male and female, from rural Khmer and Muslim communities and linked with seven different district health centres. Findings identify that CHWs regularly deliver health promotion to communities. However, systemic, personal and community engagement challenges hinder their ability to function effectively. These include minimal leadership and support from local government, irregular training which focuses on verticalised health programmes, inadequate resources, a lack of professional identity and challenges to achieving behaviour change of community members. In addition, the CHW programme is delivered in a fragmented way that is largely influenced by external aid objectives. When consulted, however, CHWs demonstrate their ability to develop realistic practical solutions to challenges and barriers. The fragmented delivery of the CHW programme in Cambodia means that government ownership is minimal. This, coupled with the lack of defined core training programme or adequate resources, prevents CHWs from reaching their potential. CHWs have positive and realistic ideas on how to improve their role and, subsequently

  20. The Economic and Touristic Regeneration of Local Communities through the Long Tail of Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Calabrese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate, in the light of new technologies, the importance of the “long tail” of events for the development of local communities from the economic and tourism standpoint. From the management perspective, an event represents a relevant touristic driver, especially when oriented to small communities. The methodology used, albeit referring to the positive method, incorporates the concept of Chris Anderson’s “long tail” and recent conceptualizations of the Viable Systems Approach. Thus, it refers to literature review method and theory development. Findings of this study emphasize a new perspective of creating value for the development of local communities, based on the evolution of the concept of event (from the mass event to the mass of events. The existing literature on the subject has generally deepened the organizational implications arising from the standardization of events rather than those of customization. Therefore, referring to the originality and value of the present research, it considers the pure customization, which provides even a custom design of the event, a decisive factor for the economic and touristic development of local communities. The study presents also practical implications related with the possibility, thanks to new technologies, to convey to the user/citizen an event that is differentiated and personalized.

  1. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  2. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  3. Cooperation and development in local communities of Spain and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quevedo Alejos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies

  4. Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...

  5. Theorising and testing environmental pathways to behaviour change: natural experimental study of the perception and use of new infrastructure to promote walking and cycling in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-09-03

    Some studies have assessed the effectiveness of environmental interventions to promote physical activity, but few have examined how such interventions work. We investigated the environmental mechanisms linking an infrastructural intervention with behaviour change. Natural experimental study. Three UK municipalities (Southampton, Cardiff and Kenilworth). Adults living within 5 km of new walking and cycling infrastructure. Construction or improvement of walking and cycling routes. Exposure to the intervention was defined in terms of residential proximity. Questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up assessed perceptions of the supportiveness of the environment, use of the new infrastructure, and walking and cycling behaviours. Analysis proceeded via factor analysis of perceptions of the physical environment (step 1) and regression analysis to identify plausible pathways involving physical and social environmental mediators and refine the intervention theory (step 2) to a final path analysis to test the model (step 3). Participants who lived near and used the new routes reported improvements in their perceptions of provision and safety. However, path analysis (step 3, n=967) showed that the effects of the intervention on changes in time spent walking and cycling were largely (90%) explained by a simple causal pathway involving use of the new routes, and other pathways involving changes in environmental cognitions explained only a small proportion of the effect. Physical improvement of the environment itself was the key to the effectiveness of the intervention, and seeking to change people's perceptions may be of limited value. Studies of how interventions lead to population behaviour change should complement those concerned with estimating their effects in supporting valid causal inference. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  7. Community Forestry as Perceived by Local People Around Cross River National Park, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The prior identification of local people's preferences for conservation-development projects will help gear nature-conservation strategies toward the needs of different groups of local people. This will help policy-makers in designing a more acceptable and effective conservation strategy. This article reports a study of local perceptions of a community forestry project that aims to help improve the design as well as local acceptance of the project. The data originated from personal interviews conducted in communities around Okwangwo Division of the Cross River National Park in southeast Nigeria and were analysed using ordered logit and binary logit models. The results showed that >50% of the respondents were satisfied with the community forestry project. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by education, age, gender, and willingness to contribute money to tourism as well as the contributions of cocoa, banana, and afang ( Gnetum africanum) to the respondents' income. The results from this study have important implications for nature conservation in Nigeria and potentially other conservation contexts across the developing world.

  8. Understanding local community's values, worldviews and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Maya I; Metzger, Marc J

    2017-01-15

    Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey. The survey revealed that residents of the GSABR greatly value wildlife and beauty of nature, and that the majority of the respondents showed concern for the environment from an ecocentric worldview. Results also revealed that the most influential tested socio-demographic characteristic affecting people's relationship to their environment is their professional affiliation. Tourism and recreation were seen as major benefits of the recent biosphere designation. Results did highlight contrasting benefits from the designation for different stakeholder groups, which could potentially lead to tensions and should be considered in the reserve management. Given the community's supportive world views and perceptions, greater participation in the biosphere's management in likely to be welcomed and should be used to avoid or mediate any conflicts. The mixed-method survey developed for this study, proved successful in eliciting these themes in the GSABR. We recommend other biosphere reserves replicate this research, to gain better understanding of local communities and increase their support and participation in reserve management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stajura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  10. Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  11. Being connected to the local community through a Festival mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Wirth, Richard; Hanrahan, Benjamin; Chen, Jiawei; Lee, Sooyeon; Carroll, John M.

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report our investigation into how using and interacting with a local festival mobile app enhanced users’ festival experiences and connected them to other local users and their community. We explored the relationship between users’ perceived basic affordances of mobile technology, perceived opportunities of the festival app, and three elements that sustain the local community — attachment, engagement, and social support networks. Based on the usage logs of 348 active users, as well as survey responses from 80 users, we present a mobile-mediated local community framework and found that engagement is a key mediator of mobile experiences and facets of community.

  12. Local participation in complex technological projects as bridging between different communities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  13. The World of Wonder Accelerated Learning Community: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Julie K.

    This report presents a case study of the World of Wonders Accelerated Learning Community School (WOW). A community school in Ohio is a new kind of public school-an independent public school that is nonsectarian and nondiscriminatory. The report presents three contexts for the study--historical, local and methodological--and highlights some of the…

  14. Empowering Local Communities through Tourism Entrepreneurship: The Case of Micro Tourism Entrepreneurs in Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Aleff Omar Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector has a huge effect in developing countries by providing immense economic opportunities to the local community. Entrepreneurship has been identified as essential actors for creating job opportunities, generating income, increasing standard of living and generally growing the economy. Using the random sampling approach, the questionnaires were distributed to the tourism entrepreneurs in the tourism attraction area in Langkawi Island. During the survey period, only a total of 263 entrepreneurs completed the questionnaires. The objective of this study is to explore the economic empowerment of the tourism entrepreneurship in contributing to income level, creating job opportunities and increasing standard of living. The findings of the study clearly show that the tourism entrepreneur activities contribute positively to income level, jobs, opportunities and standard of living of the local community.

  15. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Chalmers, Natalia I; Barb, Jennifer J; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J; Munson, Peter J; Fine, Daniel H; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  16. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Moutsopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis. Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  17. Upscaling ecotourism in Kisumu city and its environs: Local community perspective Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Odhiambo HAYOMBE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenya’s quest to be among the top ten long-haul tourist destinations globally require strategic focus as envisaged in Kenya’s Vision 2030. Ecotourism is emerging as an alternative development path that can enhance environmental conservation, promote preservation of cultural heritage as well as provide an alternative source of sustainable livelihood. Alternative livelihood in ecotourism provides a sustainable development path for Kisumu City and its environs. However, sustainability in ecotourism transformation is a concern; that is how to motivate the local community to participate in this venture? This study discerns these significant sustainability factors as perceived by the local community. The objective of the study was to discern the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. And the research questions: What is the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation? This research design used both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative research design focused on site specific analysis of ecotourism sites of Dunga (Kisumu, Miyandhe (Bondo and Seka (Kendu Bay. The quantitative research entailed data collection administered through questionnaire in eco-tourism outlets represented by 10 Beach Management Units (BMU selected through purposive sampling. Principal Component Analysis was used to discern the significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. A total of 28 items converted into variables were subjected against 326 respondents in the PCA analysis. The results indicated a total of seven (7 significant sustainability factors: First factor was willingness to participate in ecotourism ventures; second Factor was upscale ecotourism initiatives in the neighborhood; third factor was women and youth empowerment; fourth factor was youth and women employment in the neighborhood; fifth Factor: Natural Artifact

  18. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  19. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  20. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities......, as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  1. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente; Aarrestad, Per

    2013-01-01

    -change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community...... data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We...... temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0...

  2. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  3. Rural School In The Context Of Community-Led Local Development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudečková H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1 What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2 In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD, violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.

  4. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  5. Local Skills Case Study. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anne; Hogarth, Terence; Thom, Graham; MacLeod, Katie; Warhurst, Chris; Willis, Robert; Mackay, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study, jointly conducted by the University of Warwick Institute for Employment Research (IER) and SQW Ltd., discusses the UK Government's intention to accelerate the process of ceding more responsibility for delivering a range of services to the local level. The logic is that local actors are better placed to identify local priorities. This…

  6. Neoliberal governance, sustainable development and local communities in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tennberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently high hopes in the Barents Region for economic growth, higher employment and improved well-being, encouraged by developments in the energy industry, tourism and mining. The article discusses these prospects from the perspective of local communities in five locations in the region, which spans the northernmost counties of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. The communities studied are remote, relatively small, multicultural, and dependent on natural resources. The salient dynamic illuminated in the research is how ideas of sustainability and neoliberal governance meet in community development. While the two governmentalities often conflict, they sometimes also complement one another, posing a paradox that raises concerns over the social aspect of sustainable development in particular. The article is based on international, multidisciplinary research drawing on interviews as well as statistical and documentary analysis.

  7. Community leadership and the challenges of community development in Nigeria: The case of Boki local government area, Cross River State”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udensi, L.O.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the level and extent to which community leaders contribute towards successful community development projects in Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State. A total of 150 community leaders selected through multi-stage sampling technique participated in the study. Frequency counts, percentage, Group Arithmetic Mean and Mean Weight Value were utilized in realizing the objectives of the study. It was observed that leadership positions are not the exclusive preserve of a particular sex, age group, marital status or educational status; rather result indicated that the duration of residence of community leaders is a significant factor in the success of community development projects in the study area. The study concluded that knowledge on the level to which community leaders have participated in community development, and the challenges they face have serious implications for achieving sustainable community development projects. It was recommended among others that for sustainable community development to be achieved in the area, specific and deliberate strategies should be evolved to remedy some of the problems identified. The study suggests that more and dedicated community leaders should be identified and responsibilities aimed at improving the welfare of the people assigned to them.

  8. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  9. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  10. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  11. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... like their male counterparts. Incompatibility of government policies with community programmes (= 3.84), insufficient sources of funds (= 3.83), poor implementation of programmes (= 3.80), and gender bias (= 3.77) constituted the major constraints to effective leadership in community development programmes in the area.

  12. Waste dumps in local communities in developing countries and hidden danger to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetor, Gloria O

    2016-07-01

    The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation fuelled by a fast-growing population has led to the generation of a huge amount of waste in most communities in developing countries. The hidden disorders and health dangers in waste dumps are often ignored. The waste generated in local communities is usually of a mixed type consisting of domestic waste and waste from small-scale industrial activities. Among these wastes are toxic metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), halogenated organic compounds, plastics, remnants of paints that are themselves mixtures of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons and petroleum product-contaminated devices. Therefore, there is the urgent need to create an awareness of the harmful health effect of toxic wastes in developing countries, especially Nigeria. This is a review aimed at creating awareness on the hidden dangers of waste dumps to health in local communities in developing countries. Many publications in standard outlets use the following keywords: cancer, chemical toxicity, modern environmental health hazards, waste management and waste speciation in PubMed, ISI, Toxbase environmental digest, related base journals, and some standard textbooks, as well as the observation of the researcher between 1959 and 2014. Studies revealed the preponderance of toxic chemicals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg in dump sites that have the risk of entering food chain and groundwater supplies, and these can give rise to endemic malnutrition and may also increase susceptibility to mutagenic substances, thereby increasing the incidence of cancer in developing countries. Industrialisation and urbanisation have brought about a change in the waste that is generated in contemporary communities in developing countries. Therefore, there is the need to embrace speciation and sound management of waste, probably including bioremediation. The populations in the local communities need regulatory agencies who are health educators as positive change

  13. Factors That Contribute to Community Members' Support of Local Nature Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew H. E. M.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2018-01-01

    Nature centers can serve as valuable community institutions if they are seen as providing important services to the community. Through survey research in communities surrounding 16 nature centers in the United States, we examine the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that drive hypothetical support for nature centers from local residents.…

  14. Integrating Cultural Heritage into Contemporary Life. The Perspective of Local Communities: The Case of Arcadia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to highlight the importance of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life as a means to contribute to the economic and tourism development of a historical area and as an asset to local development. The study focuses on the cultural goods of Arcadia in central Peloponnese, Greece, an area of great history and rich architectural heritage, which gives a distinct cultural identity to the region. The overall objective of the current research is to describe how the different kinds of cultural benefits, derived by tourism, are perceived by the local community. A questionnaire based survey, conducted in Arcadia during the period 2012-2014, demonstrates that the locals strongly support the promotion of the architectural richness of the region in order to become an attraction for visitors, contributing both to the improvement of the quality of life, as well as the economic and tourism development of the area. The survey results confirm that cultural tourism is seen as an opportunity to contribute to the economic and cultural sustainability of the area and the local community. The implementation of a linear regression model shows that education is the key factor influencing the residents’ view regarding the promotion of cultural tourism in the region.

  15. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  16. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  17. Local environment rather than past climate determines community composition of mountain stream macroinvertebrates across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrria, Cesc; Bonada, Núria; Vellend, Mark; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sainz-Cantero, Carmen Elisa; Garrido, Josefina; Acosta, Raul; El Alami, Majida; Barquín, Jose; Derka, Tomáš; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Sáinz-Bariain, Marta; Filipe, Ana F; Vogler, Alfried P

    2017-11-01

    Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

  19. Local and regional factors influencing zooplankton communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-19

    Feb 19, 2010 ... important grazer of algae during periods of high zooplank- ton abundance. This is .... arctic tundra pond microcrustacean communities. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. ... Guides to the Identification of the Micro- invertebrates of the ...

  20. Criticism by community people and poor workplace communication as risk factors for the mental health of local welfare workers after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Ikki; Sakuma, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoko; Shoji, Wataru; Nagao, Ayami; Abe, Mikika; Suzuki, Yuriko; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011) in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing), and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication) were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively). Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively). Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.

  1. Criticism by community people and poor workplace communication as risk factors for the mental health of local welfare workers after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikki Ueda

    Full Text Available After a large-scale natural disaster, demand for social welfare services increases, and the mental health of local social welfare workers becomes a matter of great concern because of their dual role as support providers and disaster survivors. We examined whether work-related social stressors, including criticism by community people and poor workplace communication, were associated with increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression, or psychological distress 20-22 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE; March 11, 2011 in local social welfare workers. Demographic characteristics, disaster-related risk factors (near-death experience, dead/missing family members, loss of housing, and work-related social risk factors (criticism, lack of communication were obtained 20-22 months after the GEJE from 822 local workers. Questionnaires measured PTSD, depression, and psychological stress. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were applied. More local social welfare workers suffered from mental health problems than would be expected. Criticism by community people was significantly associated with probable PTSD and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31 and 2.55, respectively. Furthermore, lack of workplace communication was associated with probable PTSD, depression, and high psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio = 3.97, 4.27, and 4.65, respectively. Almost 2 years after the disaster, local relief workers still suffered from mental health problems. Because post-disaster work-related social stressors constitute risk factors for these mental health problems, measures to improve working conditions and prevent and treat mental disorders should be a priority.

  2. Community Participation and Local Government Planning in Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and planning, and promulgated it in 2001. This paper provides a critical appraisal of efforts to put local government planning into practice in Lesotho through the use of the 'Quick and SMART' local government planning model. This article uses the SWOT analysis technique to undertake a critical appraisal of this planning ...

  3. Local community knowledge and participation for animal diversity conservation in SSWP IV Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Oktafitria, Dwi; Wirawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Zainul; Alfarisy, M. Ulya; Azis, Abdul; Argiyanti, Sherly Eka; Fadilah, Via Nur

    2017-06-01

    Key to animal biodiversity conservation are the local communities that live in and around these sites as their livelihoods depend on the natural resources these sites provide. SSWP (Sub Satuan Wilayah Pembangunan) IV Sidoarjo covers Krian, Balongbendo, Tarik, Prambon, and Wonoayu subdistrict with the main function as technical agricultural, industrial zones supported by the low density of settlement activity. Development in this region which tend not balanced between technical agricultural and industrial activities, it is necessary to study in depth so that rapid industrial development can still pay attention to the environment because there is a trend change in agricultural land use and settlements for industrial activities. Take a look at the projections of potential future threats and potential huge biodiversity in SSWP IV is necessary to do a program with a strategic approach to community support efforts to efficiently manage potential biodiversity. As well as the development and diversification of food security program in the region is an abundant source of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo and knowing how the knowledge and participation of local communities on biodiversity of animals in the region. The study was conducted in August-September 2016 through direct field surveys for collecting animal biodiversity primary data. It also conducted a structured interview to determine how much knowledge and participation of local communities towards the conservation of biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo. The results of field studies obtained 28 Aves species, 48 species of Insect, 14 species of Pisces, 4 species of Reptiles, 6 species of Mammals. It was known that there were a bird species with protected status in accordance with UU No. 5 1990 and least concern status in accordance with IUCN. While the results of the interview obtained 63% of 19 respondents did not know about the definition of

  4. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  5. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Patricia D

    2007-01-01

    After more than seven years of funding through The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, local public health agencies have made inconsistent progress in fulfilling their Homeland Security objectives...

  6. Challenging obduracy: how local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alexander

    Paper discussing the contribution of local energy initiatives to the energy transition in the Netherlands. Highlights: New energy movement challenges present governance of energy system. Sustainability and strengthening regional economy are primary goals. Democratic cooperative model should

  7. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetables listed by FAO shows that onion ranks second after ... who sell their produce in local, regional and international markets. ..... Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute. (TOSCI), a seed .... through integrated and organic horticulture.

  8. Describing the continuum of collaboration among local health departments with hospitals around the community health assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristin D; Mohr, Lisa Buettner; Beatty, Kate E; Ciecior, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and local health departments (LHDs) are under policy requirements from the Affordable Care Act and accreditation standards through the Public Health Accreditation Board. Tax exempt hospitals must perform a community health needs assessment (CHNA), similar to the community health assessment (CHA) required for LHDs. These efforts have led to a renewed interest in hospitals and LHDs working together to achieve common goals. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of levels of joint action leading toward collaboration between LHDs and hospitals and describe collaboration around CHAs. Local health departments were selected on the basis of reporting collaboration (n = 26) or unsure about collaboration (n = 29) with local hospitals. Local health departments were surveyed regarding their relationship with local hospitals. For LHDs currently collaborating with a hospital, a collaboration continuum scale was calculated. Appropriate nonparametric tests, chi-squares, and Spearman's rank correlations were conducted to determine differences between groups. A total of 44 LHDs responded to the survey (80.0%). Currently collaborating LHDs were more likely to be interested in accreditation and to refer to their CHA 5 or more times a year compared to the unsure LHDs. In the analysis, a collaboration continuum was created and is positively correlated with aspects of the CHA and CHA process. This study is the first attempt to quantify the level of collaboration between LHDs and hospitals around CHAs. Better understanding of the levels of joint action required may assist LHDs in making informed decisions regarding deployment of resources on the path to accreditation.

  9. Acting Locally: A Guide to Model, Community and Demonstration Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Debbie Pella

    1993-01-01

    Describes Canada's efforts in sustainable forestry, which refers to management practices that ensure long-term health of forest ecosystems so that they can continue to provide environmental, social, and economic benefits. Describes model forests, community forests, and demonstration forests and lists contacts for each of the projects. (KS)

  10. Open Source Communities in Technical Writing: Local Exigence, Global Extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill

    2011-01-01

    By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…

  11. Evaluation of a Community College Technical Program by Local Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 11 of 17 plastics employers showed a low level of satisfaction with community college plastics courses. Focus groups of 10 plastics students indicated satisfaction with course costs and locations. Courses focused on associate degree requirements and articulation, whereas employers were interested in focused training for jobs and…

  12. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  13. Asynchrony among local communities stabilises ecosystem function of metacommunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, Kevin R.; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Koerner, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities...

  14. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Environmental Factors Drive Divergent Grassland Soil Bacterial Communities in the Western Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-11-01

    Mountain ecosystems are characterized by a diverse range of climatic and topographic conditions over short distances and are known to shelter a high biodiversity. Despite important progress, still little is known on bacterial diversity in mountain areas. Here, we investigated soil bacterial biogeography at more than 100 sampling sites randomly stratified across a 700-km 2 area with 2,200-m elevation gradient in the western Swiss Alps. Bacterial grassland communities were highly diverse, with 12,741 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across 100 sites and an average of 2,918 OTUs per site. Bacterial community structure was correlated with local climatic, topographic, and soil physicochemical parameters with high statistical significance. We found pH (correlated with % CaO and % mineral carbon), hydrogen index (correlated with bulk gravimetric water content), and annual average number of frost days during the growing season to be among the groups of the most important environmental drivers of bacterial community structure. In contrast, bacterial community structure was only weakly stratified as a function of elevation. Contrasting patterns were discovered for individual bacterial taxa. Acidobacteria responded both positively and negatively to pH extremes. Various families within the Bacteroidetes responded to available phosphorus levels. Different verrucomicrobial groups responded to electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, water content, and mineral carbon contents. Alpine grassland bacterial communities are thus highly diverse, which is likely due to the large variety of different environmental conditions. These results shed new light on the biodiversity of mountain ecosystems, which were already identified as potentially fragile to anthropogenic influences and climate change. This article addresses the question of how microbial communities in alpine regions are dependent on local climatic and soil physicochemical variables. We benefit from a unique 700

  16. Evaluation of natural factors in town planning and strategic programming of development local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lješević Milutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural components are very important aspect of human life and work. The nature is place is place wherever to happened majority of human activity, working vacation and survival, although are some areas is technicality and desecrating to denaturalization. Because of that, it is necessary to study all valid of natural factors, when to programs new contents which are in function of human living, work or holiday. We can find great differences in exploration of some natural factors depending of level in programming of development (general or detail urban planning and strategic programming or local community or projecting. .

