Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.
Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.
Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael; Flanagan, Brooke
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?
Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.
Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent
We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.
Full Text Available This paper reports on a research to assess the readiness of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) to deliver e-government services to deep rural communities through information dissemination by the SMMEs. This research was conducted as a case...
Hildebrandt, Susan A.
This article reports on a project designed to provide mutually beneficial solutions to challenges faced by world language teacher candidates, their preparation program, and a local community center. The project provided opportunities for teacher candidates enrolled in a world language (WL) teacher education course to complete clinical experiences…
Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J
In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n=20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners' dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and 'evidence' in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Coetzee, L M; Cassim, N; Glencross, D K
The CD4 integrated service delivery model (ITSDM) provides for reasonable access to pathology services across South Africa (SA) by offering three new service tiers that extend services into remote, under-serviced areas. ITSDM identified Pixley ka Seme as such an under-serviced district. To address the poor service delivery in this area, a new ITSDM community (tier 3) laboratory was established in De Aar, SA. Laboratory performance and turnaround time (TAT) were monitored post implementation to assess the impact on local service delivery. Using the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, CD4 data were extracted for the period April 2012-July 2013 (n=11,964). Total mean TAT (in hours) was calculated and pre-analytical and analytical components assessed. Ongoing testing volumes, as well as external quality assessment performance across ten trials, were used to indicate post-implementation success. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Prior to the implementation of CD4 testing at De Aar, the total mean TAT was 20.5 hours. This fell to 8.2 hours post implementation, predominantly as a result of a lower pre-analytical mean TAT reducing from a mean of 18.9 to 1.8 hours. The analytical testing TAT remained unchanged after implementation and monthly test volumes increased by up to 20%. External quality assessment indicated adequate performance. Although subjective, questionnaires sent to facilities reported improved service delivery. Establishing CD4 testing in a remote community laboratory substantially reduces overall TAT. Additional community CD4 laboratories should be established in under-serviced areas, especially where laboratory infrastructure is already in place.
Pradana, G. W.; Fanida, E. H.; Niswah, F.
The demand for good governance is directed towards the realization of efficiency, effectiveness, and clean government. The move is demonstrated through national and regional levels to develop and implement electronic government concepts. Through the development of electronic government is done structuring management systems and work processes in the government environment by optimizing the utilization of information technology. One of the real forms of electronic government (e-Gov) implementation at the local level is the Intranet Sub-District program in Sukodono Sub-District, Sidoarjo. Intranet Sub-District is an innovation whose purpose is to realize the availability of information on the utilization of management, distribution, and storage of official scripts, and also the optimal delivery of information and communication in the implementation of guidance and supervision of local administration. The type of this paper is descriptive with a qualitative approach and focus on the implementation of the Intranet District Program in Sukodono District, Sidoarjo. The findings of the study are the limited number of human resources who have mastered ICT, the uneven network, the adequacy of institutional needs and the existence of budget support from the authorized institution and the information system has not accommodated all the service needs.
Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J
We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mjell, J; Hjortdahl, P
The aim of this study was to assess the use of local interprofessional or audit groups as a tool of quality enhancement. Fifty-six doctors, physiotherapists and nurses attended nine local interprofessional groups. The aim was to improve the quality of each professional's practice and to improve communication between the professions. The groups had a total of 62 meetings with each professional attending on average 5.7 meetings. All groups initiated quality enhancement projects. Initially the groups were very active and showed great initiative, but there were few final results. However, many groups reported improved communication and cooperation between the participating professionals. The experience from this project may be summarised as follows: The professionals within one and the same group should have more or less the same background and specialty. We recommend caution with organising interprofessional groups unless their participants work in the same practice. Interprofessional groups should spend adequate time for the members to get to know each other, and they should be guided by an experienced leader.
Iwami, Michiyo; Petchey, Roland
In 1994 Peru embarked on a programme of health service reform, which combined primary care development and community participation through Local Committees for Health Administration (CLAS). They are responsible for carrying out local health needs assessments and identifying unmet health needs through regular household surveys. These enable them to determine local health provision and tailor services to local requirements. CLAS build on grassroots self-help circles that developed during the economic and political crises of the 1980s, and in which women have been prominent. However, they function under a 3 year contract with the Ministry of Health and within a framework of centrally determined guidelines and regulations. These reforms were implemented in the context of neo-liberal economic policies, which stressed financial deregulation and fiscal and monetary restraint, and were aimed at reducing foreign indebtedness and inflation. We evaluate the achievements of the CLAS and analyse the relationship between health and economic policy in Peru, with the aid of two contrasting models of the role of the state - 'agency' and 'stewardship'. We argue that Peru's experience holds valuable lessons for other countries seeking to foster community involvement. These include the need for community capacity building and partnership between community organizations and state (and other civil) agencies.
Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Fulop, Naomi J; Raine, Rosalind
According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions. Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access) if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care). A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception. Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville'), and one where they were not ('Hilltown'). 28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5) and older people (n=6) - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9). Hilltown interviewees (n=8) received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission. Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times. Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the
Full Text Available According to policy commentators, decisions about how best to organise care involve trade-offs between factors relating to care quality, workforce, cost, and patient access. In England, proposed changes such as Emergency Department closures often face public opposition. This study examined the way communities respond to plans aimed at reorganising emergency services, including the trade-offs inherent in such decisions.Cross-sectional study involving in-depth interviews. Participants selected their priorities for emergency care, including aspects they might be prepared to have 'less' of (e.g. rapid access if it meant having 'more' of another (e.g. consultant-delivered care. A thematic analysis was carried out, combining inductive and deductive approaches, drawing on theories about risk perception.Two urban areas of England; one where changes to emergency services were under consideration ('Greenville', and one where they were not ('Hilltown'.28 participants in total. Greenville interviewees included more common emergency service users - parents of young children (n=5 and older people (n=6 - plus patient representatives and individuals campaigning against service closures (n=9. Hilltown interviewees (n=8 received outpatient care for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, an important cause of emergency admission.Most participants, in both areas, were not willing to accommodate the trade-offs involved in consolidating emergency services, principally because of the belief that timely access is associated with better outcomes. Participants did not consider the proposed improvements as gains worth having; interviewees believed care quality would be adversely impact, partly because increased patient numbers would place staff under greater pressure and result in longer waiting times.Visible clinical leadership and detailed explanation of the case for change were insufficient to overcome opposition to the reconfiguration in Greenville, challenging the
... and advocate for human resource development and the third, as a service provider, building intellectual capital. The article examines the proposition that the most significant contribution that a university or technikon can make to the development of a locality derives from its recruitment of students from the local community.
Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.
,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments within the United Kingdom's (UK health care system have re-awakened interest in community hospitals (CHs and their role in the provision of health care. This integrative literature review sought to identify and assess the current evidence base for CHs. Methods A range of electronic reference databases were searched from January 1984 to either December 2004 or February 2005: Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, BNI, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA, PsychInfo, SIGLE, Dissertation Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Kings Fund website, using both keywords and text words. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes across the literature; narrative analyses were written for each theme, identifying unifying concepts and discrepant issues. Results The search strategy identified over 16,000 international references. We included papers of any study design focussing on hospitals in which care was led principally by general practitioners or nurses. Papers from developing countries were excluded. A review of titles revealed 641 potentially relevant references; abstract appraisal identified 161 references for review. During data extraction, a further 48 papers were excluded, leaving 113 papers in the final review. The most common methodological approaches were cross-sectional/descriptive studies, commentaries and expert opinion. There were few experimental studies, systematic reviews, economic studies or studies that reported on longer-term outcomes. The key themes identified were origin and location of CHs; their place in the continuum of care; services provided; effectiveness, efficiency and equity of CHs; and views of patients and staff. In general, there was a lack of robust evidence for the role of CHs, which is partly due to the ad hoc nature of their development and lack of clear strategic vision for their future. Evidence for the effectiveness and efficiency of the services provided was limited. Most people admitted to CHs
Describes the conflict between the pull toward greater centralization due to the increase in multi-institutional governance systems in community colleges, and the pull toward decentralization in order to make community services responsive to local needs. Presents a management model designed to resolve this conflict. (NHM)
Tosh, Jonathan; Kearns, Ben; Brennan, Alan; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Thomas; Saxon, David; Kilgarriff-Foster, Alexis; Thake, Anna; Chambers, Eleni; Hutten, Rebecca
The purpose of the analysis was to develop a health economic model to estimate the costs and health benefits of alternative National Health Service (NHS) service configurations for people with longer-term depression. Modelling methods were used to develop a conceptual and health economic model of the current configuration of services in Sheffield, England for people with longer-term depression. Data and assumptions were synthesised to estimate cost per Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Three service changes were developed and resulted in increased QALYs at increased cost. Versus current care, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for a self-referral service was £11,378 per QALY. The ICER was £2,227 per QALY for the dropout reduction service and £223 per QALY for an increase in non-therapy services. These results were robust when compared to current cost-effectiveness thresholds and accounting for uncertainty. Cost-effective service improvements for longer-term depression have been identified. Also identified were limitations of the current evidence for the long term impact of services.
Fulk, Margaret E.; Blank, Gordon C.
Western Piedmont Community College adopted the concept of a people-oriented Learning Resources Center with services offered to the entire college community through a learning laboratory, audiovisual center and library. (JG)
Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Goldring, Ellen; Smrekar, Claire
By using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software to combine health and crime data with data from 20 schools in one Southeastern district, the study explores whether and how neighborhood conditions affect school-community arrangements. Findings show that the nature of the relationships and the strategies principals and teachers use to…
... marketing area for the buying and selling of radio air time. It is contained, either in whole or in part... of 50 applications in order to better ensure equitable distribution of radio service between urban... resource-intensive and could delay processing. 52. Second, we believe it is unnecessary to allow parties to...
McCarthy, Kathleen Mary
Reviews the mission of Catholic schools as defined by the church and Vatican II. Suggests that schools be responsive to their communities, implement fair policies, remain faithful to the Catholic tradition, and foster participation in the community. (JDI)
... notifying the public that it received OMB approval on April 12, 2013, for the new information collection... criteria related to maintenance and staffing of a main studio, commitments to locally originate programming and maintain and staff a main studio, and new entry into the broadcasting field. We have revised the...
This report describes a 2-year project at Westmont College, California, which established a Community Service Program with the purposes of decreasing student debt and increasing student participation in community organizations. Eligible students worked 8-10 hours per week for a qualified community agency and received credit towards tuition for the…
Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann; Sigh, Anne
labour-intensive services, the public administration research community is short on knowledge of the impact on the work processes carried out in public organizations and how staff and clients react toward robots. This case study investigates the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish......The movement of robots from the production line to the service sector provides a potentially radical solution to innovate and transform public service delivery. Although robots are increasingly being adopted in service delivery (e.g., health- and eldercare) to enhance and in some cases substitute...... eldercare, demonstrating how robot vacuums have proven to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in the perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between key stakeholders in eldercare....
The aim of community care is to enable people with various types of disability to live in their own homes, rather than in institutions. This involves the provision of support and services at home by various agencies. After a critical report in 1986 identified problems with coordination and flexibility of community care services, the white paper Caring for People (1989) stated the government's aim to provide a "needs led," responsive range of services, promoting maximum independence of those w...
Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area
EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials. This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....
The Institute for Environmental Sciences was established in December, 1990 at Rokkasho, Aomori, as a focal point in the research activities necessary to solve the problems between nuclear energy and the environment. In 2001 the Public Relations and Research Information Office was newly organized in the institute in order to facilitate the communication of scientific knowledge and information with the local inhabitants. The office is expected to play a role, as the communication window opens, to the local community neighboring the nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as other communities in the prefecture. It seems, however, that the methodology for pursuing this aim is not generally provided but needs to be developed on a trial-and-error basis suitable to each situation. The author would like to take this opportunity to consider the given subjects and introduce the experiences, in which the author succeeded in communicating with neighboring people through the common interests regarding the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize is recognized as the greatest honor and authority over the world and is awarded to genuine human wisdom. The public with admiration receives the laureates, and their ways of life along with their arts of thinking are always matters which attract the interest of all the citizens. The people, who sometimes easily understand the scientific background behind the Prizes, always accept the stories of the laureates. The Nobel Prize has played an important role, therefore, not only in disseminating scientific knowledge or information so far, but will function also in cultivating the so-called science literacy'' among the public in the future, even in the issues on acceptance of nuclear energy. (author)
Pouliot, Katherine; Weisse, Carol S; Pratt, David S; DiSorbo, Philip
There is a growing need for home-based palliative care services, especially for seriously ill individuals who want to avoid hospitalizations and remain with their regular outside care providers. To evaluate the effectiveness of Care Choices, a new in-home palliative care program provided by the Visiting Nurse Services of Northeastern New York and Ellis Medicine's community hospital serving New York's Capital District. This prospective cohort study assessed patient outcomes over the course of 1 year for 123 patients (49 men and 74 women) with serious illnesses who were new enrollees in the program. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and after 1 month on service. Satisfaction with care was measured after 1 and 3 months on service. The number of emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations pre- and postenrollment was measured for all enrollees. Patients were highly satisfied (72.7%-100%) with their initial care and reported greater satisfaction ( P care service. An in-home palliative care program offered jointly through a visiting nurse service and community hospital may be a successful model for providing quality care that satisfies chronically ill patients' desire to remain at home and avoid hospital admissions.
Baldwin, Fred D.
Community colleges in Appalachia are helping boost local economies and expand educational opportunities through the national Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). At the heart of RCCI is a nine-step strategic planning process in which a community group moves from vision to action. Kentucky's Southeast Community College has promoted…
Farmer, Jane; Nimegeer, Amy
This paper explores how community participation can be used in designing rural primary healthcare services by describing a study of Scottish communities. Community participation is extolled in healthcare policy as useful in planning services and is understood as particularly relevant in rural settings, partly due to high social capital. Literature describes many community participation methods, but lacks discussion of outcomes relevant to health system reconfiguration. There is a spectrum of ideas in the literature on how to design services, from top-down standard models to contextual plans arising from population health planning that incorporates community participation. This paper addresses an evidence gap about the outcomes of using community participation in (re)designing rural community health services. Community-based participatory action research was applied in four Scottish case study communities in 2008-10. Data were collected from four workshops held in each community (total 16) and attended by community members. Workshops were intended to produce hypothetical designs for future service provision. Themes, rankings and selections from workshops are presented. Community members identified consistent health priorities, including local practitioners, emergency triage, anticipatory care, wellbeing improvement and health volunteering. Communities designed different service models to address health priorities. One community did not design a service model and another replicated the current model despite initial enthusiasm for innovation. Communities differ in their receptiveness to engaging in innovative service design, but some will create new models that fit in a given budget. Design diversity indicates that context influences local healthcare planning, suggesting community participation impacts on design outcomes, but standard service models maybe useful as part of the evidence in community participation discussions.
О. А. Смоляр
Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local
Full Text Available This article contributes to the debate on the use of alternative formulas for public service provision with arguments related to epistemic communities’ influence. Drawing on the literature on models of local public service delivery, the role of internal epistemic communities is discussed and tested through the consideration of two different communities related to specific municipal areas such as personal and urban services. The results demonstrate that the association of urban services’ epistemic communities with alternative formulas for direct provision to deliver services is greater than in the case of personal services’ epistemic community. Those findings contribute to the academic debate not only with arguments and evidence that reinforces the role of variables included in previous research but also by introducing the role of epistemic communities in determining some policy options (as the use of local public-service delivery formulas.
Bruun, Ole; Olwig, Mette Fog
This article critically examines claims that “local community” and “local/traditional knowledge” are vital contributions to safeguarding socio-economic stability and securing sustainable resource uses in times of stress. The empirical focus is on Central Vietnam, but the argument is relevant...
Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc
Universities UK, 2010
This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…
Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.
The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.
Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie
Argues that rhetorical theory needs to keep alive competing concepts of discourse communities, so that alternatives exist in the description and analysis of discourse practices. Proposes distinguishing between two kinds of discourse communities--the local and the global--so that rhetorical analysis can achieve the necessary critical edge,…
The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.
A report is given on progress to establish a company in the UK which involves local people at an early stage in the development of wind farms. Particular attention is paid to obtaining local finance for the projects. Because rural communities tend to be relatively poor, larger investors will need to be involved. (UK)
Full Text Available The paper describes an alternative service delivery institutional concept, viz the franchising of local entrepreneurs, a PPP model especially suited to developing countries. The concept is being developed with the intention of making it available...
Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.
of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... popularity, which are enabled by common driving behaviors found in available trajectory data. The ability to evaluate the quality of routing services enables service providers to improve the quality of their services and enables users to identify the services that best serve their needs. The paper covers......Mobile location-based services is a very successful class of services that are being used frequently by users with GPS-enabled mobile devices such as smartphones. This paper presents a study of how to exploit GPS trajectory data, which is available in increasing volumes, for the assessment...
Dahlberg, Matz; Eklöf, Matias; Fredriksson, Peter; Jofre-Monseny, Jordi
Using Swedish micro data, the paper examines the impact of local public services on community choice. The choice of community is modelled as a choice between a discrete set of alternatives. It is found that, given taxes, high spending on child care attracts migrants. Less conclusive results are obtained with respect to the role of spending on education and elderly care. High local taxes deter migrants. Relaxing the independence of the irrelevant alternatives assumption, by estimating a mixed logit model, has a significant impact on the results.
The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.
Full Text Available It is about an article which, based on the research of the local media in Koprivnica, aims to question the current theoretical attitutes to the role of the media nowadays, changes in communication, ways of connecting politics and journalism, censorship and self-censorship, bigger involvement of citizens in informing themselves via social networks, as well as other aspects of the media influence on the public. The local media in Koprivnica, among others, published articles about the biggest political and economic scandals in Croatia. At the same time, local media is significantly intertwined with local politics. How much and how are these things related? The number of local journalists with a degree in journalism is not satisfactory. How does the local community cope with it? What has changed three years after the research of three local media in Koprivnica finished? Can the local community i.e. the experience of the local media draw attention to illogical, unacceptable and illegal anomalies that create a negative perception of journalism in Croatia as well as the rest of the world nowadays?
In this book social and political scientists discuss different aspects of the selection of a site for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Special attention is given to the preliminary studies that have been performed at a few localities. The authors study the chain of events after a community is proposed for a site study. What powers are set in motion? How do different groups act in order to support or stop the study? Which is the role played by political parties, local environmentalist movements, media and experts? Why is there a forceful opposition in one community and not in another? Why does one local government invite the nuclear waste company to perform the study, while another refuses? The role of the local government has become crucial, since the nuclear waste company have chosen to perform studies only in municipalities that show a positive interest
Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.
Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.
Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent, making our application useful for biologists who wish to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. Results We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. Conclusion The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent
Anderson, J. L.; Andrastek, D. A.
Several mathematical models now exist which determine the operating economics for a United States trunk airline. These models are valuable in assessing the impact of new aircraft into an airline's fleet. The use of a trunk airline cost model for the local service airline does not result in representative operating costs. A new model is presented which is representative of the operating conditions and resultant costs for the local service airline. The calculated annual direct and indirect operating costs for two multiequipment airlines are compared with their actual operating experience.
Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.
Much of the international research on Community Service-Learning has investigated the benefits, outcomes, and learning experiences of students already engaged in service-learning projects and programmes. As there is scant research on students\\' attitudes to and perceptions of Service-Learning, before this learning ...
The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Clark County, Nevada, and communities in Clark County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, Indian Springs, and unincorporated areas of the county. Services inventoried include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, natural gas, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Clark County, discussions of the services provided to residents of communities in Clark County that may be affected by Project activities, and a description of service providers whose service areas are not limited to the incorporated areas of Clark County. Data presented in this profile were collected through March of 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically
The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Nye County, Nevada, and communities in Nye County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Amargosa Valley, Beatty, and Pahrump. Services inventoried for each community include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, heating fuel, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Nye County, discussions of services provided to residents of the three communities, and summary tables. Data presented in this profile were collected through early 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically
Murphy, John W
Service delivery has traditionally been based on market forces. When this is the case, the community becomes a silent partner in this process. Services, accordingly, are directed mostly to correcting personal ills and have little to do with community uplift. Another model, based on the work of Amartya Sen, is available that conceptualizes interventions in a very different way. If understood in the context of community development, the focus of services is social change, rather than merely personal rehabilitation. This reorientation is discussed in this article.
Mudana, I. G.; Sutama, I. K.; Widhari, C. I. S.
Since its last major eruption in 1963, Mount Agung in Selat District, Karangasem Regency, the highest mountain in Bali Province began to be visited by tourists climbers. Because of the informal obligation that every climbing/trekking should be guided by local guides, since the 1990s, there have been initiatives from a number of local community members to serve climbing tourists who were keen to climb the volcano/mountain. This study was conducted to understand and describe the entrepreneurial practices which appeared in the local surrounding community. Specifically, Selat Village, in guiding the climbing/trekking. This study used qualitative data analysis and its theories were adapted to data needed in the field. The results of study showed that Mount Agung was considered attractive by climbing tourists not only because of the exotic beauty and challenges of difficulty (as well as the level of danger) to conquer it, but also because it kept certain myths from its status as a holy/sacred mountain to Balinese Hindus. In fact, a number of tourists who did the climbing/trekking without being guided very often got lost, harmed in an accident, or fell to their death. As a direct result, all climbing activities require guidance. Especially guides from local community organizations who really understand the intricacies of climbing and the curvature of the mountain. The entrepreneurial practices of Selat Village community had arisen not only to serve usual climbing activities, but also to preserve the environment of the mountain and the safety of the climbing tourists with the many taboos related to the climb. These facts could be seen clearly from descriptions of local experts and local climbing guides who have been doing their work for years. As a form of entrepreneurship, they basically did their work for the main purpose of seeking livelihoods (or making money) but their responsibility as local people made them commit to guarding the sanctity of the mountain. This was
Longan, Michael W.
The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…
Meuwissen, L.; Voorham, T.; Bakker, D. de
Aim: Community based primary health care offers in potential the opportunity to tailor health service delivery to the needs and demands of the local population. Up to now, there is no clear cut method to do this. In a pilot benchmark for general practices, data were collected on demand and
Александр Анатольевич Ткачев
Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66
Full Text Available The author analyzes the current Croatian regulation of movement within the local and regional civil service system. This includes the institutes of transfer, promotion, appointment and removal of the heads of administrative bodies, as well as changes in the workplace that may occur in the process of reorganization of the administrative bodies, with additional references to the particularities related to the position of heads of administrative bodies and employees. The procedural context of these issues, related to the implementation of administrative procedure and administrative dispute, is also discussed. The author offers legal interpretation to resolve doubts arising in the practice of implementation of the mentioned civil service institutes.
Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.
Wang, A G
of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...... patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...
Wang, A G
patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...... of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...