  17. From link-prediction in brain connectomes and protein interactomes to the local-community-paradigm in complex networks.

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, C.V.; Alanis-Lobato, G.; Ravasi, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems

  18. Global knowledge, local implications: a community college's response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Marjorie R.; Stroup, Margaret H.; Donnelly, Judith F.

    2005-10-01

    Three Rivers Community College (TRCC), with federal funding, provided a customized laser program for Joining Technologies in Connecticut, which offers world-class resources for welding and joining applications. This program addresses the shortage of skilled labor in the laser arena, lack of knowledge of fundamental science of applied light, and an increase in nonperforming product. Hiring and retraining a skilled workforce are important and costly issues facing today's small manufacturing companies.

  19. Local Community Involvement and Quality of Life in Tourism Destination Development: Case of Coastal Tourism in West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fitri Abdillah

    2016-01-01

    The community in the tourism destination is one of the key elements to ensure the sustainability of the tourism destination itself. The objective of this study was to determine if the development of tourism contributes to the involvement and the level of quality of life of the local community in Pangandaran and Palabuhanratu. A total of 279 samples were obtained from two locations. Data were analyzed by using descriptive methods to determine the phase of the development of destinations, the c...

  20. Enhancing Homeland Security Efforts by Building Strong Relationships between the Muslim Community and Local Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    ... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...

  1. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  2. Role of community based local institution for climate change adaptation in the Teesta riverine area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation is one of the most crucial issues in developing countries like Bangladesh. The main objective was to understand the linkage of participation with Community Based Adaptation (CBA to climate change. Institutional framework following different types of conceptual theories (collective action, group, game and social learning theory was utilized to analyze the participatory process in local community level Village Disaster Mangement Committee (VDMC that works in collaboration with local government. Field level data was collected through interview and group discussion during 25 April to 30 May 2015 in the Teesta riverine area of northern Bangladesh. Results showed that flood and drought were the major climate change impacts in the study area, and various participatory tools were used for risk assessment and undertaking action plans to overcome the climate change challenges by the group VDMC. Participation in VDMC generated both relational and technical outcomes. The relational outcomes are the informal institutional changes through which local community adopt technological adaptation measures. Although, limitations like bargaining problem, free riding or conflict were found in collective decision making, but the initiation of local governance like VDMC has brought various institutional change in the communities in terms of adaptation practices. More than 80% VDMC and around 40–55% non-VDMC household respondents agreed that overall community based adaptation process was successful in the previous year. They believed that some innovative practices had been brought in the community through VDMC action for climate change adaptation. No doubt that the CBA has achieved good progress to achieve the government Comprehensive Disaster Management (CDM strategy of climate change adaptation. But, there is still lack of coordination among local government, NGOs and civil partners in working together. Research related to socio

  3. Building a local community of practice in scientific programming for Life Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Sarah; Kuzak, Mateusz; Martinez, Carlos; Moser, Aurelia; Bleeker, Petra; Galland, Marc

    2018-01-01

    For most experimental biologists, handling the avalanche of data generated is similar to self-learn how to drive. Although that might be doable, it is preferable and safer to learn good practices. One way to achieve this is to build local communities of practice by bringing together scientists that perform code-intensive research to spread know-how and good practices. Here, we indicate important challenges and issues that stand in the way of establishing these local communities of practice. F...

  4. The Role of Agritourism’s Impact on the Local Community in a Transitional Society: A Report From Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. PETROVIĆ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed local residents’ attitudesin Serbia toward the impact of agritourismin their surroundings, using a Tourism ImpactAttitude Scale (TIAS. Till now, analysis of theimpact of tourism on the attitudes of residentsin rural areas of Serbia and other Balkan transitionalcountries is insuffi ciently researched. Theanalyzed items of the TIAS were grouped intofour factors: personal and community benefi ts(grouped eight items; negative impacts (sevenitems; concern for the local tourism development(fi ve items; and general opinion abouttourism development (three items. The factorsexplain 47.47% of the variance. Furthermore,the results showed that residents consider thepossibility to have more money to spend as themost important impact of tourism development. Itis followed by the support of local authorities topromote tourism development. The third relevantissue for the residents is related with encouragementof tourism in the local community. Theseare the key propositions to start an initiative forthe local communities to actively participate inagritourism development. The results provideresidents, tourism organizers and local authoritieswith important community perceptions pertainingto the agritourism’s impact.

  5. Localizing HIV/AIDS discourse in a rural Kenyan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Oketch, Omondi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of multimodal texts used in HIV/AIDS campaigns in rural western Kenya using multimodal discourse analysis (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2006; Martin and Rose, 2004). Twenty HIV/AIDS documents (posters, billboards and brochures) are analysed together with interview data (20 unstructured one-on-one interviews and six focus groups) from the target group to explore the effectiveness of the multimodal texts in engaging the target rural audience in meaningful interaction towards behavioural change. It is concluded that in some cases the HIV/AIDS messages are misinterpreted or lost as the multimodal texts used are unfamiliar and contradictory to the everyday life experiences of the rural folk. The paper suggests localization of HIV/AIDS discourse through use of local modes of communication and resources.

  6. Local and global: seafaring communities in the North Sea area, c. 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    A seafaring community is a village, a small town or a neighbourhood where a substantial part of the population earns its livelihood wholly or partly by work at sea or is directly dependent on seafaring. A seafaring community can arise because an established population at a particular locality

  7. Engaging and Working in Solidarity with Local Communities in Preparing the Teachers of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Ken; Bowman, Michael; Guillen, Lorena; Napolitan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes a programmatic effort in teacher education, "The Community Teaching Strand" (CTS), to engage local community members as mentors of teacher candidates (TCs) in two postgraduate teacher preparation programs in a large research university. Three different conceptions of the nature and purpose of…

  8. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  9. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  10. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  11. Local natural resource curse and sustainable socio-economic development in a Russian mining community of Kovdor

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Kristian Suutarinen

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource extraction forms the backbone of the Russian economy and characterizes the majority of regions and communities in the Russian North. The long-term socio-economic sustainability of natural resource extraction in resource abundant countries has been questioned and discussed in various social sciences with the resource curse theory, which, however, is understudied on the local level. This study creates a local resource curse theory that is based on the basic idea that there are ...

  12. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis ('everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne roots were assessed in 40 geographically dispersed sites in Ireland representing different land uses and soil types. Field sampling and laboratory bioassays were used, with AMF communities characterised using 18S rRNA terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Landscape-scale distribution of AMF was driven by the local environment. AMF community composition was influenced by abiotic variables (pH, rainfall and soil type), but not land use or geographical distance. Trifolium repens and L. perenne supported contrasting communities of AMF, and the communities colonising each plant species were consistent across pasture habitats and over distance. Furthermore, L. perenne AMF communities grouped by soil type within pasture habitats. This is the largest and most comprehensive study that has investigated the landscape-scale distribution of AMF. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis at the landscape scale and demonstrate the strong influence the local environment has on determining AMF community composition.

  13. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  14. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  15. Social – Cultural Sustainability of a Local Community through Visual Identification on the Example of the Town of Zabok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dončić Siniša Hajdaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for a local community to set up mechanisms for shaping and enforcing public politics which strengthen local communities, historical research that would lead to the identity of a local community must be conducted thus enabling the identification of the community as a tourist destination. Analytical-synthetic method will be used to define the concept of a local community, that is the sustainability of a local community as one element of sustainability in general, as well as the concept of a tourist destination. The identity of a local community may be presented using basic means of visual communication (graphic design, typography, photography, illustration, which if defined and applied appropriately, will improve the distinguished identity of a local community.

  16. A local studies collection: unexploited possibilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Public libraries have traditionally carried out the local history activities with the main emphasis on the collection and preservation of local studies material in order to meet the educational and research needs, whereas the significance of the local studies material for the everyday needs of different groups of citizens has not been emphasized so much. More than a decade ago, the document adopted by the National Council for Librarianship should have encouraged the librarians to modernize their work based on the market policy and to develop local studies collections in all libraries. By an analysis of the selected published articles and the collected data, the author states that librarians strived to improve the situation at all times but they have not achieved the goals. They will continue to follow this objective, but due to the new Act of Librarianship, now they can expect more help from the state and from the regional libraries, and also from the new technology. In author’s opinion, the help itself will not be sufficient if the market power of the local history material is not used, and if this material will not be brought closer to different target groups and individuals. Appropriate services should be provided inside and outside of their environment, and thus the diversity of the purposes of local studies material will be realized. A detailed definition of the benefits of the use of local studies material proposed by the author, provides a useful starting-point to encourage the use of local studies material and services, which can strengthen the satisfaction among the citizens and the reputation of the library in its environment.

  17. Barriers to Local Residents’ Participation in Community-Based Tourism: Lessons from Houay Kaeng Village in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sangkyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the barriers to local residents’ participation in the process of community-based tourism planning and development in a developing country. Focusing on the case of Houay Kaeng Village in Sayabouly Province, Laos, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted by adopting in-depth interviews with the various levels of local community’s members. The key barriers to local community participation identified in this research include: (1 low education levels and lack of knowledge about tourism; (2 poor living conditions and lack of financial support; (3 busy daily routine and lack of time for tourism participation; (4 local community’s perception of tourism as a seasonal business with low income; and (5 power disparities, institutional disincentives and local’s distrust in authorities. The results suggest that only a small number of the local residents in the village were satisfied with their current and on-going participation expressing their strong willingness to continue in participating in the process of tourism planning and development, whereas a large group of the residents were not willing to do it at all in the future. The paper further discusses implications for the government and communities in regard to community-based sustainable tourism development.

  18. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  19. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hopfenmüller

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  20. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  1. Mobilising community action towards a low-carbon future: Opportunities and challenges for local government in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Fudge, Shane; Sinclair, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade the important role that local authorities can play in catalyzing community action on climate change has been repeatedly emphasised by the UK Government. The paper examines this policy context and explores the options available to local authorities in terms of reaching and engaging their communities. The type of progressive response shown by some UK local authorities is illustrated with empirical evidence gathered through a study conducted in the London Borough of Islington focusing on their recently established 'Green Living Centre'. The results confirm interest in this major council-led community initiative, with positive attitudes expressed by the majority of those questioned in terms of the advice and information available. However, it is also clear that many participants had preexisting pro-environmental attitudes and behavioural routines. Results from a broader sample of Islington residents indicate a substantial challenge in reaching the wider community, where enthusiasm for sustainability change and interest in this type of scheme were more mixed. The prospect for local government in addressing this challenge - and their ability to trigger and capitalize upon concepts of social change at the community level towards a lower carbon future - is discussed in the final part of the paper.

  2. Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the

  3. Increasing mental health capacity in a post-conflict country through effective professional volunteer partnerships: a series of case studies with government agencies, local NGOs and the diaspora community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Rachel; Weerasinghe, Dilanthi; Parameswaran, Shanthy

    2014-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on working in partnership with local practitioners and communities to strengthen local capacity building in the area of mental health and well-being in Sri Lanka. This paper will examine the context, organizing concepts, organizational processes, and the development of good working relationships and partnership building behind this work. Our involvement was based on requests which came to the authors as a result of their previous work in Sri Lanka over several decades. This work had been undertaken on behalf of the UK-Sri Lanka Trauma Group (UKSLTG), a UK-based charity which was set up in 1994, and of which the authors are founding members ( www.uksrilankatrauma.org.uk ). In the first section of the paper, contextual issues will be discussed. The second section of the paper provides details of the training undertaken on mental health promotion among young people in Sri Lanka for the Directorate of Mental Health. The third section of the paper reviews work undertaken with a major psycho-social/mental health organization on issues relating to writing and implementing an ethical code for mental health practitioners and briefly discusses some of the dilemmas associated with this.

  4. Tax-Exempt Hospitals' Investments in Community Health and Local Public Health Spending: Patterns and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. The Microsociological Approach on Local Development Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Domingos António-Lópes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, societies, economies and cultures of the countries developed and developing have lived deep structural changes of marked breadth and impact processes in everyday lives.  Today we are witnessing a new era of technological and organizational restructuring that affects the ways to produce and manage local development. Sociology as a social science has begun to rethink development from the voices of a variety of actors, to strike with them rhythms and intensities of the social and cultural dynamics. This article is a sociological study on local development from the perspective of culture, placing the concepts of social space and socialization practices. An analysis of documentary sources which favoured the systematization of the concepts of development and local development.Keywords:  development, local development, socialization, cultural practices, social space, social capital.

  6. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  7. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brat Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  8. The electric commons: A qualitative study of community accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, Emilia; Christie, Ian; Burningham, Kate; Way, Celia; Hampshire, Phil

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how energy might be conceptualised as a commons, a resource owned and managed by a community with a system of rules for production and consumption. It tests one aspect of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for successful management of common pool resources: that there should be community accountability for individual consumption behaviour. This is explored through interviews with participants in a community demand response (DR) trial in an urban neighbourhood in the UK. Domestic DR can make a contribution to balancing electricity supply and demand. This relies on smart meters, which raise vertical (individual to large organisation) privacy concerns. Community and local approaches could motivate greater levels of DR than price signals alone. We found that acting as part of a community is motivating, a conclusion which supports local and community based roll out of smart meters. Mutually supportive, voluntary, and anonymous sharing of information was welcomed. However, mutual monitoring was seen as an invasion of horizontal (peer to peer) privacy. We conclude that the research agenda, which asks whether local commons-based governance of electricity systems could provide social and environmental benefits, is worth pursuing further. This needs a shift in regulatory barriers and ‘governance-system neutral’ innovation funding. - Highlights: • Commons framings can offer a new perspective on community based demand response. • Community accountability of users raises concerns about horizontal (within community) privacy. • Horizontal privacy is important to individuals, and should be protected. • Supportive sharing of information is welcomed. • Energy policy should enable institutional innovation including local commons based approaches.

  9. Motivating conservation: Learning to care for other species in a local ecological community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Michael

    Large-scale, sustainable biodiversity conservation must motivate action by local communities. I united theories and practices in biology and psychology to study the process by which people are motivated to care for other species, and to what extent caring results in helping. Participants (N = 1200), age 8--22, interacted with native fish and aquatic insects in their habitats during 21 field experiences through Lake County, Montana educational institutions. Native fish were chosen because they are familiar to local people, yet different from people in their morphology, biomechanics, and habitat. In Phase I, two activity models for conservation emerged: the Habitat approach linked concepts in ecology, reciprocation, and a moral orientation toward justice, while the Behavior approach linked concepts in behavior, kin selection, and a moral orientation toward caring. These two approaches were compared in Phase II through seven sets of experiences that varied only in point of view: toward the habitat or toward behavior. I found that through sustained contact between people and local fish in their habitats, in the field and in cold-water aquaria, people empathized with fish more than with habitats. They perceived fish states by interpreting their behavior, and created meaning by focusing on fish social interactions with their habitat, with other fish, and with people. They used the information gained from empathy to identify ongoing conservation needs and to design conservation plans. Attention to behavior increased perception of human impacts on fish; perception of relatedness with fish; similarity with the physiology, behavior, minds and lives of fish; desire for non-material benefits in return for helping fish; and cohesion within participant groups. These perceptions varied with age and gender. For example, women and children emphasized values of non-material returns for time invested. This study recommends a behavioral-ecology approach for motivating conservation and

  10. Linking vegetable preferences, health and local food systems through community-supported agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jennifer L; Farrell, Tracy J; Rangarajan, Anusuya

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the influence of participation in community-supported agriculture (CSA) on vegetable exposure, vegetable intake during and after the CSA season, and preference related to locally produced vegetables acquired directly from CSA growers. Quantitative surveys were administered at three time points in two harvest seasons to four groups of CSA participants: new full-paying, returning full-paying, new subsidized and returning subsidized members. Questionnaires included a vegetable frequency measure and measures of new and changed vegetable preference. Comparisons were made between new and returning CSA members and between those receiving subsidies and full-paying members. The research was conducted in a rural county in New York, USA. CSA members who agreed to participate in the study. Analysis was based on 151 usable questionnaires. CSA participants reported higher intake of eleven different vegetables during the CSA season, with a sustained increase in some winter vegetables. Over half of the respondents reported trying at least one, and up to eleven, new vegetables. Sustained preferences for CSA items were reported. While those who choose to join a CSA may be more likely to acquire new and expanded vegetable preferences than those who do not, the CSA experience has the potential to enhance vegetable exposure, augment vegetable preference and increase overall vegetable consumption. Dietary patterns encouraged through CSA participation can promote preferences and consumer demand that support local production and seasonal availability. Emphasis on fresh and fresh stored locally produced vegetables is consistent with sustainable community-based food systems.

  11. The re-socialisation of migrants in a local community in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.

  12. Using a community-driven approach to identify local forest and climate change priorities in Teslin, Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen Timko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The likelihood of addressing the complex environmental, economic, and social/cultural issues associated with local climate change impacts is enhanced when collaborative partnerships with local people are established. Using a community-centered approach in the Teslin region of Canada’s Yukon Territory, we utilized our research skills to respond to local needs for information by facilitating both an internal community process to clarify traditional and local knowledge, values, and perceptions on locally identified priorities, while gathering external information to enable local people to make sound decisions. Specifically, we sought to clarify local perceptions surrounding climate change impacts on fire risk and wildlife habitat, and the potential adaptation strategies appropriate and feasible within the Teslin Tlingit Traditional Territory. This paper provides a characterization of the study region and our project team; provides background on the interview and data collection process; presents our key results; and discusses the importance of our findings and charts a way forward for our continued work with the people in the Teslin region. This approach presents an excellent opportunity to help people holistically connect a range of local values, including fire risk mitigation, habitat enhancement, economic development, and enhanced social health.

  13. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  14. Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Developing Local Global Health Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J

    2018-02-07

    A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring Partnerships between Local Communities and Timber Companies: An Experiment Using the Role-Playing Games Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among stakeholders is widely accepted as an effective management strategy. This paper describes an experimental study that explores this cooperation using role-playing games, which is formulated within a multiagent simulation framework. This framework enables participants to take active roles in mimicking the collaborative decision environment and the behaviors and attitudes of the different stakeholders. The paper examines a forest plantation company in South Sumatra, Indonesia, which has cooperated with local communities since 2000. The experimental pilot study described in this paper explored the role of communication in partnership relationships between the company and the local communities living within and around the surroundings of the company's plantation. These partnerships were explored and analyzed using the gaming approach involving university students taking the role of forest stakeholders, from both the timber company and the local communities. Lessons learned from the game provided the rationale for the establishment of a communication institution called “Forum Sebahu Sejalan.” This formal forum was constituted after a facilitated ex-postinteraction between representatives from the timber company and local communities. Results and observations drawn from the interactions show the potentials of the RPG approach and the formal forum in crafting resilient partnerships among stakeholders.

  16. Exploring Partnerships between Local Communities and Timber Companies: An Experiment Using the Role-Playing Games Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnomo, H.; Guizol, Ph.; Mendoza, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation among stake holders is widely accepted as an effective management strategy. This paper describes an experimental study that explores this cooperation using role-playing games, which is formulated within a multi agent simulation framework. This framework enables participants to take active roles in mimicking the collaborative decision environment and the behaviors and attitudes of the different stake holders. The paper examines a forest plantation company in South Sumatra, Indonesia, which has cooperated with local communities since 2000. The experimental pilot study described in this paper explored the role of communication in partnership relationships between the company and the local communities living within and around the surroundings of the company's plantation. These partnerships were explored and analyzed using the gaming approach involving university students taking the role of forest stake holders, from both the timber company and the local communities. Lessons learned from the game provided the rationale for the establishment of a communication institution called Forum Sebahu Sejalan. This formal forum was constituted after a facilitated ex-post interaction between representatives from the timber company and local communities. Results and observations drawn from the interactions show the potentials of the RPG approach and the formal forum in crafting resilient partnerships among stake holders.

  17. Primary school as the hub of the social and cultural life in the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mažgon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For quite some time, Slovenian society has been preserving a specific model of social organisation rooted in the communal form. In functioning as a socio-cultural centre of the local community the school greatly surpassed its primary role of educating children. The process of urbanisation that has reached rural areas brought very interesting changes to the previously expanded function of the local school. We examined how, today, schools perceive a need to connect with and engage in their local environments. The perceptions of connections and their real modalities do differ and the ways in which schools respond to the needs of the localities (and vice versa depend on the prevalent model of social organisation. Exceptions to this are more significant in localities where the school might be one of very few public institutions or the only public institution present at the local level. Although the schools wish to motivate and engage local residents also in other environments, they often lack the time and energy to do so. The results of qualitative analysis indicated that merging or closing local schools could have negative demographic and socio-cultural consequences. At the same time, the analysis pointed to unrealised potential in the localities lacking tradition, such as new urban areas where the school could be the crucial element in the social organisation of the local community.

  18. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN ALTERNATIVE FOR NEW FUNDING SOURCES OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Petru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.

  19. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  20. Institutional Racism? Roma Children, Local Community and School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    This article tries to discuss the conditions Roma pupils face within the Greek educational system. In the first part, through a brief history of Roma groups in Greece followed by a short analysis of their legal status and leaving conditions, I attempt to present a critical approach in Romani Studies. Thereafter, using Institutional Racism as a…

  1. Malaria Transmission Potential in Adim Community of Biase Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is hypothesized that the marshy ricefields in the area would permit the persistence of anopheline larval development all year round and therefore malaria ... The mean sporozoite inoculation rate (EIR) over the 12-month study period was 0.34 infective bites per person per night (ib/p/night), giving an average of 124.1 ...

  2. Lack of congruence in species diversity indices and community structures of planktonic groups based on local environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Nishibe, Yuichiro; Imai, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The importance of analyzing the determinants of biodiversity and community composition by using multiple trophic levels is well recognized; however, relevant data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated variations in species diversity indices and community structures of the plankton taxonomic groups-zooplankton, rotifers, ciliates, and phytoplankton-under a range of local environmental factors in pond ecosystems. For each planktonic group, we estimated the species diversity index by using linear models and analyzed the community structure by using canonical correspondence analysis. We showed that the species diversity indices and community structures varied among the planktonic groups and according to local environmental factors. The observed lack of congruence among the planktonic groups may have been caused by niche competition between groups with similar trophic guilds or by weak trophic interactions. Our findings highlight the difficulty of predicting total biodiversity within a system, based upon a single taxonomic group. Thus, to conserve the biodiversity of an ecosystem, it is crucial to consider variations in species diversity indices and community structures of different taxonomic groups, under a range of local conditions.