Full Text Available The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community would further implement student teachers' community social involvement while enhancing responsibility in their field of action. A questionnaire aimed to present the student teachers' attitudes involving all aspects of studying in the learning community and their social activity in the community was conducted. The findings pinpointed that there were positive contributions of the learning communities from a personal aspect such as developing self-learning, and learning about “me”, as well as broaden their teaching skills, through methodology for teacher training, and developing reflective thought. These insights can also be implemented in various educational frameworks and during service learning as part of teacher training.
Describes several corporation-derived client-satisfaction and customer-service standards that principals can use to strengthen relationships with their parents and community. For example, only our clients can judge the quality of our service; our first job is to understand and manage our client's expectations; no matter what we do, some people…
Yoder, Scot D.
In this paper I explore Goodwin Liu's proposal to ground the pedagogy of service-learning in the epistemology of pragmatism from the perspective of a reflective practitioner. I review Liu's epistemology and his claim that from within it three features common to service-learning--community, diversity, and engagement--become pedagogical virtues. I…
Recent years have shown the emergence of numerous local energy initiatives (prosumer communities) in the Netherlands. Many of them have set the goal to establish a local and sustainable energy provision on a not-for-profit basis. In this study we carried out exploratory case studies on a number of
Browning, Matthew H. E. M.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.
Nature centers can serve as valuable community institutions if they are seen as providing important services to the community. Through survey research in communities surrounding 16 nature centers in the United States, we examine the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that drive hypothetical support for nature centers from local residents.…
Blank, Martin J
Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. © 2015 Institute for Educational Leadership. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.
Hoffman, August John
This mixed-methods qualitative study examined the relationship between perceptions of the importance of social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter) with community service projects and volunteerism. Participants (n = 80) were interviewed and surveyed regarding their experiences in participating in a variety of community service work (CSW) projects…
Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing
Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a series of coordinated community studies, which also include Mobile Bay, AL, Great Lakes Areas of Concern, and the Pacific Northwest. Common elements across the community studies include a focus on watershed management and national estuary programs (National Estuary Program, National Estuarine Research Reserve System). San Juan, Puerto Rico, is unique from the other community studies in that it is located in a highly urbanized watershed integrated with a number of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. The San Juan Community Study will explore linkages between watershed management decisions (e.g., dredging canals, restoration of mangrove buffers, sewage discharge interventions, climate adaptive strategies) targeting priority stressors (e.g., nutrients, contaminants, and pathogens; aquatic debris; habitat loss; modified hydrology and water circulation; sea level rise; storm intensity and frequency) effecting the condition of ecosystems (e.g., estuarine habitats and fish, as well as the connected terrestrial and coastal ecosystems), associated ecosystem goods and services (e.g., tourism and recreation, fishing, nutrient & sediment retention, contaminant processing, carbon sequestration, flood protection),
Larsen, Jacob Norvig
Across Europe more and more citizens involve in voluntary grassroots and NGO activity. Concurrently, more local and national governments express an interest in increasing collaboration with voluntary organisations. The curiosity and interest as regards voluntary labour from public bodies seems...... to have grown as the financial crisis puts more and more pressure on municipal and national budgets. As such, the contribution of voluntary associations is seem as a supplement to more and more reduced public services, particularly within the social services field, care for the elderly, etc. but even...... in local communities and in relation to social capital, the diversity within the world of voluntary organisations, and the difference in views between public planners and volunteers of the role of volunteers. Three cases illustrate this as well as the need for capacity building of VCOs and the urban...
Leisure services and infrastructure: Transforming communities and ... as being most active, ecofriendly, healthiest and quality of living are examined. In addition, a recent study of global model cities in terms of leisure development will be reviewed. ... Among these attributes are: 1) natural factors; 2) social factors; 3) historical ...
Full Text Available Orientation: The community service initiative, a 1-year placement of health graduates, significantly improved human resource availability in the South African public health sector, even though the process was fraught with challenges. Although experiences in the curative health sector were assessed, the experiences of environmental health practitioners were yet to be studied. Research purpose: This study assessed the experiences of environmental health practitioners during their community service year. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence suggested problems with the process. This study endeavoured to identify the challenges whilst taking cognisance of its effectiveness. Method: A total of n = 40 environmental health graduates from the Durban University of Technology who had concluded community service completed questionnaires in this crosssectional quantitative study. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations were used to analyse the data. Main findings: The timing of community service placements was critical as 58% of respondents had to repay study loans. The placement of married respondents (10% outside KwaZuluNatal, however, could have had impacts on family structures. Only 68% felt stimulated by their job functions, and there arose challenges with accommodation and overtime duties. Respondents felt that their tertiary education did equip them and that engagement with senior personnel helped in their professional development. Even though most of the review of the community service year appeared to be positive, a majority of respondents did not intend to continue working or recommending their workplaces. Future career pathing showed that 79% would prefer to be employed outside the public sector. Practical and managerial implications: The process needs to be reviewed to strengthen human resource management and enhance retention in the often overloaded and under-resourced South African public health sector. Contribution
Xiang, Ju; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Li, Jian-Ming; Hu, Ke; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan
Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)
S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)
textabstractThe Lyons Inquiry into Local Government has introduced the English local government community to the concept of ‘place-shaping’. Place-shaping refers to the new role for local governments in promoting the well-being of communities and citizens. The processes of place-shaping are
Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.
Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.
Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…
Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...
These Guidelines provide principles for interactions with local populations. Interaction with communities and local govenments are the responsibility of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Wastes Management program's implementing offices. The Guidelines provide policy direction to these implementing offices, while preserving their ability to tailor local interactions to fit a given situation, taking into account the social and political context and the history of local involvement in the program. Project Offices conduct community and local interactions within overall program resources which must be husbanded prudently. Careful planning by implementing offices should ensure that adequate resources are available to foster effective interactions with local representatives
Unbundling and restructuring of local distribution services is the focus of the natural gas industry. As a result of regulatory reforms, a competitive local distribution market has emerged, and the validity of traditional cost-based regulation is being questioned. One alternative is to completely unbundle local distribution services and transform the local distribution company into a common carrier for intrastate transportation services. Three kinds of alternative pricing mechanisms are examined. For firm intrastate transportation services, cost-based pricing is the preferred method unless it can be shown that a competitive secondary market can be established and maintained. Pricing interruptible transportation capacity is discussed
Timmerman, Willem Hendrik
Energietransitie staat hoog op de agenda. Op de route naar een duurzamer energiesysteem zien we de laatste jaren een grote toename van het aantal lokale energie communities. Deze energie communities streven naar duurzaamheid door middel van het stimuleren van energiebesparingen en het realiseren van
DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.
This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)
Yang, Peng; Pan, Feng; Liu, Danhong; Xu, Yongyong
In order to construct a function model of community health service (CHS) information for development of CHS information management system, Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0), an IEEE standard which is extended from Structured Analysis and Design(SADT) and now is a widely used function modeling method, was used to classifying its information from top to bottom. The contents of every level of the model were described and coded. Then function model for CHS information, which includes 4 super-classes, 15 classes and 28 sub-classed of business function, 43 business processes and 168 business activities, was established. This model can facilitate information management system development and workflow refinement.
The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...
Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn
Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Health Action Groups (DAHAGs) to collaborate with health providers in designing culturally-responsive healthcare. The purpose of the strategy was to improve local health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. The evaluation aimed to identify whether the Aboriginal community considered the community engagement strategy effective in identifying their health service needs, translating them to action by local health services and increasing their trust in these health services. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Qualitative data was collected from Aboriginal participants and health service providers using semi-structured interviews or yarning circles that were recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two senior non-Aboriginal researchers. Responses were coded for key themes, further analysed for similarities and differences between districts and cross-checked by the senior lead Aboriginal researcher to avoid bias and establish reliability in interpreting the data. Three ethics committees approved conducting the evaluation. Findings from 60 participants suggested the engagement process was effective: it was driven and owned by the Aboriginal community, captured a broad range of views and increased Aboriginal community participation in decisions about their healthcare. It built community capacity through regular community forums and established DAHAGs comprising local Aboriginal community members and health service representatives who met quarterly and were
Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby
Local governments are increasingly utilising the public–private partnership (PPP) model as a means of organising service delivery in the public–private domain. This article examines the experiences with construction and operation of 131 PPP wastewater treatment plants in the region of Aragon, Spain...... to the complexity of implementing the projects. The findings contribute to the literature on local service delivery and provide insights regarding risk transfer in long-term PPP contracts for the delivery of local services in general and water services in particular....
Full Text Available The issue of community participation in tourism development has been brought in front of the sector decision makers and researchers mostly during the last period of time. It could be a source of benefits and it could also create a better relationship between the tourism companies and the community groups. In this paper the author writes a literature review on this subject in order to draw attention on this issue in the Romanian tourism literature and to create an analysis framework for specific cases of tourism development plans.
Full Text Available People in most cultures would probably agree that politeness is needed during their interaction. However there may be differing opinions as to when they should be polite. In tourism industry, tourism service providers’ act as hosts and tourists act as guests. Typically hosts will try to act politely and use appropriate politeness norms when serving guests to ensure their satisfaction. The research findings show that the tourism service providers in Central Java use various unggah-ungguh ‘politeness norms’ when serving English speaking tourists and Indonesian speaking tourists. Besides that, there are some violations made by the tourism service providers in using unggah-ungguh ‘politeness norms’. The research findings also show that there are similar and different perspectives on unggah-ungguh ‘politeness norms’ between English speaking tourists with Western culture backgrounds and Indonesian speaking tourists with Indonesian culture backgrounds towards the politeness norms used by the tourism service providers in Central Java. The findings imply the needs of energizing unggah-ungguh ‘politeness norms’ which is discovered from well known noble Javanese values used by the tourism service providers for tourism service improvement.
Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank
Although increasing attention has been given to the need to engage local communities and facilitate community resilience, discrepancies between theory and practice remain evident. Myths, misconceptions and mistakes persist in post-disaster emergency operations, and in the reconstruction and
Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen
We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This ana...
Larsen, Jacob Norvig
of that municipalities’ tax income drop and they therefore need to reduce or completely withdraw public services. The aim of the paper is to explore what options, if any, are available to local communities and local governments to counteract these detrimental economic, spatial and social developments? It is discussed...... why and how communities’ social capital enables voluntary initiatives to grow and if there are options available to local government to encourage and strengthen voluntary community-based organisations. Evidence from two case studies shows a number of successful initiatives by both municipalities...
Full Text Available This paper designs a restaurant service robot which could be applicable to providing basic service, such as ordering, fetching and sending food, settlement and so on, for the customers in the robot restaurant. In this study, both three landmarks positioning and landmark-based localization algorithms are proposed to localize the mobile robot with rough precision in the restaurant. And Optical Character Recognition (OCR technology is used to distinguish the unique table number of different landmarks. When the high localization precision must be granted around the pantry table, the RFID-based localization algorithm is proposed to localize the mobile robot. Various experiments show that the proposed algorithms could estimate the robot pose reasonably well and could accurately evaluate the localization performance. Finally, the proposed service robot could realize real-time self-localization in the restaurant.
Full Text Available This paper designs a restaurant service robot which could be applicable to providing basic service, such as ordering, fetching and sending food, settlement and so on, for the customers in the robot restaurant. In this study, both three landmarks positioning and landmark-based localization algorithms are proposed to localize the mobile robot with rough precision in the restaurant. And Optical Character Recognition (OCR technology is used to distinguish the unique table number of different landmarks. When the high localization precision must be granted around the pantry table, the RFID-based localization algorithm is proposed to localize the mobile robot.Various experiments show that the proposed algorithms could estimate the robot pose reasonably well and could accurately evaluate the localization performance. Finally, the proposed service robot could realize real-time self-localization in the restaurant.
Cooley, M.J.; Thompson, K.K.
Detroit Edison, in cooperation with Monroe County, has developed a comprehensive training program for local emergency workers in the area surrounding the Fermi 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Using expertise from both organizations, a program consisting of two videotapes, two slide-tapes and nine narrated slide series was produced to address the worker-specific training needs of county emergency workers. In June of 185, the program was approved by Detroit Edison and the Monroe County Board of Commissioners. To date, Monroe County has trained more than 1000 emergency workers. This program has been so well received that the county staff has developed and presented a modified version of this program to the general public. The result of this cooperative effort is increased public confidence in emergency preparedness at the state, local and utility level and a renewed spirit of cooperation and trust between the utility and local units of government
Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Zheng, Zhiming; Fang, Wenyi
Immunization plays an important role in the field of epidemic spreading in complex networks. In previous studies, targeted immunization has been proved to be an effective strategy. However, when extended to networks with community structure, it is unknown whether the superior strategy is to vaccinate the nodes who have the most connections in the entire network (global strategy), or those in the original community where epidemic starts to spread (local strategy). In this work, by using both analytic approaches and simulations, we observe that the answer depends on the closeness between communities. If communities are tied closely, the global strategy is superior to the local strategy. Otherwise, the local targeted immunization is advantageous. The existence of a transitional value of closeness implies that we should adopt different strategies. Furthermore, we extend our investigation from two-community networks to multi-community networks. We consider the mode of community connection and the location of community where epidemic starts to spread. Both simulation results and theoretical predictions show that local strategy is a better option for immunization in most cases. But if the epidemic begins from a core community, global strategy is superior in some cases. (paper)
Major socioeconomic trends, including the growth of service industries, increased urbanization, and the enhanced importance of leisure time, have brought about the evolution of what might be called the full-service community college. This institution, which culminates the development of the American community college toward its community-based…
Sips, K.; Ballard, M.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.
Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent
This study expands research on the relationship between community (defined here as a locality) characteristics and child maltreatment. Research in this field is not new, but it is scarce. Our study is unique by examining changes between two periods rather than focusing on one point in time. Furthermore, our study examines structural conditions in small and medium size localities in Israel, a non-Western and non-Christian society. We compare our results with those from studies on inner-city and suburban neighborhoods in Western countries and earlier studies in Israel. We collected data on 169 Israeli localities, ranging from small ones (with as few as 1,500 residents) to medium size localities (i.e., towns) (with as many as 50,000 residents) in which approximately 34% of the Israeli child population resides. Our study tested four hypotheses: (1) Socioeconomic characteristics of the locality will be negatively correlated with the availability of social services; (2) Reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the socioeconomic characteristics of the locality; (3) The availability of social services will be positively correlated with reported child maltreatment rates; and (4) Overall reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the overall status of the localities. We have supported our second and third hypothesis in full, and partially supported our first and fourth hypothesis. In particular we have demonstrated that while demographics play a different role in Israel than in other countries in regard to child maltreatment, social, economic and cultural context are crucial for understating reported rates of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavallo, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Existing Buildings Efficiency Research Program
In mid September Argonne National Laboratory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary with an open house in which more than 20,000 people toured the site and viewed some 100 demonstrations, exhibits and presentations of the scientific and engineering programs currently being pursued at Argonne. During the course of the open house it became obvious that to even long time residents of the Chicago area the activities of ANL were unknown or unclear. Part of this lack of knowledge about the scientific and engineering research occurring at DOE national laboratories is the remoteness of most research programs from the everyday lives of citizens. It is both the discussions that are remote as well as a remoteness of impacts on ordinary lives that often leads people to miss the exciting research activity occurring nearby. However, at least one research program at Argonne is structured to be purposefully different. The Existing Buildings Efficiency Research (EBER) program pursues its scientific work in concert with architects, engineers, and community developers as they attempt to provide high quality energy efficient, high performance buildings at reasonable cost. Instead of conducting experiments inside the barbed wire fences of secure facilities, technical assistance for the inclusion of DOE tools, techniques, and technologies is offered at the construction site within the community and research results are drawn back as projects are monitored for the performance of the energy conservation measures. In this report several projects at ANL are briefly discussed to give a sense of the possibilities for the laboratory and broader scientific community to work one-on-one with community-based organizations and the agencies that directly serve the needs of low-income neighborhoods.
tions have provoked a wide range of mostly negative reactions amongst local villagers ... conservation, afin notamment que ces actions soient efficaces. Cette étude se focalise .... since the 1980s, there has been a gradual move towards more in- .... getting as equal a representation of male and female informants as well as ...
The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)
Mar 12, 2012 ... Local communities' participation in tourism benefit-sharing is central to tourism ... potential to provide economic benefits through ..... tours with a combination of both cultural and ... resources, also has a system of employing.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8... by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8..., limited only by space available. Purpose: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the...
Shian Wan; Yi-Chang Wang; Yu-Chien Lin
This research discussed the various theories of service design, the importance of service design methodology, and the development of transformative service design framework. In this study, transformative service design is applied while building a new brand community service for women, children and infants retailing business. The goal is to enhance the brand recognition and customer loyalty, effectively increase the brand community engagement by embedding the brand community in social network ...
Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex
The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In
Warwick, Laura; Young, Robert; Lievesley, Matthew
This paper presents the findings from two action research case studies that explore the value of using a ‘design for service’ approach to develop public services in the community voluntary sector (CVS). Each case study was conducted within a CVS organisation that was developing or offering public services. Both were local charities that are part of UK federations; the first offering mental health and wellbeing services, the second providing community education services. \\ud \\ud The paper will...
Sharma Grover, A
Full Text Available The authors present the design, development and pilot process of the Lwazi Community Communication Service (LCCS), a multilingual automated telephone-based information service. The service acts as a communication and dissemination tool that enables...
Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes
This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)
Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Aldrich, Daniel; Ayres, Janet; Amberg, Shannon M.; Molloy, Alicia; Saylor, Amber; Thompson, Aaron
Encouraging members of the public to get engaged in local decision-making is a key role of Extension educators. The study reported here explores whether local context influences which individuals choose to attend public meetings about the community and the environment. The study surveyed meeting attendees and non-meeting attendees in three…
Full Text Available In a series of community mental health promotion studies in Lofoten, Norway, the concept of sociocultural integration is used to describe properties of a local community that are related to people's psychological health. Starting with Durkheim's description of a cohesive society, we compare different concepts that are related to sociocultural integration, for example, sense of community, social capital, and social cohesion. We then examine the relationship of various individual oriented social psychological concepts to sociocultural integration. These concepts often share theoretical and operational definitions. The concept of sociocultural integration in the Lofoten studies was proved to be very valuable in understanding how the properties of a community can affect people's mental health and their social psychological properties. It has also shown its value in the planning of mental health services and demonstrating its success in concrete community-based mental health promotion projects. Thus they could make important contributions to further studies and actions in local communities where the intersection between the individual, their social network, and their local community occurs.
Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.
Waldemiro Francisco Sorte Junior
Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role played by public research institutes for promoting socioeconomic inclusion of local communities based on traditional knowledge and traditional medicine. Nongovernmental organizations and cooperatives have had an important role in raising financial resources, being involved with advocacy of local communities and advancing legislation changes. But strict best manufacturing practices regulations imposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency on the requirements for approval and commercialization of drugs based on herbal medicine products call for the involvement of strong public research institutes capable of supporting community-based pharmacies. Thus, public research institutes are pivotal as they can conduct scientific research studies to evidence the efficacy of herbal medicine products and help building the capacity of local communities to comply with current regulations.
Joaquin Tornos Mas
Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed a process of increasing liberalization of public services, which means returning economic activities that had been excluded from the market. This process has been less at the local level, but there have also been cases of liberalization of local public services, such as funeral services. This paper examines these liberalization processes and their consequences, analyzing what powers municipalities can exercise in relation to liberalized services, which, despite their return to the market, remain services of general interest.
Miron, Devi; Moely, Barbara E.
Supervisors from 40 community agencies working with a university-based service-learning program were interviewed regarding the extent of their input in service-learning program planning and implementation "(Agency Voice), Interpersonal Relations" with service-learning students, "Perceived Benefit" of the service-learning…
Cuffe, Kendra M; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L
State and local health department STD programs provide several partner services to reduce disease transmission. Budget cuts and temporary staff reassignments for public health emergencies may affect the provision of partner services. Determining the impact of staffing reductions on STD rates and public health response should be further assessed.
Spilsbury, Karen; Pender, Sue
To scope the provision of community nursing services in England after implementation of the Transforming Community Services Programme. Over the past decade, significant UK policy initiatives have shaped the structure, organisation and responsibilities of community nursing services. Understanding these organisational changes is important in the context of organisations seeking to deliver 'care closer to home'. A systematic mapping exercise to scope and categorise community nursing service organisation provider models. There are 102 provider organisations representing a range of organisational models. Two-thirds of these organisations have structurally integrated with another NHS Trust. Smaller numbers reorganised to form community trusts or community interest companies. Only a few services have been tendered to an accredited willing provider while a small number have yet to establish their new service model. Local discretion appears to have dominated the choice of organisational form. National policies have driven the reorganisation of community nursing services and we have been able to describe, for the first time, these 'transformed' structures and organisations. Providing detail of these 'new' models of service provision, and where these have been introduced, is new information for nurse managers, policy makers and organisational leaders, as well as researchers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cameroon, like most other sub-Saharan African countries, has adopted laws devolving various responsibilities to local administrations. In the local political discourse, decentralization is seen as bringing essential services closer to the users, especially those in greatest need. However, the national decentralization program ...
Mitev, Miroslav; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Poulkov, Vladimir
Indoor localization is very critical for the provision of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) services, such as e-Health, smart home, etc. The success of deploying a real-time localization system depends on selecting the right performance characteristics. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a technology, which...
Full Text Available There has been a growing concern regarding political disengagement among citizens within western representative democracies. This concern has brought about calls for local communities to be empowered by giving citizens more control over local decision making. The objective of this paper is to examine if local political online forums can be built to empower local communities. That is to say, this paper will test if the E-Democracy.org’s Local Issues Forum Guidebook recommendations (A to do list for building successful online forums actually work and produce forums which facilitate citizens to have a greater say on local decision making and thus, induce empowerment. In order to test these recommendations a two-pronged methodological approach was taken. Firstly, using these recommendations an online forum was constructed in-conjunction with a local authority within the UK. Secondly, the recommendations were tested again except in this second approach a sample of online forums from around the world was examined. This paper argues that the E-Democracy.org’s recommendations do not always produce forums which empower local communities - Based on lessons learned from both experiments new guidelines are provided.
Full Text Available with previously unserved and poor communities, the operation and maintenance of the water services infrastructure offers a sustainable work opportunity for local people. Having observed the difficulties experienced by small operating enterprises...
Worrall, Linda E; Howe, Tami; O'Callaghan, Anna; Hill, Anne J; Rose, Miranda; Wallace, Sarah J; Rose, Tanya; Brown, Kyla; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn; Rohde, Alexia
This commentary aims to extend the debate of the lead article authors (Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall, 2013) by translating the nine recommendations of the World Report on Disability into a plan of action for the aphasia community. Solutions for the advancement of aphasia science and services are presented at international (macro), national (meso), and local (micro) levels. Implications for speech-language pathologists and aphasia service delivery are discussed. An overarching call to action is the need for speech-language pathologists to support a strong and vibrant aphasia community at all levels, so that the voices of people with aphasia can be heard.