  3. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.; Berhout, F.G.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation below draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points. (author)

  4. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgill, S M; Berhout, F G

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points.

  5. The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach The Comparative Study Of Local Governance: Towards A Global Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Stoker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of local governance has been too focused on the institutional arrangements of the Systems of different nation states rather than the more fundamental issue of the societal functions performed by local government. This article focuses attention on four societal roles that local government systems undertake. They can support political identity, underwrite economic development, facilitate social welfare provision or act as a lifestyle co-ordinator through the practice of community governance. Linking our investigation to the embedded societal roles of local government in different systems opens up the opportunity for a more genuinely global comparative perspective. It also helps us to understand the likely forms of politics associated with different systems of local governance. It also enables us to explore the sustainability of different systems of local governance. It is suggested that a strong system of local government is likely to be one that is able to combine societal roles to a substantial degree. A vulnerable local government system is one trapped with one function that in changing societal and economic circumstances could find itself under threat.El estudio comparado de la gobernanza local se ha focalizado excesivamente en los arreglos institucionales de los sistemas de los diferentes Estados-nación en lugar de centrarse en el tema esencial de las funciones sociales que desempeñan los gobiernos locales. Este artículo centra su atención en cuatro roles sociales que desempeñan los sistemas de gobierno local. Pueden proporcionar identidad política, garantizar el desarrollo económico, facilitar la provisión de servicios sociales o actuar como coordinador de la forma de vida mediante la práctica de la gobernanza comunitaria. La vinculación de la investigación a los roles sociales asumidos por los gobiernos locales en los diferentes sistemas proporciona la posibilidad de adoptar una perspectiva global comparada

  6. Perceptions and Attitudes of the Local Community towards the Dagbon Conflict Management in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takyi Harriet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The existence of ethnic conflicts dates back hundreds of years. Indeed most of these ethnic conflicts are characterized by lot of bloodshed and Dagban ethnic conflict in northern Ghana is no exception. The principle of conflicts management recognizes the threat of conflicts to socio-economic development. For this reason, conflict resolution is key and its success is very much dependent on the attitudes of the parties involved. The broad aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of the Local Community towards the Dagbon conflict management since 2002. In view of this, a social survey with a sample size of 212 males and females comprising 200 community members, 6 traditional leaders and 6 members of the Regional Security Council (REGSEC was selected for the study. Structured and in-depth interview was used .The study revealed that social relationships between Abudus and Andanis were very bad, serious security implications still persisted, the two royal families had damaging negative perceptions about each other, and serious human rights abuses in relation to the conflict abound in Dagbon still prevails. It was also revealed that the conflict remained unresolved because of the entrenched positions taken by both parties. Politicians should be decorous in dealing chieftaincy matters as well as the Dagbon conflict. Government should also exercise strong political will by taking bold steps to identify and deal with the perpetrators of the Yendi incident to serve as deterrence for other. These among others would pave the way for a peaceful resolution of the conflict.

  7. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine

  8. Socio-economic transformation of the local community as gentrifications implication in DKI Jakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santy Paulla Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta has a rapid development which attracts newcomers to come and live in. Hereinafter, the newcomers look for the house which in accordance to their income and preferences. They chose inner city kampong for residing and their existence displacing the Betawi people as the local community. The newcomers presence led displacement and transformed the neighbourhood. Likewise, they had also influenced in the socio-economic transformation related with education, women worker, community relationship, and lifestyle.

  9. Community participation in waste minimization : the case of Emfuleni Local Municipality / Nompazamo Alma Ludidi

    OpenAIRE

    Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand factors contributing to successes and challenges in community participation especially in waste minimization initiatives; in order to inform policies and contribute to improve the design of the initiative. The objectives of the research are: firstly, to understand the current state of public participation in waste minimization at Emfuleni Local Municipality. Secondly, it is to determine the extent of willingness of the community to participate in ...

  10. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  11. Growing Local Value How to Build Business Partnerships That Strengthen Your Community

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Laury

    2007-01-01

    Hanna Andersson founder Gun Denhart and successful entrepreneur Laury Hammel show how every aspect of a business (from product creation to employee recruitment to vendor selection) holds the dual promise of bigger profits and a stronger local community. With practical tools and real-life examples of the best practitioners and techniques of values-driven business, "Growing Local Value" provides a framework for the full spectrum of ways in which a business can contribute to its community - and the benefits a company receives when it does so.

  12. Preparing community forestry for REDD+: engaging local communities in the mapping and MRV requirements of REDD+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knowles, Tony; McCall, M.K.; Skutsch, Margaret; Theron, Leon; Zhu, Xianli; Ravnkilde Moller, Lea; De Lopes, Thanakvaro; Zaballa Romero, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Based on fieldwork carried out over the last five years, this article presents the case for communities being permitted to make their own forest carbon inventories for the purposes of monitoring under national REDD+ programmes, following brief training. Modern technology, particularly PDAs (small,

  13. Climate Change Adaptation in Dutch Local Communities. Risk Perception, Institutional Capacity and the Role of Local Government.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2010-01-01

    This report explains the outcomes of the research project Analysing local climate vulnerability and local adaptation strategies which was carried out from 2005 up till 2009 at the Twente Centre for Studies in Technology and Sustainable Development (CSTM), University of Twente. This project is funded

  14. Engaging Local Communities in Arctic Observing Networks: A Collaborative Shoreline Change Risk WebGIS for Alaska's Arctic Slope Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study engaged local community stakeholders in Alaska's Arctic Slope Region to develop a web-based shoreline change risk geographic information system (WebGIS) in collaboration with the North Slope Borough and its residents. The value of the effort includes rich spatial documentation of local risks across the vast, remote, and rapidly changing shoreline, and identification of local manager information needs to direct WebGIS development. The study advances our understanding of shoreline change problems from the perspective of local Arctic communities beyond municipal impacts while building decision support. Over fifty local residents in three communities with collective coastal knowledge that extends across the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge shared their perspectives on hard copy maps. Sixteen managers provided usability perceptions of a beta WebGIS with shoreline change susceptibility information summarized at relevant asset locations such as subsistence camps. The hard copy maps with 300 "problem places" were digitized for analysis, which revealed problems across the coastline, especially challenges to boating for subsistence hunting such as shoaling cutting off access and creating hazards. The usability workshop revealed specific information needs including the need to monitor impacts at decommissioned national defense radar sites repurposed by locals to centralize oil and gas activity. These results were analyzed using an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework consisting of front-end and formative WebGIS evaluation phases. The front-end evaluation is the local input on hard copy maps, which provided local verification of coastal risks. The formative evaluation is the usability workshop with managers, which informed WebGIS development while promoting user buy-in. In terms of product and process, the local knowledge and information needs collected are significant because they establish local engagement with the

  15. Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO

  16. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

  17. Local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for school-based deworming programme in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, D W; Masaku, J; Mwende, F; Odhiambo, G; Musuva, R; Matey, E; Thuita, I G; Kihara, J H

    2017-01-01

    In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters. To assess the local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for programme implementation, a qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in four-sub-counties of coastal region. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were administered to 40 purposively selected opinion leaders so as to explore their perceptions of awareness creation sources, adequacy of information given, length of period of awareness creation and period between which information is given and drugs are administered. Separate IDIs were administered to pre-school teachers (41), community health extension workers (34) and primary school teachers (38). To elicit more information, 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) categorized by gender and age were conducted among parents of school-age children. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed manually by study themes. The most commonly reported source of information was school pupils. Due to low literacy levels, use of posters was regarded as ineffective and religious institutions, town criers and vernacular radio stations considered more effective. The information given during programme implementation was considered inadequate and use of complementary methods to reach all targeted children including the non-enrolled, and relay adequate information reported as important. Use of school and chief's meetings with health personnel being present was mentioned as a useful method that would allow for interaction with participants indicating that they

  18. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...... of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong....

  19. Analysis of the Involvement and Impressions of the Local Community on the Tourism Development of Ilocos Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orpia Cherie B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development is not possible without the involvement of the local community in various development stage and tourism activities. They can be involved right from planning, construction, operation, and promotion activities. It generates investment, foreign exchange and employment to the locals. This study sought how the local community is involved and what are their impressions in Ilocos Norte’s Tourism developments. It also sought to determine the demographic qualities differentiates against tourism development involvement and their impressions. The study used non-probability convenience sampling in various towns in Ilocos Norte. Questionnaire type of survey and unstructured interviews were employed to the locals and to the local government units. Local residents perceive the tourism activities to provide employment opportunities, income, foreign exchange, and promote cultural heritage. Very few perceive to be a contributor to pollution and depletion of natural resources.. Most people have an impression that it has improved their way of life thru more access to their town, business opportunities, and more infrastructure. However, most of them has an impression that cleanliness and safety has gotten worse. Most people like to participate in tourism activities thru investment, employment and planning.

  20. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.

  1. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.

  2. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael; Flanagan, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?

  3. How the local community views wildlife conservation: a case of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the local community’s attitudes towards wildlife conservation in Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary (HWS, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the largest sanctuary in the state and under the highest anthropogenic pressure. People engage in fishing, livestock grazing, fuel wood/fodder collection, cash cropping of cucurbits in the sandy river banks for sustenance and commercial extraction of sand and grass for construction. These activities threaten the survival of threatened species like Swamp Deer Rucervus duvaucelii, Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica, Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata and Gharial Gavialis gangeticus. Interviews were conducted with heads of randomly selected families and ‘yes/no’ opinions were taken. Questions included direct statements on biodiversity status and relationship with the Sanctuary resources. Data was classified in percent values and it was found that there is no difference in people’s perception on increase, decrease or stability of biodiversity. Further, a majority of people find life around a protected area disadvantageous, or with dismal advantages. Building on this premise the study suggests that a better share in development and alternative livelihood options for the local community of HWS can decrease their dependence on natural resources and improve conservation as a favourable option in the present perceptions of the people.

  4. Social Work and local community development in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Seller, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical-conceptual and methodological bases that allow promotion of sustainable and autonomous changes in the complex relational universe in twenty-first century Spain. It takes as its starting point the methodological and participative processes linked to social work with communities, focused on a local strategic development model that is comprehensive and centered on community empowerment. It presents the results of research aiming to characterise communities’ practices locally. This is linked to Spain´s communities social work presented in the form of typologies. The analysis of the communities´ practices permits identification of the ideal necessary characteristics that the experiences of community action must have in terms of good practices to promote local coexistence through citizen participation.El artículo presenta las bases teórico-conceptuales y metodológicas que permiten impulsar cambios sostenibles y autónomos en el complejo universo relacional en España en el siglo XXI a partir de procesos metodológicos y participativos vinculados con un trabajo social con comunidades centrado en el modelo de desarrollo local estratégico, integral y centrado en el empowerment comunitario. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a caracterizar las prácticas comunitarias en el ámbito local vinculadas con el trabajo social con comunidades en España y que son presentados a modo de tipologías. El análisis de las prácticas comunitarias permite identificar las características idóneas que deben tener las experiencias de acción comunitaria en su consideración de buenas prácticas en el fomento de la convivencia local a través de la participación ciudadana.

  5. Self-consistent study of localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.; Olivier, G.

    1981-08-01

    The localization models of Abou-Chacra et al. and Kumar et al. are critically re-examined in the limit of weak disorder. By using an improved method of approximation, we have studied the displacement of the band edge and the mobility edge as function of disorder and compared the results of Abou-Chacra et al. and Kumar et al. in the light of the present approximation. (author)

  6. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  7. Community Hospitals Indianapolis creates breast cancer awareness. The hospital joins a partnership with local ABC affiliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreria, J

    1999-01-01

    Community Hospitals Indianapolis raises the public's awareness of the importance of breast self-examination and mammography as the best tools for early detection of breast cancer. The health system has designed a program called Buddy Check 6 to partner with a local television station.

  8. Understanding and Resolving Conflict Between Local Communities and Conservation Authorities in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourcq, De K.; Thomas, E.; Arts, B.; Vranckx, A.; Léon-sicard, T.; Damme, Van P.

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts between indigenous and local communities, on the one hand, and national protected area administrations on the other are pervasive. A better understanding of these park-people conflicts would assist in suitable policy changes to constructively address them while concurrently pursuing

  9. Mutually Beneficial Service Learning: Language Teacher Candidates in a Local Community Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a project designed to provide mutually beneficial solutions to challenges faced by world language teacher candidates, their preparation program, and a local community center. The project provided opportunities for teacher candidates enrolled in a world language (WL) teacher education course to complete clinical experiences…

  10. Transformative Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Realizing Equity Praxis through Community Connections and Local Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marisol; Valverde, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Schools serve as antidemocratic spaces where teacher, parent, community member, and student voices are typically disregarded. Instead, philanthropists and businesses are allowed to drive school and district agendas. An exploration of 3 local efforts that connect a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) with prekindergarten to Grade 12 students and…

  11. Appropriate Model for Zoning Local Fish Conservation in front of Buddhist Temple on the Bank of the Chi River by Sustainable Community Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Somchob Poo-Inna; Song-Koon Jantakajon; Terdthai Pantachai

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The fresh water fish in The Chi River was a major source of food of people living in this area. The objectives of this research were: (1) to study the historical background, current situation and problems of local fish conservation in front of The Chi River by community participation and (2) to find the opriate model for zoning the local fish conservation on the bank of The Chi River by sustainable community participation. Approach: The research area in Esan Reg...

  12. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eBabauta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode with tip size ~20 µm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  13. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Atci, Erhan; Ha, Phuc T; Lindemann, Stephen R; Ewing, Timothy; Call, Douglas R; Fredrickson, James K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  14. Legal Design of Domestic Workers Protection Based on Gorontalo Community Local Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.

  15. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children... used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of... Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) Summary: Under the...

  16. Chemical similarity and local community assembly in the species rich tropical genus Piper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage. Here we tested the hypothesis that plant chemical diversity can affect local community composition in the hyper-diverse genus Piper at a lowland wet forest location in Costa Rica. We first characterized the chemical composition of 27 of the most locally abundant species of Piper. We then tested whether species with different chemical compositions were more likely to coexist. Finally, we assessed the degree to which Piper phylogenetic relationships are related to differences in secondary chemical composition and community assembly. We found that, on average, co-occurring species were more likely to differ in chemical composition than expected by chance. Contrary to expectations, there was no phylogenetic signal for overall secondary chemical composition. In addition we found that species in local communities were, on average, more phylogenetically closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that functional traits other than those measured here also influence local assembly. We propose that selection by herbivores for divergent chemistries between closely related species facilitates the coexistence of a high diversity of congeneric taxa via apparent competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    OpenAIRE

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-01-01

    Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC) in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has b...

  18. Compositional divergence and convergence in local communities and spatially structured landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tancredi Caruso

    Full Text Available Community structure depends on both deterministic and stochastic processes. However, patterns of community dissimilarity (e.g. difference in species composition are difficult to interpret in terms of the relative roles of these processes. Local communities can be more dissimilar (divergence than, less dissimilar (convergence than, or as dissimilar as a hypothetical control based on either null or neutral models. However, several mechanisms may result in the same pattern, or act concurrently to generate a pattern, and much research has recently been focusing on unravelling these mechanisms and their relative contributions. Using a simulation approach, we addressed the effect of a complex but realistic spatial structure in the distribution of the niche axis and we analysed patterns of species co-occurrence and beta diversity as measured by dissimilarity indices (e.g. Jaccard index using either expectations under a null model or neutral dynamics (i.e., based on switching off the niche effect. The strength of niche processes, dispersal, and environmental noise strongly interacted so that niche-driven dynamics may result in local communities that either diverge or converge depending on the combination of these factors. Thus, a fundamental result is that, in real systems, interacting processes of community assembly can be disentangled only by measuring traits such as niche breadth and dispersal. The ability to detect the signal of the niche was also dependent on the spatial resolution of the sampling strategy, which must account for the multiple scale spatial patterns in the niche axis. Notably, some of the patterns we observed correspond to patterns of community dissimilarities previously observed in the field and suggest mechanistic explanations for them or the data required to solve them. Our framework offers a synthesis of the patterns of community dissimilarity produced by the interaction of deterministic and stochastic determinants of community

  19. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  20. Regulatory and Non-regulatory Responses to Hydraulic Fracturing in Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phartiyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The practice of extracting oil and gas from tight rock formations using advances in technology, such as hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, has expanded exponentially in states and localities across the country. As the scientific data collection and analysis catches up on the many potential impacts of this unconventional oil and gas development, communities are turning to their local officials to make decisions on whether and how fracking should proceed. While most regulatory authority on the issue rests with the state agencies, local officials have experimented with a wide range of regulatory, non-regulatory, and fiscal tools to manage the impacts of fracking. These impacts can occur on the local air, water, seismicity, soil, roads, schools, and affect residents, on-site workers, emergency and social services. Local officials' approaches are often influenced by their prior experience with minerals extraction in their localities. The speaker will present examples of the kinds of information sources, tools and approaches communities across the country are using, from noise barriers to setback requirements to information sharing in order to be able to balance the promise and perils of oil and gas development in their jurisdictions.

  1. Local knowledge: Empirical Fact to Develop Community Based Disaster Risk Management Concept for Community Resilience at Mangkang Kulon Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiarsa, A. B.; Sariffuddin, S.

    2018-02-01

    Local knowledge in disaster management should not be neglected in developing community resilience. The circular relation between humans and their living habitat and community social relation have developed the local knowledge namely specialized knowledge, shared knowledge, and common knowledge. Its correlation with community-based disaster management has become an important discussion specially to answer can local knowledge underlie community-based disaster risk reduction concept development? To answer this question, this research used mix-method. Interview and crosstab method for 73 respondents with 90% trust rate were used to determine the correlation between local knowledge and community characteristics. This research found out that shared knowledge dominated community local knowledge (77%). While common knowledge and specialized knowledge were sequentially 8% and 15%. The high score of shared value (77%) indicated that local knowledge was occurred in household level and not yet indicated in community level. Shared knowledge was found in 3 phases of the resilient community in dealing with disaster, namely mitigation, emergency response, and recovery phase. This research, therefore, has opened a new scientific discussion on the self-help concept in community-help concept in CBDRM concept development in Indonesia.

  2. Network approach for local and community governance of energy: The case of Oxfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Hamilton, Jo; White, Vicki; Hogan, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    One of the many barriers to the incorporation of local and community actors in emerging energy governance structures and policy delivery mechanisms is the lack of thorough understanding of how they work in practice, and how best to support and develop effective local energy governance. Taking a meso-level perspective and a network approach to governance, this paper sheds some new light on this issue, by focusing on the relation, channels of communication and interactions between low carbon community groups (LCCGs) and other actors. Based on data gathered from LCCGs in Oxfordshire, UK, via network survey and interviews the research maps the relations in terms of the exchanges of information and financial support, and presents a relation-based structure of local energy governance. Analysis reveals the intensity of energy related information exchanges that is taking place at the county level and highlights the centrality of intermediary organization in facilitating information flow. The analysis also identifies actors that are not very dominant in their amount of exchanges, but fill ‘weak-tie’ functions between otherwise disconnected LCCGs or other actors in the network. As an analytical tool the analysis could be useful for various state and non-state actors that want to better understand and support – financially and otherwise – actors that enable energy related local action. - Highlights: • We used social network analysis to examine local and community governance of energy. • We examined information and financial support flow within the network. • Analysis highlights central and peripheral actors in the local governance structure. • The findings highlight the central role intermediary organizations have in local governance structures

  3. Negotiating rural tourism development at the local level : a case study in Pisece, Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbole, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the

  4. Facing Immigration Fears: A Constructive Local Approach to Day Labor, Community, and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lazo de la Vega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most visible and vulnerable manifestations of the presence of Latino immigrants in “new destination” communities across the United States, day laborers have become a locus of conflict  over the past fifteen years for local policy makers, advocacy organizations, and neighborhood residents. Communities have dealt with day labor in drastically different ways. Some have passed harsh anti-immigrant ordinances, hoping that a hostile environment will encourage immigrants to leave. Restrictionist state and local legislation, however, has proven costly to enforce, has been challenged in court, and has hindered immigrant integration. Other communities have gone against the restrictionist tide. This paper argues that organized day labor centers, such as the El Sol Resource Center in Jupiter, Florida address many of the fundamental fears that polarize local policymaking and the national immigration reform debate. In Jupiter, El Sol has not only eliminated a controversial open-air labor market by bringing the process into a formal and organized structure, it has also provided access to English and civics classes, preventive health screenings and legal services in cases of wage theft. Furthermore, through El Sol the Town of Jupiter has opened a two-way process of immigrant integration. Jupiter’s day laborers are no longer “hiding in the shadows”, but rather are engaging in active citizenship and working with native-born community volunteers to run the center.

  5. Feedback on the Fsc community visits to the local partnerships in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.; Ruiz Lopez, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence community visits took place during the first afternoon and second day of the Belgium Workshop event. Open to all workshop participants, they were not technically oriented, i.e. they did not include visits to the nuclear installations that exist today in the municipalities of Dessel, Mol, and Fleurus-Farciennes. Instead, the visits offered an opportunity for mutual learning through first-hand interactions between Belgian stakeholders and international delegates. Personal, direct contact between local people and FSC delegates was favoured, so as to learn about their perspective and experience of the partnership methodology and approach (both positive and negative). These encounters were organised in public meeting halls serving the communities. FSC delegates also briefly toured the localities by road and by canal. For each local partnership, FSC delegates heard very interesting and detailed presentations in several voices. After forthright question-and-answer discussions, participants had a chance to sample local specialties. An FSC delegate was chosen for each community visit to act as rapporteur in order to collect and briefly report impressions during the first session of the formal workshop. Notes from those reports are presented below. (authors)

  6. Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry A; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Thirgood, Simon J; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-08-01

    Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. We investigated whether local cultural context, particularly local institutions and the efforts of interventions to engage with this culture significantly influence conservation outcomes. We also tested the effects of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration. We systematically reviewed the literature on community-based conservation and identified 68 interventions suitable for inclusion. We used a protocol to extract and code information and evaluated a range of measures of outcome success (attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic). We also examined the association of each predictor with each outcome measure and the structure of predictor covariance. Local institutional context influenced intervention outcomes, and interventions that engaged with local institutions were more likely to succeed. Nevertheless, there was limited support for the role of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration on intervention success. We recommend that conservation interventions seek to understand the societies they work with and tailor their activities accordingly. Systematic reviews are a valuable approach for assessing conservation evidence, although sensitive to the continuing lack of high-quality reporting on conservation interventions.

  7. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Peter

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter. In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore

  8. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  9. Integrating fuel reduction management with local bioenergy operations and businesses: A community responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Kenneth; Van Demark, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In approximately 20,000 US wildfire 'at-risk' communities, private citizen awareness and involvement is essential for the effective integration of sustainable fuel reduction programs with the establishment of local biomass/woody materials businesses and bioenergy facilities. The factors that influence local community bioenergy and wood products economic development are mostly social, political, and financial not biological, ecological, or technological. It is the private sector that is the driving force for creating and influencing sustainable forest resources and broadening access to public lands. The many years of no-wood harvesting policies in the United States have caused excessive overgrowth and eliminated local forest products markets. Now with the severe overgrowth, drought and beetle-infested conditions in many Southwestern forests, actions are necessary to reduce fire hazards, improve public safety, and promote forest health. It is the local communities that must take an active role in creating bioenergy facilities and wood products markets to use these fuel reduction supplies. A case in point is Prescott, Arizona, which is enclosed in the south and west by the Bradshaw Mountains and Sierra Prieta range. In 1990, under companion resolution of the Mayor of the City of Prescott and the Yavapai County Supervisors, the Prescott Area Wildland/Urban Interface Commission (PAWUIC) was formed to address the continuing growth of urban population into the wildland areas surrounding the Prescott basin. This organization of private volunteers and cooperating government agencies has the objectives to provide community fire safety education, wildland/urban fire hazard removal, and to promote the local markets for materials harvested from the wildland areas. (author)

  10. Localization of pain and self-reported rape in a female community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Helena K; Ciccone, Donald S; Raphael, Karen G

    2006-01-01

    Studies suggest that rape increases risk of medically unexplained pain in women. At present it is not clear whether rape is associated with pain at specific locations or at multiple locations. In this study we tested the hypothesis that rape was associated with a preferential increase in risk of pelvic pain that was not explained by pain at other sites. We relied on an existing community study that oversampled women with fibromyalgia and major depression. Localization was assessed by asking about pain at four sites: pelvic region; jaw/face; headache; and lower back. Three groups were identified using a structured telephone interview: Abuse Only (sexual/physical abuse excluding rape); Rape+Abuse (rape in addition to other sexual/physical abuse); and No Abuse. Compared with the No Abuse group, the Rape+Abuse group was eight times more likely to have pelvic pain and 3.7 times more likely to have jaw/face pain after we controlled for the effect of widespread pain. Rape was not associated with lower back pain or headache. The Abuse Only group did not show a preferential increase in risk of pain at any of the four locations that were assessed. After controlling for pain at other locations, we found that the Rape + Abuse group was 10 times more likely to report pelvic pain than the No Abuse group (Prape was uniquely associated with pelvic pain. Future efforts to account for pain in the aftermath of rape must specify a mechanism that can simultaneously cause widespread pain as well as increase risk of localized pain.

  11. The relative role of dispersal and local interactions for alpine plant community diversity under simulated climate warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klanderud, K.; Totland, Oe. [Norwegian Univ. of Life Science, Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Aas (Norway)

    2007-08-15

    Most studies on factors determining diversity are conducted in temperate or warm regions, whereas studies in climatically harsh and low productivity areas, such as alpine regions, are rare. We examined the relative roles of seed availability and different biotic and abiotic factors for the diversity of an alpine plant community in southern Norway. Furthermore, because climate warming is predicted to be an important driver of alpine species diversity, we assessed how the relative impacts of dispersal and local interactions on diversity might change under experimental warming (open top chambers, OTCs). Addition of seeds from 27 regional species increased community diversity. The establishment of the species was negatively related both to the diversity of the existing system and the cover of the abundant dwarf shrub Dryas octopetala. These results show that both species dispersal limitation and local biotic interactions are important factors for alpine plant community diversity. Despite relatively harsh environmental conditions and low productivity, competition from the resident vegetation appeared to have a greater role for species establishment and diversity than facilitation and experimental warming. Higher temperature appeared to increase the negative relationship between resident species diversity and species establishment. This may suggest that climate warming can increase the role of interspecific competition for alpine plant community structure, and thus alter the long-term effects of biotic interactions on diversity. (au)

  12. From community-based pilot testing to region-wide systems change: lessons from a local quality improvement collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donna J; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2010-01-01

    A community-based collaborative conducted a 2-year pilot study to inform efforts for improving maternal and child health care practice and policy in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. (1) To test whether three small-scale versions of an evidence-based, systems improvement approach would be workable in local community settings and (2) to identify specific policy/infrastructure reforms for sustaining improvements. A mixed methods approach was used, including quantitative performance measurement supplemented with qualitative data about factors related to outcomes of interest, as well as key stakeholder interviews and a literature review/Internet search. Quantitative performance results varied; qualitative data revealed critical factors for the success and failure of the practices tested. Policy/infrastructure recommendations were developed to address specific practice barriers. This information was important for designing a region-wide quality improvement initiative focused on maternal depression. The processes and outcomes provide valuable insights for other communities interested in conducting similar quality improvement initiatives.

  13. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  14. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  15. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  16. 2017 National Park visitor spending effects : Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne; Cornachione, Egan

    2018-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2017, the National Park System received an estimated 331 million recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated \\$18.2 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 306 thousand jobs, \\$11.9 billion in labor income, \\$20.3 billion in value added, and \\$35.8 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.5 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with \\$3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  17. Local resource based approach to maintaining and preserving rural local access roads assets: Siyatentela institutional framework and governance case study discourses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and other development agencies focusing on the use of appropriate technologies for civil construction be it in the road, transport, water, agriculture or environmental sectors (World Bank 2001; ILO, 2002; Clegg, 2003). The seminal study conducted... and contribution of local resource based approach to rural and community access roads requires a review of the labour based initiatives in the road, transport and infrastructure sub-sector. An apt statement that captures the essence of building local community...

  18. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  19. Community-based grain banks using local foods for improved infant and young child feeding in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Marion L; Sako, Binta; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Adish, Abdul A; Tolossa, Azeb L

    2017-04-01

    The first thousand days of a child's life are critical for ensuring adequate nutrition to enable optimal health, development and growth. Inadequate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices likely contribute to Ethiopia's concerning malnutrition situation. Development partners in four regions of Ethiopia implemented community production of complementary food with women's groups processing local grains and legumes at grain banks to improve availability, accessibility, dietary diversity and timely introduction of complementary foods. The objective of this study was to establish the acceptability, perceived impact, feasibility and required inputs to sustain local grain bank interventions to improve IYCF. A subsidized barter system was used by mothers in the rural communities, and flour was sold in the semi-urban context. Purposive sampling guided the qualitative study design and selection of project stakeholders. A total of 51 key informant interviews and 33 focus group discussions (n = 237) were conducted. The grain bank flour was valued for its perceived diverse local ingredients; while the project was perceived as creating labour savings for women. The grain bank flour offered the potential to contribute to improved IYCF; however, further dietary modification or fortification is needed to improve the micronutrient content. Dependence upon external inputs to subsidize the barter model and the reliance on volunteer labour from women's groups in the rural context are the greatest risks to sustainability. This intervention illustrates how integrated agricultural and health interventions leveraging local production can appeal to diverse stakeholders as an acceptable approach to improve IYCF. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An Exploration of "Hyper-Local" Community-University Engagement in the Development of Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Elaine W.

    2017-01-01

    The use of big data in smart cities poses new questions about higher education and community-university engagement practices in addressing longstanding social and economic exclusion in urban communities. Drawing on transdisciplinary ideas in higher education, cultural theory, and science and technology studies, primary concerns in the era of big…

  1. Reshaping the Boundaries of Community Engagement in Design Education: Global and Local Explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Travis L.; Radtke, Rebekah Ison

    2015-01-01

    Community-driven design is a current movement in the forefront of many designers' practices and on university campuses in design programs. The authors examine work from their respective public state universities' design programs as examples of best practices. In these case studies, the authors share experiences using community-based design…

  2. Improvement of Early Antenatal Care Initiation: The Effects of Training Local Health Volunteers in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah

    2018-01-01

    Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge-counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P ANC. Training LHVs in communities by knowledge-counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited.

  3. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.

  4. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  5. Proceedings of the 7. world wind energy conference 2008 : community power : energy autonomy for local economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This international conference profiled the topic of community power within the dynamic renewable energy sector. The objective was to promote international technology transfer and bring a new perspective to community development, economic growth and environmental awareness in the context of climate change. It was attended by academics and industry representatives from 20 countries who focused on leading edge research on the topic of innovative technology in the rapidly growing renewable power market. The topics of discussion addressed issues such as ownership of renewable energy projects by local communities, including farmers, landowners, cooperatives, Aboriginal groups, municipalities, utilities and educational institutions. Presentations focused on policy development, financial mechanisms, ownership models, technology advancements, grid interconnection issues, governance and capacity building. The conference featured more than 100 presentations, of which 65 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Making it local: Beacon Communities use health information technology to optimize care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Amy; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Kanger, Chatrian R; Lobach, David F; McWilliams, Lee; Polello, Jennifer M; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Tulikangas, Megan C; Turske, Scott A

    2014-06-01

    Care management aims to provide cost-effective, coordinated, non-duplicative care to improve care quality, population health, and reduce costs. The 17 communities receiving funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology through the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program are leaders in building and strengthening their health information technology (health IT) infrastructure to provide more effective and efficient care management. This article profiles 6 Beacon Communities' health IT-enabled care management programs, highlighting the influence of local context on program strategy and design, and describing challenges, lessons learned, and policy implications for care delivery and payment reform. The unique needs (eg, disease burden, demographics), community partnerships, and existing resources and infrastructure all exerted significant influence on the overall priorities and design of each community's care management program. Though each Beacon Community needed to engage in a similar set of care management tasks--including patient identification, stratification, and prioritization; intervention; patient engagement; and evaluation--the contextual factors helped shape the specific strategies and tools used to carry out these tasks and achieve their objectives. Although providers across the country are striving to deliver standardized, high-quality care, the diverse contexts in which this care is delivered significantly influence the priorities, strategies, and design of community-based care management interventions. Gaps and challenges in implementing effective community-based care management programs include: optimizing allocation of care management services; lack of available technology tailored to care management needs; lack of standards and interoperability; integrating care management into care settings; evaluating impact; and funding and sustainability.

  7. Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based environmental Governance beyond the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Marshall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-based approaches to environmental management have become widely adopted over the last two decades. From their origins in grassroots frustrations with governmental inabilities to solve local environmental problems, these approaches are now sponsored frequently by governments as a way of dealing with such problems at much higher spatial levels. However, this 'up-scaling' of community-based approaches has run well ahead of knowledge about how they might work. This article explores how Elinor Ostrom's 'nesting principle' for robust common property governance of large-scale common-pool resources might inform future up-scaling efforts. In particular, I consider how the design of nested governance systems for large-scale environmental problems might be guided by the principle of subsidiarity. The challenges of applying this principle are illustrated by Australia's experience in up-scaling community-based natural resource management from local groups comprising 20-30 members to regional bodies representing hundreds of thousands of people. Seven lessons are distilled for fostering community-based environmental governance as a multi-level system of nested enterprises.

  8. Local Community Advocacy for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the Big Island of Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Ha, Richard; Imai-Hong, Amber; Silva, Jasmin; Stark, Chris; Naea Stevens, Dashiel

    2018-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope project is a next-generation ground-based optical/infrared telescope planned for construction on Mauna Kea. It is also a prominent social issue in Hawai’i, touching upon a wide range of island-specific issues, including economic/educational opportunities and justice, Hawaii’s long and proud history of astronomy/navigation, the cultural significance of Mauna Kea to some Hawaiians, and Hawaiian sovereignty. In this talk, we describe local community outreach carried out by Hawai’i island resident members of our group, Yes2TMT, and also by the pro-TMT Hawaiian group P.U.E.O based in Hilo. We have cultivated a substantial social media community and persistent on-the-ground advocacy that addresses the many misconceptions about TMT while providing an outlet for concerns from our neighbors. Since early 2016 and thanks to the efforts of many on Hawai’i, support for TMT has increased, especially from the Hawaiian community: the project is now favored by at least 70% of Hawaii’s residents. Our goal is to help bring TMT to Hawai’i under conditions deemed acceptable by the vast majority of the local community.

  9. Climate perceptions of local communities validated through scientific signals in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Shrestha, D G

    2016-10-01

    Sikkim, a tiny Himalayan state situated in the north-eastern region of India, records limited research on the climate change. Understanding the changes in climate based on the perceptions of local communities can provide important insights for the preparedness against the unprecedented consequences of climate change. A total of 228 households in 12 different villages of Sikkim, India, were interviewed using eight climate change indicators. The results from the public opinions showed a significant increase in temperature compared to a decade earlier, winters are getting warmer, water springs are drying up, change in concept of spring-water recharge (locally known as Mul Phutnu), changes in spring season, low crop yields, incidences of mosquitoes during winter, and decrease in rainfall in last 10 years. In addition, study also showed significant positive correlations of increase in temperature with other climate change indicators viz. spring-water recharge concept (R (2) = 0.893), warmer winter (R (2) = 0.839), drying up of water springs (R (2) = 0.76), changes in spring season (R (2) = 0.68), low crop yields (R (2) = 0.68), decrease in rainfall (R (2) = 0.63), and incidences of mosquitoes in winter (R (2) = 0.50). The air temperature for two meteorological stations of Sikkim indicated statistically significant increasing trend in mean minimum temperature and mean minimum winter temperature (DJF). The observed climate change is consistent with the people perceptions. This information can help in planning specific adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change by framing village-level action plan.

  10. Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Lei, Zhang; Xinqiao, Zhang; Xianyan, Wang; Yadong, Huang; Kaiya, Zhou; Hart, Tom; Ding, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to

  11. Ethnopedagogy And Local Genius: An Ethnographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiawan I Ketut Ngurah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preserving local genius is one of the ways to keep values existed in a society. In relation to that this present study aims to identify the procedures of traditional games called megoak-goakan , and reveal the ethno-pedagogy values contained within megoak-goakan. This study employs a qualitative view and utilizes ethnographic study. The setting of the study is in Buleleng regency, Bali. In order to collect the data, the researcher utilizes interview, observation sheet, and field notes. The interviewees were decided through purposive s sampling. Further, there are three main components of the data analysis comprising data reduction, data modelling, and conclusion. Based on the investigation, it is revealed that the procedures of traditional game of megoak-goakan are as follows: form a group, decide the snake group and the crow groups, line up and holding each other, determine the tail of the snake, the crow starts hunting the snake tail, while the head of the snake prevents it, the crow and the snake move freely as the agreement stated, the crow shouts as it catch the tail, and winning and losing are decided by whether or not the crow is able to catch the tail. In addition, this game is also expected to bring philosophical, anthropological, sociological, and psychological values.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  13. Local wisdom of Cikondang village community in the utilization of medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Y.; Munandar, A.; Nuraeni, E.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze local wisdom Cikondang community in the use of medicinal plants. This research used qualitative method with emic and ethical approach to explain the relationship of public knowledge about the type and utilization of medicinal plants in the view of science. Determination of respondents conducted by purposive sampling, taken 30% of the total respondent. The data of the knowledge of the use of medicinal plants obtained through interview techniques as many as 39 respondents. Cikondang people know 27 known medicinal plants and commonly used. Zingiberaceae family has a type that is more widely used as a medicinal plant. The most widely used plant part is leaf and medicinal plant processing which mostly done by boiling. The species with the highest value of use is owned by Curcuma longa L. with a value of 4.28, which states important species / priorities, while the species with the lowest SUV value is Aracchis hypogaea L. of 0.15, which states species are less important and can be replaced by other plants.

  14. Comparison of menopause healthcare considerations between Japanese and Filipino women living in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Rie; Senba, Naomi; Beltran, Ruth; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Blanco-Capito, Loudes

    2012-12-13

    To investigate the involvement of psychological/social factors in the condition of climacteric disturbance in Japan and the Philippines, we examined the menopausal symptoms and psychological/social factors in menopausal women living in local communities and compared among both countries whether differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. affected the condition of climacteric disturbance. High percentages of Japanese women reported mental symptoms, while relatively high percentages of Filipino women also experienced motor neurological symptoms in addition to psychoneurological symptoms. Japanese and Filipino women were found to have different stressors: a high percentage of the Japanese women had problems involving human relationships, such as providing nursing care, while a high percentage of the Filipino women had household problems, including husband's health and financial problems. Stress severity was associated with SMI scores in both countries. A poorer marital relationship in Japan than in the Philippines and an association between marital relationship and SMI scores were found. The present study suggests the association of differences in psychological/social factors between Japanese and Filipino women with differences in menopausal symptoms.

  15. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  16. The Social Acceptance of Community Solar: A Portland Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne

    Community solar is a renewable energy practice that's been adopted by multiple U.S. states and is being considered by many more, including the state of Oregon. A recent senate bill in Oregon, called the "Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Plan", includes a provision that directs the Oregon Public Utility Commission to establish a community solar program for investor-owned utilities by late 2017. Thus, energy consumers in Portland will be offered participation in community solar projects in the near future. Community solar is a mechanism that allows ratepayers to experience both the costs and benefits of solar energy while also helping to offset the proportion of fossil-fuel generated electricity in utility grids, thus aiding climate change mitigation. For community solar to achieve market success in the residential sector of Portland, ratepayers of investor-owned utilities must socially accept this energy practice. The aim of this study was to forecast the potential social acceptance of community solar among Portland residents by measuring willingness to participate in these projects. Additionally, consumer characteristics, attitudes, awareness, and knowledge were captured to assess the influence of these factors on intent to enroll in community solar. The theory of planned behavior, as well as the social acceptance, diffusion of innovation, and dual-interest theories were frameworks used to inform the analysis of community solar adoption. These research objectives were addressed through a mixed-mode survey of Portland residents, using a stratified random sample of Portland neighborhoods to acquire a gradient of demographics. 330 questionnaires were completed, yielding a 34.2% response rate. Descriptive statistics, binomial logistic regression models, and mean willingness to pay were the analyses conducted to measure the influence of project factors and demographic characteristics on likelihood of community solar participation. Roughly 60% of respondents

  17. COASTAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN KELURAHAN SUKOLILO, BULAK, BASED ON LOCAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Kusuma Wardhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelurahan Sukolilo, Bulak Settlement is an area of fishermen settlement with great potential of resources such as fish and sea cucumber. Kelurahan Sukolilo also well known as Prominent Kampung in fish processed products. Despite having a great potential in marine resources, most of the fishermen still live in a low environmental and economic condition. Theres hould be effective environmental management in coastal area so the fiherman vulnerability can be reduced through a criteria of developing coastal area that is able to accomodate the fisherman economic activities. The researcher will apply community based development in developing coastal area criteria.. In this case community-based development approach needs to be developed in the management of coastal areas, especially for the improvement of the environmental quality. This is because the coastal characteristic and resources are very complex and diverse, so in the coastal area management should involve the local community directly. Community based management shows the importance of community participation in development planning and implementation. This research was in form of qualitative research, data sources obtained by primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through observations, visual documentations and interview with the fishermen and fish processors. Secondary data were obtained from literature and theory. Research results showed that  level of community participation that need to be done in the development process using active participatory. Active participatory should be done through partnership and delegated power level to accomodate fishermen and fish processors activities and support sustainable environment. Co-working space for inhabitants is needed  to accomodate community activities related to water and odor and drying process and to create area to socialize

  18. Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki

    2008-05-01

    To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health.

  19. Aging in community and local NGOs: Empowering marginalized older women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjeong

    2017-10-23

    This article is based on an embedded case study of selected older people's self-help groups in urban South Korea, which aim to assist community-dwelling older adults, particularly poor and marginalized women, to age in their community and remain active and contributing members. The study highlights the importance of the role and capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as partner organizations. Implications are important for other aging societies, particularly in Asia, where older women have been often confined by patriarchal oppression.

  20. Communities and Cultures of Women: A Study of Neighbourhood Groups and Gated Communities in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sakira Sahin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to tease out the factors and forces that enable women to form communities of women and the circumstances within which they act. In addition, the research aims to observe into their activities to see if there is a germination of gender consciousness even if in a nascent form. Taking off from a historical vantage point of women coming together for various kinds of social and political action, the paper tries to delve into the epistemological dilemma encountered by feminist politics, where the subject of feminist politics i.e., women, is presented as a problematic category. Gender is understood not as a sole defining category but one that exists alongside other constituents of identities intersecting with it like class, caste, race, ethnicity etc. Given such an understanding the paper is based on a micro-level qualitative study conducted in an urban set-up of Guwahati city where two different kinds of locality-based women’s communities are taken as case studies, one of which is an all-women local neighbourhood development committee and the other a women’s forum within a gated community. The interesting contrasts as well as complexities of the groups in their membership as well their cultures are analysed to raise questions on whether such groups serve patriarchal interests or whether they present themselves as potential sites through which social change towards a more gender-conscious society can be made possible.

  1. Community-Based Monitoring in Response to Local Concerns: Creating Usable Knowledge for Water Management in Rural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Flores-Díaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources around the world are being affected by increasing demand for human consumption as well as by industrial and agricultural use. Water quality has an impact on our quality of life, so effective monitoring provides the necessary data to allow decision makers to address critical water-related issues. This study (1 analyzes water knowledge generated by a community-based water monitoring (CBWM network within a world heritage site; (2 discusses the extent to which monitoring responds to community concerns about water; and (3 indicates challenges in the generation of local usable knowledge. Using information generated over 6.5 years by a local monitoring network, we calculated a water quality index (WQI and generated a time-series analysis using the breaks for additive season and trend (Bfast algorithm. Results were grouped by specific community and institutional concerns about water. Springs under good management practices had low pollution levels, while others used for drinking and recreation had high fecal bacterial counts. Monitoring provided data about Escherichia coli counts exceeding legal limits, and about conditions of alkalinity and dissolved oxygen that represent a risk for the freshwater ecosystems. This study demonstrates how CBWM schemes can be a means of generating knowledge of water resources that can enhance the understanding of water dynamics and inform users’ decisions at local–regional levels.