Gimpel, Nora; Kindratt, Tiffany; Dawson, Alvin; Pagels, Patti
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and service-learning are unique experiential approaches designed to train medical students how to provide individualized patient care from a population perspective. Medical schools in the US are required to provide support for service-learning and community projects. Despite this requirement, few medical schools offer structured service-learning. We developed the Community Action Research Track (CART) to integrate population medicine, health promotion/disease prevention and the social determinants of health into the medical school curriculum through CBPR and service-learning experiences. This article provides an overview of CART and reports the program impact based on students' participation, preliminary evaluations and accomplishments. CART is an optional 4‑year service-learning experience for medical students interested in community health. The curriculum includes a coordinated longitudinal program of electives, community service-learning and lecture-based instruction. From 2009-2015, 146 CART students participated. Interests in public health (93%), community service (73%), primary care (73%), CBPR (60%) and community medicine (60%) were the top reasons for enrolment. Significant improvements in mean knowledge were found when measuring the principles of CBPR, levels of prevention, determining health literacy and patient communication strategies (all p's Projects were disseminated by at least 65 posters and four oral presentations at local, national and international professional meetings. Six manuscripts were published in peer-reviewed journals. CART is an innovative curriculum for training future physicians to be community-responsive physicians. CART can be replicated by other medical schools interested in offering a longitudinal CBPR and service-learning track in an urban metropolitan setting.
Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.
Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.
Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.
Francisco José Villar Rojas
Full Text Available This paper studies the way a Local authority can provide a public service of its competence jointly or cooperatively with other public authorities. Specifically, article 12.4 of Directive 2014/24 /EU, on «contracts for the joint provision of public services», is analyzed. Its basis and the conditions that must be fulfilled for its valid use are studied, as it is an exception to the rules on public works contracts. The conclusion is that European law supports and regulates a traditional way of managing local public services.
Cooks, Leda; Scharrer, Erica; Paredes, Mari Castaneda
The authors describe a social approach to learning in community service learning that extends the contributions of three theoretical bodies of scholarship on learning: social constructionism, critical pedagogy, and community service learning. Building on the assumptions about learning described in each of these areas, engagement, identity, and…
... Part IV Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 641 Senior... Administration 20 CFR Part 641 RIN 1205-AB48 and RIN 1205-AB47 Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final... implement changes in the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) resulting from the 2006...
Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Fan, Zhengping; Xiang, Luna
Community structure is essential for social communications, where individuals belonging to the same community are much more actively interacting and communicating with each other than those in different communities within the human society. Naming game, on the other hand, is a social communication model that simulates the process of learning a name of an object within a community of humans, where the individuals can generally reach global consensus asymptotically through iterative pair-wise conversations. The underlying network indicates the relationships among the individuals. In this paper, three typical topologies, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed, which are embedded with the multi-local-world community structure, to study the naming game. Simulations show that (1) the convergence process to global consensus is getting slower as the community structure becomes more prominent, and eventually might fail; (2) if the inter-community connections are sufficiently dense, neither the number nor the size of the communities affects the convergence process; and (3) for different topologies with the same (or similar) average node-degree, local clustering of individuals obstruct or prohibit global consensus to take place. The results reveal the role of local communities in a global naming game in social network studies.
Full Text Available Research in teacher education suggests that field experiences in community settings can offer pre-service teachers a context for understanding the link between theory and practice. This paper documents the experiences of pre-service educators who participated in service-learning partnerships for thirty hours in multiple community settings in the southeast United States. Pre-service teachers not only volunteered in the community, but they also engaged in critically reflective journal writing and participated in evaluative class discussions. Students praised the benefits of a service experience in both school and community placements and discussed how interactions with the community agencies gave them the insight into how community organizations often play a significant role in the lives of the underserved students they will eventually teach. The author argues that the inclusion of a service-learning component in early pre-service teacher education field experiences has the potential to facilitate the examination of the relationships between community organizations and schools and encourage development of cultural competence among pre-service teachers. KEYWORDSservice-learning, pre-service teacher preparation, community partnerships
Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter
Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.
Rully Adi Nugroho
Full Text Available Service-learning has gained substantial recognition as an effective type of pedagogy and has enhanced civic education across the disciplines, however remains a lack of understanding of this type of learning in Indonesia. The goals of the study were (1 to explore the forms of local knowledge systems practiced in Semarang Regency and how they are used in resources conservation using service-learning method, (2 to foster student engagement with the community, and (3 to promote student awareness of community resources that are directly relevant to local knowledge system issues. The success of the service-learning projects in meeting these goals was assessed via qualitative analysis of student reflective papers and classroom presentations. The results indicated there were local knowledges that were still successfully in use, but often only very locally. Furthermore, the results also indicated that the service-learning projects promoted students’ valuable academic skills, including communication, team-building, and critical thinking, built their self-esteem, their awareness of community needs and resources, and demonstrated the relevance of course content to real life.
In most global economies, there is a strong trend from agriculture and manufacturing towards service-orientation and tertiarisation: Services, products with value-added service solutions and, more recently, automated Internet service offerings seamlessly delivered through on-demand elastic cloud computing resources. In the affected societies, education is recognised as a key factor for maintaining the competitiveness. Specialised education about services is widely available, but tool support ...
Syarifah Aini Dalimunthe
Full Text Available The notion of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (DRR has only recently emerged in Indonesia. The Indonesian central government now adopts some policies related to ecosystem-based DRR with formal commitments from local administrations. At the implementation level, various activities have taken place, such as mangrove planting and restoration along the coastline to address the rising sea level and the “one billion trees” program to address the urgent issue of deforestation. These governmental activities have involved local communities that reside in the high-risk area, while nonlocal actors, particularly from the private and the nongovernmental sectors, have contributed as a third element to development. This paper examines space management in the context of Eco-DRR, paying special attention to uncertainty and anxiety in the local communities as the government and private sectors engage in development activities that have significant impacts on their present and future lives. The present study pursues this purpose by means of in-depth interview and focus group discussions (FGD with local leaders in mangrove planting and restoration programs. The study took place in a small island community in a part of the Jakarta Megapolitan Region, Indonesia. The results point out that the community feels left behind due to lack of trust in managing the conservation space. Another issue to be addressed is how to improve the democratization of environment management and livelihood base of the local community. Therefore, building confidence and ameliorating relationships between actors within/without the local community should lead to a better Eco-DRR initiative.
Vaughan, George B.
Looks at the historical roots of community services in community colleges. Offers suggestions for keeping community colleges on the frontier of the development of these institutions (e.g., bringing the program into the instructional mainstream, emphasizing program planning, encouraging instructional innovation. (DMM)
Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan
Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bon Secours Health System's new strategic plan and community benefit services policy integrates the planning, budgeting, evaluating, and reporting of community benefit services into management processes at the same level of authority as other operational activities. The strategic plan of Bon Secours Health System, headquartered in Marriottsville, MD, documents the system's mission, operating principles, vision, and five goals, one of which is to improve the communities' health status. The community benefit services operating policy requires that the Bon Secours Health System chief executive officer (CEO) and each local system CEO and nursing home administrator form a multidisciplinary local work group to be responsible for community benefit services. Each local work group assesses the needs of its community within the framework of the annual planning process. Determining what services are needed and how to deliver them is relatively easy. The difficult task is determining which of the many needs to address. What a community lacks may be the result of poor or inadequate public policy. For example, its priority may not be healthcare. In these situations healthcare providers may be best able to serve the community by providing indirect support to social service providers or by advocating for change. The community benefit services operating policy provides a standard approach to match the community's priority needs with the institution's resources and produce a measurable improvement in health status.
Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper
The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....
Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino
Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; Orobio de Castro, Bram; van Aken, Marcel A. G.
This study examined the effect of community service program-quality on changes in adolescents' intentions to volunteer. Based on the literature, volunteering intentions were expected to increase by programs with high quality community service activities (e.g., instructive activities) and educational activities including reflection. Adolescents (N=…
Matthieu, Monica M; Gardiner, Giovanina; Ziegemeier, Ellen; Buxton, Miranda
Veterans in need of social services may access many different community agencies within the public and private sectors. Each of these settings has the potential to be a pipeline for attaining needed health, mental health, and benefits services; however, many service providers lack information on how to conceptualize where Veterans go for services within their local community. This article describes a conceptual framework for outreach that uses a service sector segmented approach. This framework was developed to aid recruitment of a provider-based sample of stakeholders (N = 70) for a study on improving access to the Department of Veterans Affairs and community-based suicide prevention services. Results indicate that although there are statistically significant differences in the percent of Veterans served by the different service sectors (F(9, 55) = 2.71, p = 0.04), exposure to suicidal Veterans and providers' referral behavior is consistent across the sectors. Challenges to using this framework include isolating the appropriate sectors for targeted outreach efforts. The service sector segmented approach holds promise for identifying and referring at-risk Veterans in need of services. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Teaching, research and community service have since earliest times been regarded as the three core functions of the university. The concept and practice of service-learning has succeeded in uniting these core functions. Whereas the quality of student learning resulting from service-learning experiences is of crucial ...
As a central construct in the theory of service-learning, reciprocity for community partners is not often the subject of scholarship, especially scholarship that seeks to understand the benefits and opportunity costs of service-learning. This article explores how reciprocity works in higher education service-learning from the perspective of…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2009, a high-deprivation district health board in New Zealand set up a community-based abortion clinic in order to provide a local service and to avoid out-of-region referrals. The service offers medical abortions for women with pregnancies of up to 63 days' gestation, and surgical abortion with local anaesthetic for women with pregnancies of up to 14 weeks' gestation. AIM: To describe the services developed and assess safety and timeliness for the first year of community-based services. METHODS: An audit of clinical records for patients seen in 2010 was performed in order to obtain data on location of services, timeliness, safety and complications. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of locally provided abortions in 2010 were medical abortions, completed on average less than two days after referral to the service. One percent of patients experienced haemorrhaging post abortion, and 4% had retained products. These rates are within accepted standards for an abortion service. DISCUSSION: This report illustrates that a community-based model of care can be both clinically and culturally safe, while providing a much-needed service to a high-needs population.
Blank, Martin J.
Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…
Wilcox, Kevin R.; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Koerner, Sally E.
Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities...
Full Text Available The subject of the research in wider sense is organizational-communication capacity of local communities in Serbia in the frame of sustainable development. Along with this, the paper will explore potentialities of Faludi's model of multiplanning agencies as well as Healey's collaborative theory for better efficiency and effectiveness of planning in the process of urban regeneration. Specifically the paper will research relation between organizational structure of local communities in Serbia and their potentialities to provide adequate communication towards integral information for urban regeneration. Research is framed with a problem of efficiency and effectiveness in creating urban regeneration policies, strategies, designs, and technical solutions. The problem will be focused to Serbian context; characterized with inadequate, transitional, system of governance that is moving from centralistic towards decentralist model. This will be further explored through level and type of participation in the process of urban regeneration. The hypothesis of the research explores the nature of the relation between number and types of communication channels, provided by organizational structure of local communities that should enable effectiveness and efficiency of urban regeneration. In other words the hypothesis is: number and types of communication channels (variable A influences the effectiveness and efficiency of urban planning for sustainable urban regeneration (variable B. The aims of the paper are identification of the regulations between the variables. Expected result is establishing the model for measuring the capacity of local communities for integral urban regeneration.
Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Heritage Tourism arrow Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance for Federal Agencies Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in historic places. Such tourism - heritage tourism -can result in a variety of tangible and intangible
Full Text Available remain inadequate to achieve safety. The Local Safety Toolkit supports a strategy for a Safe South Africa through the implementation of a model for a Safe Community of Opportunity. The model is the outcome of work undertaken over the course of the past...
Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble ... findings of the study showed that rural people in the Soye district have identifiable information needs mainly in the areas of agriculture, health, government programmes and small scale industries.
This document is a chart illustrating the Virginia Cooperative Extension model for food systems at the community, local and regional level. This chart shows an interrelationship between basic and applied research, leveraging of resources and opportunities, communication and marketing, assessment, evaluation and impact, knowledge, skills, and social change, facilitation of partnerships, and also teaching.
BIDDLE, LOUREIDE J.; BIDDLE, WILLIAM W.
THIS TRAINING GUIDE IS WRITTEN TO MEET THE NEEDS OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO WHICH THE PEACE CORPS, VISTA, CHURCHES, AND OTHER VOLUNTEER-USING AGENCIES TURN FOR HELP IN TRAINING THE NONPROFESSIONAL OR PREPROFESSIONAL LOCAL WORKER IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE LESSONS ARE DIRECTED TO THE "ENCOURAGER" WHO LIVES WITH THE PEOPLE PARTICIPATING IN…
An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...
Lester, Carole N.
This article shares the college's experiences and the lessons learned in the creation of the GREENRichland Program and the other approaches to building sustainability. These programs directly support the college's vision to be the best place to learn, teach, and build sustainable local and world community. This discussion features details…
Eydal, Guðný Björk; Ómarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Lilja; Dahlberg, Rasmus
of such disasters is on the rise according to forecasts. In order to enhance resilience and preparedness of those most vulnerable in disasters, the involvement of local social services in the emergency management system is of vital importance. The literature shows how social services can enhance social and human......The project focused on the emergency management systems in the five Nordic countries. It investigated whether local social services have a formal role in the contingency planning of the systems. The project was part of The Nordic Welfare Watch research project during the Icelandic Presidency...... Program in the Nordic Council of Ministers 2014-2016. The council financed the project. The main findings show that Finland, Norway and Sweden specifically address the role of social services in times of disaster in their legal frameworks on emergency management. Finland and Norway also address the role...
Naik Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol
The aim of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the available literature in order to identify and evaluate studies measuring patient satisfaction with pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in a community setting. An extensive literature search was conducted in five databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Psychinfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) using the search terms "patient/client/consumer satisfaction" AND "community pharmacy/pharmacies" AND "pharmacy service/pharmaceutical services/pharmacy program/intervention/intervention studies". Only those articles where the main focus was measuring patient satisfaction with services delivered in community pharmacies were included in the review. Patient satisfaction was explored with three different levels of pharmacy services -- general services, intervention services and cognitive services. Twenty-four articles measuring patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services were retrieved. Of these, eleven measured patient satisfaction with general services, six measured satisfaction with intervention services and seven measured satisfaction with cognitive services. The majority of studies reviewed had adopted and measured satisfaction as a multidimensional construct. None of the studies reviewed tested any theoretical models of satisfaction. Further a lack of consistent instruments measuring patient satisfaction was observed, with most of the reviewed studies using self developed, non-validated or ad hoc instruments with items from various previously published papers. The review also observed high levels of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services be they general, intervention or cognitive services. This review found that patient satisfaction has been measured within the community pharmacy context to a certain degree. Further research is needed to develop and test instruments based on theoretical frameworks, to test satisfaction pre and post hoc and in well designed randomized controlled
Many rural communities have continued to be underserved; hence, information becomes necessary in integrating the needs of the people for sustainable development. Librarians and libraries are charged with providing the information resources and outreaches to the communities to help build the bridge between the ...
Setiawan, Budi; Oswari, Teddy; Kuswanto, Adi
The lowest local government as a frontline government has some crucial duties includes residences administration, village development, residences identity, land administration, and other duties. Up to present, the performance of the lowest local government is measured based on the regulation, but has never been measured based on the perception of its residences that have had service directly. The objective of the study are(1) to explore whether there is a differences between the perception ...
Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena
The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....
Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.
Tealdi, J C
The author examines the points of convergence between local health systems and bioethics in three basic areas: structural or institutional, methodological or justificatory, and regulatory or normative. Comparisons are drawn between the decentralization of the health system posed by local health systems and deconcentration of the power vested in multidisciplinary ethics committees; the strategy of social participation and the movement in the United States of community decision-making in the area of health; and the basic concepts of primary health care and the principle of justice. The theories of Pellegrino and Thomasma on the philosophic bases for medical practice provide the framework of this comparative analysis. The article concludes with a call for a local health systems-bioethical nexus in which this discipline can provide the basis for infusing an ethical component into participatory planning and community decision-making.
Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Eames, Malcolm
leads to sustainable solutions. A major question facing the S&T policy community, and indeed society at large, is therefore how science and technology can be more effectively harnessed to addressing the sustainability needs and priorities of particular communities. It is in this context that this paper...... in particular times and places, in particular practices and communities of actors. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that science, technology and innovation have a critical role to play in addressing the challenges of sustainable development it is far from evident that investment in science and technology per se...... examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between local communities and academia. Building on the insights from critical theory; mode-2 conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science...
Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.
Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW
Arney, Janna B.; Jones, Irma
At its core, service-learning is about creating opportunities for students to apply theory they learn in the classroom to real-world problems and real-world needs. A service-learning project was initiated with the CEO of the Brownsville Chamber of Commerce. The project required 2nd-year business communication students to interview community…
ments in women's land rights and their participation in local decision-making processes. In parallel, the teams are conducting country-specific studies in ... methods is being used, such as baseline & post- service surveys and focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and direct observation. • In Uganda, LEMU has ...
Fernandez, José-Luis; Forder, Julien
In many countries, public responsibility over the funding and provision of long-term care services is held at the local level. In such systems, long-term care provision is often characterised by significant local variability. Using a panel dataset of local authorities over the period 2002-2012, the paper investigates the underlying causes of variation in gross social care expenditure for older people in England. The analysis distinguishes between factors outside the direct control of policy makers, local preferences and local policy spillovers. The results indicate that local demand and supply factors, and to a much lesser extent local political preferences and spatial policy spillovers, explain a large majority of the observed variation in expenditure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.
Metzel, Deborah S.; Boeltzig, Heike; Butterworth, John; Sulewski, Jennifer Sullivan; Gilmore, Dana Scott
Findings from an analysis of the characteristics and services of community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) in the early years of the 21st century are presented. Services provided by CRPs can be categorized along two dimensions: purpose (work, nonwork) and setting (facility-based, community). The number of individuals with disabilities present…
Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen
We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE
Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen
We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE.
Full Text Available Increasing fiscal pressure has forced local governments to seek new sources of autonomous revenues for financing public services. Charging users of social services has been modest, but with an aging society and growing social costs, this option needs to be reconsidered. This paper combines the results of the survey on the application of user charges on local social services in Estonian local governments (LGs with the official financial and population statistics in order to discover trends and explore factors determining the application of user charges in a small, unitary, highly centralised, post-soviet country. We conclude that user charges are mainly considered as a source of information and additional income to partially cover service costs – the possibilities of increased efficiency and demand control have remained undervalued. The probability of charging users of social services tends to be greater if the income level of inhabitants is higher, reflecting the ‘ability to pay’ principle. Charging users is more probable in the municipalities where the social costs are higher in volume or in proportion to the budget’s expenditures.
This report is a final assessment of the Community Advocacy & Service Engagement (CASE) project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed : to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other part...
Evaluation of the Community Cataract Surgical Services of a University Teaching Hospital Using Cataract Surgical Coverage in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...
Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized ..... process evaluation data from several studies on facility-based ... PEPFAR blueprint: Creating an AIDS-free generation.
At Davis Vocational Technical High School in Lincoln (Rhode Island) students in such areas as carpentry, culinary arts, and cosmetology provide free services to the community and gain valuable experience. (Author/JM)
Warner, K.; Bouwer, L.M.; Ammann, W.
Increased attention has recently been given to the possible role of financial services in the management of natural disaster risk. Local communities have been at the forefront of developing innovative disaster risk finance strategies and implementing risk-oriented incentive programs. In view of
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.
Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika
Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."
Moore, A.; Derry, L. A.
The Earth & Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program engages students in hands-on exploration along the boundaries of the living earth, solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Based on Hawaíi Island, the semester-length program integrates scientific study with environmental stewardship and service learning. Each year EES students contribute 3000 hours of service to their host community. Throughout the semester students engage in different service activities. Most courses includes a service component - for example - study of the role of invasive species in native ecosystems includes an invasive species removal project. Each student completes a 4-week service internship with a local school, NGO, state or federal agency. Finally, the student group works to offset the carbon footprint of the program in collaboration with local conservation projects. This effort sequesters CO2 emissions while at the same time contributing to reforestation of degraded native ecosystems. Students learn that expertise is not confined to "the academy," and that wisdom and inspiration can be found in unexpected venues. Much of the service learning in the EES Program occurs in collaboration with local partners. Service internships require students to identify a partner and to design a tractable project. Students work daily with their sponsor and make a formal presentation of their project at the end of the internship period. This includes speaking to a non-technical community gathering as well as to a scientific audience. For many students the opportunity to work on a real problem, of interest in the real world, is a highlight of the semester. Beyond working in support of local community groups, the EES Prograḿs C-neutral project engages students with work in service to the global commons. Here the outcome is not measurable within the time frame of a semester, yet the intangible result makes the experience even more powerful. Students take responsibility for an important issue that is not
Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola
This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...
Full Text Available Access to effective services and programs is necessary to improve wellbeing for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote Australia. Without genuine participation of Aboriginal community members in the design, governance, and delivery of services, desired service delivery outcomes are rarely achieved. Using a "shared space" model, Aboriginal communities, governments, and scientists came together to design and develop the Interplay Wellbeing Framework. This Framework brings together stories and numbers (or qualitative and quantitative data to represent community values for the purpose of informing program and policy agendas. This article unpacks what community members saw as making a service work well and why. The domains of empowerment and community functioning are discussed and their relationship to effective service delivery demonstrated.
Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter
In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Robert J. Steeps
Full Text Available Introduction: The number of community paramedic (CP programs has expanded to mitigate the impact of increased patient usage on emergency services. However, it has not been determined to what extent emergency medical services (EMS professionals would be willing to participate in this model of care. With this project, we sought to evaluate the perceptions of EMS professionals toward the concept of a CP program. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study method to evaluate the perceptions of participating EMS professionals with regard to their understanding of and willingness to participate in a CP program. Approximately 350 licensed EMS professionals currently working for an EMS service that provides coverage to four states (Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma were invited to participate in an electronic survey regarding their perceptions toward a CP program. We analyzed interval data using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the impact of participant characteristics on their willingness to perform CP duties. Statistical significance was established at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Of the 350 EMS professionals receiving an invitation, 283 (81% participated. Of those participants, 165 (70% indicated that they understood what a CP program entails. One hundred thirty-five (58% stated they were likely to attend additional education in order to become a CP, 152 (66% were willing to perform CP duties, and 175 (75% felt that their respective communities would be in favor of a local CP program. Using logistic regression with regard to willingness to perform CP duties, we found that females were more willing than males (OR = 4.65; p = 0.03 and that those participants without any perceived time on shift to commit to CP duties were less willing than those who believed their work shifts could accommodate additional duties (OR = 0.20; p
Onwujekwe, O E; Shu, E N; Okonkwo, P O
The preferred payment mechanism in a community financing scheme for local ivermectin distribution was elicited from randomly selected household heads from three communities in Nigeria using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The majority of the respondents in the three communities were prepared to pay for local ivermectin distribution. Additionally, the average amounts the respondents were prepared to pay per person treated ($0.28, $0.30 and $0.38 in Nike, Achi and Toro, respectively) were all more than the $0.20 ceiling recommended by the partners of the African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Thus, the cost-recovery outlook is bright in these communities. However, the preferred payment modality varied. Fee-for-service was the predominant payment modality in the Achi and Nike communities, while the Toro community preferred pre-payment. This study demonstrates that many communities have different payment preferences for endemic disease control efforts. This knowledge will help in developing acceptable and sustainable schemes. The imposition of unacceptable payment mechanisms will lead to an unwillingness to pay.