  2. Ecotourism and community development: case studies from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mike; Wall, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    The connections between people, parks, and tourism have received significant attention in recent years, recognizing the potential for mutually beneficial relationships. Ecotourism has been promoted and widely adopted as a strategy for funding conservation initiatives, while at the same time contributing to the socioeconomic development of host communities and providing for quality tourism experiences. Parks are among the most common ecotourism destinations. Employing interviews, observations and secondary sources, this study assesses the current status of ecotourism at two protected areas in Hainan, China, where it is being promoted as a strategy for balancing regional economic growth and conservation objectives. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage at both study sites. Socioeconomic benefits for the local communities have been limited and tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date. Community residents, nevertheless, generally support conservation and are optimistic that tourism growth will yield benefits. In light of the study findings and the salient literature, planning direction is offered with the intention of enhancing the capacity of ecotourism to generate benefits for both communities and the parks, and thus contribute to the sustainable development of the region more generally. Lessons derived have broad applicability for ecotourism destinations elsewhere.

  3. Sustainable local development in citizen and community spheres. Implications for the governance of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carreón Guillén

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political, citizen, and community spheres, whether global or local, are regulated by systems of governance, which create public interest agendas including tariffs for public services derived from the use of natural resources. In this regard, this paper presents the agreements and disagreements between entrepreneurial, municipal, citizen, and community organizations to establish local development scenarios in reference to the global market. This discussion will create a series of representations that symbolize the dissonance between prosperity and austerity in order to contrast lifestyles oriented towards globalization and livelihoods aimed at sustainability. In this context, different identities have emerged from the alliances between civil and business organizations, in which development is not necessarily a priority; however, such vicissitudes provide central themes for the discussion of economic models.  This paper is important because it envisages a governance scheme that permits including natural resources in the civil, political, and business agenda.  In other words, governance regulates the intrusion of transnational corporations in communities and the inclusion of SMEs in the international market.

  4. Community energy and emissions planning : a guide for BC local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    British Columbia (BC) local governments are becoming more interested in completing an energy and greenhouse gas emissions plan for their community as awareness of climate change grows and energy prices escalate. The purpose of this guide was to support local government elected officials and staff in undertaking an energy and emissions planning process. This guide described the purpose and content of a community energy and emissions plan, its benefits, and how to go about creating one. Specifically, the guide provided practical tips, examples from BC communities, and links to more detailed information. Topics that were presented in the guide included engagement; inventories; target-setting; action plan; implementation and monitoring; and funding and resources. It was concluded that the key to long-term success is to maintain good communication with council/board, staff and the public. The document emphasized that it is important to make sure that people know the work being undertaken, and the results achieved, so that momentum is not lost. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Occupancy in community-level studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Nichols, James; Royle, Andy; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Hines, James

    2018-01-01

    Another type of multi-species studies, are those focused on community-level metrics such as species richness. In this chapter we detail how some of the single-species occupancy models described in earlier chapters have been applied, or extended, for use in such studies, while accounting for imperfect detection. We highlight how Bayesian methods using MCMC are particularly useful in such settings to easily calculate relevant community-level summaries based on presence/absence data. These modeling approaches can be used to assess richness at a single point in time, or to investigate changes in the species pool over time.

  6. Residential Tourism and Multiple Mobilities: Local Citizenship and Community Fragmentation in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Noorloos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Current patterns of “move-in move-out” hypermobility are perfectly exemplified by residential tourism: the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy property. The mobility of residential tourists does not stand alone, but has broader chain effects: it converts local destinations into transnational spaces, leading to a highly differentiated and segmented population landscape. In this article, residential tourism’s implications in terms of local society in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, are examined, starting from the idea that these implications should be viewed as complex and traveling in time and space. Mobile groups, such as residential tourists, can have an important local participation and involvement (independently of national citizenship, although recent flows of migrants settle more into compatriot social networks. The fact that various migrant populations continually travel back and forth and do not envision a future in the area may restrict their opportunities and willingness for local involvement. Transnational involvement in itself is not a problem and can be successfully combined with high local involvement; however, the great level of fragmentation, mobility, temporariness and absenteeism in Guanacaste circumscribes successful community organizing. Still, the social system has not completely dissolved.

  7. Ecological drift and local exposures drive enteric bacterial community differences within species of Galápagos iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Hong, Pei-Ying; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-04-01

    Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing between proximate heterospecific host populations suggests that contemporary local exposures also influence the gut community assembly. While selective forces such as host-bacterial interactions or dietary differences are dominant drivers of intestinal community differences among hosts, historical and contemporary processes of ecological drift may lead to differences in bacterial composition within a host species. Whether such differences in community structure translate into geographic variation in benefits derived from these intimate microbial communities remains to be explored. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Centre and/or periphery? On the cognitive and social construal of identity in a local community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -cultural setting, mass media, and politics (the island as periphery). Interestingly, the latter discourse could also be connected to local practices in which the new role of the island was being enacted and entrenched by the informants in their local environment. The data show that cognitive models can be subject......Centre and/or periphery? On the cognitive and social construal of identity in a local community Danish Directional Adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ‘up', ned ‘down', ud ‘out', ind ‘in') are very frequently used deictically to profile a specific conceptualisation of and relation to places, persons...... communicative and social spheres or deictic centres within the wider language community: individual, local, and supra-local (Hovmark 2007). Local communities can develop and conventionalise specific conceptualisations ("world views"), thus supporting recent findings that (dia)lectal variation is important...

  9. Community Resilience to Militant Islamism: Who and What?: An Explorative Study of Resilience in Three Danish Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Schack, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    of resilience to militant Islamism in three Danish communities. It shows how families and trust-based networks, including local government, are the major sources of resilience, but also how punitive national policies and discourses work at cross purposes with resilience-building by reducing local actors......Building community resilience to violent extremism increasingly figures as a goal in national security strategies and debates. The exact meaning of resilience remains unclear, complicating an informed discussion of whom and what to support. This article presents findings from an explorative study...

  10. Ecological changes and local knowledge in a giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.) hunting community in Palawan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2018-02-24

    One of the traditional livelihood practices of indigenous Tagbanuas in Palawan, Philippines is wild honey hunting and gathering from the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.). In order to analyze the linkages of the social and ecological systems involved in this indigenous practice, we conducted spatial, quantitative, and qualitative analyses on field data gathered through mapping of global positioning system coordinates, community surveys, and key informant interviews. We found that only 24% of the 251 local community members surveyed could correctly identify the giant honey bee. Inferential statistics showed that a lower level of formal education strongly correlates with correct identification of the giant honey bee. Spatial analysis revealed that mean NDVI of sampled nesting tree areas has dropped from 0.61 in the year 1988 to 0.41 in 2015. However, those who correctly identified the giant honey bee lived in areas with high vegetation cover. Decreasing vegetation cover limits the presence of wild honey bees and this may also be limiting direct experience of the community with wild honey bees. However, with causality yet to be established, we recommend conducting further studies to concretely model feedbacks between ecological changes and local knowledge.

  11. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  12. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  14. Disaster Preparedness activities in Havana: the study of the Community leaders´ Perception of risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Gaeta Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk reduction and build resilience in order to prevent some disasters require not just well coordinated authorities, a sound legislation and strong institutions. It is also vital to involve the local communities in preventive measures. The design of community training and community based preparedness activities is not ofen planned properly and is done without enough information, leading to a breakdown in the intervention. Based on personal and group interviews and a survey, this study performs an exploration of community leaders´ perceptions about risks in Havana that strengthens or constrains preventive measures and enhance or not response capacities. information that helps to design capacity building activities at studied community.

  15. SVILUPPO LOCALE E COMMUNITY-UNIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP UNA SPERIMENTAZIONE NELLA VALLE DEL SIMETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Franchina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about the CoPED Summer School (Community Planning and Ecological Design held in Sicily, in the Simeto Valley, in June 2015. The School is one of the steps of the building process of the Simeto River Agreement, which started in 2002 and has been conducted in a community-university partnership framework by Italian action researchers with local representatives. Furthermore, the Simeto Valley has been elected recently as one of the "pilot areas" in the National Strategy for Inner Areas promoted by the De- partment for Economic Development. The main aim of the school has been to determine the projects to be developed in the National Strategy for Inner Areas. The article outlines both the achieved results and the methodological aspects of this experience. It especially highlights the value of service learning as pedagogical method, and the potential of the U. S. engaged university model that could be implemented in the Italian university system.

  16. Re-embedding scientific development in the realities of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Eames, Malcolm; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    As the effects of climate change is becoming increasingly visible scientific and technological development is often seen as a key component in political action towards future sustainability. Historically, however, it is not evident that science and technology per se lead to sustainable solutions....... To address this aspect of the challenge of sustainable development, this paper examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between academia and local communities, which can inspire more contextualised modes of knowledge production. Building...... on the insights from critical theory; newer conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science for Sustainability action research programme, a number of principles towards more reflexive forms of community based public engagement in science and technology are proposed....

  17. Ethnomethodology and the study of online communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the authors’ current research programs, this essay explores the basic dimensions of online communities and the concomitant need for scholars to rethink the assumptions that undergrid historic paradigms about the nature of social interaction, social bonding, and empirical experience (Cerulo, 1997. In so doing, we argue that online communities are far from the “imagined” or pseudo communities explicated by Calhoun (1991; that they are, in fact, “real” in the very way in which they reflect the changing nature of human relations and human interaction. Finally this paper discusses the epistemological and methodological implications of studying cyber communities. We will discuss how computer-mediated interaction, or telelogic communication, as it has been characterized by a number of theorists (Ogan, 1993; Ball-Rokeach & Reardon, 1988, can be analyzed to contribute to phenomenological or ethnographic understandings of what it means to be a member of a cyber-community. We suggest that one of the best approaches to taking such a phenomenological snapshot is through a multi-method triangulation, employing qualitative interviews and descriptive and inferential analyses of message content. We also will address limitations and restrictions for using the Internet to do ethnomethodology.

  18. Children with Lesbian Parents: A Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julid; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-olds with lesbian parents, with two-parent heterosexual parents, or with single heterosexual mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Found no significant differences between lesbian mothers and…

  19. Perturbation metatranscriptomics for studying complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rohan B.H.; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Arumugam, Krithika

    Studying the functional state of natural or engineered microbial communities presents substantial challenges due to both the complexities of field sampling, and, in the laboratory context, the inability of culture or reactor systems to maintain community composition ex situ over long periods. Here...... correlation between orthologous genes (Pearson r=0.4). We also used these data to annotate uncharacterized genes in the Ca. nitrospira defluvii genome: finding clear evidence for several previously unrecognized denitrification related genes, using a combination of expression profiles and protein domain data...... are associated with the transition from anoxic to aerobic conditions, and are observable at a whole community level and 3) these data provide a means of identifying unannotated genes in reference genomes that are likely to be associated with specific functional processes. More broadly, our approach permits...

  20. Physics education of Japanese national colleges of technology in local community of Hokkaido

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Matsui, Hidenori

    2014-03-01

    The national colleges of technology in Japan, called KOSEN, were established about 50 years ago aiming to educate 15 to 20 years old students to become engineers who were necessary in period of high economic growth of Japan. In present, environment surrounding us has changed. Examples are low birth rate in Japan and the great earthquake in Tohoku area. There are 4 KOSENs in Hokkaido and we jointly make many efforts to contribute to local community in science. We present our efforts in physics education.

  1. Local energy ownership in Europe. An exploratory study of local public initiatives in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Across Europe, a growing number of local authorities are eager to regain control over energy systems on a wide range of scales and modalities. Through an exploratory study authored by Andreas Ruedinger and funded by the French Agency for Energy Management (ADEME), Energy Cities decided to shed light on the various nuances surrounding this phenomenon of local reclaim over energy systems and offer new perspectives to cities wishing to replicate successful initiatives. This European overview focuses mainly on three countries: Germany, which could almost be described as the cradle of re-municipalization, the United Kingdom and France. Local energy management can take many forms, and the study outlines and develops four specific processes: 1. re-municipalization, 2. Political decentralization, 3. Citizen projects, 4. Participatory governance. More and more cities are taking a leading role in driving the energy transition, not only as planning authorities but also as an operational actors, inspired in particular by examples of re-municipalization in the water sector. Whether it is through the creation of new integrated municipal companies such as Germany, public energy suppliers such as the UK, or local operators investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. France, we see the outlines of a movement of re-appropriation of energy transition by local communities, the study finds. The reasons and opportunities that motivate local authorities to embark on re-municipalization projects are multiple: revitalizing the local economy, creating a close connection with citizens, managing local public services in a more integrated way, fostering cooperation and partnerships with other players, accessing new markets, etc. However, as the study points out, these endeavors can also come with some risks, such as the competitive pressure exerted by the private sector and the limited influence over national and European energy policies

  2. Local energy ownership in Europe. An exploratory study of local public initiatives in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    Across Europe, a growing number of local authorities are eager to regain control over energy systems on a wide range of scales and modalities. Through an exploratory study authored by Andreas Ruedinger and funded by the French Agency for Energy Management (ADEME), Energy Cities decided to shed light on the various nuances surrounding this phenomenon of local reclaim over energy systems and offer new perspectives to cities wishing to replicate successful initiatives. This European overview focuses mainly on three countries: Germany, which could almost be described as the cradle of re-municipalization, the United Kingdom and France. Local energy management can take many forms, and the study outlines and develops four specific processes: 1. Re-municipalization, 2. Political decentralization, 3. Citizen projects, 4. Participatory governance. More and more cities are taking a leading role in driving the energy transition, not only as planning authorities but also as an operational actors, inspired in particular by examples of re-municipalization in the water sector. Whether it is through the creation of new integrated municipal companies such as Germany, public energy suppliers such as the UK, or local operators investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency projects. France, we see the outlines of a movement of re-appropriation of energy transition by local communities, the study finds. The reasons and opportunities that motivate local authorities to embark on re-municipalization projects are multiple: revitalizing the local economy, creating a close connection with citizens, managing local public services in a more integrated way, fostering cooperation and partnerships with other players, accessing new markets, etc. However, as the study points out, these endeavors can also come with some risks, such as the competitive pressure exerted by the private sector and the limited influence over national and European energy policies

  3. Partnering Students, Scientists, and the Local Community in a Regionally-focused Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. W.; Lemone, M. A.; Seavey, M. M.; Washburne, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    The GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) involves students and scientists in a worldwide environmental data collection effort. The GLOBE ONE field campaign (www.globe.gov/globeone) represents a model for a focused implementation of GLOBE via a geographically-specific project. The campaign, which occurred in Black Hawk County, Iowa from February 2004 to February 2006, was developed by GLOBE Principal Investigators (PIs), the GLOBE Program Office, and GLOBE Iowa. The central scientific objective was to compare quantitatively the environmental effects of various soil tillage techniques. In addition, student research projects were supported that spanned a variety of Earth science topics. The campaign established a partnership between students and scientists to collect a structured, multidisciplinary data set and also increase GLOBE visibility. The fact that GLOBE ONE occurred in a focused geographic area made it necessary to form a network for local support. This started with choosing an active GLOBE partner, namely the Iowa Academy of Science, who had the ability to oversee the local implementation of such a project. Once this partner was chosen, additional local groups needed to be recruited to support the project. The local network included K-12 schools, the County Conservation Board, the University of Northern Iowa, Hawkeye Community College, and community volunteers. This network collected data via automated instrumentation, first-hand observations, and through special events organized with a focus on a specific measurement. The first major step in supporting student research was a teacher training workshop held in March of 2006 that helped to provide tools for, and increase comfort levels with, promoting scientific inquiry in the classroom. Student-scientists interactions were promoted via scientist visits, video conferences, letters, and email exchanges. The culminating event was a Student Research Symposium held in February 2006 which gave students and scientists a

  4. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of...

  5. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of community-based natural resource management in Latin American social-ecological systems exist in which communities control the management of common-pool resources. Understanding community perceptions of the performance of these systems is essential to involve communities in sustainable management strategies. In this analysis of three areas in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina, we analyzed the local perceptions of the social and environmental challenges faced by these social-ecological systems and how these challenges and drivers affect their resilience. To do this, we combined prospective structural analysis to unravel stakeholders' perceptions of each system's functioning along with network analysis to assess resilience. We identified external variables as the most influential variables in the Colombian and Argentine cases. In the Mexican case, larger influence is exerted by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia, the history of land use (Mexico, and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential.

  6. Local Community Involvement and Quality of Life in Tourism Destination Development: Case of Coastal Tourism in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Abdillah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The community in the tourism destination is one of the key elements to ensure the sustainability of the tourism destination itself. The objective of this study was to determine if the development of tourism contributes to the involvement and the level of quality of life of the local community in Pangandaran and Palabuhanratu. A total of 279 samples were obtained from two locations. Data were analyzed by using descriptive methods to determine the phase of the development of destinations, the community involvement, and the level of quality of life  The results showed that (1 Pangandaran has a better destination performance than Palabuhanratu, (2 Pangandaran is in the growth phase and Palabuhanratu is in the consolidation phase, (3 Increase in the number of tourist arrivals in destinations within the growth phase is more influential than that in the consolidation phase, and (4 Among the four components of quality of life, the material aspect has the highest value, followed by the spiritual, social and personal aspects. The development of tourism destinations significantly affected the level of community involvement and the level of quality of life.

  7. Local Cultural Heritage Sites and Spatial Planning for the Bantik Ethnic Community in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egam, P. P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The course of a city’s development has an effect on both spatial and social aspects, and this situation affects ethnic communities. As a result of recent urban developments, the cultural values of a community that are embedded in living arrangements have been disturbed, thus obscuring, or even hiding, the rich cultural heritage therein. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial characteristics of local neighborhoods based on a wealth of cultural heritage objects. This research focuses on the physical cultural heritage of the Bantik settlement in Malalayang. The spatial characteristics of cultural heritage objects are analyzed, based on physical and other characteristics. The results indicate that, although the Bantik ethnic community in Malalayang, Indonesia, has physical cultural heritage sites, it is unable to effectively develop these as significant cultural spaces because of the physical separation of their locations, the declining meaning of these sites to the community, and the lack of support from indigenous organizations. Distance is not the only determinant of the optimization of cultural space. Planning for cultural spaces involves three zones: 1 a promotion zone, 2 a core zone, and 3 a buffer zone. The greatest potential for developing a cultural space is in the vicinity of Minanga Road and the Niopo Stone, with the physical object reinforcement of similar sites. To improve cultural space, it is not enough to only rely on the existence of a physical object, it is necessary to create a close relationship between the object and the community with the support of indigenous organizations.

  8. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  9. Why do people use exotic plants in their local medical systems? A systematic review based on Brazilian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz de; Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Taline Cristina da; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to understand the processes that lead to the introduction of exotic species into local pharmacopoeias. Among those efforts, the diversification hypothesis predicts that exotic plants are introduced in local medical systems to amplify the repertoire of knowledge related to the treatment of diseases, filling blanks that were not occupied by native species. Based on such hypothesis, this study aimed to contribute to this discussion using the context of local Brazilian populations. We performed a systematic review of Brazilian studies up to 2011 involving medicinal plants, excluding those studies that presented a high risk of bias (because of sampling or plant identification problems). An analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was conducted in different scales to test for differences in the repertoire of therapeutic indications treated using native and exotic species. We have found that although there is some overlap between native and exotic plants regarding their therapeutic indications and the body systems (BSs) that they treat, there are clear gaps present, that is, there are therapeutic indications and BSs treated that are exclusive to exotic species. This scenario enables the postulation of two alternative unfoldings of the diversification hypothesis, namely, (1) exotic species are initially introduced to fill gaps and undergo subsequent expansion of their use for medical purposes already addressed using native species and (2) exotic species are initially introduced to address problems already addressed using native species to diversify the repertoire of medicinal plants and to increase the resilience of medical systems. The reasons why exotic species may have a competitive advantage over the native ones, the implications of the introduction of exotic species for the resilience of medical systems, and the contexts in which autochthonous plants can gain strength to remain in pharmacopoeias are also discussed.

  10. Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

    2015-05-01

    Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink.

  11. Nature of local benefits to communities impacted by sour gas development : Public safety and sour gas recommendation 79 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Provincial Advisory Committee on Public Safety and Sour Gas of Alberta issued a report in December 2002, in which recommendations were made on how to improve the sour gas regulatory system and reduce the impacts of sour gas on public safety and health. Recommendation 79 of this report called for a study to determine the nature of local benefits such as property taxes and local business opportunities, to communities affected by sour gas development. The present document was prepared by a multi-stake holder committee consisting of representatives from municipal government, academia, industry associations, the provincial government, and the public. One of its objectives was to identify matters of importance to stake holders concerning the study. The committee examined three major areas: economic benefit, net financial benefit to municipalities, and impact of sour gas development on local residents. The results indicated that the province and municipalities in which sour gas activities take place benefit from these activities. All Albertans benefit somewhat, and those living in areas where the sour gas industry operates might benefit through employment or the net benefit accrued to municipal government. A detailed quantification of local benefits at the municipal level for individuals was provided in this document. A full accounting of costs or negative impacts that may affect some individuals was not provided. refs., 6 tabs

  12. Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, María-Consuelo

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than state-managed conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  14. Inquiry in interaction: How local adaptations of curricula shape classroom communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Noel; Goldberg, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we seek a better understanding of how individuals and their daily interactions shape and reshape social structures that constitute a classroom community. Moreover, we provide insight into how discourse and classroom interactions shape the nature of a learning community, as well as which aspects of the classroom culture may be consequential for learning. The participants in this study include two teachers who are implementing a new environmental science program, Global Learning through Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and interacting with 54 children in an urban middle school. Both qualitative and quantitative data are analyzed and presented. To gain a better understanding of the inquiry teaching within classroom communities, we compare and contrast the discourse and interactions of the two teachers during three parallel environmental science lessons. The focus of our analysis includes (1) how the community identifies the object or goal of its activity; and (2) how the rights, rules, and roles for members are established and inhabited in interaction. Quantitative analyses of student pre- and posttests suggest greater learning for students in one classroom over the other, providing support for the influence of the classroom community and interactional choices of the teacher on student learning. Implications of the findings from this study are discussed in the context of curricular design, professional development, and educational reform. ? 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 41: 905-935, 2004.