Vaknin, Lauren Weiner; Bresciani, Marilee J.
This cross-case comparative study at Western Community College and the University of the Coast explored through a constructive lens the characteristics that lead to sustainable, high quality service-learning programs and how they are implemented at institutions of higher education. The researchers determined that both Western Community College and…
Morris, Ronald V.
Elementary students survey buildings in an extracurricular community service project to learn social studies and historic preservation. From these experiences students formed values and dispositions by engaging in a constructivist process of creating knowledge by examining their community. They gathered data, transformed it into information, and…
Full Text Available This paper presents a general description of local flexibility markets as a market-based management mechanism for aggregators. The high penetration of distributed energy resources introduces new flexibility services like prosumer or community self-balancing, congestion management and time-of-use optimization. This work is focused on the flexibility framework to enable multiple participants to compete for selling or buying flexibility. In this framework, the aggregator acts as a local market operator and supervises flexibility transactions of the local energy community. Local market participation is voluntary. Potential flexibility stakeholders are the distribution system operator, the balance responsible party and end-users themselves. Flexibility is sold by means of loads, generators, storage units and electric vehicles. Finally, this paper presents needed interactions between all local market stakeholders, the corresponding inputs and outputs of local market operation algorithms from participants and a case study to highlight the application of the local flexibility market in three scenarios. The local market framework could postpone grid upgrades, reduce energy costs and increase distribution grids’ hosting capacity.
In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)
Katikiro, R.E.; Macusi, E.D.; Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M.
This study explores how the history and process of establishing a marine protected area (MPA) under the control of the state has led to limited interest in community-based management amongst local stakeholders. The study contributes to the understanding of historical events that have discouraged
The project will be carried out in coordination with local communities and with endogenous funds. Researchers will examine the feasibility, efficacy and sustainability of the intervention by means of case studies in 10 health centres in the same district. The results will be fed back to the communities via workshops, and a final ...
Marjorie Sue Rosenthal
Conclusion: As we learn more about the importance of social determinants of health—describing how poverty, neighborhood, access to healthy food, and education, all play important roles in health—having an educator who can teach about the specific local community assets and influences on health may be as important as teaching which antibiotic to use. Academia and funders could increase this kind of knowledge acquisition and dissemination by rewarding and valuing these clinicians.
Włodzimierz Kaczocha; Jan Sikora
An important role in sustainable rural development, involving economy, local communities and nature, should be played by ethics. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical characterization of basic problems of ecological ethics. First and foremost, the study characterizes the philosophical fundamentals of this ethics, with emphasis on ontological and anthropological views of selected thinkers. A universal concept of ecological ethics was proposed, containing values and moral norms that p...
Nassaney, Michael S.
The Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University has sponsored an annual archaeological field school since the mid-1970s. Over the past decade, students have worked with community and government organizations, learning to apply archaeological methods to real world problems to preserve and interpret significant heritage sites. They come…
Objective: To ascertain community placement and reintegration of service users from long-term mental health care facilities. Method: This study reviewed the progress during 2003 with the alternative placement of a selected candidate group of 27 service users in some of Lifecare's long-term mental health care facilities in ...
Background: Community mental health services (CMHS) are a central objective of the National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan. Three core components are described: residential facilities, day care and outpatient services. Primary mental health care with specialist support is required according to an ...
Kimberly Monk; Jessica Bourdeau; Michele Capra
In the effort to augment hospitality and tourism education beyond classroom instruction and internships, the added instructional methodology of community service learning is suggested. Service learning is an instructional method where students learn and develop through active participation in organized experiences that meet actual needs, increasing their sense of...
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (NJ1), 2009
These Guidelines constitute the third edition of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) "Multicultural Communities: "Guidelines for Library Services." This revision follows the IFLA Section of Library Services to Multicultural Populations' "2006-2010 Strategic Plans": to review and revise the…
In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...
Full Text Available This article explores the consequences of redefining citizenship as an ethical category during social protection reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. Ethical citizenship refers to a particular way of defining the relationship between the state and a person; a special politics of behavior that seeks to redefine citizens as moral subjects of responsible communities. The article ethnographically demonstrates that a local community, imagined as a collective of ethical actors, was expected to take over a major portion of financing and organizing social protection. Translating neoliberal policies to BiH, under supervision of the international community, created an ambiguous environment without a «clear system or model» in which personal relationships gained a special relevance. The article argues that favors and informal practices, such as veze and stela, were not strategies people used to overcome problems of postsocialist markets and democracies. Veze and stela have become particularly important for the organization social protection because neoliberal reforms left undefined roles, responsibilities, and procedures of protection. The very need to personalize social protection was a constitutive element of contemporary, global, neoliberal ideas about the relationship between the state and society, while veza and stela enabled people to actively negotiate roles, responsibilities, and procedures of social protection within their local communities.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Public sector reform aims to increase performance by improving its efficiency and effectiveness by improving the quality of services provided by public service in order to maximize individual welfare of citizens. The purpose of reform is to improve public services because they have to deal with uncertainties and rapid changes that take place in the internal environmental and external pressures. Public administration, in quality of service provider must make a series of efforts to ensure that citizens know their rights and public services on witch they can benefit taking into account the simplification of service delivery, a high quality of its, new administrative procedures for allocating resources in a transparent way and informing the citizens of standards of services and of the methods of compensation in case if the provided quality is different from that promised. Most important is the fact that the local government must realize that effectiveness involves defining objectives that must be achieved simultaneously with the estimation of the results obtained.
American Indian Journal, 1978
Assisting tribal governments in meeting the needs of their members, the Kiowa Tribe, the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, and the National Paralegal Institute sponsored the first Tribal Service Advisor training event this year (TSA's can represent clients at the administrative level in many legal and social welfare areas). (JC)
Pilkington, Alan; Raja, Jawwad; Hsuan, Juliana
. Specifically, we present the outputs of the co-citation networks for three periods:1990s (early period), 2000s (middle), and 2010s (recent) and see a shift in orientation from a narrowly focused Operations Research tradition to a more managerial and strategic emphasis that places services, and specifically...
Pilkington, Allan; Raja, Jawwad; Hsuan, Juliana
. Specifically, we present the outputs of the co-citation networks for three periods: 1990s (early period), 2000s (middle), and 2010s (recent) and see a shift in orientation from a narrowly focused Operations Research tradition to a more managerial and strategic emphasis that places services, and specifically...
Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.
Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi
The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.
Izabella Mária Bakos
Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.
Bannon, Aidan; O'Hare, Niamh; Corr, Michael; Sterling, Margaret; Gormley, Gerard J
Queen's University Red Cross is a medical student-led volunteer group with a key aim of promoting social change within local communities and empowering young people to aspire to higher education. We describe 'The Personal Development Certificate', a 12-week community development programme devised by third-year medical students at Queen's University Belfast to target young people who are lacking educational motivation, are disengaged at home or are marginalised through social circumstances. Community-based education is of increasing importance within undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the UK, and further afield. We evaluated the perceived improvements in key skills such as teamwork, leadership, communication, and problem solving in students following participation in this programme, and the extent to which their attitude and appreciation of community-based medicine changed. [Students] appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments Following facilitation of this community-based initiative, all students reported a perceived improvement in the acquired skill sets. Students made strong links from this programme to previous clinical experiences and appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments and interactions. The students' appreciation and understanding of community-based medicine was the single most improved area of our evaluation. We have demonstrated that medical students possess the skills to develop and facilitate their own educational projects. Non-clinical, student-led community projects have the potential to be reproduced using recognised frameworks and guidelines to complement the current undergraduate medical curriculum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elliott, Ross W.
CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Emergency Medical Services (EMS) plays a key role in disaster response. Yet, determining how much preparedness is enough to achieve an acceptable level of preparedness is challenging. After conducting an extensive literature review, it is evident no nationally accepted method exists to evaluate an EMS system's level of disaster preparedness systematically. Research was conducted to define the skills and equipmen...
Yolanda K. Kodrzycki
The privatization movement appears to have lost some momentum in the United States over the 1990s. Although local governments continue to look for ways to deliver services more efficiently by using private contractors, the pace at which they are issuing contracts has slowed. In part, the trends may reflect political realities. Public employees naturally are concerned about losing their jobs, and they constitute a sizable share of the electorate. The limited role of outside contractors may als...
Purshottama S. Reddy
Full Text Available The post-1994 democratic developmental South African state opted for a strong local government system which has been constitutionalised, in terms of Chapter 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996. The politicisation of the local bureaucracy was inevitable as the ruling party sought to ensure that the executive leadership of municipalities shared the same political ideology and vision to facilitate local development. This raises the question, where does politicisation commence and end, and what is the ideal local political interface for efficient and effective service delivery and, more importantly, to ensure good governance? These questions have to take cognisance of the fact that South Africa is a ‘struggle democracy’ and development has to take place in historically disadvantaged areas, where services have been poor or non-existent. The historically advantaged areas have to also be maintained and upgraded, as they are key to financial sustainability of the municipalities. The increasing service delivery protests is a matter for concern, if one has to take cognisance of the popular adage highlighted in official literature, ‘if local government fails, South Arica fails’. Given that the struggles for a democratic South Africa were fought at the grassroots level, this has to translate to an improved quality of life for local communities. Consequently, sound political management is key to enhanced municipal service delivery and ultimately good local governance. This paper reviews political trends and developments up to 2016, but excludes any discussion on the recent local government elections.
Full Text Available Background: Documenting specific knowledge and attitudes about HIV in the culturally diverse nation of Solomon Islands is essential to inform locally targeted public health responses. As part of a large capacity-strengthening project at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands, researchers, using a ‘learn-by-doing’ process, worked with participants in public health research methods. Methods: Overall, 43 people attended research capacity building workshops in 2011; eight joined the HIV study group. A cross-sectional survey including semi-structured interviews on HIV was conducted by the group. In February 2014, a hospital administrator was interviewed about how the 2011 study informed local HIV responses. Results: Of the 53 survey participants, 64% self-assessed as having little or no HIV knowledge, but 90% knew HIV could be transmitted between men and women during sex. Less than 50% knew HIV could be transmitted between two men having sex, 45% thought HIV could be transmitted by mosquitoes and 55% agreed condoms help protect from HIV. Most participants reported negative attitudes towards people with HIV. Three years later the health administrator reported ad hoc responses to HIV because of low HIV prevalence, increasing noncommunicable diseases, staff turnover and resource shortages. Discussion: This HIV study was used to strengthen research skills in local health professionals and community members in Solomon Islands. It showed that community members require accurate information about HIV transmission and that entrenched stigma is an issue. Although results provided local evidence for local response, ongoing health system challenges and little local HIV transmission meant HIV services remain rudimentary.
Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This special issue contains a collection of manuscripts that were originally intended to be included in the special issue on "Physics and Economics of Ecosystem Services Flows" (Volume 101, guest editors H. Su, J. Dong and S. Nagarajan) and "Biogeochemical Processes in the Changing Wetland Environment" (Volume 103, guest editors J. Bai, L. Huang and H. Gao). All of them are addressing issues related to ecosystem services in different settings. Ecosystem services are of high value for both the ecosystems and human communities, and understanding the impacts of environmental processes and human activities on ecosystems is of fundamental importance for the preservation of these services.
Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient comprehensively evaluated community medical service to generate life satisfaction. So this study was set up to test whether and to what extent the community patient’s assessments of various major aspects of community medical service/various major aspects of the community patient’s trust in community health delivery system influenced life satisfaction in whole China/in various regions of China. Methods In order to explore the situation of China’s community health delivery system before 2009 and provide a reference for China’s community health delivery system reform, the data that could comprehensively and accurately reflect the community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system in various regions of China was needed, so this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a large-scale 2008 national community resident household survey (N = 3,306) for the first time in China. And the specified ordered probit models were established to analyze the dataset from this household survey. Results Among major aspects of community medical service, the medical cost (particularly in developed regions), the doctor-patient communication (particularly in developed regions), the medical facility and hospital environment (particularly in developed regions), and the medical treatment process (particularly in underdeveloped regions) were all key considerations (ppatient’s life
Full Text Available Efforts to enlist small faith-related organizations as partners in public service delivery raise many questions. Using community social service networks as the unit of analysis, this paper asks one with broader relevance to nonprofit sector managers: What factors support and constrain effective integration of these organizations into a local service delivery network? The evidence and illustrations come from longitudinal case studies of five faith-related organizations who received their first government contract as part of a California faith-based initiative. By comparing the organizational development and network partnership trajectories of these organizations over more than a decade, the analysis identifies four key variables influencing partnership dynamics and outcomes: organizational niche within the local network; leadership connections and network legitimacy; faith-inspired commitments and persistence; and core organizational competencies and capacities. The evidence supports shifting the focus of faith-based initiatives to emphasize local planning and network development, taking into account how these four variables apply to specific organizations and their community context.
Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura K; Roberts, Alison S; Benrimoj, Shalom I
To identify the capacity of current pharmacy business models, and the dimensions of organisational flexibility within them, to integrate products and services as well as the perceptions of viability of these models. Fifty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacy owners or managers and support staff in 30 pharmacies across Australia. A framework of organisational flexibility was used to analyse their capacity to integrate services and perceptions of viability. Data were analysed using the method of constant comparison by two independent researchers. The study found that Australian community pharmacies have used the four types of flexibility to build capacity in distinct ways and react to changes in the local environment. This capacity building was manifested in four emerging business models which integrate services to varying degrees: classic community pharmacy, retail destination pharmacy, health care solution pharmacy and networked pharmacy. The perception of viability is less focused on dispensing medications and more focused on differentiating pharmacies through either a retail or services focus. Strategic flexibility appeared to offer pharmacies the ability to integrate and sustainably deliver services more successfully than other types, as exhibited by health care solution and networked pharmacies. Active support and encouragement to transition from being dependent on dispensing to implementing services is needed. The study showed that pharmacies where services were implemented and showed success are those strategically differentiating their businesses to become focused health care providers. This holistic approach should inevitably influence the sustainability of services.
The practice of extracting oil and gas from tight rock formations using advances in technology, such as hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, has expanded exponentially in states and localities across the country. As the scientific data collection and analysis catches up on the many potential impacts of this unconventional oil and gas development, communities are turning to their local officials to make decisions on whether and how fracking should proceed. While most regulatory authority on the issue rests with the state agencies, local officials have experimented with a wide range of regulatory, non-regulatory, and fiscal tools to manage the impacts of fracking. These impacts can occur on the local air, water, seismicity, soil, roads, schools, and affect residents, on-site workers, emergency and social services. Local officials' approaches are often influenced by their prior experience with minerals extraction in their localities. The speaker will present examples of the kinds of information sources, tools and approaches communities across the country are using, from noise barriers to setback requirements to information sharing in order to be able to balance the promise and perils of oil and gas development in their jurisdictions.
Cranshaw, J; Gieraltowski, J; Malon, D; May, E; Gardner, R W; Mambelli, M
A Data Skimming Service (DSS) is a site-level service for rapid event filtering and selection from locally resident datasets based on metadata queries to associated 'tag' databases. In US ATLAS, we expect most if not all of the AOD-based datasets to be replicated to each of the five Tier 2 regional facilities in the US Tier 1 'cloud' coordinated by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Entire datasets will consist of on the order of several terabytes of data, and providing easy, quick access to skimmed subsets of these data will be vital to physics working groups. Typically, physicists will be interested in portions of the complete datasets, selected according to event-level attributes (number of jets, missing Et, etc) and content (specific analysis objects for subsequent processing). In this paper we describe methods used to classify data (metadata tag generation) and to store these results in a local database. Next we discuss a general framework which includes methods for accessing this information, defining skims, specifying event output content, accessing locally available storage through a variety of interfaces (SRM, dCache/dccp, gridftp), accessing remote storage elements as specified, and user job submission tools through local or grid schedulers. The advantages of the DSS are the ability to quickly 'browse' datasets and design skims, for example, pre-adjusting cuts to get to a desired skim level with minimal use of compute resources, and to encode these analysis operations in a database for re-analysis and archival purposes. Additionally the framework has provisions to operate autonomously in the event that external, central resources are not available, and to provide, as a reduced package, a minimal skimming service tailored to the needs of small Tier 3 centres or individual users
Full Text Available With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks.
Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Jianfeng; Jiang, Zhongyuan; Miao, Yinbin; Gao, Cong
With the prevalence of Social Networks (SNs) and services, plenty of trust models for Trustworthy Service Recommendation (TSR) in Service-oriented SNs (S-SNs) have been proposed. The reputation-based schemes usually do not contain user preferences and are vulnerable to unfair rating attacks. Meanwhile, the local trust-based schemes generally have low reliability or even fail to work when the trust path is too long or does not exist. Thus it is beneficial to integrate them for TSR in S-SNs. This work improves the state-of-the-art Combining Global and Local Trust (CGLT) scheme and proposes a novel Integrating Reputation and Local Trust (IRLT) model which mainly includes four modules, namely Service Recommendation Interface (SRI) module, Local Trust-based Trust Evaluation (LTTE) module, Reputation-based Trust Evaluation (RTE) module and Aggregation Trust Evaluation (ATE) module. Besides, a synthetic S-SN based on the famous Advogato dataset is deployed and the well-known Discount Cumulative Gain (DCG) metric is employed to measure the service recommendation performance of our IRLT model with comparing to that of the excellent CGLT model. The results illustrate that our IRLT model is slightly superior to the CGLT model in honest environment and significantly outperforms the CGLT model in terms of the robustness against unfair rating attacks.
Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelagic country of more than 17,504 islands (28 big islands and 17,475 small islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km, which bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They are estimated at 3.2 million hectares growing extensively in the five big islands (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua with various community types comprising of about 157 species (52 species of trees, 21 species of shrubs, 13 species of lyana, seven species of palms, 14 species of grasses, eight species of herbs, three species of parasites, 36 species of epiphytes, three species of ferns. The mangroves resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna, and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs, especially for local community living in surrounding mangroves. For centuries, the Indonesian people have traditionally utilized mangroves. The most significant value of mangrove utilization is the gathering of forest products, classified into timber and non-timber products. The timber refers to poles and firewood, charcoal, and construction materials (e.g. housing material and fishing gears; the latter include tannin, medicines, dye, nypa thatch and shingles, nypa sap for vinegar and winemaking, and food drinks. Traditional uses of mangrove forest products are mainly the direct utilization of the products, usually in small scale. Beside of those, local community are used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for signicantly supporting the welfare of coastal community
Full Text Available The paper entitled Study regarding the Management of Local Policemen Career within the Reşiţa Local Police Division Public Service aims at highlighting the need for this public service in the Reşiţa municipality community, the importance of the public office in this context, of the public service, of the public servant with special statute and, last but not least, of the managerial act in the administration of this type of human resources, and implicitly this type of career. Starting from the theoretic identifications and their translation into the practice of the field chosen for research we could conclude that in the development of the local policemen career, a special role is played by the human resources management, especially the management of the career of this value-bearing resource. Our investigation was based on the opinion poll-type inquiry, the main instrument being the questionnaire conceived, administered and then valorised and interpreted. The conclusions generated by this research highlighted step by step, along the activities of the analysed human resources management and implicitly their career management, the actual positive or negative aspects and the fact that the management of human resources and implicitly of their career which, we scrutinised – that of police officer or policeman in short – assures with priority: the observance of the legislation specific to the investigated field, support for the development of the local policemen’s career, their prompt availability in due time, the knowledge and fulfilment of the tasks according to the job and position requirements, all this assures the understanding of the employees’ expectations, of the change of employees’ roles within the organisation depending on their experience and solves the conflicts among the employees. Nevertheless, we identified, in a less significant percentage , some cases of discontent and dissatisfaction, cases that could generate ideas for
Service-learning (SL) is an experiential teaching method that combines instruction with community service, with the aim of enriching students' academic learning, interpersonal skills and sense of responsibility while making meaningful contributions to the community. However, measuring outcomes of service-learning projects is difficult. This article reports on the perceptions of 18 third-year undergraduate nursing students who took part in a pilot service-learning project targeting tobacco use in a local elementary school. Faculty members evaluated the program's outcomes by engaging students in structured reflection on the program about its relevance to their future careers as practicing professionals, especially in community-based settings. The students' perceptions were elicited through three sets of reflective assignments following the project. Findings from the reflective assignments suggest that the pilot program was successful in enhancing the students' academic, social, and personal development while building a partnership between the school of nursing and key players in the community, including school-based nurses, teachers, administrators, families, and community leaders. The author suggests that service-learning projects can help nursing students accomplish key developmental tasks of the college years (such as building their competence, autonomy, and integrity), while helping impart the skills and values they will need as they graduate and seek professional nursing roles.
Sandra Lazo de la Vega
Full Text Available As one of the most visible and vulnerable manifestations of the presence of Latino immigrants in “new destination” communities across the United States, day laborers have become a locus of conflict over the past fifteen years for local policy makers, advocacy organizations, and neighborhood residents. Communities have dealt with day labor in drastically different ways. Some have passed harsh anti-immigrant ordinances, hoping that a hostile environment will encourage immigrants to leave. Restrictionist state and local legislation, however, has proven costly to enforce, has been challenged in court, and has hindered immigrant integration. Other communities have gone against the restrictionist tide. This paper argues that organized day labor centers, such as the El Sol Resource Center in Jupiter, Florida address many of the fundamental fears that polarize local policymaking and the national immigration reform debate. In Jupiter, El Sol has not only eliminated a controversial open-air labor market by bringing the process into a formal and organized structure, it has also provided access to English and civics classes, preventive health screenings and legal services in cases of wage theft. Furthermore, through El Sol the Town of Jupiter has opened a two-way process of immigrant integration. Jupiter’s day laborers are no longer “hiding in the shadows”, but rather are engaging in active citizenship and working with native-born community volunteers to run the center.