  15. Local acceptance of renewable energy-A case study from southeast Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musall, Fabian David; Kuik, Onno

    2011-01-01

    The European 20-20-20 goals, as well as national targets for the next decade, require a substantial increase in installed renewable capacity in Germany. While public support for such measures is high on an abstract level, the situation in the local context is often very different. Here, the impact of renewable energy might cause resistance. Empirical research shows that a community ownership model can have a positive effect on local acceptance. Our study explores whether such an effect can also be demonstrated in a community co-ownership model. The question is relevant since larger projects exceed the financial possibilities of most communities, leaving them with only co-ownership as an option. The research design is based on a comparative case study, utilizing a questionnaire-based survey. The results of the survey clearly show that a significant difference in local acceptance exists between the two cases. The residents of Zschadrass, where a community co-ownership model exists, are consistently more positive towards local renewable energy and also towards renewable energy in general. The results provide evidence that the co-ownership model is a means to reconcile local acceptance with an increased use of renewable energy in Germany. - Highlights: → We study if community co-ownership affects local acceptance of renewable energy → We interviewed residents from two villages with different ownership models → Residents with co-ownership are consistently more positive towards renewable energy → Local acceptance is higher with co-ownership than with a private ownership model.

  16. Las Cumbres Observatory Partners With Local Museums In “Experience The Eclipse” Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Seale, Sandy; Rivera, Javier; Skinner, Ron

    2017-10-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) in Goleta, California, together with the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (SBMNH) and the Wolf Museum of Exploration & Innovation (MOXI) put together a community program called “Experience the Eclipse” for the month of August.The greater Santa Barbara community includes over 200,000 people and the city is known for its vibrant cultural life. Events featuring science, physics, and astronomy are very popular. In 2016, Javier Rivera, the Astronomy Program Manager of the SBMNH, and Ron Skinner, the Director of Education at MOXI, met with LCO to discuss planning a month of activities to educate the public about the Great American Eclipse. The vision was to capitalize on the strength of each organization and to share information and events.The events included daily planetarium shows and open houses at the observatory of the SBMNH. All three organizations gave parties at public venues with presentations by astronomers. Together the group purchased 6,000 pairs of eclipse viewer glasses and they shared the responsibility of distributing these to local schools and community groups. A master calendar of the events was published in local press outlets and a document describing the eclipse and safe viewing practices was distributed widely. Preparation of these materials was a joint effort among the three institutions.“Experience the Eclipse” was a great success. The open houses at SBMNH were well attended and all public events sold out very quickly. On August 21, the SBMNH presented a live feed of the eclipse taken from their own observatory.We will present photos and videos from these events, along with data on the attendance and quotes from enthusiastic participants.

  17. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  18. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  19. Community outreach and engagement strategies from the Wisconsin Study Center of the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Ngui, Emmanuel M; Ehlert, Carey; Miller, M Katie; Cronk, Christine A; Leuthner, Steven; Strehlow, Mary; Hewitt, Jeanne B; Durkin, Maureen S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this methods article was to describe and evaluate outreach and engagement strategies designed to initially build county-wide awareness and support for the National Children's Study (NCS or the study) and subsequently to target the segment communities where recruitment for the study occurred. Selected principles from community outreach, social marketing, and health care system and personal referral formed the foundation for the strategies. The strategies included a celebration event, community advisory board, community needs assessment, building relationships with health care providers and systems, eliciting a network of study supporters, newsletters, appearances at local young family-oriented events (health fairs, parades), presentations to local community leaders, community forums, "branding" with assistance from a women-owned local marketing firm, and mailings including an oversized, second-touch postcard. Six months after study launch, approximately 4,600 study-eligible women were asked in a door-to-door survey if and how they became aware of the study. On average, 40% of eligible women reported being aware of the study. The most frequently cited strategy to cultivate their awareness was study-specific mailings. Awareness of the NCS increased by 7.5% among those receiving a second-touch postcard relative to controls (95% CIs [4.9, 10.7] z = 5.347, p strategies, in particular the oversized postcard as a second-touch effort, may be used effectively by researchers for participant recruitment and by public health nurses for delivery of important population-focused messages. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Designing a community engagement strategy for Limerick Smarter travel using focus groups and precedent studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Kathleen Clair

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research aims to create a rational basis for designing and implementing a plan for Limerick Smarter Travel. This plan will pay particular attention to community engagement. This research establishes a rationale for a community engagement strategy. Precedent studies also provide direct guidance for this rationale. The objective of the plan is to develop a local culture of Smarter Travel in Limerick communities using best international practice, and thereby achieving behav...

  1. Responses of Coral-Associated Bacterial Communities to Local and Global Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. McDevitt-Irwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contribution to ecological resilience is still largely overlooked in coral reef ecology. Coral-associated bacteria serve a wide variety of functional roles with reference to the coral host, and thus, the composition of the overall microbiome community can strongly influence coral health and survival. Here, we synthesize the findings of recent studies (n = 45 that evaluated the impacts of the top three stressors facing coral reefs (climate change, water pollution and overfishing on coral microbiome community structure and diversity. Contrary to the species losses that are typical of many ecological communities under stress, here we show that microbial richness tends to be higher rather than lower for stressed corals (i.e., in ~60% of cases, regardless of the stressor. Microbial responses to stress were taxonomically consistent across stressors, with specific taxa typically increasing in abundance (e.g., Vibrionales, Flavobacteriales, Rhodobacterales, Alteromonadales, Rhizobiales, Rhodospirillales, and Desulfovibrionales and others declining (e.g., Oceanosprillales. Emerging evidence also suggests that stress may increase the microbial beta diversity amongst coral colonies, potentially reflecting a reduced ability of the coral host to regulate its microbiome. Moving forward, studies will need to discern the implications of stress-induced shifts in microbiome diversity for the coral hosts and may be able to use microbiome community structure to identify resilient corals. The evidence we present here supports the hypothesis that microbial communities play important roles in ecological resilience, and we encourage a focus on the microbial contributions to resilience for future research.

  2. The Effect of Coastline Changes to Local Community's Social-Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. I.; Rahmat, N. H.

    2016-09-01

    The coastal area is absolutely essential for the purposes of resident, recreation, tourism, fisheries and agriculture as a source of socio-economic development of local community. Some of the activities will affect the coastline changes. Coastline changes may occur due to two main factors include natural factors and also by the factor of human activities in coastal areas. Sea level rise, erosion and sedimentation are among the factors that can contribute to the changes in the coastline naturally, while the reclamation and development in coastal areas are factors of coastline changes due to human activities. Resident area and all activities in coastal areas will provide economic resources to the residents of coastal areas. However, coastline changes occur in the coastal areas will affect socio-economic for local community. A significant effect can be seen through destruction of infrastructure, loss of land, and destroy of crops. Batu Pahat is an area with significant changes of coastline. The changes of coastline from 1985 to 2013 can be determined by using topographical maps in 1985 and satellite images where the changes images are taken in 2011 and 2013 respectively. To identify the changes of risk areas, Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) is used to indicate vulnerability for coastal areas. This change indirectly affects the source of income in their agricultural cash crops such as oil palm and coconut. Their crops destroyed and reduced due to impact of changes in the coastline. Identification of risk coastal areas needs to be done in order for the society and local authorities to be prepared for coastline changes.

  3. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) of microbial community and other time series data with replicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Steele, Joshua A; Cram, Jacob A; Cardon, Zoe G; Simmons, Sheri L; Vallino, Joseph J; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of time series microbial community data from metagenomics and other molecular biological studies has enabled the analysis of large-scale microbial co-occurrence and association networks. Among the many analytical techniques available, the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) method is unique in that it captures local and potentially time-delayed co-occurrence and association patterns in time series data that cannot otherwise be identified by ordinary correlation analysis. However LSA, as originally developed, does not consider time series data with replicates, which hinders the full exploitation of available information. With replicates, it is possible to understand the variability of local similarity (LS) score and to obtain its confidence interval. We extended our LSA technique to time series data with replicates and termed it extended LSA, or eLSA. Simulations showed the capability of eLSA to capture subinterval and time-delayed associations. We implemented the eLSA technique into an easy-to-use analytic software package. The software pipeline integrates data normalization, statistical correlation calculation, statistical significance evaluation, and association network construction steps. We applied the eLSA technique to microbial community and gene expression datasets, where unique time-dependent associations were identified. The extended LSA analysis technique was demonstrated to reveal statistically significant local and potentially time-delayed association patterns in replicated time series data beyond that of ordinary correlation analysis. These statistically significant associations can provide insights to the real dynamics of biological systems. The newly designed eLSA software efficiently streamlines the analysis and is freely available from the eLSA homepage, which can be accessed at http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.

  4. Ethnolinguistic Study of Local Wisdom in Ex-Residency of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakit Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses “the local wisdom summarized in the proverbs of the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta”. The purposes of this study are to describe (1 the background of the local wisdom as summarize in the proverbs of the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta, (2 to elaborate further reasons and specific times the people in Ex-residency of Surakarta employ the Javanese proverbs that summarize the local wisdom, and (3 explain the cultural meanings resided in the Javanese proverbs. This study employed ethnographic methods framed by the ethnolinguistic study to find the cultural meanings. Data and the data sources are categorized into primary and secondary data; the data collection method is done through the observation-participation and in-depth interview techniques; data analysis employed the ethnoscience model which underwent 12-phases of advanced research stages (of taxonomic, componential and domain analyses to find the cultural themes; validity of the data is attested with the triangulation techniques (the triangulation of data, methods, researcher, and theory. The results encompassed (1 background of the local wisdom summarized in the Javanese proverbs  expressed by the Javanese community in Ex-residency of Surakarta influenced by the cultural factors, the Javanese language, aesthetical, ethical, social, economical, political, and geographical factors; (2 the community in Ex-Surakarta expressed the Javanese proverb that summarizes local wisdom, the demands of fidelity to the culture is inevitable, media that facilitates the growth of the Javanese language, aesthetical and ethical motivations, social conditions, economical motivation, political media which show the geographical background; and (3 the cultural meaning of the Javanese proverbs which summarize the local wisdom of the community in Ex-residency of Surakarta, all of which are to show the courtesy, avoid direct confrontation, the proverbs also

  5. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  6. Local Area Network: Community Involvement, Social Capital, and Glocalization at NetU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevett-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic and interview data from a long-term study of "NetU," a wired community and college, are used to investigate the effects of computer-mediated communication on social relationships. During the course of this research "LAN" residents of NetU are compared with a similar group of non-LAN residents who lived in the same neighborhood, but…

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning in la Habana, Cuba: a study of local social-ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Karen; Aguiar Prieto, Pablo; Castro Domínguez, Arnaldo; Waltner-Toews, David; Fitzgibbon, John

    2008-09-01

    Following the collapse of the Cuban economy in the early 1990s, epidemiologists in the Cuban Ministry of Health noticed dramatic increases in reported outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in some coastal communities. This article summarizes the results of a comparative case study which applied an ecosystem approach to human health to investigate this issue. Situated learning and complexity theories were used to interpret the results of the investigation. CFP outbreaks are influenced by a complex set of interactions between ecological and socioeconomic processes. This study found that the level of organization of the local sports fishing community and the degree of degradation of the local nearshore marine ecosystem appear to be key factors influencing the diverging levels of CFP outbreaks recorded in the 1990s in the communities studied.

  8. Knowledge and extractivism of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. in a local community of the Brazilian Savanna, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Ivanilda Soares; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Monteiro, Júlio Marcelino

    2014-09-09

    This study aims to understand how the stem bark of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. is used by a rural community in the savanna of Northeastern Brazil, associated with a preliminary assessment involving plant population structure and extractivism in the main sites of collection. A population structure study and analysis of bark extractivism was conducted in two sites: one within the forest and another at its edge. We had the intention of testing whether there are differences between these sites; since the local extractive practice is prohibited, expecting more intense extraction in the forest interior than its edge by the local fiscalization. We interviewed 120 informants who reported knowing and using the species, and also the places of extractivism. We also calculated quantitative measures of local knowledge, and the influence of gender and age on the knowledge about this species. Knowledge of the uses was evenly distributed between men and women. A total of 28 specimens were recorded at Site 1, whereas 23 were identified at Site 2, with the specimens at both sites distributed in 4-diameter classes with 4-cm intervals. Nine of the specimens found in Site 1 (32.14%) showed some sign of extraction. No specimen from Site 2 showed signs of extraction. In Site 1, the total area of stem bark removed was 43,468 cm2, and the total area of stem bark available was 33,200 cm2. In Site 2, only the available stem-bark area of 44,666 cm2 was identified because no specimens were harvested. There is no difference in knowledge of this species regarding the gender and age. Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a key resource for the studied community. A large proportion of bark collected from the first diameter size class may affect the growth of these individuals and may influence the recruitment process. Perhaps, this effect may explain the absence of individuals in some size classes.

  9. Adequate Consultation And Dialogue With Local Community Unlocking The Untapped Potential For Peace And Development Evidences From South Omo Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that adequate consultation and public wide dialogues at the grass root level are the two potential entry points in times of development interventions. This will foster peace among the nearby people and led a foundation for the subsequent development. The study was undertaken to examine whether the agro-pastoral communities of South Omo zone were jeopardized as a result of the Omo Kuraz Sugar development project or not. It also targeted whether there was adequate consultation with the local people at the earliest days of the project. Adopting Ethnographic design the study accompanied by primary data collected through participant observation focus group discussion and key informant interview indicated that there were attempts to consult the indigenous people though not adequate. It also indicated that despite the absence of compensation for the local displaced people due to their mobile life the people were not endangered as a result of the project. This project as a development project that is established at the communal land of the agro-pastoralists is providing training for the nearby people to hire them in its various offices. Far from the claims of the various oversees institutions propounded as if the agro-pastoral communities were miserably suffered from such a project the people consider it as if it is their own project. The study implied that South Omo zone is a counter example of how local level consultation and a wide range of dialogue are indispensable preconditions to foster peace and development in many pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the country.

  10. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug–target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  11. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug-target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  12. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  13. PROMOTING NATURA 2000 NETWORK BENEFITS FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES BY PRACTICING ECOTOURISM AND AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the benefits of the local communities across Natura 2000 sites. Human activities in these areas should take into account the economic, social, cultural, and environmental protection. It examines the most common problems encountered in forests, pastures and hayfields in the area of Natura 2000 sites. There are some examples of good practice exemplified by the activities of farmers living on the radius of Natura 2000 sites in different European countries. Natura 2000 sites are suitable for development of eco-tourism and agro-tourism based on tradition and organic products, which may lead to a brand. Tourism and specifically eco-friendly tourism industries (ecotourism, agrotourism, etc. are encouraging development areas at regional and national Natura 2000 sites as a sustainable opportunity for people and nature.

  14. Identifying Natural Alignments Between Ambulatory Surgery Centers and Local Health Systems: Building Broader Communities of Surgical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Russell J; Owen-Smith, Jason; Landon, Bruce E; Birkmeyer, John D; Hollingsworth, John M

    2017-02-01

    To develop and compare methods for identifying natural alignments between ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) and hospitals that anchor local health systems. Using all-payer data from Florida's State Ambulatory Surgery and Inpatient Databases (2005-2009), we developed 3 methods for identifying alignments between ASCS and hospitals. The first, a geographic proximity approach, used spatial data to assign an ASC to its nearest hospital neighbor. The second, a predominant affiliation approach, assigned an ASC to the hospital with which it shared a plurality of surgeons. The third, a network community approach, linked an ASC with a larger group of hospitals held together by naturally occurring physician networks. We compared each method in terms of its ability to capture meaningful and stable affiliations and its administrative simplicity. Although the proximity approach was simplest to implement and produced the most durable alignments, ASC surgeon's loyalty to the assigned hospital was low with this method. The predominant affiliation and network community approaches performed better and nearly equivalently on these metrics, capturing more meaningful affiliations between ASCs and hospitals. However, the latter's alignments were least durable, and it was complex to administer. We describe 3 methods for identifying natural alignments between ASCs and hospitals, each with strengths and weaknesses. These methods will help health system managers identify ASCs with which to partner. Moreover, health services researchers and policy analysts can use them to study broader communities of surgical care.

  15. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  16. Nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: its effect on a local community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behler, G.T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation consists of a longitudinal case study of the extent to which the structure of community power in Riverside, (a pseudonym) Pennsylvania (the largest community located within five miles of the Three Mile Island nuclear facility) changed as a result of the March, 1979 accident. The investigation centers around testing a basic working hypothesis. Simply stated, this working hypothesis argues that Riverside's power structure has become more pluralistic in response to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident. An additional corollary to this working hypothesis is also tested. This corollary asserts that many of Riverside's community power actors have become much more cosmopolitan in their political-action tactics and problem-solving orientations as a results of the TMI crisis. The aforementioned working hypothesis and associated corollary are tested via the combined utilization of three different techniques for measuring the distribution of social power. The findings of the study clearly demonstrate the existence of increased pluralism, politicization, and cosmopolitanism within Riverside since March of 1979. Furthermore, these research results, and the entire dissertation itself, contribute to a number of subfields within the discipline of sociology. In particular,contributions are noted for the subfields of community power, social movements, and disaster research

  17. Studies of unavoidable heat production and valorisation in Ile-de-France from non-hazardous waste incineration units (UIDNDs), industries, data centres and waste waters. Local communities - External synthesis phase 1, September 2015 + Synthesis May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florette, Claire; Louillat, Stefan; Lopes, Marie; Jacquemin, L.A.

    2017-09-01

    After a presentation of the study and of its context (more particularly phase I of the study which addresses the identification and characterisation of existing operations and of maximum deposits of unavoidable heat), a first report presents characteristics of industrial non-avoidable heat: deposit description, data collection and deposit assessment methodology, synthesis and deposit map. In the same way, it addresses others deposits: non-hazardous waste incineration plants, data centres, and waste waters. The second report aims at defining a strategy for the recovery of unavoidable heat at a regional scale (Ile-de-France). It focuses on processes for which heat production is not the main purpose. For the same deposits as in the first report, the study aims at identifying and characterizing existing operations and maximum deposits of heat recovery at the regional scale, at assessing and characterizing potential recovery of non avoidable heat while taking technical, legal and economic obstacles into account, and then at defining areas for priority actions

  18. A Framework Applied Three Ways: Responsive Methods of Co-Developing and Implementing Community Science Solutions for Local Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, M.; Pandya, R.; Udu-gama, N.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-12-01

    While one-size-fits all may work for most hats, it rarely does for communities. Research products, methods and knowledge may be usable at a local scale, but applying them often presents a challenge due to issues like availability, accessibility, awareness, lack of trust, and time. However, in an environment with diminishing federal investment in issues related climate change, natural hazards, and natural resource use and management, the ability of communities to access and leverage science has never been more urgent. Established, yet responsive frameworks and methods can help scientists and communities work together to identify and address specific challenges and leverage science to make a local impact. Through the launch of over 50 community science projects since 2013, the Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) has created a living framework consisting of a set of milestones by which teams of scientists and community leaders navigate the challenges of working together. Central to the framework are context, trust, project planning and refinement, relationship management and community impact. We find that careful and respectful partnership management results in trust and an open exchange of information. Community science partnerships grounded in local priorities result in the development and exchange of stronger decision-relevant tools, resources and knowledge. This presentation will explore three methods TEX uses to apply its framework to community science partnerships: cohort-based collaboration, online dialogues, and one-on-one consultation. The choice of method should be responsive to a community's needs and working style. For example, a community may require customized support, desire the input and support of peers, or require consultation with multiple experts before deciding on a course of action. Knowing and applying the method of engagement best suited to achieve the community's objectives will ensure that the science is most effectively translated and applied.

  19. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  20. Impacts of extreme events of drought and flood on local communities of Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borma, L. D.; Roballo, S.; Zauner, M.; Nascimento, V. F.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drought events of 1997/98, 2005 and 2010 in terms of discharge anomalies in the Amazon region confirmed previous findings, such as: a) the influence of the El Niño in more than one hydrological year; b) the increase of the influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation of 1998, 2005 and 2010 drought events; c) the low levels of discharge observed in the 2010 drought are attributed to the association of discharge anomalies of the northern and southern tributaries of the Amazon river, and d) the 2010 drought lasted around 1 month (August to November) more than the other drought events analized here. The riverine communities located along the river banks of Solimões/Amazonas suit their economic activities to the oscillation of the water level. In general, low water periods favor the access to important sources of food such as fish and livestock, still allowing crop cultivation on fertile agricultural areas of the floodplain. Conversely, periods of drought increases the difficulties of transport and drinking water supply. During the high water, access to the main food supply (described above) are greatly hampered. However, the floods are recognized as an importance process of natural fertilization. Thus, despite the political, social and economic shortcomings, the local community has, since the pre-colonial period, learned to get the best of each season, providing local, regional and national markets with varzea products. During periods of extreme weather, however, the advantages of each season appear to be reduced, and the drawbacks increased. In fact, during flooding extremes, the access to primary sources of food is hampered by a long period of time and families find themselves forced to leave their homes, eventually losing them. Analysis of flow data to the extreme flooding of 2009, indicate a period of about 6 months of positive anomalies discharge (occurring mainly during high water). At the same time, Civil Defense data points to a

  1. Innovation technological energetics in rural communities. Case of study community of “Manantiales”, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Olalde Font

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.

  2. Understanding and resolving conflict between local communities and conservation authorities in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobe De Pourcq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between indigenous and local communities, on the one hand, and national protected area administrations on the other are pervasive. A better understanding of these park-people conflicts would assist in suitable policy changes to constructively address them while concurrently pursuing conservation and livelihood goals. We interviewed 601 people living inside or along the borders of fifteen Colombian NPAs to identify five main categories of park-people conflicts. Based on interviews with 128 community leaders and 76 institutional-level respondents -mainly park officers- we discuss the five principal factors underlying the identified conflicts and present a conflict framework relating the dominant sources to the most prominent conflict manifestations. Finally, we detail five strategies toward conflict prevention. While simultaneous interventions at multiple levels would be ideal or preferred, our analysis suggests that the incidence of park-people conflicts in Colombia can be substantially lowered through (i making the environmental legislative body more socially inclusive; and (ii adequately empowering NPA administrations. We expect our findings to be valuable for managing conflict contexts in protected areas in other tropical countries. Further research is necessary to determine the most effective interventions for both conflict resolution and meeting conservation goals.