Ferreri, Stefanie P; Greco, Angelo J; Michaels, Natasha M; O'Connor, Shanna K; Chater, Rebecca W; Viera, Anthony J; Faruki, Hawazin; McLeod, Howard L; Roederer, Mary W
OBJECTIVE To determine the feasibility of implementing a pharmacogenomics service in a community pharmacy. SETTING A single community pharmacy that is part of a regional chain known for offering innovative pharmacy services. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Community pharmacists at the project site routinely provide clinical pharmacy services, including medication therapy management, immunizations, point-of-care testing, blood pressure monitoring, and diabetes education. PRACTICE INNOVATION The implementation of a pharmacogenomic testing and interpretation service for the liver isoenzyme cytochrome P450 2C19. PARTICIPANTS 18 patients taking clopidogrel, a drug metabolized by CYP2C19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Rate of patient participation, rate of prescriber acceptance of pharmacist recommendation, time to perform genetic testing service, and number of claims submitted to and paid by insurance. RESULTS Of 41 patients taking clopidogrel and meeting project criteria, 18 (43.9%) enrolled and completed testing and interpretation of pharmacogenomic results. The mean time pharmacists spent completing all stages of the project with each participant was 76.6 minutes. The mean time to complete participation in the project (time between person's first and second visit) was 30.1 days. Nine patients had wild-type alleles, and pharmacists recommended continuation of therapy as ordered. Genetic variants were found in the other nine patients, and all pharmacist recommendations for modifications in therapy were ultimately accepted by prescribers. Overall, 17 patients consented to filing of reimbursement claims with their insurers. Five were not able to be billed due to submission difficulties. Of the remaining 12, none was paid. CONCLUSION A pharmacogenomics service can be an extension of medication therapy management services in a community pharmacy. Prescribers are receptive to having community pharmacists conduct pharmacogenomics testing, but reimbursement is a challenge.
Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n=1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic regression...... Imprisonment is associated with a higher rate of recidivism and the result is statistically significant at conventional statistical levels. Conclusions Community service (CS) compared to imprisonment appears to cause a lower reconviction rate in general. Additional research is needed to shed light...
Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris
This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…
Safrit, R. Dale; Auck, Allen W.
Random samples of Ohio 4-H community club members ages 10-14 (n=504, 25% response) and ages 15-19 (n=504, 27% response) were surveyed. Nearly 100% in both groups are involved in community service. Respondents spent equal amounts of time volunteering through school, out of school, on their own, or through 4-H youth development experiences. (SK)
Storkey, Jonathan; Döring, Thomas; Baddeley, John; Collins, Rosemary; Roderick, Stephen; Jones, Hannah; Watson, Christine
The sustainable delivery of multiple ecosystem services requires the management of functionally diverse biological communities. In an agricultural context, an emphasis on food production has often led to a loss of biodiversity to the detriment of other ecosystem services such as the maintenance of soil health and pest regulation. In scenarios where multiple species can be grown together, it may be possible to better balance environmental and agronomic services through the targeted selection of companion species. We used the case study of legume-based cover crops to engineer a plant community that delivered the optimal balance of six ecosystem services: early productivity, regrowth following mowing, weed suppression, support of invertebrates, soil fertility building (measured as yield of following crop), and conservation of nutrients in the soil. An experimental species pool of 12 cultivated legume species was screened for a range of functional traits and ecosystem services at five sites across a geographical gradient in the United Kingdom. All possible species combinations were then analyzed, using a process-based model of plant competition, to identify the community that delivered the best balance of services at each site. In our system, low to intermediate levels of species richness (one to four species) that exploited functional contrasts in growth habit and phenology were identified as being optimal. The optimal solution was determined largely by the number of species and functional diversity represented by the starting species pool, emphasizing the importance of the initial selection of species for the screening experiments. The approach of using relationships between functional traits and ecosystem services to design multifunctional biological communities has the potential to inform the design of agricultural systems that better balance agronomic and environmental services and meet the current objective of European agricultural policy to maintain viable food
Henderson, Saras; Kendall, Elizabeth
The community navigator model was developed to assist four culturally and linguistically diverse communities (Sudanese, Burmese, Pacific Islander Group, Afghani) in south-east Queensland to negotiate the Australian health system and promote health. Using participatory action research, we developed the model in partnership with community leaders and members, the local health department and two non-governmental organisations. Following implementation, we evaluated the model, with the results published elsewhere. However, our evaluation revealed that although the model was accepted by the communities and was associated with positive health outcomes, the financial, social and organisational durability of the model was problematic. Ironically, this situation was inadvertently created by critical decisions made during the development process to enhance the durability and acceptability of the model. This paper explores these critical decisions, our rationale for making those decisions and the four hidden tensions that subsequently emerged. Using a reflective case study method to guide our analysis, we provide possible resolutions to these tensions that may promote the longevity and utility of similar models in the future. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The use of community navigators to assist culturally diverse communities to access health services is not new. Many benefits have been documented for communities, individuals and heath service providers following the use of such models. What is not well documented is how to maintain these models in a safe and cost-effective way within the Australian health system while respecting cultural and community practices and reducing the burden of service delivery on the navigators. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper provides a perspective on how the development of community-based service models inherently places them in a position of tension that must be resolved if they are to be long lasting. Four core tensions experienced
Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.
Ferguson-Coleman, Emma; Keady, John; Young, Alys
This study concerns culturally Deaf people in the United Kingdom who use British Sign Language (BSL). Its objective was to explore how Deaf people's knowledge about dementia and access to services is mediated by their minoritised cultural-linguistic status. Twenty-six members of the Deaf community participated in one of three Deaf-led focus groups in BSL corresponding with the sample of: Deaf people over the age of 60 without dementia; Deaf people aged 18-60 working professional roles unconnected with dementia services; ordinary members of the Deaf community aged 18-60. Data were subjected to a thematic content analysis. Participants' concerns about their poor levels of knowledge and understanding of dementia were augmented by their awareness that without sustained social contact in BSL opportunities for earlier recognition of dementia would be lost. Although primary care services were identified as the first port of call for dementia-related concerns, there was widespread mistrust of their effectiveness because of failures in communication and cultural competence. Confirmed diagnosis of dementia was not viewed as a gateway to services and support because Deaf organisations, dementia-related organisations and mainstream adult services were perceived to be ill-equipped to respond to the needs of Deaf people with dementia. Locating problems of late diagnosis within the Deaf community's poor awareness and knowledge of dementia fails to recognise the structural barriers Deaf people face in timely access to services and accurate recognition of dementia-related changes.
Hinton, Cynthia F; Kraus, Lewis E; Richards, T Anne; Fox, Michael H; Campbell, Vincent A
Approximately 40 million people in the U.S. identify as having a serious disability, and people with disabilities experience many health disparities compared with the general population. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide) identifies evidence-based programs and policies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) to promote health and prevent disease. The Community Guide was assessed to answer the questions: are Community Guide public health intervention recommendations applicable to people with disabilities, and are adaptations required? An assessment of 91 recommendations from The Community Guide was conducted for 15 health topics by qualitative analysis involving three data approaches: an integrative literature review (years 1980-2011), key informant interviews, and focus group discussion during 2011. Twenty-six recommended interventions would not need any adaptation to be of benefit to people with disabilities. Forty-one recommended interventions could benefit from adaptations in communication and technology; 33 could benefit from training adaptations; 31 from physical accessibility adaptations; and 16 could benefit from other adaptations, such as written policy changes and creation of peer support networks. Thirty-eight recommended interventions could benefit from one or more adaptations to enhance disability inclusion. As public health and healthcare systems implement Task Force recommendations, identifying and addressing barriers to full participation for people with disabilities is important so that interventions reach the entire population. With appropriate adaptations, implementation of recommendations from The Community Guide could be successfully expanded to address the needs of people with disabilities. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, S.; Calnan, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.
The aim of this paper is two-fold: (i) to describe the development of a new measuring instrument for quality of care from the perspective of the users of local authority Occupational Therapy (OT) services, and (ii) to evaluate the potential of the new instrument as a standardized approach for the
Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro
Community helping services is an expression used by the social movements to designate families that live in shacks installed in a public area intended for building of own house at a community helping system. Studies in ethnonursing that aimed: in order to detail dynamic configuration in a community helping service. It took place in an community helping area located in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará. The community members acting as general informants from the local culture, while eight (8) women heads-of-families, working as key informers. The data collect used the Observation-Participation-Reflection Model. The analyses were processing by the time that the dates were collected, considering the categories: inserting in the community helping culture to obtain their history; community helping is not a slum -describing the formation dynamic. Established that the formation dynamic of the community helping go on the own house representation as a symbol of " a better life". To assimilate such expression introducing in own cultural universe is a challenge for the nursing to assist a care culture congruent.
M Y H Moosa
Full Text Available Aim. To audit the community psychiatric services in southern Gauteng with a view to determining whether the objectives of the country’s mental health legislation and policies are being achieved. Results. Although southern Gauteng’s community psychiatric clinics are situated in a primary health setting, primary health clinicians play no active role in the management of mentally ill patients. Care is supplied mainly by specialist psychiatrists, psychiatric registrars (in training and psychiatric nurses. For first appointments, a mean of 2 patients are seen per doctor per clinic day for a mean duration of 30 minutes. For follow- up appointments, a mean of 17 patients are seen per doctor per clinic day for a mean duration of 8 minutes. The waiting time for new patient appointments is a mean of 6 months. Follow-up patients are seen once a month by nursing staff and approximately once every 4 months by doctors. An average of 1 in 5 patients is treated with oral atypical antipsychotics; in the majority of clinics, this is the total extent of care. However, where psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are present, only 0.2% of all users have access to them. Conclusion. The community psychiatric services, although better than those in some other countries, fall short of what is required by South African legislation and policies. General community health services ought to play an active role in the structure and delivery of psychiatric services by developing and strengthening the current limited services, with an emphasis on cost-effective and preventive approaches. Existing community psychiatric services, if so transformed, could serve as a model for other countries in Africa.
Ndabazinhle Ngobese; Roger B. Mason; Mandusha Maharaj
This study investigated public perceptions of the service delivery provided by the Community Service Centres (CSC) of the South African Police Service (SAPS) Durban, South Africa. The study focuses on measuring service quality and service delivery. SERVQUAL was used to compare clients’ perceptions against expectations of service quality. Four hundred respondents were surveyed at three community service centres (previously known as ‘police stations’), with expectations and perceptions being as...
This guide contains information on 2,086 funding programs that provide support on national, state, and local levels for economic and community development, social services, and the humanities. The guide begins with "A Guide to Proposal Planning and Writing" (Lynn E. Miner), which includes strategies for locating information on public and private…
The effects of Bucks County Community College (BCCC) on the local economy during fiscal year (FY) 1979 were investigated in terms of the monies spent in operating BCCC through purchases of goods and services, salaries to college employees, student financial aid expenditures, veterans' benefits, and property taxes paid by college employees, as well…
Full Text Available Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.
Malmborg, Katja; Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J
Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel.
Sinare, Hanna; Enfors Kautsky, Elin; Ouedraogo, Issa; Gordon, Line J.
Most current approaches to landscape scale ecosystem service assessments rely on detailed secondary data. This type of data is seldom available in regions with high levels of poverty and strong local dependence on provisioning ecosystem services for livelihoods. We develop a method to extrapolate results from a previously published village scale ecosystem services assessment to a higher administrative level, relevant for land use decision making. The method combines remote sensing (using a hybrid classification method) and interviews with community members. The resulting landscape scale maps show the spatial distribution of five different livelihood benefits (nutritional diversity, income, insurance/saving, material assets and energy, and crops for consumption) that illustrate the strong multifunctionality of the Sahelian landscapes. The maps highlight the importance of a diverse set of sub-units of the landscape in supporting Sahelian livelihoods. We see a large potential in using the resulting type of livelihood benefit maps for guiding future land use decisions in the Sahel. PMID:29389965
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne; Cornachione, Egan
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2017, the National Park System received an estimated 331 million recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated \\$18.2 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 306 thousand jobs, \\$11.9 billion in labor income, \\$20.3 billion in value added, and \\$35.8 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.5 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with \\$3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
An organization with a strong evaluative culture engages in self-reflection, evidence-based learning and experimentation. It sees evidence as essential for managing well, but building such a culture is challenging. Community service organizations seek to provide effective services for their clients. To build an evaluative culture, they need to acquire basic monitoring and evaluation capabilities, be provided with opportunities for using these capabilities and be adequately motivated to care about evidence as a means to improve services to their clients. Leadership along with a phased in approach are key in bringing about these behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kittredge, Robert E.
Stone Soup Partnership is a collaboration between California State University at Fresno and its surrounding community to address serious problems in a high-crime, impoverished apartment complex near the university. The program involves students in service learning for university credit, and has expanded from a single summer youth program to a…
Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Hongbin; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian
The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of high school scholarships tied to community service on the development of secondary school students in Northwest China. Using data from three rounds of surveys of thousands of students in 298 classes in 75 high schools in Shaanxi province, the paper documents the implementation of the…
This necessitated the study, with a view to ascertaining if librarians in academic institutions, considering their location in rural areas, are involved in corporate social responsibility (CSR) by way of providing library and information services in communities? Using four federal tertiary institutions in Imo and Ebonyi states, South ...
Camacho, Michelle Madsen
As social scientists engage their own subjectivity, there is greater awareness of their own touristic "gaze," or at least the power relations that are evoked in the researcher-subject interaction. In teaching students involved in community service learning, the challenge is to provide a learning experience that addresses power inequities…
Service learning (SL) presents apposite opportunities for students to share with and learn from businesses for mutually beneficial development and experience. This article focuses on a SL project conducted by undergraduate students in South Africa, to devise advertising and marketing strategies for community businesses. The reciprocity of benefits…
A study on the potential of forest ecosystem services to the livelihood of communities around Shume-Magamba Forest Reserve in Lushoto District, Tanzania was conducted. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participant's observation were used. Qualitatively and quantitatively data were analysed using the ...
Jul 26, 2014 ... purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of. Registered Nurses (RNs) towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A ... disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their ... is evidence in the literature to suggest that ... patient's daily life creating an individually.
Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah
Self-care advice and management of minor ailments have long been provided in community pharmacies across England. However, formal pharmacy minor ailment service provision is geographically variable and has yet to gain recognition and political support as a valued sustainable service for nationwide adoption and commissioning. To investigate the sustainability potential of pharmacy minor ailment services from the perspective of community pharmacy stakeholders within the North East of England. A mixed methods approach was adopted to survey and interview stakeholders from the North East of England who commission; provide; and/or represent groups influencing the design, delivery and investment in community pharmacy clinical and public health services. The 40-item Programme Sustainability Assessment Tool, a validated instrument to assess a public health programme's capacity for sustainability across eight domains, was administered to fifty-three stakeholders, identified from a pharmacy minor ailments showcase event. The same stakeholders were invited for a semi-structured interview to explore issues further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and underwent framework analysis. Forty-two (79.2% response rate) stakeholders representing commissioning, provider and influencing (e.g. Local Professional Network) organisations completed the assessment tool. Pharmacy minor ailment services were rated as unsustainable across the majority of the domains. Elements within the domain 'Partnerships' demonstrated potential for sustainability. Stakeholder interviews provided detailed explanation for the low scoring sustainability domains, highlighting the multifaceted challenges threatening these services. The Programme Sustainability Assessment Tool allowed stakeholders to evaluate the potential of pharmacy minor ailment services in England. Follow-up interviews highlighted that initial design and implementation of services was poorly conceived and lacked evidence
Levanat, I.; Knapp, A.; Lokner, V.
In Slovenia, direct financial compensations (for 'limited land use') to local communities hosting nuclear facilities were initially specified by a government Decree from 2003. In Croatia, a possibility of direct financial compensations had been indicated in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository siting about a decade earlier, but the topic was subsequently abandoned together with the repository project. In 2004, the joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 (the 1st revision of the joint Program) conservatively included the compensation amounts from the Slovenian Decree into the cost estimates of LILW and SF repositories, although their location was entirely unspecified ('in Slovenia or in Croatia'). Shortly before the 2nd revision of the joint Program started in the fall of 2008, the Slovenian government had amended its Decree, practically doubling the amounts of the repository compensations. Assuming that some (or possibly all) nuclear facilities and waste, dealt with in the Program, may be located in Slovenia, the revision has adopted a conservative approach to include all compensations to local communities that may be required by the Slovenian regulations into the Program costs. This paper discusses the Slovenian government Decree, its impact on the joint Program costs, and its implications on RW and SF management in the region. The Decree suffers from the lack of self-consistency, clarity, and consistency with the more general legal provisions on which it should have been based, but it may have an important supporting role in the process of RW and SF management facilities siting. The Decree introduced significant additional costs into the joint Program, which have grown from about one hundred million eur in the 1st revision to about half a billion in this revision (depending on the Program scenario). Besides, application of the Decree in the joint Program has set a precedent
Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul
The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for
Brent, Daniel A.; Gangadharan, Lata; Lassiter, Allison; Leroux, Anke; Raschky, Paul A.
The management of stormwater runoff via distributed green infrastructures delivers a number of environmental services that go beyond the reduction of flood risk, which has been the focus of conventional stormwater systems. Not all of these services may be equally valued by the public, however. This paper estimates households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in water security, stream health, recreational and amenity values, as well as reduction in flood risk and urban heat island effect. We use data from nearly 1000 personal interviews with residential homeowners in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Our results suggest that the WTP for the highest levels of all environmental services is A799 per household per year. WTP is mainly driven by residents valuing improvements in local stream health, exemptions in water restrictions, the prevention of flash flooding, and decreased peak urban temperatures respectively at A297, A244, A104 and A$65 per year. We further conduct a benefit transfer analysis and find that the WTP and compensating surplus are not significantly different between the study areas. Our findings provide additional support that stormwater management via green infrastructures have large nonmarket benefits and that, under certain conditions, benefit values can be transferred to different locations.
Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Pirkola, Sami; Kontio, Raija; Joffe, Grigori; Pankakoski, Maiju; Malin, Maili; Sadeniemi, Minna; Kaila, Minna; Wahlbeck, Kristian
Governances, structures and contents of mental health services are being reformed across countries. There is a need for data to support those changes. The aim of this study was to explore the quality, i.e., diversity and community orientation, and quantity, i.e., personnel resources, of mental health and substance abuse services (MHS) and evaluate correlation between population needs and quality and quantity of MHS. The European Service Mapping Schedule—Revised (ESMS-R) was used to classify mental health and substance abuse services in southern Finland. Municipal-level aggregate data, local data on unemployment rate, length of education, age of retirement, proportion of single households, alcohol sales and a composite mental health index were used as indicators of population mental health needs. Population size correlated strongly with service diversity, explaining 84% of the variance. Personnel resources did not associate with diversity or community orientation. The indicators of mental health services need did not have the expected association with quality and quantity of services. In terms of service organization, the results may support larger population bases, at least 150,000 adult inhabitants, when aiming for higher diversity. PMID:25153471
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the service-learning programs of the... Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAM PURPOSES § 2515.10 What are the service-learning programs of the Corporation for National and Community...
Melton, Gary B
Hospitality is an ancient moral practice that was deeply embedded in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Hospitality requires acceptance of, service to, and respect for people who lack a place in the community. The contemporary importance of this practice reflects the social disconnection and economic disadvantage of many young parents and the high frequency of separation of young people, including many young parents, from their communities. Such social deterioration substantially increases the risk of child maltreatment. Building on the proposals of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Strong Communities for Children demonstrated the effectiveness of community building in reducing such risk. It further suggested the importance of both relying on and learning from hospitable people in strengthening support for children and their parents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present in this paper the design, development and pilot process of the Lwazi community communication service (LCCS), a multilingual automated telephone-based information service. The service acts as a communication and dissemination tool...
DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.
Full Text Available The transformation of health services in South Africa today is governed by the political, policy and legislative frameworks. This article focuses on the transformation of a primary health care service within a local authority in Gauteng. The purpose with this article is to explore and describe the perceptions (expectations and fears of selected managers employed in this primary health care service. The results are utilised to compile a strategy (framework for transformation management and leadership within the primary health care service. A qualitative research design was utilised and the data was collected by means of individual interviews with selected managers in the service, followed by a content analysis. The expectations and fears of managers focus mainly on personnel matters, community participation/satisfaction, salaries and parity, inadequate stocks/supplies and medication, the deterioration of quality service delivery and the need for training and empowerment. These results are divided into structure, process and outcome dimensions and are embodied in the conceptual framework for the transformation and leadership strategy. It is recommended that standards for transformation management be formulated and that the quality of transformation management be evaluated accordingly.
Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Heck, N.; Faraola, S.; Paytan, A.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.
Freshwater shortages have become a global problem due to increasing water consumption and environmental changes which are reducing the reliability of traditional water resources. One option to address water shortages in coastal areas is the use of seawater desalination. Desalination technology is particularly valued for the production of high quality drinking water and consistent production. However, seawater desalination is controversial due to potential environmental, economic, and societal impacts and lack of public support for this water supply method. Compared to alternative potable water production methods, such as water recycling, little is known about public attitudes towards seawater desalination and factors that shape local support or rejection. Our research addresses this gap and explores variables that influence support for proposed desalination plants in the Monterey Bay region, where multiple facilities have been proposed in recent years. Data was collected via a questionnaire-based survey among a random sample of coastal residents and marine stakeholders between June-July, 2016. Findings of the study identify the influence of socio-demographic variables, knowledge about desalination, engagement in marine activities, perception of the environmental context, and the existence of a National Marine Sanctuary on local support. Research outcome provide novel insights into public attitudes towards desalination and enhances our understanding of why communities might support or reject this water supply technology.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
Allen, Amy; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Kanger, Chatrian R; Lobach, David F; McWilliams, Lee; Polello, Jennifer M; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Tulikangas, Megan C; Turske, Scott A
Care management aims to provide cost-effective, coordinated, non-duplicative care to improve care quality, population health, and reduce costs. The 17 communities receiving funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology through the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program are leaders in building and strengthening their health information technology (health IT) infrastructure to provide more effective and efficient care management. This article profiles 6 Beacon Communities' health IT-enabled care management programs, highlighting the influence of local context on program strategy and design, and describing challenges, lessons learned, and policy implications for care delivery and payment reform. The unique needs (eg, disease burden, demographics), community partnerships, and existing resources and infrastructure all exerted significant influence on the overall priorities and design of each community's care management program. Though each Beacon Community needed to engage in a similar set of care management tasks--including patient identification, stratification, and prioritization; intervention; patient engagement; and evaluation--the contextual factors helped shape the specific strategies and tools used to carry out these tasks and achieve their objectives. Although providers across the country are striving to deliver standardized, high-quality care, the diverse contexts in which this care is delivered significantly influence the priorities, strategies, and design of community-based care management interventions. Gaps and challenges in implementing effective community-based care management programs include: optimizing allocation of care management services; lack of available technology tailored to care management needs; lack of standards and interoperability; integrating care management into care settings; evaluating impact; and funding and sustainability.
Choi, Bryan Y; Blumberg, Charles; Williams, Kenneth
Mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine are models of health care delivery that use emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to fill gaps in local health care infrastructure. Community paramedics may perform in an expanded role and require additional training in the management of chronic disease, communication skills, and cultural sensitivity, whereas other models use all levels of EMS personnel without additional training. Currently, there are few studies of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine programs. Observations from existing program data suggest that these systems may prevent congestive heart failure readmissions, reduce EMS frequent-user transports, and reduce emergency department visits. Additional studies are needed to support the clinical and economic benefit of mobile integrated health care and community paramedicine. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a statistical approach to the likelihood computation and adaptive resampling algorithm for particle filters using low cost ultrasonic sensors in the context of service robotics. This increases the efficiency of the particle filter in the Monte Carlo Localization problem by means of preventing sample impoverishment and ensuring it converges towards the most likely particle and simultaneously keeping less likely ones by systematic resampling. Proposed algorithms were developed in the ROS framework, simulation was done in Gazebo environment. Experiments using a differential drive mobile platform with 4 ultrasonic sensors in the office environment show that our approach provides strong improvement over particle filters with fixed sample sizes.
Full Text Available In recent years, the rapidly growing industry of leisure has displayed some signs of overcrowding on account of the diminished capacities of turning employed resources into profit and the lowered personnel productivity in Romania. Economic agents striving to succeed in this rapidly evolving economic sector should reconsider their position and plan a strategy to grow or reinforce their business. The present paper provides a starting point in outlying the local recreation market specificity by investigating consumer preferences and drivers of choice. Results show that although there is an active demand for commercial recreational activities, its quantum is rather low. Moreover, the study shows that service-related factors (such as quality, personnel qualification, price and novelty appear to have the highest importance for consumers, that positive word of mouth is a rather strong influencer, while advertising and location-related factors rank lowest on the list of priorities when choosing a recreation provider.
Full Text Available The article tells about the CoPED Summer School (Community Planning and Ecological Design held in Sicily, in the Simeto Valley, in June 2015. The School is one of the steps of the building process of the Simeto River Agreement, which started in 2002 and has been conducted in a community-university partnership framework by Italian action researchers with local representatives. Furthermore, the Simeto Valley has been elected recently as one of the "pilot areas" in the National Strategy for Inner Areas promoted by the De- partment for Economic Development. The main aim of the school has been to determine the projects to be developed in the National Strategy for Inner Areas. The article outlines both the achieved results and the methodological aspects of this experience. It especially highlights the value of service learning as pedagogical method, and the potential of the U. S. engaged university model that could be implemented in the Italian university system.
Dong, Xiaoxin; liu, Ling; Cao, Shiyi; Yang, Huajie; Song, Fujian; Yang, Chen; Gong, Yanhong; Wang, Yunxia; Yin, Xiaoxu; Xie, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lu, Zuxun
Background Community health service in China is designed to provide a convenient and affordable primary health service for the city residents, and to promote health equity. Based on data from a large national study of 35 cities across China, we examined the characteristics of the patients and the utilization of community health institutions (CHIs), and assessed the role of community health service in promoting equity in health service utilization for community residents. Methods Multistage sa...
Harrington, Charlene; Ng, Terence; Kitchener, Martin
This article estimates the potential savings to the Medicaid program of using 1915c Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers rather than institutional care. For Medicaid HCBS waiver expenditures of $25 billion in 2006, we estimate the national savings to be over $57 billion, or $57,338 per waiver participant in 2006 compared with the cost of Medicaid institutional care (for which all waiver participants are eligible). When taking into account a potential 50% "woodwork effect" (for people who might have refused institutional services), the saving would be $21 billion. This analysis demonstrates that HCBS waiver programs present significant direct financial savings to Medicaid long-term care (LTC) programs.
Full Text Available Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in PalestineObjectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offerMethod: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %. Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.
Ogden, J R; Ogden, D T
In the past few years there has been a decrease in governmental support of Community Mental Health centers. Because of this, there has been some concern, on the part of Community Mental Health professionals, as to the overall impact of this decreased governmental support. Research has been conducted that speculates on how best to handle this mini-crisis. One article suggests moving to an overall marketing approach to help combat this dollar support decline (Day and Ford 1988). Others provide methods for surveying Community Mental Health users (Ludke, Curry & Saywell 1983). William Winston (1988) suggests an overall psychographic segmentation approach to developing market targets. There has also been research detailing promotional methods for expanded marketing coverage (Moldenhauer 1988), however little has been written defining the pricing impact on Community Mental Health services. This study addresses the perceptions of Community Mental Health Center users toward the price variable of the marketing mix.
Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.
Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due
Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...
Davidson, William S; Jimenez, Tiffeny R; Onifade, Eyitayo; Hankins, Sean S
Service-learning partnerships between universities and surrounding communities striving to create systems-level change must consider an emphasis in critical community service; a community centered paradigm where students are taught to work with communities to better understand contexts surrounding a social problem, as opposed to merely volunteering to provide a service to a community. The Adolescent Diversion Project (ADP), which has been operating for over 30 years, demonstrates critical community service through the type of relationship built between students and the local community. This article describes: a qualitative study with ADP students, the historical context of ADP, what and how students learned through their involvement in ADP, and reframes the work of this project as a form of service-learning pedagogy. Inductive content analysis was employed to identify underlying themes across participants related to their personal experiences of ADP and its impact in their lives. Findings were compared with service-learning outcomes and other quantitative studies conducted with past ADP cohorts from the literature. Consistent with past studies, ADP students become more negative toward social systems involved with their youth. This finding may explain an increase in feelings of political commitment following involvement in ADP. Consistent with service-learning outcomes, results demonstrate that ADP should be further documented as not only an effective community-based program but also as an exemplar in the pedagogy of service-learning. This study highlights why service-learning opportunities for students are not just one way to teach students, they are opportunities to bridge relationships within communities, bring life to theoretical concepts, and build the foundations necessary for educated citizens that will one day take lead roles in our society.
Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar
Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health (including nursing homes and residency), - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project. A mixed-methods design with qualitative focus group interviews, observations and written reports were used to evaluate. The study was conducted at two nursing homes, two home care districts and a residence for people with learning disabilities. Participants were employees, facilitators and service managers. The study was guided by ethical standard principles and was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We found support for ethics reflection as a valuable measure to strengthen clinical practice. New and improved solutions, more cooperation between employees, and improved collaboration with patients and their families are some of the results. No negative experiences were found. Instead, the ethics reflection based on experiences and challenges in the workplace, was described as a win-win situation. The evaluation also revealed what is needed to succeed and useful tips for further development of ethics support in community health services. Ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges from the participants' daily work were found to be significant for improved practice, collegial support and cooperation, personal and professional development among staff, facilitators and managers. Resources needed to succeed were managerial support, and anchoring ethics sessions in the routine of daily work.
Sitton-Kent, Lucy; Humphreys, Catriona; Miller, Phillip
Health technology has been proposed as a route to financial savings and improved patient safety for many years within the NHS. Nurses have a key role to play in transforming care through such technology but, despite high-level endorsement, implementation of health technology has been uneven across NHS community services. This article looks at three promising applications of health technology in community nursing: mobile access to digital care records; digital imaging; and remote face-to-face consultations. Current evidence for these technologies gives some indication of what is required before health technologies can benefit patients. Rapidly changing health technologies make it difficult for community services to make fully informed decisions when implementing them. There are challenges in predicting the full financial and efficiency impacts, in making robust estimates of costs and workload implications and in anticipating the effects on patient care and staff experience. Despite these problems, there is mounting evidence of the benefits of technological innovations available to community nurses and their patients.
Javier Carreón Guillén
Full Text Available The economic, political, citizen, and community spheres, whether global or local, are regulated by systems of governance, which create public interest agendas including tariffs for public services derived from the use of natural resources. In this regard, this paper presents the agreements and disagreements between entrepreneurial, municipal, citizen, and community organizations to establish local development scenarios in reference to the global market. This discussion will create a series of representations that symbolize the dissonance between prosperity and austerity in order to contrast lifestyles oriented towards globalization and livelihoods aimed at sustainability. In this context, different identities have emerged from the alliances between civil and business organizations, in which development is not necessarily a priority; however, such vicissitudes provide central themes for the discussion of economic models. This paper is important because it envisages a governance scheme that permits including natural resources in the civil, political, and business agenda. In other words, governance regulates the intrusion of transnational corporations in communities and the inclusion of SMEs in the international market.
Full Text Available Of the numerous applications of GIS, administration and public services count among the main fields of application. They are both the users and the owners of the largest amount of spatial data. Portals for higher authorities have been the subject of extensive discussions, but the development and possible use of GIS systems in the form of geoportals at local levels still seems to have been insufficiently discussed. This article presents the process of designing and developing a portal for the lowest authorities - local authorities and the local community. A small town in Poland, Sokółka, was assumed as the study area. The concept development was preceded by, among others: recognition of the needs of an administrative unit in conducting spatial policy; establishment of the objectives, functionalities and assumptions of the designed GIS; a SWOT analysis of the designed geoportal; and an analysis of data resources. Pilot implementation was completed with an evaluation of the geoportal encompassing various groups of potential users.
Lampinen, Mai-Stiina; Suutala, ElinaAnnikki; Konu, Anne Irmeli
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how factors associated with a sense of community in the workplace are connected with organizational commitment and the quality of services among frontline managers and middle managers in social and health care services in Finland. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire designed specifically for this research was sent to 241 lower-level and middle-level managers in social and health care services in central Finland. A total of 136 managers completed the questionnaire (response rate 56 per cent). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses. Findings The study showed that feeling a sense of belonging, mutual trust and appreciation, and open interaction among colleagues were connected to organizational commitment for frontline managers and middle managers in social and health care services in Finland. Correspondingly, an open flow of information in the organization, job meaningfulness and appreciation received from managers' superiors were connected to the quality of services. Originality/value This study provides information on the factors that influence social and health care managers' organizational commitment and on items connected to their experience of the quality of services.
Full Text Available ; and service delivery; through O/&M activities that increase the availability and utility of infrastructure, and the quality and reliability of services. ... of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa Annual (IMIESA) Conference, Port Elizabeth, October 2013 Quality service delivery for the community, by the community: an innovative Eastern Cape infrastructure and job creation success Wall K, Ive O, Bhagwan J...
Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki
The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and
Lees, Carolyn; Poole, Helen; Brennan, Michelle; Irvine, Fiona
Background: The government alongside other health and social care organisation have identified the need to improve the care provided for people with learning disabilities. Materials and Methods: This service evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities and their carers who accessed community dental services…
Gardner, Janet; Emory, Jan
The homeless are an underserved, local vulnerable population that can benefit from a service learning clinical practicum experience for baccalaureate prepared nursing students. Negative attitudes and disrespect among healthcare workers has been identified by the homeless as a barrier to healthcare. A service learning experience with a vulnerable population has been shown to change nursing students' attitudes and beliefs. A large university in a southern city partnered with a community based organization that provided services to the homeless to educate senior nursing students in a service learning experience. The goal of this project was to examine attitudes and perceptions of nursing students toward the homeless population before and after participation in a service learning clinical practicum experience. This case study utilized a pre and post experience questionnaire to collect qualitative data for the purposes of the project. The findings revealed students demonstrated a decrease in fear, an increase in empathy, and a deeper understanding of the advocacy role of nurses for people experiencing homelessness. Nurse educators are challenged to engage students with vulnerable populations to change the attitudes and perceptions for improvement in the overall health of communities served worldwide. Partnerships and service learning experiences can benefit all. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carole K. Ivey
Full Text Available Occupational therapy faculty currently face enormous challenges in meeting teaching load expectations, while also under pressure to participate in scholarly projects and to make administrative and service contributions. Community engagement projects may provide opportunities for faculty to effectively and efficiently meet the goals in each of these areas while imparting benefits to students and community partners as well. Faculty at the Department of Occupational Therapy (OT at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU embraced this idea as consistent with the university’s mission and strategic plan, and recognized its benefits in assisting faculty to meet workload demands. Four community partnerships reflecting the range and diversity of populations currently involved are highlighted: the Children’s Museum of Richmond, Rebuilding TogetherRichmond, the William Nelson Bland Literacy Center, and Gateway Homes of Richmond. The developmental process and resulting benefits are described for each of these partnerships, and the paper concludes with lessons learned from these collaborative efforts. From these examples, it appears important to be proactive about developing community partnerships and realistic about the challenges of collaboration, but also to be aware of the role community engagement plays in creatively blending the potentially conflicting demands on faculty time.
Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A
Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika K; Kulovaara, Heidi; Bell, J Simon; Enäkoski, Marianne; Airaksinen, Marja S
The importance of email as a mode of communication between medication users and pharmacists is likely to increase. However, little is known about the email medication counseling practices of community pharmacies. To determine the prevalence of email medication counseling services in Finland and to assess the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses by pharmacies providing the opportunity for email medication counseling to inquiries related to use of antidepressants. An inventory was made of all Finnish community pharmacies that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. Data related to the accuracy and comprehensiveness of responses were collected, using a virtual pseudo-customer method with 3 scenarios related to common concerns of patients on antidepressants. Two inquiries were emailed to each pharmacy that provided the opportunity for email medication counseling in January and February 2005. The responses were content analyzed by 2 researchers, using a prestructured scoring system. Almost one-third (30%, n = 182) of Finnish community pharmacies maintained a working Web site, and 94% of those provided the opportunity for email medication counseling. An online "ask-the-pharmacist" service was offered by 13% (n = 23) of the pharmacies with a Web site. Pharmacies responded to 54% of the email inquiries sent by the virtual pseudo-customers. The response rate and the content score ratio between mean and maximum scores varied among the scenarios. The content score ratio was highest for the scenarios concerning the adverse effects of fluoxetine (0.53, n = 55) and interactions with mirtazapine (0.52, n = 63) and lowest for the scenario related to sexual dysfunction and weight gain associated with citalopram (0.38, n = 52). Community pharmacies are potential providers of email medication counseling services. However, more attention should be directed to responding to consumer inquiries and to the content of these responses.
Drukker, M; van Os, J; Sytema, S; Driessen, G; Visser, E; Delespaul, P
Previous work suggests that the Dutch variant of assertive community treatment (ACT), known as Function ACT (FACT), may be effective in increasing symptomatic remission rates when replacing a system of hospital-based care and separate community-based facilities. FACT guidelines propose a different pattern of psychiatric service consumption compared to traditional services, which should result in different costing parameters than care as usual (CAU). South-Limburg FACT patients, identified through the local psychiatric case register, were matched with patients from a non-FACT control region in the North of the Netherlands (NN). Matching was accomplished using propensity scoring including, among others, total and outpatient care consumption. Assessment, as an important ingredient of FACT, was the point of departure of the present analysis. FACT patients, compared to CAU, had five more outpatient contacts after the index date. Cost-effectiveness was difficult to assess. Implementation of FACT results in measurable changes in mental health care use.
Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P
The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Han, Kyungsik; Wirth, Richard; Hanrahan, Benjamin; Chen, Jiawei; Lee, Sooyeon; Carroll, John M.
In this paper we report our investigation into how using and interacting with a local festival mobile app enhanced users’ festival experiences and connected them to other local users and their community. We explored the relationship between users’ perceived basic affordances of mobile technology, perceived opportunities of the festival app, and three elements that sustain the local community — attachment, engagement, and social support networks. Based on the usage logs of 348 active users, as well as survey responses from 80 users, we present a mobile-mediated local community framework and found that engagement is a key mediator of mobile experiences and facets of community.
Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey
Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.
Sips, K.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.
Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent
Shukla, P. K.; Shukla, Monica P.
Community Service Learning (CSL) believes that university and colleges should incorporate community based service projects into courses. There are faculty and administrator supporters who argue for such proposals to require community service learning components into classes, but there are also faculty and administrator critics of such proposals.…
Howard, Jeffrey, Ed.
The "Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning" ("MJCSL") is a national, peer-reviewed journal consisting of articles written by faculty and service-learning educators on research, theory, pedagogy, and issues pertinent to the service-learning community. The "MJCSL" aims to: (1) widen the community of…
Guhl, Dennis; Blankart, Katharina E; Stargardt, Tom
A patient's perception of the service provided by a health care provider is essential for the successful delivery of health care. This study examines the value created by community pharmacies-defined as perceived customer value-in the prescription drug market through varying elements of service quality. We develop a path model that describes the relationship between service elements and perceived customer value. We then analyze the effect of perceived customer value on customer satisfaction and loyalty. We use data obtained from 289 standardized interviews on respondents' prescription fill in the last six months in Germany. The service elements personal interaction (path coefficient: 0.31), physical aspect (0.12), store policy (0.24), and availability (0.1) have a positive significant effect on perceived customer value. Consultation and reliability have no significant influence. We further find a strong positive interdependency between perceived customer value, customer satisfaction (0.75), and customer loyalty (0.71). Thus, pharmacies may enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty if they consider the customer perspective and focus on the relevant service elements. To enhance benefit, personal interaction appears to be most important to address appropriately.
... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services, Public Accommodations and in... of Disability; Accessibility of Web Information and Services of State and Local Government Entities and Public Accommodations; Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government...
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.
Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.
Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…
Braid, R.B. Jr.; Kyles, S.D.
The socioeconomic impact study identifies certain impacts which are projected to occur to local public services in each of 14 Tennessee communities in the Oak Ridge-Knoxville area during the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. Various in-migration scenarios are utilized, and detailed qualitative and quantitative analyses of each public service are undertaken. Per capita in-migrant cost-revenue impacts are calculated for each community in each in-migration scenario
Epton, Michael J; Stanton, Josh D; McGeoch, Graham R B; Shand, Brett I; Swanney, Maureen P
In 2008, as part of the changes to develop integrated health care services in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, the local health board in collaboration with general practitioners, respiratory specialists and scientists introduced a programme for general practices to provide laboratory-quality spirometry in the community. The service adhered to the 2005 ATS/ERS international spirometry standards. The spirometry service was provided by trained practice nurses and community respiratory nurses, and was monitored and quality assured by certified respiratory scientists in the Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Christchurch Hospital and CISO (Canterbury Initiative Services Organisation). These two organisations were responsible for organising training seminars and refresher courses on spirometry technique and interpretation of results. A total of 10 practices have now become approved spirometry providers, with the number of tests carried out in the primary care setting increasing gradually. Consistently high-quality spirometry tests have been obtained and are now presented on a centrally available results database for all hospital and community clinicians to review. Although the service has proved to be more convenient for patients, the tests have not been delivered as quickly as those carried out by the Respiratory Physiology Laboratory. However, the time scales for testing achieved by the community service is considered suitable for investigation of chronic disease. The success of the service has been dependent on several key factors including hospital and clinical support and a centralised quality assurance programme, a comprehensive training schedule and online clinical guidance and close integration between primary and secondary care clinicians.
Davidson, Peter J; Howe, Mary
In late 2007 the Homeless Youth Alliance (HYA), a small non-profit serving homeless youth in the Haight-Ashbury neighbourhood of San Francisco, USA, attempted to move its needle exchange service from a site on the Haight street commercial strip to a community centre approximately 150m away. The reaction of the housed community in the area was vocal and organized, and attracted considerable regional media attention. Ultimately, the plan to move the service had to be cancelled. The authors were, respectively, board chair and executive director of HYA at the time, and collected extensive field notes and media records as events unfolded. In this paper, we re-examine these events through literatures on contested spaces and on 'Not In My Backyard' (NIMBY) resistance to social services. We found that opposition to the service relocation had little to do with opposition to needle exchange itself, but rather was symptomatic of broader contestation over the identity and character of the neighbourhood. On the one hand, the neighbourhood had experienced skyrocketing housing prices over the past 40 years, making home ownership almost exclusively the province of the wealthy. On the other, the neighbourhood retains historic connections to the 1968 'Summer of Love', and the main commercial strip forms the centre of an active injecting drug use scene. As a consequence, many home owners who felt they had made considerable sacrifices to afford to live in the area expressed a sense of being "under siege" from drug users, and also believed that the City government pursues a deliberate policy of "keeping the Haight weird" by supporting ongoing service provision to drug users in the area. Housed residents responded to this situation in a variety of ways. One response was to engage in what we term 'defensive place making', in which a small part of a broader neighbourhood is reimagined as "a different neighbourhood". HYA's attempt to move from its current location to this 'different
Full Text Available The process of decentralization in Macedonia began in July 2005, after the adaption of theconstitutional amendments made which triggered the process of the decentralization in the Republic ofMacedonia. Having in mind that the decentralization implied structural changes in the Macedonian politicalsystem and in relations between the central and the local government, the implementation of the process ofthe decentralization was designed with a phased approach in order to accommodate the local governmentinstitutions with the new competencies. Among others the process of decentralization had an objective tobring the local authorities closer to the citizens through provision of quality local services. In addition it aimsto provide an opportunity for broader participation and representation of the citizens in their communities.This paper attempts to answer three main questions related to quality public services: - The process ofdecentralization has helped to improve the quality of public services? - What areas of public services undermunicipal jurisdiction are satisfied with it? - How much would you like to be informed about communityactivities? In this paper we are going to analyze the findings from the field research about the quality ofpublic service that provide the municipality of Tetovo of R. Macedonia. The paper focuses on the satisfactionon the public services and provides recommendations for future improvement of the decentralized publicservices in the Republic of Macedonia.
Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio
The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related
Hellmeier, W; Genin, G; Klewe-Niemann, S
The status of health reporting (on community levels) has improved considerably during recent years. It is being increasingly used as an instrument for planning, controlling and evaluating political processes. In addition to individual studies the statistics within the departments of the health authorities are an important factor for meaningful health reporting on a local level. The IDIS (from Jan. 1st, 1995 LOGD) and the social psychiatric services on the Minden-Lübbecke district and the city of Bielefeld have developed a programme for automation-aided management of the statistics for social psychiatric services on a local level. Details on the personal situation and illnesses of the clients as well as on the activities of the services staff are recorded and analysed. Based on the WHO programme EPI-info 6.01 the documentation programme SPD-STAT was developed. This programme is menudriven and, in addition to the functions for the statistical data input and retrieval of fixed table sets, also offers the possibility of processing data with the full functionality of the ANALYSIS-module of EPI-Info. Thus interactive ad-hoc evaluations for current questions are made possible. Using SPD-STAT in as many local regions in NRW as possible may be a big step forward for health reporting on local levels as well as for health reporting on a state level.