  3. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  4. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  5. Municipal Local Economic Development and the Multiplier effect: Piloting a Community Enterprise Identification Method in South Africa and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Heideman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Local Economic Development (LED is a contested concept in southern Africa, and has become synonymous with delivery of generic job-creation projects, often grant-dependent and unsustainable. Municipal LED has followed this pattern in South Africa since 1994, with little lasting success. Each local economy is unique, and has its own problems and opportunities. The ’Plugging the Leaks’ method recognizes that communities themselves know best how money enters and exits their area. By asking people to analyse their local economy as a 'leaky bucket', the method puts control back in the hands of local people, rather than external experts, and allows them to analyse their own local economy to identify gaps and opportunities for enterprise. By better networking and working collectively to improve their local economy, local communities are able to re-circulate cash internally. This circulation of cash is explained as the local multiplier effect in the workshops. A pilot process of running ‘Plugging the Leaks’ workshops in low income communities in South Africa and Namibia revealed that spending choices in these communities are severely limited in a context where there is no effective welfare state. Therefore, empowerment with this method came from the discovery of collective action and networking, rather than from individual spending choices. Local start-up business tends to be limited to survivalist and copy-cat one-person ventures, and are a last resort when formal employment is absent. In this context collective enterprise offers the necessary empowerment for people to attempt financially sustainable ventures that respond to a gap in the local economy. The pilot project is attempting to show that municipal LED staff can play the role of facilitator for initiating the enterprise-identification process and further mobilise state enterprise support agencies around the locus of LED, without crossing the line between facilitation and implementation

  6. Making time for storytelling; the challenges of community building and activism in a rural locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Copeland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

  7. Communities, Classrooms, and Peers: Examining How Local Contexts Shape Female Students' STEM Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Despite being the focus of decades of research as well as interventions, gender inequality in representation in many STEM fields, including physics, engineering, and computer science remains. Recent research indicates that high school is a particularly important time point to investigate regarding the roots of inequality, as this is when many young women decide that they are not interested in pursuing degrees in these STEM fields. This presentation will focus on the role of local contexts, including communities, classrooms, and peers, in contributing to such decisions. Specifically, sociological theories suggest that role models and peers within young people's immediate environment can send both implicit and explicit messages that contradict larger social stereotypes, and promote perceptions and experiences of inclusion. Alternatively, adults and peers can endorse and behave in a manner consistent with stereotypes, leading to overtly exclusionary messages and actions. Utilizing data from a large urban district in the Southwest, as well as a national sample of high school students, this presentation will examine how such factors within local contexts can work in both positive and negative ways to shape girls' interests and expectations in STEM fields.

  8. Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management

    KAUST Repository

    Noble, Mae M.

    2013-01-14

    Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. © 2013 Noble et al.

  9. Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae M Noble

    Full Text Available Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP. Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management.

  10. Measuring the Social Sustainability of Urban Communities: The Role of Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdana NEAMŢU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the topic of social sustainability which in the last years has attracted interest from both the academia and political decision-makers and analyzes emerging issues on the social sustainability agenda such as urban governance, citizens’ empowerment and participation, sense of place, urban livability etc. The article focuses on how social sustainability of a community can be evaluated: it looks at existing methodologies, metrics and tools and uses the indicators from the Egan report (UK to illustrate the shifts currently taking place in the realm of sustainability assessment. The empirical research strives to determine whether public servants working in urban planning or in other areas that are closely related to planning are in favor of introducing at the local level a sustainability assessment system (research carried out in medium and large municipalities from the North-Western region of Romania. The main conclusion which can be derived from both literature and practice is that the themes under the umbrella of social sustainability are changing and that sustainability assessment is currently in the process of being better understood and used at the local level.

  11. From ivory tower to castle: how scientists are helping their local communities through solving crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    C.A.S.T.L.E. ( Centre for applied science and technology for law enforcement) was established in 1995 to use the resources within Oak Ridge to help local, state and federal law enforcement personnel solve crimes. It included several functions, which will be described in more detail below, casework support, short term feasibility tasks, technical advice and assistance to operations. As a further result of the CASTLE program and similar efforts at DOE laboratories throughout the U.S., the Department of Energy committed in May 1998 to a memorandum of understanding with the departments of treasury and Justice which covers a crime-fighting partnership initiative. Under this partnership, DOE charter is to provide preeminent science and technology that can be applied to the mitigation of crime and criminal activities through the establishment of collaborative partnerships between the DOE laboratories and the law enforcement and forensic sciences communities. One of the chief goals is to facilitate the flow of technologies produced through the partnership to law enforcement agencies at the state and local level. (N.C.)

  12. Socioeconomic effects of operating reactors on two host communities: a case study of Pilgrim and Millstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1976-01-01

    This exploratory case study examines the social, economic, and political/institutional impacts of two operating nuclear power complexes on two New England communities. This work is one of a series planned to broaden knowledge of the effects of large energy generating facilities upon the social structure of local communities. Its primary objectives are to investigate and assess social and economic impacts resulting from construction and operation of nuclear power plants and to generate hypotheses about such impacts for future testing. The study concludes that construction impacts were minor due to a dispersed commuting pattern by construction workers and that the only significant construction impact that can be identified retrospectively is construction-worker traffic. The primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was the massive increase in property tax payments paid to the local communities by the utilities and the option chosen by each community to maintain the existing tax rate while using the additional revenue to significantly increase and enhance the public service delivery systems and facilities within the community. Second-order consequences of the direct, first-order economic impact were: (1) changes in community land use policies, (2) increase in salience of growth issues, and (3) alteration of both inter- and intra-community relationships. The majority of residents in both communities express favorable attitudes toward the nuclear plants, primarily because of the substantial increase in the tax base of their communities

  13. Empowerment for healthy nutrition in German communities: a study framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Curbach, Janina; Lindacher, Verena; Rueter, Jana; Warrelmann, Berit; Loss, Julika

    2017-06-01

    Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for sustainable health promotion efforts. However, there is only limited research on how to link the empowerment approach to the promotion of healthy eating, which is a major current public health issue. The article presents the development of a study framework for implementing and evaluating an empowerment intervention for healthy nutrition. This framework was created for a community intervention study meaning to involve elderly citizens in Bavaria, Germany. The study protocol was developed in an iterative process basing on (i) literature reviews on the topics empowerment in relation to healthy nutrition and mixed-methods evaluation, (ii) workshops with empowerment and public health experts and (iii) consultations with local community representatives. Through these measures we identified good practice criteria as well as specific challenges of integrating empowerment and healthy nutrition, e.g. engaging people in healthy nutrition, reconciling participants' nutrition preferences with public health nutrition priorities and evaluating bottom-up activities in the community. Consequences for the study design were deducted from the literature and the consultations, e.g. practical recommendations as to how power could be gradually assigned to group members. A qualitative mixed-method evaluation design was chosen to capture emergent empowerment processes. The study framework presented here is the first on empowerment and nutrition to provide explicit guidance on how empowerment may be applied to healthy nutrition and implemented and evaluated in the community context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    performance of the tsunami predictors. The role of the local communities in defining the strategies in case of uncertain data is essential: only involvement of such communities since the beginning of the planning and implementation phase of the TEWS as well as in the definition of a decision making matrix can ensure appropriate response in case of emergency, and most importantly, the acceptance of the system in the long run. The efforts to implement the Tsunami Warning System in Italy should take into proper account the above mentioned aspects. Involvement of local communities should be primarily realized through the involvement of the local components of the Civil Protection Agency that is responsible for the implementation of the system over the Italian territory. A pilot project is being conducted in cooperation between the Civil Protection Service of Sicily and the University of Bologna (UNIBO) that contemplates the empowering of the local sea-level monitoring system (TSUNET) and specific vulnerability and risk analyses, also exploiting results of national and European research projects (e.g. TRANSFER and SCHEMA) where UNIBO had a primary role.

  15. Functional community structure of African monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest influenced by local environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Van de Perre, Frederik; Doetterl, Sebastian; Baert, Geert; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared. Additionally, little is known about nondominant species in the monodominant forest community. These two topics are addressed in this study. We investigate the functional community structure of 10 one-hectare plots of monodominant and mixed forests in a central region of the Congo basin, in DR Congo. Thirteen leaf and wood traits are measured, covering 95% (basal area weighted) of all species present in the plots, including leaf nutrient contents, leaf isotopic compositions, specific leaf area, wood density, and vessel anatomy. The trait-based assessment of G. dewevrei shows an ensemble of traits related to water use and transport that could be favorable for its location near forest rivers. Moreover, indications have been found for N and P limitations in the monodominant forest, possibly related to ectomycorrhizal associations formed with G. dewevrei . Reduced leaf N and P contents are found at the community level for the monodominant forest and for different nondominant groups, as compared to those in the mixed forest. In summary, this work shows that environmental filtering does prevail in the monodominant G. dewevrei forest, leading to lower functional diversity in this forest type, with the dominant species showing beneficial traits related to its common riverine locations and with reduced soil N and P availability found in this environment, both coregulating the tree community assembly.

  16. 100% RES communities. Steps towards 100% renewable energy at local level in Europe. Motivations, approaches, examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Pidana, Paulina; Hanisch, Angela; Priesner, Georg C.; Mc Kinney, Simon; Buschmann, Pia; Csanaky, Lilla; Praillet, Frederic; Zanchini, Edoardo; Lefevre, Christelle; ); Marincek, Gorazd; Meiffren, Isabelle; Toplice, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced in 2014, the energy and climate goals for 2030 of the European Union require the mobilization of everyone, everywhere. In a dynamic set to intensify rural territories, as well as cities, the communities have a major role to play. As the principal trustees of renewable resource deposits, they are the vanguard of the energy transition. Their strengths? Wind and water in abundance (very often), the sun of course, biomass - agricultural, forest, woodland, domestic, food processing - geothermal energy. With the desire to make this renewable capital live, it made some decide to take or regain control of the energy issue, reduce their energy bills and those of their inhabitants. Attracted by the opportunity to revitalize local economies and rural communes (alone or in groups) they are more likely to want to become 100% RES. But how to move from intention to action when faced with the lack of knowledge, or means, or when you feel too small to act? It is to assist you in developing your energy policy that this guide was written. Pragmatic, practical, it brings together the return on experience from partners and communities involved in 100% RES Communities project. For three years, elected representatives from rural areas, some experienced and some less, together with experts from 10 countries in Europe, have sought the best organizational, technical and financial means to reduce consumption and produce renewable energy. If because of the administrative, cultural, economic differences within the Union, all the territories do not enjoy the same facilities, the 100% RES Communities project has defined pragmatic methods, practices and tools which will make your work easier. You will find in this guide the key steps in defining your strategy and building your action plan. This is a feasible action plan to be shared and implemented with the stakeholders. A final note: because it is within networks that we discover new solutions, which can replenish the practices and

  17. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brat Kristian; Sedlacek Ivo; Sevcikova Alena; Merta Zdenek; Laska Kamil; Sevcik Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station) in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens), altho...

  18. From link-prediction in brain connectomes and protein interactomes to the local-community-paradigm in complex networks.

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, C.V.

    2013-04-08

    Growth and remodelling impact the network topology of complex systems, yet a general theory explaining how new links arise between existing nodes has been lacking, and little is known about the topological properties that facilitate link-prediction. Here we investigate the extent to which the connectivity evolution of a network might be predicted by mere topological features. We show how a link/community-based strategy triggers substantial prediction improvements because it accounts for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems that use self-organisation as a major adaptation strategy. These systems seem designed for global delivery of information and processing via multiple local modules. Conversely, non-LCP networks have steady architectures formed by strong interactions, and seem designed for systems in which information/energy storage is crucial.

  19. Joint Community Health Needs Assessments as a Path for Coordinating Community-Wide Health Improvement Efforts Between Hospitals and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Erik L; Singh, Simone Rauscher

    2018-05-01

    To examine the association between hospital-local health department (LHD) collaboration around community health needs assessments (CHNAs) and hospital investment in community health. We combined 2015 National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) Forces of Change, 2013 NACCHO Profile, and 2014-2015 Area Health Resource File data to identify a sample of LHDs (n = 439) across the United States. We included data on hospitals' community benefit from their 2014 tax filings (Internal Revenue Service Form 990, Schedule H). We used bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine LHDs' involvement in hospitals' CHNAs and implementation strategies and the relationship with hospital investment in community health. The LHDs that collaborated with hospitals around CHNAs were significantly more likely to be involved in joint implementation planning activities than were those that did not. Importantly, LHD involvement in hospitals' implementation strategies was associated with greater hospital investment in community health improvement initiatives. Joint CHNAs may improve coordination of community-wide health improvement efforts between hospitals and LHDs and encourage hospital investment in community health improvement activities. Public Health Implications. Policies that strengthen LHD-hospital collaboration around the CHNA may enhance hospital investments in community health.

  20. Study of local structure by DAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, Jun-ichiro

    1997-01-01

    We will describe a rather new X-ray structural technique, Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure (DAFS), in which the Bragg diffraction intensities of a fixed momentum transfer is measured as a function of the incident X-ray energy. This technique can provide the same short-range structural information as XAFS. Because DAFS combines the capabilities of diffraction and XAFS into a single technique, it has two enhanced sensitivities compared to the separate technique. These are 'spatial selectivity' and 'site selectivity'. In this chapter semiconductor interface structure study as an example for spatial selectivity and structural study of high Tc superconductor as an example for site selectivity will be shown. (author)

  1. Letting Wood Rot: A Case Study on Local Perceptions of Global Conservation Initiatives (Boumba, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Müller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a pressing need for conservation in Africa and a push for such actions to be directed by the community, there is still much conflict both in academia and on the ground regarding the success and methods of community-based conservation. Employing key-informant interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation, we look at how one community has perceived the conservation actions in their village, Boumba, Niger, and the neighbouring national park, Park-W. This study examines local perceptions of the goals, priorities and methods of conservation in Park-W and the Boumba region. We demonstrate that while participants expressed positive alignment with perceived conservation goals, they did not agree with conservation priorities and felt strongly against the methods.  Reframing conservation discourse in the terms of sustainable-use or adaptive management may serve to help translate much of the conservation ethic to local realities. We argue that for local conservation to be culturally sustainable, programmers of conservation must engage the community on their own terms, and recognize the value of local perceptions.

  2. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  3. Walking the walk? Community participation in HIA A qualitative interview study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Although community participation is seen as central to the practice of health impact assessment (HIA), effective engagement of local people is notoriously difficult to achieve and risks being tokenistic. This qualitative study, set in a deprived estate in northwest England, examined how community participation in the proposed HIA of a Regeneration Masterplan would be affected by the attitudes and experiences of key stakeholders. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders drawn from officials, representatives and local residents linked to the regeneration programme. The results suggest that there may be a large gap between professional rhetoric and the reality of community participation, and that barriers to community participation in HIA may be substantial and institutionalised. If these barriers are to be overcome, it is essential to acknowledge the existence of this rhetoric-reality gap and to address the training and resource needs of both professionals and community members

  4. State practitioner insights into local public health challenges and opportunities in obesity prevention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Lewis, Moira; Khoong, Elaine C; Lasee, Claire

    2014-03-13

    The extent of obesity prevention activities conducted by local health departments (LHDs) varies widely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize how state obesity prevention program directors perceived the role of LHDs in obesity prevention and factors that impact LHDs' success in obesity prevention. From June 2011 through August 2011, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with directors of federally funded obesity prevention programs at 22 state and regional health departments. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify recurring themes and key quotations. Main themes focused on the roles of LHDs in local policy and environmental change and on the barriers and facilitators to LHD success. The role LHDs play in obesity prevention varied across states but generally reflected governance structure (decentralized vs centralized). Barriers to local prevention efforts included competing priorities, lack of local capacity, siloed public health structures, and a lack of local engagement in policy and environmental change. Structures and processes that facilitated prevention were having state support (eg, resources, technical assistance), dedicated staff, strong communication networks, and a robust community health assessment and planning process. These findings provide insight into successful strategies state and local practitioners are using to implement innovative (and evidence-informed) community-based interventions. The change in the nature of obesity prevention requires a rethinking of the state-local relationship, especially in centralized states.

  5. Local to global: Working together to meet the needs of vulnerable communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Anne; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Dietrich, Ann; Chirwa, Ellen; Mgawadere, Florence; Kambalametore, Sylvia; Kako, Peninnah

    2017-09-01

    Since 2012, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) faculty from nursing and physical therapy (PT) have been working together towards a common goal: to meet the healthcare needs of vulnerable populations in Malawi and Milwaukee. Sharing valuable knowledge and understanding one another's professions have allowed us to develop interprofessional education (IPE) learning experiences for students to help identify how quality of life could be improved or enhanced for children and their families across two different geographic spaces, one in rural Malawi and the other in urban Milwaukee. IPE learning modules were implemented in UWM's community health-focused short-term study abroad programmes to Malawi. IPE learning modules were also piloted at one of UWM's nurse-managed community health centres, located in a low-income, African American community in the inner city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Based on survey data collected from 10 participating IPE students in Milwaukee, from nursing, occupational therapy, PT, and speech and language pathology, a pilot study yielded a statistically significant change in a positive direction for increased understanding of three interprofessional collaborative practice core competencies: values and ethics, roles and responsibilities, and teams and teamwork. In this article, we discuss the processes used to develop, implement, and evaluate IPE experiences for UWM students, which may enable other professionals to envision the various projects they can embark upon from an interprofessional perspective.

  6. Localizing Global Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities in Cervical Screening in an Indigenous Community in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugus, Peter; Désalliers, Julie; Morales, Juana; Graves, Lisa; Evans, Andrea; Macaulay, Ann C

    2018-04-01

    This participatory research study examines the tensions and opportunities in accessing allopathic medicine, or biomedicine, in the context of a cervical cancer screening program in a rural indigenous community of Northern Ecuador. Focusing on the influence of social networks, the article extends research on "re-appropriation" of biomedicine. It does so by recognizing two competing tensions expressed through social interactions: suspicion of allopathic medicine and the desire to maximize one's health. Semistructured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with 28 women who had previously participated in a government-sponsored cervical screening program. From inductive thematic analysis, the article traces these women's active agency in navigating coherent paths of health. Despite drawing on social networks to overcome formidable challenges, the participants faced enduring system obstacles-the organizational effects of the networks of allopathic medicine. Such obstacles need to be understood to reconcile competing knowledge systems and improve health care access in underresourced communities.

  7. Evaluation of the basic concepts of approaches for the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Kuroki, Shinichi; Nakagiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the Policy Evaluation Committee compiled the report, which evaluated the basic concepts of approaches to the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local community, specified in the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy. The report states that the 'concerned administrative bodies are carrying out measures related to the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local communities in line with these basic concept' and summarizes fifteen proposals conductive to the betterment and improvement of these measures, which were classified as 1) secure transparency and promotion of mutual understanding with the public, 2) development and enrichment of learning opportunities and public participation, 3) relationship between the government and local governments and 4) coexistence with local residents. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) considers this report to be reasonable. This article presented an overview of this activity. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Between international donors and local faith communities: Intermediaries in humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kathryn; Smith, Jonathan D

    2018-06-12

    This paper explores the crucial part that faith-based organisations (FBOs) play in acting as intermediaries between international donors and local faith communities (LFCs) implementing humanitarian relief projects for Syrian refugees. Humanitarian responses to the mounting Syrian refugee crisis have coincided with greater collaboration between international donors and LFCs. This cooperation often is facilitated by a complex web of non-state intermediaries at the international, national, and local level. This study probes the breadth of roles of these intermediaries, drawing on primary data from case studies of two Christian intermediaries supporting Christian LFCs as they deliver aid primarily to Muslim Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon. The results of the study are connected to the wider literature on LFCs in humanitarian response, revealing how intermediaries address issues of accountability, capacity-building, impartiality, neutrality, and professionalism. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for further research on intermediaries as key actors in the localisation of humanitarian assistance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. BLENDED LEARNING METHOD BASED ON LOCAL WISDOM AS A SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE HOLY TRINITY COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT BENGKAYANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Vasantan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bengkayang is one of the districts the outermost in Indonesia. The district has limitations and underdevelopment in various fields, one of which is in the field of education. Writing this article aims to show that blended learning based on local wisdom is very helpful coaching Holy Trinity Community (HTC in the district Bengkayang. It has been proven from previous studies, suggesting that coaching HTC with blended learning to be more flexible, effective and efficient . Blended learning has been applied HTC with a combination of conventional learning and e-learning in most areas in Indonesia. With the blended learning, the process of spiritual guidance becomes more flexible, effective and efficient so as to improve student in district Bengkayang.

  10. Documenting Prehistoric Habitation in Your Community: A Guide for Local Historians. New York State Museum Circular No. 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Philip, Jr.

    Community historians often limit their efforts to periods of written records; this, despite the fact that many communities have witnessed some form of prehistoric human occupation. Prehistory is the study of human events before the advent of written accounts. The community historian interested in prehistory, which has as its main focus material…

  11. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Ji, Min Gu; Yun, Yo Il; Kim, Yong Cheon; Lee, Sang In; Lee, Chan Won [Chunnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for rational redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, It is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of power between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea.

  12. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. K.; Yook, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for national redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, it is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of powers between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea

  13. Traditional and local use of medicinal plants by local communities in Hezar Jerib summer area, north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Jafari Footami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Some knowledge about medicinal plants is available in old references or books. But important point is the information of traditional usage of medicinal plants from different parts of Iran will be worthwhile and in addition to encouraging people to it provides a good background for future examination about medicinal plants.The objectives of this study is to identify the medicinal plants along with local names, utilized parts, administration route, ailments treated, therapeutic effect and preparation methods. Experimental: So to get this information, we use semi-structured interviews. This research was conducted in the summer and spring of 2016. During this period around 150 individuals (75 men, 75 women; in an age group between 20 and 95 years were interviewed in 6 villages. Number of questions in this survey was 15 questions. Ethno botanical data were analyzed by use-reports. In addition important indices like Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR, Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC and Cultural Importance (CI were calculated. Furthermore, a traditional null hypothesis testing was adopted. These are the most popular indices in quantitative ethno botany. Results: A total of 54 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were identified. The most common families are Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Rosaceae, with 22, 17, 5 and 4%, respectively. The most common preparations methods were infusion (52%, eaten raw and decoction (13%. Also, between different parts of the plant, the leaves are mostly used. According to RFC and CI indices, the most important plant is Gallium verum. Nervous disease has the highest Informant Consensus Factor value with the rate of 0.80. Recommended applications/industries: Introduction of medicinal plants in each region, along with their use can be a great help to create jobs and Encouraging people to cultivate these plants.

  14. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  15. Local changes in communities of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes: 30 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in communities of wild bees (Apiformes were studied in relation to changes in vegetation in six permanent plots (natural forest habitats in the Wielkopolska National Park, and semi-natural habitats in the agricultural landscape near Turew at the end of four decades (starting from the late 1970s. In 2008-2010, as many as 100 species of Apiformes were recorded there, which is more than reported in earlier decades. The most stable bee communities were those in forest habitats (oak-hornbeam forest, oak forest. Substantial qualitative and quantitative changes in vegetation and bee communities were recorded only after the renaturalisation of a former xerothermic grassland, which had become overgrown with shrubs and trees as a result of plant succession. Human interference (e.g. the felling of some trees growing along a road, clearance of understorey shrubs, ploughing of roadside margins at selected refuge habitats in the agricultural landscape led to short-term fluctuations in bee abundance and diversity, but an increasing trend in abundance was noted.

  16. A STUDY OF LOCALLY ADVANCED CARCINOMA OF BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Jenna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Locally advanced breast cancer constitutes more than 50-70% of the patients presenting for treatment has two common problems in treatment. Achieving local control and prolonging survival by preventing or delaying distant metastasis. Today, treatment of LABC requires a combination of systemic and local/regional therapies. The aim of the study is to study the clinicopathological presentation, age distribution and various modes of management of locally advanced breast carcinoma. Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Locally advanced breast cancer constitutes more than 50-70% of the patients presenting treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study includes 50 patients who attended Department of General Surgery for a period of three years. RESULTS The patients were regularly followed up and at the end of the study 35 (70% of the patients were doing well. 4(8% of the patients developed distant metastasis and 3 (6% of the patients developing local recurrence. 8 (16% of the patients were lost follow up. CONCLUSION About half of the cases presenting with breast cancer are in locally advanced stages. Multimodality therapy is the effective treatment of locally advanced carcinoma of breast. Breast cancer management is a challenge and improvement in therapies are needed for disease-free interval and overall survival period.

  17. Localization of optical excitations on random surfaces: SNOM studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Localization of optical excitations on nanostructured metal surfaces and fractal colloid silver aggregates are studied by using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The SNOM images obtained in both configurations exhibit spatially localized (within 150 to 250 nm) light intensity...

  18. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  19. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Liu, Tao; Xie, Xiaohuan; Marušić, Barbara Goličnik

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories. PMID:27367713

  20. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  1. Leading by example: a local health department-community collaboration to incorporate physical activity into organizational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Lewis, Lavonna B; Sloane, David C; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Diamant, Allison L; Nascimento, Lori M; McCarthy, William J

    2004-01-01

    A multisectoral model promoting sociocultural environmental change to increase physical activity levels among African Americans in Los Angeles County, California, was developed and implemented. This model represents a true collaboration between a local health department and a community lead agency. Community organizations serving targeted areas of the county participated in one or more interventions incorporating physical activity into routine organizational practice, which centered around modeling the behaviors promoted ("walking the talk"). In the current study, level of organizational support for physical activity integration was assessed, as reflected in the extent of organizational commitment associated with each intervention. Individual-level data, characterizing the sociodemography, health status, and health behaviors of organization staff, members, and clients, are presented to document the average risk burden in the targeted population. Nearly half of the more than 200 participating organizations actively embraced incorporating physical activity into their regular work routines, with more than 25 percent committed at the highest level of involvement. Broad capacity and support for organizational integration of physical activity was demonstrated, with the observed level of commitment varying by organization type. Similar to the successful evolution of tobacco control, some of the responsibility ("cost") for physical activity adoption and maintenance can and should be shifted from the individual to organizational entities, such as workplaces.

  2. The closure of Trawsfynydd power station - effects on staff and the local community and identifying a strategy for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.M.; Ellis, A.T.; Williams, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd power station had implications for staff and the local community. It was necessary to take immediate steps to prepare for decommissioning the station and to devise an appropriate staff structure. At the same time, there was also a need for Nuclear Electric to adopt a clear and well defined decommissioning strategy. As the station is located within a National Park, as local employment opportunities are very limited and as the nuclear industry was approaching a Government Review, Nuclear Electric took steps to consult the staff and the local public on the options for decommissioning the station. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy chosen for Trawsfynydd. (Author)

  3. Management of Indigenous Knowledge as a Catalyst towards Improved Information Accessibility to Local Communities: A Literature R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoro Abiodun Olaide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing literature on how the management of indigenous knowledge could lead to its effective utilization. Indigenous knowledge is different from other types of knowledge. It could be an important tool to ensure the sustainability of societal development of local communities.

  4. Funding Sources for Community and Economic Development 1997: A Guide to Current Sources for Local Programs and Projects. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This guide contains information on 2,086 funding programs that provide support on national, state, and local levels for economic and community development, social services, and the humanities. The guide begins with "A Guide to Proposal Planning and Writing" (Lynn E. Miner), which includes strategies for locating information on public and private…

  5. The Economic Impact of Bucks County Community College on the Local Economy During Fiscal Year 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jack

    The effects of Bucks County Community College (BCCC) on the local economy during fiscal year (FY) 1979 were investigated in terms of the monies spent in operating BCCC through purchases of goods and services, salaries to college employees, student financial aid expenditures, veterans' benefits, and property taxes paid by college employees, as well…

  6. Local ecological knowledge related with marine ecosystems in two coastal communities: El Valle and Sapzurro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sandra Liliana; Turbay, Sandra; Velez, Madelene

    2012-01-01

    The inhabitants of the Colombian coastal populations of El Valle, in the Pacific, and Sapzurro, in the Caribbean Darien, have ecological knowledge about coastal ecosystems that is a result of their constant relation with the sea, through fishing and navigation. The sea is a source of food and economical resources, but it is also the sphere where the male personality is forged. The accurate knowledge about mangrove, coral, coral reef, beaches and fishing grounds has been enriched through the dialog between local inhabitants and researchers in the conservation biology field. However, the tensions with researchers and environmental authorities still exist. The paper suggests that local ecological knowledge studies could be a starting point for maintaining a more horizontal dialogue between environmentalist and the populations with livelihoods derived of fishing.

  7. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, Rebecca J.; Mahoney, Andrew R.; Walsh, John; Loring, Philip A.

    2018-05-01

    Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances), the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow), although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979-2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  8. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Rolph

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances, the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow, although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979–2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  9. Leadership and Community Participation: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alison A.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature on systemic change and community participation. Explores leadership styles of principals in four community-minded middle schools. Administrators should be aware of their individual leadership styles and their effects on others' behavior. Principals wishing to foster empowerment in schools should move toward a…

  10. Community-based tourism in Cape Verde - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo

    2011-01-01

    Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...

  11. Local community detection as pattern restoration by attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Densely connected parts in networks are referred to as "communities". Community structure is a hallmark of a variety of real-world networks. Individual communities in networks form functional modules of complex systems described by networks. Therefore, finding communities in networks is essential to approaching and understanding complex systems described by networks. In fact, network science has made a great deal of effort to develop effective and efficient methods for detecting communities in networks. Here we put forward a type of community detection, which has been little examined so far but will be practically useful. Suppose that we are given a set of source nodes that includes some (but not all) of "true" members of a particular community; suppose also that the set includes some nodes that are not the members of this community (i.e., "false" members of the community). We propose to detect the community from this "imperfect" and "inaccurate" set of source nodes using attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks. Community detection by the proposed method can be viewed as restoration of the original pattern from a deteriorated pattern, which is analogous to cue-triggered recall of short-term memory in the brain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method using synthetic networks and real social networks for which correct communities are known. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Local non-market quality of life dynamics in new wind farms communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits from generating electricity using renewable power are well known. Both wind farms and large scale solar installations require significant amounts of land to generate such power. Private land holders gain from leasing and selling land to renewable power generators but how are nearby neighbors and county residents affected? This study uses data from West Texas and documents that wind farm county's residents have gained from recent place based investments in wind farms. County property tax rates have fallen and public school quality has improved in those counties where wind farms have been built. Based on the local fiscal data, local school quality data and local ambient air pollution data, renewable power is a “better neighbor” than conventional fossil fuel fired power plants. - Highlights: • Rural counties with wind farms have lower property tax rates than neighbor counties. • Wind farm counties have lower student–teacher ratios. • Ambient air pollution levels are higher near fossil fuel fired power plants

  13. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam.

  14. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Empowering Effective STEM Role Models to Promote STEM Equity in Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, T.; Taylor, J.

    2017-12-01

    interests specific to the organization. After the in-person training experience, participants receive additional follow-up support by working with their local champions and the NASA Langley trainers. The goal is to share the role model training model in an effort to empower STEM role models and assist in promoting STEM Equity in all communities.

  16. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  17. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  18. Developing Online Communities for Librarian Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili; Kennedy, Marie; Brancolini, Kristine; Stephens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of online communities in connecting and supporting librarian researchers, through the analysis of member activities in the online community for academic librarians that attended the 2014 Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The 2014 IRDL cohort members participated in the online community via Twitter…

  19. Permafrost conditions at the Upper Kuskokwim river area and its influence on local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Panda, S. K.; Hanson, T.

    2017-12-01

    layer thickness will lead to permafrost degradation and initiate thermokarst process or dryness of the area that increases risk of wild fires. Also, shallow soil freezing within wetlands makes shorter the safe period of snow machines operation. Current research should help local communities make more informed decisions in adaptation of resources management and land use.

  20. The link between agriculture and local communities from Banat – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Banat was the first Western Romanian region where towns and villages had straight streets, the church, the schooland the town hall in the centre and a clear delineation of the perimeter of the town or village, with its surroundingagricultural fields. Part of the data in this paper comes from the Transylvanian Rare Breeds Association’s database.Banat has been a model of regional development and of interethnic communities ever since 1716. The ruralhouseholds in Banat have two or three yards and this model can be found in Central Europe as well. Owners in Banatpreferred to take care of their animals themselves to watch over them carefully. On the borderline with Hungary, inArad County, there is a totally different type of agriculture, namely one based on the existence of these types ofshelters. At the shelter people raised cows, sheep, horses, chicken, geese, pigeons and beehives. All the field workwas done according to a calendar which took into consideration religious holidays as well as certain days which wereknown to be significant. Old shelter is a model for organic farm. The only chance European agriculture has got isquality, and that goes also for Romanian agriculture, especially the one in Western of Romania. In Romania, theexistence of modern farms is being encouraged, which have to have modern shelters, equipment and machines to beused on large areas. The erosion of the zoo-genetic patrimony in Western of Romania is obvious. Local breeds arebeing replaced with better imported ones but these have to be very well taken care of in order to reach their geneticpotential. Banat was once renowned for its farms for processing animal products. In 2011 there are some units ofprocessing animal and vegetable products in Banat, but these belong almost entirely to some transnationalcompanies. Rich pastures and skilled locals have led to raising pure blood animals. Banat is an excellent region forcrops and for raising animal due to its rich pastures

  1. Business tourism a means of dynamising the life of local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistoreanu Bogdan Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    tourism, which can lead to a relaunch in services and economic development of the local communities in a competitive international economy.

  2. Local opinion - the impact of visitor centre two studies at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aemmaelae, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has recently commissioned two opinion polls about attitudes towards nuclear power. The target group of the first research was teachers in the nearby community. The subject of the poll was attitudes towards nuclear power and the impact of a visit. The second research handles the company image of TVO target groups being local elected officials, press, teachers and local representatives of trade organizations. The aim of these two studies was to measure the impact of the company's information and visits activities to the attitudes. (author)

  3. Challenges to establishing successful partnerships in community health promotion programs: local experiences from the national implementation of healthy eating activity and lifestyle (HEAL™) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Sarah; Hetherington, Sharon A; Borodzicz, Jerrad A; Hermiz, Oshana; Zwar, Nicholas A

    2015-04-01

    Community-based programs to address physical activity and diet are seen as a valuable strategy to reduce risk factors for chronic disease. Community partnerships are important for successful local implementation of these programs but little is published to describe the challenges of developing partnerships to implement health promotion programs. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of key stakeholders on the development and maintenance of partnerships during their implementation of the HEAL™ program. Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in implementation of HEAL™ in four local government areas. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Partnerships were vital to the success of the local implementation. Successful partnerships occurred where the program met the needs of the partnering organisation, or could be adapted to do so. Partnerships took time to develop and were often dependent on key people. Partnering with organisations that had a strong influence in the community could strengthen existing relationships and success. In remote areas partnerships took longer to develop because of fewer opportunities to meet face to face and workforce shortages and this has implications for program funding in these areas. Partnerships are important for the successful implementation of community preventive health programs. They take time to develop, are dependent on the needs of the stakeholders and are facilitated by stable leadership. SO WHAT?: An understanding of the role of partnerships in the implementation of community health programs is important to inform several aspects of program delivery, including flexibility in funding arrangements to allow effective and mutually beneficial partnerships to develop before the implementation phase of the program. It is important that policy makers have an understanding of the time it takes for partnerships to develop and to take this into consideration

  4. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  5. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  6. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    % probability of exceeding the Medium Level Alert in two days. Rainfall stations upstream of the West Rapti catchment recorded heavy rainfall on 26 July, and localized forecasts from the probabilistic model at 8 am suggested that the water level would cross a pre-determined warning level in the next 3 hours. The Flood Forecasting Section at DHM issued a flood advisory, and disseminated SMS flood alerts to more than 13,000 at-risk people residing along the floodplains. Water levels crossed the danger threshold (5.4 meters) at 11 am, peaking at 8.15 meters at 10 pm. Extension of the warning lead time from probabilistic forecasts was significant in minimising the risk to lives and livelihoods as communities gained extra time to prepare, evacuate and respond. Likewise, longer timescale forecasts from GLoFAS could be potentially linked with no-regret early actions leading to improved preparedness and emergency response. These forecasting tools have contributed to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of existing community based systems, increasing the lead time for response. Nevertheless, extensive work is required on appropriate ways to interpret and disseminate probabilistic forecasts having longer (2-14 days) and shorter (3-5 hours) time horizon for operational deployment as there are numerous uncertainties associated with predictions.

  7. ANTI-DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT : A case study of a clubhouse community

    OpenAIRE

    Louko, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Louko, Tiina. Anti-discriminatory practice and community development - A case study of a clubhouse community. Järvenpää, Spring 2011, 54 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South Järvenpää. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelor´s Degree in Social Services. This study was conducted in the context of Eastern Helsinki Clubhouse, which is a community for mental health rehabilitees. The purpose of the research was to describe the clubhouse community from the aspects o...

  8. Perceptions of community participation and health gain in a community project for the South Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandesha, G; Litva, A

    2005-09-01

    The new public health rejects old individualist attempts at improving health and embraces community-based approaches in reducing health inequalities. Primary Care Trusts in England face the challenge of converting community participation in health into reality. This study explores differences in perception of participation between lay and professional stakeholders of a community health project for a South Asian population in Greater Manchester. In-depth interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of professional and lay stakeholders. All data were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes using a qualitative framework. Professionals talked of working in partnership with the community but lay stakeholders did not feel that they had control over the project. There were problems in engaging the community and local health professionals in the project. Lack of cultural awareness hampered participation in the project. There was agreement that the project improved the self-confidence of participants and created a more informed population. However, there was little support for claims of improvements in social cohesion and changes in lifestyle directly as a result of the project. Converting the rhetoric of community participation in health into reality is a greater challenge than was envisaged by policy makers. Marginalized communities may not be willing participants and issues of language and cultural sensitivity are important. Project outcomes need to be agreed to ensure projects are evaluated appropriately. Projects with South Asian communities should not be seen to be dealing with all 'ethnic health' issues without addressing changes in statutory organizations and other wider social determinants of health.

  9. Feedbacks between community assembly and habitat selection shape variation in local colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J.M.; Vonesh, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Non-consumptive effects of predators are increasingly recognized as important drivers of community assembly and structure. Specifically, habitat selection responses to top predators during colonization and oviposition can lead to large differences in aquatic community structure, composition and diversity. 2. These differences among communities due to predators may develop as communities assemble, potentially altering the relative quality of predator vs. predator-free habitats through time. If so, community assembly would be expected to modify the subsequent behavioural responses of colonists to habitats containing top predators. Here, we test this hypothesis by manipulating community assembly and the presence of fish in experimental ponds and measuring their independent and combined effects on patterns of colonization by insects and amphibians. 3. Assembly modified habitat selection of dytscid beetles and hylid frogs by decreasing or even reversing avoidance of pools containing blue-spotted sunfish (Enneacanthus gloriosus). However, not all habitat selection responses to fish depended on assembly history. Hydrophilid beetles and mosquitoes avoided fish while chironomids were attracted to fish pools, regardless of assembly history. 4. Our results show that community assembly causes taxa-dependent feedbacks that can modify avoidance of habitats containing a top predator. Thus, non-consumptive effects of a top predator on community structure change as communities assemble and effects of competitors and other predators combine with the direct effects of top predators to shape colonization. 5. This work reinforces the importance of habitat selection for community assembly in aquatic systems, while illustrating the range of factors that may influence colonization rates and resulting community structure. Directly manipulating communities both during colonization and post-colonization is critical for elucidating how sequential processes interact to shape communities.

  10. ‘Interrupted’ Landscapes: Post-Earthquake Reconstruction in between Urban Renewal and Social Identity of Local Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Clemente

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the topic of post-seismic reconstruction focusing on landscape and social issues. Sustainable reconstruction requires a connection between the physical context of a given territory and the immaterial (historical, cultural, productive values that constitute the place’s identity. In this perspective, those places that have been destroyed by severe earthquakes or other disasters could be labelled as “interrupted landscapes”, meaning a drastic break in the individual stories attaching the people to their own territory, as well as an abrupt alteration of the continuous process by which people attribute a sense to their own territory. The study discusses selected cases of post-earthquake reconstruction in Italy, providing an overview of different visions for development of the new towns, that oscillate between two contrasting approaches: the “new town” model, implying the construction of a new town off-site and the “in loco” model. Looking for the reasons for failures of the new town model reconstruction, the study also debates the social dimension of urban landscapes, reflecting upon the notion of ‘collective identity’ connecting place attachment to cultural heritage. These issues were finally considered when defining strategic guidelines for sustainable urban reconstruction promoting place identity and preserving the intimate characteristics of the affected landscapes. Governance actions were defined along with sustainability strategies based on the investigated case studies, outlining a series of best practices that may promote the permanent involvement of local communities.

  11. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  12. Benthic communities associated to Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bitter - Soto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The benthic community associated with the turtlegrass Thalassia testudinum beds was analized at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. The localities were selected according to their exposure to the open sea : A (protected, B (intermediate and C (exposed. At each locality, a 20 x 20 m area was randomly chosen, delimited and divided into 400 1x1 m quadrats. Inside each, ten randomly selected quadrats/month were sampled during 13 consecutive months. At each site all macroinvertebrates and several physical variables were recorded, as well as leaf and rhizome biomass of T. testudinum. All parameters had a step- wise gradient from A through C: organic matter, carbon nitrogen, oxygen, salinity and temperature gradient was: ABC. Percentages of sand, silt and clay showed an inverse gradient; ASe analizó la comunidad bentónica asociada a Thalassia testudinum y su relación con algunos parámetros bióticos y abióticos, en tres localidades del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón-Venezuela; éstas fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo al grado de exposición al mar abierto: A(protegída, B (intermedia y C (expuesta. En cada localidad se demarcó un área de 20 x 20m, se muestrearon aleatoriamente 10cuadrantes/mes, (130 cuadrantes/localidad. Se efectuaron registros de oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, temperatura, porcentajes de materia orgánica, carbono y nitrógeno, textura del sedimento, biomasa foliar y de rizoma de T. testudinum. Todos los parámetros analizados presentaron un gradiente escalonado. Materia Orgánica, Carbono y Nitrógeno, Oxígeno disuelto, Salinidad y Temperatura presentaron el gradiente: ABC. Los porcentages de Arena, Limo y Arcilla presentaron un gradiente inverso. El patrón en la Diversidad, Equidad y Dominancia fue: BCA. La fauna colectada estuvo compuesta por los grupos: Coelenterata (Anthozoa, Polichaeta, Sipuncula, Molusca, Crustacea y Echinodermata. Se identificaron 15 especies de moluscos (gastrópodos y bivalvos, (3

  13. STUDY REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF LOCAL POLICEMAN CAREER WITHIN THE REŞIŢA LOCAL POLICE DIVISION PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHINA LILIANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled Study regarding the Management of Local Policemen Career within the Reşiţa Local Police Division Public Service aims at highlighting the need for this public service in the Reşiţa municipality community, the importance of the public office in this context, of the public service, of the public servant with special statute and, last but not least, of the managerial act in the administration of this type of human resources, and implicitly this type of career. Starting from the theoretic identifications and their translation into the practice of the field chosen for research we could conclude that in the development of the local policemen career, a special role is played by the human resources management, especially the management of the career of this value-bearing resource. Our investigation was based on the opinion poll-type inquiry, the main instrument being the questionnaire conceived, administered and then valorised and interpreted. The conclusions generated by this research highlighted step by step, along the activities of the analysed human resources management and implicitly their career management, the actual positive or negative aspects and the fact that the management of human resources and implicitly of their career which, we scrutinised – that of police officer or policeman in short – assures with priority: the observance of the legislation specific to the investigated field, support for the development of the local policemen’s career, their prompt availability in due time, the knowledge and fulfilment of the tasks according to the job and position requirements, all this assures the understanding of the employees’ expectations, of the change of employees’ roles within the organisation depending on their experience and solves the conflicts among the employees. Nevertheless, we identified, in a less significant percentage , some cases of discontent and dissatisfaction, cases that could generate ideas for