Dinerstein, Eric; Varma, Keshav; Wikramanayake, Eric; Powell, George; Lumpkin, Susan; Naidoo, Robin; Korchinsky, Mike; Del Valle, Christian; Lohani, Shubash; Seidensticker, John; Joldersma, Dirk; Lovejoy, Thomas; Kushlin, Andrey
We propose the wildlife premium mechanism as an innovation to conserve endangered large vertebrates. The performance-based payment scheme would allow stakeholders in lower-income countries to generate revenue by recovering and maintaining threatened fauna that can also serve as umbrella species (i.e., species whose protection benefits other species with which they co-occur). There are 3 possible options for applying the premium: option 1, embed premiums in a carbon payment; option 2, link premiums to a related carbon payment, but as independent and legally separate transactions; option 3, link premiums to noncarbon payments for conserving ecosystem services (PES). Each option presents advantages, such as incentive payments to improve livelihoods of rural poor who reside in or near areas harboring umbrella species, and challenges, such as the establishment of a subnational carbon credit scheme. In Kenya, Peru, and Nepal pilot premium projects are now underway or being finalized that largely follow option 1. The Kasigau (Kenya) project is the first voluntary carbon credit project to win approval from the 2 leading groups sanctioning such protocols and has already sold carbon credits totaling over $1.2 million since June 2011. A portion of the earnings is divided among community landowners and projects that support community members and has added over 350 jobs to the local economy. All 3 projects involve extensive community management because they occur on lands where locals hold the title or have a long-term lease from the government. The monitoring, reporting, and verification required to make premium payments credible to investors include transparent methods for collecting data on key indices by trained community members and verification of their reporting by a biologist. A wildlife premium readiness fund would enable expansion of pilot programs needed to test options beyond those presented here. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.
Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with
Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H
Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service
A paradigm change in scholarly communication is underway. Supporting Open Science, an effort to make scientific research data accessible to all interested parties by openly publishing research and encouraging others to do the same thereby making it easier to communicate scientific knowledge, is a part of the change that has become increasingly important for (digital) libraries. Digital libraries are able to play a significant role in enabling Open Science by facilitating data sharing, discovery and re-use. Because data citation is often mentioned as one incentive for data sharing, enabling data citation is a crucial feature of research data services. In this article we present a case study of data citation services for the High-Energy Physics (HEP) community using digital library technology. Our example shows how the concept of data citation is implemented for the complete research workflow, covering data production, publishing, citation and tracking of data reuse. We also describe challenges faced and distil...
Dawson, Susan; Freed, Patricia E
Nurses are expected to demonstrate professionalism through service leadership, but it is unlikely they have been prepared to understand the responsibilities associated with taking leadership roles in the community. The authors have had a variety of experiences serving on nonprofit health care boards and have obtained information about board roles and responsibilities that would be helpful for practicing nurses who want to be board members. Nurses can make vital contributions to the nonprofit sector of the nation's health care, but must know how to make wise choices to maintain their commitments. This article provides nurses with basic information about the roles and responsibilities of nonprofit board members and some lessons about board service from the authors' experiences.
As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc
As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.
Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.
Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea
Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.
Carlton, Erik L; Singh, Simone Rauscher
To examine the association between hospital-local health department (LHD) collaboration around community health needs assessments (CHNAs) and hospital investment in community health. We combined 2015 National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) Forces of Change, 2013 NACCHO Profile, and 2014-2015 Area Health Resource File data to identify a sample of LHDs (n = 439) across the United States. We included data on hospitals' community benefit from their 2014 tax filings (Internal Revenue Service Form 990, Schedule H). We used bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to examine LHDs' involvement in hospitals' CHNAs and implementation strategies and the relationship with hospital investment in community health. The LHDs that collaborated with hospitals around CHNAs were significantly more likely to be involved in joint implementation planning activities than were those that did not. Importantly, LHD involvement in hospitals' implementation strategies was associated with greater hospital investment in community health improvement initiatives. Joint CHNAs may improve coordination of community-wide health improvement efforts between hospitals and LHDs and encourage hospital investment in community health improvement activities. Public Health Implications. Policies that strengthen LHD-hospital collaboration around the CHNA may enhance hospital investments in community health.
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…
This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…
Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.
Bers, Trudy Haffron
Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)
people in need, but a process of empowerment where rural communities can acquire mastery over their .... in each zone to make the study more interactive and participatory oriented. Items discussed were .... Friends and neighbours. 22.00. 3 ... communities because of their high influence on the people. When extension ...
Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.
A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)
... like their male counterparts. Incompatibility of government policies with community programmes (= 3.84), insufficient sources of funds (= 3.83), poor implementation of programmes (= 3.80), and gender bias (= 3.77) constituted the major constraints to effective leadership in community development programmes in the area.
Y. G. Udod
Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.
Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu
With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.
Dayana Beatriz Carrillo Mejia
Full Text Available Nowadays, the university education is in the middle of a transformation, as an answer to a Knowledge Society emerging from globalization, originated by Information and Communications Technology (ICT's. Backed in those tools with the main objective of achieving a pertinent education to needs of the society, such as flexible in time and space, equitative, without frontiers, new models of teaching; virtual education, interactive distance education, on line education, among others have been included. The present article exhibits the results of a qualitative investigation, which allowed documenting the experience of designing, implementing and developing the first induction courses over the online community service, at the University of Los Andes-Trujillo. A virtual learning environment (VLE was used, to instruct the students over their functions as community service providers. The study was based on a data narrative design, provided by the participants, and complemented with the observations of the investigator. Finally, the students' efficiency and the performance with reference to the results are shown. Thus, among other things, it was found that a good efficiency was obtained and that the course was assessed in a satisfactory manner, however, some findings are orientated to improve practices in the future.
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…
Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese st...
Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K.; Fordyce, James A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sanders, Nathan J.
There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that...
Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B; Zillich, Alan J; Lowe, John B
To examine community pharmacy practice with regard to providing smoking-cessation counseling. Mailed survey. Iowa community pharmacies. A stratified random sample of pharmacists statewide. Descriptive statistics were computed for all study variables. Fisher exact test or chi2 analysis was performed on selected variables to determine the relationship of each item with pharmacists routinely offering smokers suggestions for quitting. Responses from 129 (38.2%) of 338 pharmacists indicated that although most felt it is important to offer smoking-cessation counseling, about half actually offer this service. Most pharmacists indicated they are prepared to provide counseling, but fewer than 25% had received formal training or were aware of national clinical practice guidelines. Those who had received specific training (p=0.020) or recently attended an educational program (p=0.014) on smoking cessation were more likely to counsel smokers. Primary barriers to providing counseling were lack of time, inability to identify smokers, low patient demand, and lack of reimbursement. Our findings suggest that opportunities exist for improving pharmacist education and reducing practice barriers in order to bridge the gap between pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes related to smoking-cessation counseling and their provision of patient counseling in community pharmacy practice.
Gert van der Westhuizen
Full Text Available The South African local government sector has undergone changes in the post-apartheid era as policy makers have sought to improve basic services provided to disadvantaged local communities. While scholars have considered various dimensions of the reform program, little effort has been directed at evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency dimensions of the changes in service provision, with some notable exceptions (van der Westhuizen and Dollery, 2009; Krugell, et al., 2010. This article seeks to contribute to this literature by evaluating the efficiency with which municipalities have provided (Reconstruction and Development Program RDP water, RDP sanitation RDP electricity and RDP refuse removal, using Data Envelopment Analysis techniques (DEA applied to panel data from 2006/2007 to 2008/2009 for 231 local municipalities and 46 district municipalities. Keywords: Data warehousing, Systems thinking, Prescriptive theory, Descriptive theory, Interpretative research. Disciplines: Information technology, systems theory, data warehousing, hermeneutics
Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.
Guerrero, Erick G; Aarons, Gregory A; Palinkas, Lawrence A
We examined factors associated with readiness to coordinate mental health, public health, and HIV testing among community-based addiction health services programs. We analyzed client and program data collected in 2011 from publicly funded addiction health services treatment programs in Los Angeles County, California. We analyzed a sample of 14 379 clients nested in 104 programs by using logistic regressions examining odds of service coordination with mental health and public health providers. We conducted a separate analysis to examine the percentage of clients receiving HIV testing in each program. Motivational readiness and organizational climate for change were associated with higher odds of coordination with mental health and public health services. Programs with professional accreditation had higher odds of coordinating with mental health services, whereas programs receiving public funding and methadone and residential programs (compared with outpatient) had a higher percentage of clients receiving coordinated HIV testing. These findings provide an evidentiary base for the role of motivational readiness, organizational climate, and external regulation and funding in improving the capacity of addiction health services programs to develop integrated care.
Robinson, James M.
The NYNEX Media Broadband Service Trials in Boston examined the use of several multiple media applications from healthcare in conjunction with high speed fiber optic networks. As part of these trials, NYNEX developed a network-based software technology that simplifies and coordinates the delivery of complex voice, data, image, and video information. This permits two or more users to interact and collaborate with one another while sharing, displaying, and manipulating various media types. Different medical applications were trialed at four of Boston's major hospitals, ranging from teleradiology (which tested the quality of the diagnostic images and the need to collaborate) to telecardiology (which displayed diagnostic quality digital movies played in synchronicity). These trials allowed NYNEX to uniquely witness the needs and opportunities in the healthcare community for broadband communications with the necessary control capabilities and simplified user interface. As a result of the success of the initial trials, NYNEX has created a new business unit, Media Communications Services (MCS), to deliver a service offering based on this capability. New England Medical Center, as one of the initial trial sites, was chosen as a beta trial candidate, and wanted to further its previous work in telecardiology as well as telepsychiatry applications. Initial and subsequent deployments have been completed, and medical use is in progress.
Full Text Available This study investigated public perceptions of the service delivery provided by the Community Service Centres (CSC of the South African Police Service (SAPS Durban, South Africa. The study focuses on measuring service quality and service delivery. SERVQUAL was used to compare clients’ perceptions against expectations of service quality. Four hundred respondents were surveyed at three community service centres (previously known as ‘police stations’, with expectations and perceptions being assessed via the dimensions of tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The results indicate that in all five dimensions there is a significant negative quality gap, implying that the quality of service received is below what is expected by clients. Improvements are required in all five dimensions if service delivery is to be improved. Actions needed to improve service quality include regular assessment and monitoring of clients’ experiences, as well as employees’ behaviour
Feb 19, 2010 ... important grazer of algae during periods of high zooplank- ton abundance. This is .... arctic tundra pond microcrustacean communities. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. ... Guides to the Identification of the Micro- invertebrates of the ...
Markström, Urban; Lindqvist, Rafael
This article analyzes the state of community mental health services for people with psychiatric disabilities and the interplay between different organizational levels. The study is based on document analysis and interviews with stakeholders in 10 Swedish municipalities. The results show how systems are slow to change and are linked to local traditions. The services are often delivered in closed settings, and the organizations struggle to meet the needs of a new generation of users. There is a gap between local systems and national policies because the latter pays attention to the attributes of a recovery approach.
and planning, and promulgated it in 2001. This paper provides a critical appraisal of efforts to put local government planning into practice in Lesotho through the use of the 'Quick and SMART' local government planning model. This article uses the SWOT analysis technique to undertake a critical appraisal of this planning ...
Full Text Available As the number of habitants of large cities is expanding, put greater pressure on city infrastructure delivering vital services, such as health, education, public safety and transport. These efforts are added to changing public demands for better information, better education, environmental programs, a more open government, lower maintenance costs and other housing options for older people. Therefore, to achieve these goals, it must take into account the quality of all services, but especially the quality of online services based on the use of modern information and communication technologies.The management of service quality on-line offers a performance evaluation and comparative analysis of indicators. He also works as a decision support to improve the quality of online services and increasing customer satisfaction, essential elements in an intelligent city.
Mendoza, A. M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J. S.; MacNeice, P. J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Weigand, C.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Patel, K.; Pembroke, A. D.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Boblitt, J. M.; Bakshi, S. S.; Tsui, T.
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), with the fundamental goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research, has been serving as an integral hub for over 15 years, providing invaluable resources to both space weather scientific and operational communities. CCMC has developed and provided innovative web-based point of access tools varying from: Runs-On-Request System - providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of state-of-the-art solar and space physics models, Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) - a powerful dissemination system for space weather information, Advanced Online Visualization and Analysis tools for more accurate interpretation of model results, Standard Data formats for Simulation Data downloads, and Mobile apps to view space weather data anywhere to the scientific community. In addition to supporting research and performing model evaluations, CCMC also supports space science education by hosting summer students through local universities. In this poster, we will showcase CCMC's latest innovative tools and services, and CCMC's tools that revolutionized the way we do research and improve our operational space weather capabilities. CCMC's free tools and resources are all publicly available online (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov).
Gerber, David A.
Analyzes past local history movements and addresses benefits and problems for historical studies and history teaching in the current upsurge of interest in local and community history. Concludes that local history must transcend parochialism in order to see the larger picture. (KC)
Steckowych, Kathryn; Smith, Marie; Spiggle, Susan; Stevens, Andrew; Li, Hao
The role of the community pharmacist has traditionally been a medication dispenser; however, community pharmacists' responsibilities must expand to include more direct patient care services in order to transform primary care practice. Use case-based scenarios to (1) determine factors that contribute to positive and negative consumer perceptions of expanded community pharmacist patient care roles, (2) identify facilitators and barriers that contribute to consumer perceptions of the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services, and (3) develop a successful approach and strategies for increasing consumer advocacy for the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services. Two consumer focus groups used scenario-based guided discussions and Likert scale questionnaires to elicit consumer reactions, facilitators, and barriers to expanded community pharmacist services. Convenience, timeliness, and accessibility were common positive reactions across all 3 scenarios. Team approach to care and trust were viewed as major facilitators. Participant concerns included uncertainty about pharmacist training and qualifications, privacy, pharmacists' limited bandwidth to accept new tasks, and potential increased patient costs. Common barriers to service uptake included a lack of insurance payment and physician preference to provide the services. Consumer unfamiliarity with non-traditional community pharmacist services is likely an influencer of consumers' hesitancy to utilize such services; therefore, an opportunity exists to engage consumers and advocacy organizations in supporting expanded community pharmacist roles. This study can inform consumers, advocates, community pharmacists, primary care providers, and community-based organizations on methods to shape consumer perceptions on the value of community pharmacist expanded services.
Tice, Carol H.
With passage of the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, national service volunteers will be joining forces with community-based organizations to work with underserved populations, creating many challenges. The community agency perspective on some anticipated challenges, possible responses, and application of principles of good…
Gewirtz, Abigail H.; August, Gerald J.
This article proposes a framework for embedding prevention services into community sectors-of-care. Community sectors-of-care include both formal and grassroot organizations distributed throughout a community that provide various resources and services to at-risk children and their families. Though the child population served by these…
Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.
Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception concerning service to a local lodge... to a local lodge or division. In determining whether an annuity is subject to the provisions of this... lodge or division of a railway-labor-organization employer if the compensation for such service is...
K. Cleeren; M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); F. Verboven
textabstractAlthough economically very important, local-service sectors have received little attention in the extensive literature on competitive interactions. Detailed data gathering in these sectors is hard, not only because of the multitude of local players, but also because key service
Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france
In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)
Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france
In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)
Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J
There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.
Mar 12, 2012 ... PERSPECTIVE FROM THE GRASSROOTS IN TANZANIA. MUGANDA, M., SIRIMA, A., ... crucial, especially to tourism managers, planners, policy - and ... products and services in developing countries where large populations ...
Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga
Full Text Available With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs, the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities' and PA staff's views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation.
Morton, Keith; Saltmarsh, John
Chronicles the emergence of community service in the United States, beginning with the turn-of-the-century collision of capitalism and democracy which generated a crisis of community and profound rethinking of the meaning and practice of charity. Three service "paths" are identified: nonprofit human services organizations; active…
Petri, Alexis Nicolle
This study investigates service-learning from the community partners' perspective, especially in terms of reciprocity. As a central construct in the theory of service-learning, reciprocity for community partners is virtually unknown. Little scholarship exists that explains or explores the benefits and opportunity costs of service-learning. One…
Perry, Brian; Osbaldiston, Richard; Henning, Jaime
Community service is deeply rooted in American culture. There have been repeated calls for the necessity of evaluating these programs, especially for service-learning. The purpose of this research was to validate an easy-to-use scale that measures 10 components of students' attitudes toward community service. The sample was drawn from two…
Reed, Patricia D
After more than seven years of funding through The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, local public health agencies have made inconsistent progress in fulfilling their Homeland Security objectives...
van der Schoor, Tineke; van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alexander
Paper discussing the contribution of local energy initiatives to the energy transition in the Netherlands. Highlights: New energy movement challenges present governance of energy system. Sustainability and strengthening regional economy are primary goals. Democratic cooperative model should
vegetables listed by FAO shows that onion ranks second after ... who sell their produce in local, regional and international markets. ..... Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute. (TOSCI), a seed .... through integrated and organic horticulture.
Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf
In ecology understanding variation in connectivity is central for how biodiversity is maintained. Field studies on dispersal and temporal dynamics in community regulating processes are, however, rare. We test the short-term temporal stability in community composition in a soft-sediment benthic community by determining among-sampling interval similarity in community composition. We relate stability to in situ measures of connectivity (wind, wave, current energy) and rates of dispersal (quantified in different trap types). Waves were an important predictor of when local community taxa are most likely to disperse in different trap-types, suggesting that wave energy is important for connectivity in a region. Community composition at the site was variable and changed stochastically over time. We found changes in community composition (occurrence, abundance, dominance) to be greater at times when connectivity and rates of dispersal were low. In response to periods of lower connectedness dominant taxa in the local community only exhibited change in their relative abundance. In contrast, locally less abundant taxa varied in both their presence, as well as in relative abundance. Constancy in connectivity and rates of dispersal promotes community stability and persistence, suggesting that local community composition will be impacted by changes in the spatial extent over which immigration and emigration operates in the region. Few empirical studies have actually measured dispersal directly in a multi-species context to demonstrate the role it plays in maintaining local community structure. Even though our study does not evaluate coexistence over demographic time scales, it importantly demonstrates that dispersal is not only important in initial recruitment or following a disturbance, but also key in maintaining local community composition.
Kusek, Weronika A.
International students are not only important for universities, but even more so to the host communities, towns and regions where higher education institutions are located. This pilot study looked at a public university located in a small college town in Ohio. The study explored the relationship between international students and the local…
Keen, Debbie Pella
Describes Canada's efforts in sustainable forestry, which refers to management practices that ensure long-term health of forest ecosystems so that they can continue to provide environmental, social, and economic benefits. Describes model forests, community forests, and demonstration forests and lists contacts for each of the projects. (KS)
Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill
By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…
Biddle, William W.; Biddle, Loureide J.
The development process in two communities, a mining county in rural Appalachia and a deteriorating neighborhood in a northern industrial city, is presented in case-study form. Concepts and commonly used terms are defined; a process of development is identified that can be used in groups small enough to permit attention to the growth of persons.…
Zinser, Richard W.
Responses from 11 of 17 plastics employers showed a low level of satisfaction with community college plastics courses. Focus groups of 10 plastics students indicated satisfaction with course costs and locations. Courses focused on associate degree requirements and articulation, whereas employers were interested in focused training for jobs and…
Allee, David J.
The subtitle of this paper should be " How recession and federal devolution have caused local governments to cut services and raise property taxes --now, what should be done in response to the resulting clamor for local government consolidation?" Housing drives local government services. Home sales represent opportunities for more income and more costs. Intergovernmental competition for tax base and the role of state and federal aid to provide equity between jurisdictions are central to the q...
Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services.We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia.Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers.This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M N
Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers' perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities' participation in these services. We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health conditions of CALD communities to ensure
Bhayat, A; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Naidoo, U; Vayej, A
Compulsory Community Service (CCS) was introduced into the health service by the government to address the shortage and maldistribution of health professionals within the public sector. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of oral hygiene (OH) students, registered in 2004 at the five dental universities regarding the introduction of a 1-year-long CCS. To determine: (a) the students' socio-demographic profile and (b) their attitudes towards CCS. A self-administered questionnaire was hand delivered to all OH students who were registered during 2004 at the respective dental universities. The study yielded a response rate of 70% (109) with the average age of participants being 21.4 years. Most students were female (94%) and more than half were White (52%). More than half (53%) did not want to perform CCS even though 75% acknowledged its' importance. The most common concern for not supporting CCS was security (89%). Ninety per cent (90%) indicated that their preferred tasks would be to engage in clinical work and oral health promotion. Although the majority of participants supported the principles of CCS, a significant number were against the introduction citing security as their main concern. Most of the students preferred to perform clinical work and preventive programmes during their CCS.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds for community-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2517.600 How are funds for community-based service-learning programs distributed? All...
Wilson, Emma; Godfrey Wood, Rachel; Garside, Ben
This paper explores energy delivery models that provide sustainable and clean energy services to the poor. Four key building blocks are: the implementation process, including finance, resource sourcing, conversion and end use; support services (additional services such as training or micro-finance facilities); the enabling environment of policies, regulations and incentives; and the socio-cultural context including local norms and preferences, decision-making structures and levels of social cohesion. A range of products and services targeted at communities located in diverse socio-cultural and geographical contexts are covered. Useful experiences are shared that can help to replicate or scale up successful models that link the poor to modern energy markets. The case studies were selected to illustrate a range of energy products and services, diverse socio-cultural contexts, various business models and partnerships, and varying degrees of formality in the markets under consideration. All of the case studies reveal the challenges of reaching the very poorest even with pro-poor innovations put in place. The four case studies explored in the paper are: The Project for Renewable Energy in Rural Markets (PERMER), Argentina; Portable solar product companies (Tough Stuff and d.light) in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; The Anagi stove in Sri Lanka; and, Micro-hydro development in Nepal (the Rural Energy Development Programme). Lessons learned are highlighted.
Chan, Kevin; Ng, Eddie; Chan, Charles C.
This article chronicles a service-learning (SL) subject on community psychology in Hong Kong (n = 26) and elaborates on how students experience concepts, frameworks, and values in community psychology and put them into practice at servicelearning settings. Upon acquiring basic concepts in community psychology, including sense of community,…
A.P.J. Machohe (Antonio)
textabstractMozambique has been a centralized State since its independence in 1975. During this time, local government has depended on the Central Government and has lacked autonomy in both local policy decisions and resource management in addition to the complete failure of effective local services
Full Text Available Abstract Background As Home-and Community-Based Services (HCBS, such as skilled nursing services or personal care services, have become increasingly available, it has become clear that older adults transit through different residential statuses over time. Older adults may transit through different residential statuses as the various services meet their needs. The purpose of this exploratory study was to better understand the interplay between community-dwelling older adults’ use of home- and community-based services and their residential transitions. Methods The study compared HCBS service-use patterns and residential transitions of 3,085 older adults from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on older adults’ residential status at the three follow-up interviews, four residential transitions were tracked: (1 Community-Community-Community (CCC: Resided in community during the entire study period; (2 Community-Institution-Community (CIC: Resided in community at T1, had lived in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, then had returned to community by T3; (3 Community-Community-Institution (CCI: Resided in community between at T1, and betweenT1 and T2, including at T2, but had used institutional services between T2 and T3; (4 Community-Institution-Institution (CII: Resided in community at T1 but in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, and at some time between T2 and T3.. Results Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary and discretionary services differed significantly among the four groups, and the patterns of HCBS use among these groups were also different. Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary services, such as skilled nursing care, may help them to return to communities from institutions. Personal care services (PCS and senior center services may be the key to either support elders to stay in communities longer or help elders to return to their communities from institutions. Different combinations of PCS with other
María Isabel Quevedo Alejos
Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies
Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent
The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover
Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D
Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.
Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun
In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP) and the improvement of community health services.
Life without access to energy is a challenge. Despite the availability of technical solutions, two in every five people still rely on wood, charcoal, or animal waste to cook their food, and one in five people lack electricity (IEA, 2012). This is a global technology injustice. Energy is vital for human, social and economic development. The public health and environmental situation in developing countries is sobering: each year, 2 million people die from diseases caused by indoor smoke – more than deaths from malaria (UNDP/WHO, 2009). The world urgently needs a paradigm shift to deliver the energy services that poor people need, want, and have a right to. This series of reports focuses on the important role energy plays in transforming poor people’s lives. It prioritizes their perspectives and provides concrete tools and approaches to contribute to improving access to energy. The focus of the first report (Practical Action, 2010) was household energy. It analyzed how people access and use energy in the home. The second (Practical Action, 2012) highlighted the critical role energy plays for earning a living. The theme of this third PPEO report is energy for community services: health, education, public institutions, and infrastructure. Without access to modern energy supplies there is little prospect of delivering key community services. In turn, international development goals will not be achieved if health, education and other local facilities are not effective.
Cannistraci, C.V.; Alanis-Lobato, G.; Ravasi, Timothy
for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems
Valentin, Marjorie R.; Stroup, Margaret H.; Donnelly, Judith F.
Three Rivers Community College (TRCC), with federal funding, provided a customized laser program for Joining Technologies in Connecticut, which offers world-class resources for welding and joining applications. This program addresses the shortage of skilled labor in the laser arena, lack of knowledge of fundamental science of applied light, and an increase in nonperforming product. Hiring and retraining a skilled workforce are important and costly issues facing today's small manufacturing companies.
Cherawaty Thalib, Mutia
This study was conducted with an empirical juridical approach. The juridical approach was done by identifying community norms and legal policy related to the domestic workers existence, while the empirical approach was done by observing social phenomenon of housemaid and local culture that underlies the working relationship between employer and domestic workers (housemaid). In-depth interviews and group discussions were done to obtain the data. The result shows that the domestic workers existence in Gorontalo cannot be relied upon the domestic service market because it is increasingly eroded by socio-cultural changes that evolve in the rapid rise society awareness of human rights and technological development. Huyula’s culture values, timoa, ambu, bilohe, and tolianga remain as survival strategies for some domestic workers who last longer with their work. For new domestic workers, the bargaining position is increasingly high with the poor quality of work. Some of the rural workers who still hold the principle of “dila biasa” (uncustomary principle), moomu (unwilling), moolito / moqolito (shame), affect their resilience in working as domestic workers. On the other hand, domestic work relations as a social institution is not supported by strong instruments like the government. Consequently, it needs an integrated thinking and step by step designing of the form of protection for domestic workers based on the local culture values of Gorontalo people.
Jensen, Dennis L
... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...
Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco
The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...
government became the main funding source for RH services (44.2%), partly reflecting government enhanced commitment to increase resources for maternal and child health, and due to exemption of pregnant women from paying for health care. Nevertheless, this commitment didn't last and the financing burden was borne ...
Abd Elwahab, S
Geographical access is a cornerstone of health care provision. However, prolonged waiting for breast clinic appointments in local services results in delayed diagnosis and excessive anxiety for patients. In this study, we present a patient satisfaction survey results of an initiative to offer out-patient clinic appointments for non-urgent patients referred to the breast unit in Letterkenny General Hospital (LGH), Ireland, and exceeded the recommended waiting period of 12 weeks. These patients were offered appointment in University Hospital Galway (UCHG), which is an average travel time of about 3.5-4.5 hours away from LGH. 163 patients out of 336 (48.5%) patients actively waiting more than 12 weeks for appointments in LGH accepted alternative appointments in UCHG. Despite the long travel distance for these patients, 100% of them reported high satisfaction and 97.3% said they would accept further UCHG appointments if a similar situation of prolonged waiting in LGH arises. None of these patients were diagnosed with cancer, and only one had a benign lumpectomy. This study showed that if offered alternative appointments, just under half of the patients would accept. The initiative provides a feasible solution for long waiters, and the survey shows that patients’ satisfaction remains high despite long travel.
Stevens, Sarah; Kuzak, Mateusz; Martinez, Carlos; Moser, Aurelia; Bleeker, Petra; Galland, Marc
For most experimental biologists, handling the avalanche of data generated is similar to self-learn how to drive. Although that might be doable, it is preferable and safer to learn good practices. One way to achieve this is to build local communities of practice by bringing together scientists that perform code-intensive research to spread know-how and good practices. Here, we indicate important challenges and issues that stand in the way of establishing these local communities of practice. F...
Cyril, Sheila; Green, Julie; Nicholson, Jan M.; Agho, Kingsley; Renzaho, Andre M. N.
Background Childhood obesity rates have been increasing disproportionately among disadvantaged communities including culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) migrant groups in Australia due to their poor participation in the available obesity prevention initiatives. We sought to explore service providers’ perceptions of the key factors influencing the participation of CALD communities in the existing obesity prevention services and the service requirements needed to improve CALD communities’ participation in these services. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions involving fifty-nine service providers from a range of services, who are involved in the health and wellbeing of children from CALD groups living in four socioeconomically disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia. Results Thematic analysis of the data showed three major themes including community-level barriers to CALD engagement in childhood obesity prevention services; service-level barriers to the delivery of these services; and proposed changes to current childhood obesity prevention approaches. Integrating obesity prevention messages within existing programs, better coordination between prevention and treatment services and the establishment of a childhood obesity surveillance system, were some of the important changes suggested by service providers. Conclusion This study has found that low CALD health literacy, lack of knowledge of cultural barriers among service providers and co-existing deficiencies in the structure and delivery of obesity prevention services negatively impacted the participation of CALD communities in obesity prevention services. Cultural competency training of service providers would improve their understanding of the cultural influences of childhood obesity and incorporate them into the design and development of obesity prevention initiatives. Service providers need to be educated on the pre-migratory health service experiences and health
DE MATTEIS Fabio
Full Text Available Entrusting most local public services to local government entities has led to proliferation of public groups and, consistently, to greater complexity of the governance dynamics of local authorities. Differently from Anglo-Saxon countries, the Italian local public services provision has been characterized by a hybrid externalization process where local entities are legally autonomous but owned by the local government. This leads to a peculiar governance complexity source represented by the dual role (stakeholder and customer assumed by the local authority. Considering these elements (hybrid externalization and governance structure, this work tries to investigate some governance issues of public groups, basing on the two most populous Italian municipalities. The empirical findings highlight a gap between the presence of the conditions for defining a group governance structure and the adoption of a group approach by the parent local government. The authors try to suggest how to bridge this gap.
Qamer, F. M.; Matin, M. A.; Yadav, N. K.; Bajracharya, B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Krupnik, T. J.; Hussain, G.
The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change identifies drought as one of the major climate risks in South Asia. During past two decades, a large amount of climate data have been made available by the scientific community, but the deployment of climate information for local level and agricultural decision making remains less than optimal. The provisioning of locally calibrated, easily accessible, decision-relevant and user-oriented information, in the form of drought advisory service could help to prepare communities to reduce climate vulnerability and increase resilience. A collaborative effort is now underway to strengthen existing and/or establish new drought monitoring and early warning systems in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan by incorporating standard ground-based observations, earth observation datasets, and numerical forecast models. ICT-based agriculture drought monitoring platforms, hosted at national agricultural and meteorological institutions, are being developed and coupled with communications and information deployment strategies to enable the rapid and efficient deployment of information that farmers can understand, interpret, and act on to adapt to anticipated droughts. Particular emphasis is being placed on the calibration and validation of data products through retrospective analysis of time series data, in addition to the installation of automatic weather station networks. In order to contextualize monitoring products to that they may be relevant for farmers' primary cropping systems, district level farming practices calendars are being compiled and validated through focus groups and surveys to identify the most important times and situations during which farmers can adapt to drought. High-resolution satellite crop distribution maps are under development and validation to add value to these efforts. This programme also aims to enhance capacity of agricultural extension staff to better understand
Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be
Banda, Felix; Oketch, Omondi
This paper examines the effectiveness of multimodal texts used in HIV/AIDS campaigns in rural western Kenya using multimodal discourse analysis (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2006; Martin and Rose, 2004). Twenty HIV/AIDS documents (posters, billboards and brochures) are analysed together with interview data (20 unstructured one-on-one interviews and six focus groups) from the target group to explore the effectiveness of the multimodal texts in engaging the target rural audience in meaningful interaction towards behavioural change. It is concluded that in some cases the HIV/AIDS messages are misinterpreted or lost as the multimodal texts used are unfamiliar and contradictory to the everyday life experiences of the rural folk. The paper suggests localization of HIV/AIDS discourse through use of local modes of communication and resources.
A seafaring community is a village, a small town or a neighbourhood where a substantial part of the population earns its livelihood wholly or partly by work at sea or is directly dependent on seafaring. A seafaring community can arise because an established population at a particular locality
Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee
This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…
Florio, Evelyn; DeMartini, Joseph R.
Discussion of decision making focuses on a study that was conducted to examine how policymakers at the local community level use social science information in making decisions. The use of social science information and other information sources in two communities examining health care issues is described. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)
Zeichner, Ken; Bowman, Michael; Guillen, Lorena; Napolitan, Kate
This article analyzes a programmatic effort in teacher education, "The Community Teaching Strand" (CTS), to engage local community members as mentors of teacher candidates (TCs) in two postgraduate teacher preparation programs in a large research university. Three different conceptions of the nature and purpose of…
Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.; Stocks, K. I.
The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program curates underway environmental sensor data from the U.S. academic oceanographic research fleet, ensuring data sets are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. Currently 25 in-service vessels contribute 7 terabytes of data to R2R each year, acquired from a full suite of geophysical, oceanographic, meteorological, and navigational sensors on over 400 cruises worldwide. To accommodate this large volume and variety of data, R2R has developed highly efficient stewardship procedures. These include scripted "break out" of cruise data packages from each vessel based on standard filename and directory patterns; automated harvest of cruise metadata from the UNOLS Office via Web Services and from OpenXML-based forms submitted by vessel operators; scripted quality assessment routines that calculate statistical summaries and standard ratings for selected data types; adoption of community-standard controlled vocabularies for vessel codes, instrument types, etc, provided by the NERC Vocabulary Server, in lieu of maintaining custom local term lists; and a standard package structure based on the IETF BagIt format for delivering data to long-term archives. Documentation and standard post-field products, including quality-controlled shiptrack navigation data for every cruise, are published in multiple services and formats to satisfy a diverse range of clients. These include Catalog Service for Web (CSW), GeoRSS, and OAI-PMH discovery services via a GeoNetwork portal; OGC Web Map and Feature Services for GIS clients; a citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each dataset; ISO 19115-2 standard geospatial metadata records suitable for submission to long-term archives as well as the POGO global catalog; and Linked Open Data resources with a SPARQL query endpoint for Semantic Web clients. R2R participates in initiatives such as the Ocean Data
Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Geisler, Gisela; Nangulah, Selma; Nygaard, Knut; Pomuti, Akiser; Shifotoka, Albertina; Van Rooy, Gert
The urbanisation of poverty is one of the most dramatic developments on the African continent, yielding contrasting images of affluent residential and business districts and utter misery in sprawling shantytowns or slums. Namibia has one of Africa’s highest urban growth rates, taking thousands of women, men and children to towns in search of a better life. The large majority of these end up in poverty-stricken informal settlements in urban areas. The current service delivery approach of the g...
Ruth, Amelia; Kuntjara, Esther H
In this study, the writer observed the apology strategies used by ten customer service officers of a local bank. The writer wants to find out what types of apology strategies are used by customer service officers of the local bank. The theory of apology strategy by Trosborg (1995) was used as the main theory of this research. The writer used a qualitative approach. The data were taken by recording interviews with ten customer service officers of the local bank. Then, the writer analyzed the c...
Brown, Eric C.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Fagan, Abigail A.
This study examines prevention system transformation as part of a community-randomized controlled trial of Communities That Care (CTC). Using data from surveys of community leaders, we examine differences between CTC and control communities 4.5 years after CTC implementation. Significantly higher levels of adopting a science-based approach to…
Dana M Brantley-Sieders
Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162
Dončić Siniša Hajdaš
Full Text Available In order for a local community to set up mechanisms for shaping and enforcing public politics which strengthen local communities, historical research that would lead to the identity of a local community must be conducted thus enabling the identification of the community as a tourist destination. Analytical-synthetic method will be used to define the concept of a local community, that is the sustainability of a local community as one element of sustainability in general, as well as the concept of a tourist destination. The identity of a local community may be presented using basic means of visual communication (graphic design, typography, photography, illustration, which if defined and applied appropriately, will improve the distinguished identity of a local community.
Full Text Available The reintroduction of local self-government at the level of communes (gminy in 1990 opened the way for an in-depth reform of the local governance framework in Poland. This included not only the legal, organizational and fiscal autonomisation of local communities, but also went in line with general trends concerning the transformation of the public sector. Therefore, among the core elements of the transformation we may identify the extensive privatization of the public service provision schemes. In Poland, this process was not based on the theoretical background of New Public Management, as was the case in a number of Western countries. Instead, it was natural consequence of the rebirth of a market economy with a limited public sector and the intense development of the private market. Those trends were, however, compatible with the NPM programme. The expansion of market-based mechanisms in public service delivery is one of its pillars. This article provides a historical overview of the development of market-based arrangements in public service provision at the most basic level of Polish local government. It is focused mainly on a legal framework, but also includes some observations on the practical side of this process.
This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014) based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE) Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP) organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisat...
Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine
At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.
Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.
Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.
Levine, Jay F
Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.
Lavoie, Josée Gabrielle; Forget, Evelyn L; Prakash, Tara; Dahl, Matt; Martens, Patricia; O'Neil, John D
The objective of this study was to document the relationship between First Nation's community characteristics and the rates of hospitalization for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC) in the province of Manitoba, Canada. A population-based time trend analysis of selected ACSC was conducted using the de-identified administrative data housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, including vital statistics and health information. The study population included all Manitoba residents eligible under the universal Manitoba Health Services Insurance Plan and living on First Nation reserves between 1984/85 and 2004/05. Twenty-nine ACSC defined using 3, 4 and 5 digit ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes permitted cross-sectional and longitudinal comparison of hospitalization rates. The analysis used Generalized Estimated Equation (GEE) modeling. Two variables were significant in our model: level of access to primary health care on-reserve; and level of local autonomy. Communities with local access to a broader complement of primary health care services showed a lower rate of hospitalization for ACSC. We also examined whether there was a significant trend in the rates of hospitalization for ACSC over time following the signature of an agreement increasing local autonomy over resource allocation. We found the rates of hospitalization for ACSC decreased with each year following the signature of such an agreement. This article demonstrates that communities with better local access to primary health care consistently show lower rates of ACSC. Secondly, the longer community health services have been under community control, the lower its ACSC rate. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.
environment and support teachers in the creation of lessons and units that promote both inquiry science and service learning in the community. Course participants connect the dots from their newly acquired theoretical science knowledge to concrete examples of change taking place locally, and see the value of promoting awareness as well as behavioral changes that contribute to adaptation and mitigation of local climate change impacts. We describe the assessments used and the research outcomes associated with NRES 832, Human Dimensions of Climate Change, where participants conduct archival research to create a climate change chronicle for their community, and NRES 830 Climate Research Applications, where teachers lead and evaluate the impacts of student-designed service learning activities as a capstone project for a unit on climate change. We also showcase community-based initiatives resulting from this work that seed the behavioral changes we need to live sustainably in our communities and on our planet.
A weakness in the approach to community-based youth services in Cork (Ireland) involves viewing the terms "youth" and "community" as though they represented homogeneous categories. Ethnographic data highlight the difficulties of monolithic classification by describing the experiences of three distinct categories of young…
Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.
Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).
Smith, Anthony C; Caffery, Liam J; Saunders, Ruth; Bradford, Natalie K; Gray, Leonard C
We implemented a community telehealth project in the three towns in the Darling Downs area of Queensland over a 2-year period starting in July 2012. The purpose of the project was to generate telehealth activity in hospitals, general practice and selected residential aged care facilities. Telehealth education and training was provided to clinicians in the three towns and a community awareness campaign was delivered using advertisements in newspapers, messages in social media and presentations at community events. A total of 55 stakeholders were engaged with during 61 site visits to health care facilities during the first two years of the project. During the study period, telehealth activity in Queensland increased in the hospital sector by 39% and in the non-hospital sector by 99%. In the Darling Downs region, telehealth activity in the hospital sector increased by 104%, compared to 28% in the rest of Queensland. However, in the non-hospital sector, the increase in telehealth activity in the Darling Downs region was similar to the rest of Queensland. Telehealth services established and/or facilitated by the project included specialist geriatric ward rounds in Dalby, Chinchilla and Miles for patients in the local hospitals and nursing homes; and ad-hoc teleconsultations for children and adults living in these communities, with specialists at Toowoomba and hospitals in Brisbane. An increase in telehealth implies better access to a range of clinical services, which may result in improved clinical outcomes for patients. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
This study examined the impacts of educational tourism on the local community of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus through the cultural exchange that took place between local and international students. The study used an inductive approach in order to achieve a qualitative understanding of the research area. Semi-structured interviews with Turkish Cypriot students supplied valuable information about the experiences, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and perspectives of the local students.The findings ...
Chung, Nicolas; Delbosc, Anais; Dupont, Marion; Leseur, Alexia
This study aims at promoting practices of ecological and social transition and sustainable development for local communities, and at developing the North-South solidarity in terms of development and struggle against poverty on issues like access to water and sanitation, and access to electrification by means of renewable energies. The first part describes the role of voluntary offsetting within the carbon finance, gives an overview of the use of carbon finance by local communities. The second part discusses the involvement of local communities in decentralized cooperation for climate-energy projects. The third one reports the analysis of the main benefits and constraints of the implementation of a local carbon fund in relationship with a decentralized cooperation approach
Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Ingimarsdóttir, María; Caruso, Tancredi; Ripa, Jörgen; Magnúsdóttir, Olöf Birna; Migliorini, Massimo; Hedlund, Katarina
It has long been recognised that dispersal abilities and environmental factors are important in shaping invertebrate communities, but their relative importance for primary soil community assembly has not yet been disentangled. By studying soil communities along chronosequences on four recently emerged nunataks (ice-free land in glacial areas) in Iceland, we replicated environmental conditions spatially at various geographical distances. This allowed us to determine the underlying factors of primary community assembly with the help of metacommunity theories that predict different levels of dispersal constraints and effects of the local environment. Comparing community assembly of the nunataks with that of non-isolated deglaciated areas indicated that isolation of a few kilometres did not affect the colonisation of the soil invertebrates. When accounting for effects of geographical distances, soil age and plant richness explained a significant part of the variance observed in the distribution of the oribatid mites and collembola communities, respectively. Furthermore, null model analyses revealed less co-occurrence than expected by chance and also convergence in the body size ratio of co-occurring oribatids, which is consistent with species sorting. Geographical distances influenced species composition, indicating that the community is also assembled by dispersal, e.g. mass effect. When all the results are linked together, they demonstrate that local environmental factors are important in structuring the soil community assembly, but are accompanied with effects of dispersal that may "override" the visible effect of the local environment.
Pascual y Cabo, Diego; Prada, Josh; Lowther Pereira, Kelly
This study examined the effects of participation in a community service-learning experience on Spanish heritage language learners' attitudes toward their heritage language and culture. Quantitative and qualitative data from heritage language learners demonstrated that engagement in community service-learning activities as part of the Spanish…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indicator #7, resident services and community building. 901.40 Section 901.40 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... services and community building. This indicator examines the PHA's efforts to deliver quality customer...
... Community Service Employment Program; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work... Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work that was... number of exiting participants who enter volunteer work. The relevant Office of Management and Budget...
Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.; Youniss, James; Atkins, Robert
The influences of high school community service participation, extracurricular involvement, and civic knowledge on voting and volunteering in early adulthood were examined using the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The major finding in this study is that both voluntary and school-required community service in high school were strong…
Hall, Brenda S.; Rubin, Tova
Each year in the United States, millions of students experience suspension from public schools (Mendez & Knoff, 2003). Community service programs provide one means to address the school suspension problem. These initiatives are characterized by volunteer service placements within community nonprofit organizations for skill and personal…
... of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force). The in-person Task Force meeting is being replaced by... CDC's ability to complete the necessary scientific and logistical support for the meeting. The Task...
... information collection under review: COPS' Rural Law Enforcement National Training Assessment. The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will be submitting the... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1103-NEW] Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... September 17, 2013, announcing the next meeting of the Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force... the Task Force to consider the findings of systematic reviews and issue findings and recommendations...
Høye, Toke Thomas; Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds
The organisation of ecological communities along local environmental gradients provides important information about how such communities may respond to environmental change. In the Arctic, the importance of gradients in shrub cover and soil moisture for non-marine arthropod communities has been...... clearly demonstrated. By replicating studies along shrub and moisture gradients at multiple elevations and using space-for-time substitution, it is possible to examine how arthropod communities may respond to future environmental change. We collected and identified 4640 adult specimens of spiders...... and beetles near Narsarsuaq, South Greenland between 8 July and 25 August, 2014 from 112 pitfall traps. The traps were arranged in eight plots covering local gradients in either soil moisture or tall shrub dominance at both low and high elevation. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed that community...
Daniel Ackerberg; Michael Riordan; Gregory Rosston; Bradley Wimmer
A comprehensive data set on local telephone service prices is used to evaluate the effect of Lifeline and Linkup programs on the telephone penetration rates of low-income households in the United States. Lifeline and Linkup programs respectively subsidize the monthly subscription and initial installation charges of eligible low-income households. Telephone penetration rates are explained by an estimated nonlinear function of local service characteristics (including subsidized prices) and the ...
Gustavo S. M. Andrade
Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.
Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.
Stoneman, Alice; Atkinson, David; Davey, Maureen; Marley, Julia V
Management of chronic disease, including diabetes, is a central focus of most Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) in Australia. We have previously demonstrated that diabetes monitoring and outcomes can be improved and maintained over a 10-year period at Derby Aboriginal Health Service (DAHS). While continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been shown to improve service delivery rates and clinical outcome measures, the process of interpreting audit results and developing strategies for improvement is less well described. This paper describes the evaluation of care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and features of effective CQI in ACCHSs in the remote Kimberley region of north Western Australia. Retrospective audit of records for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care patients aged ≥15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of T2DM at four Kimberley ACCHSs from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Interviews with health service staff and focus group discussions with patients post audit. diabetes care related activities, clinical outcome measures and factors influencing good diabetes related care and effective CQI. A total of 348 patients from the four ACCHSs were included in the study. Clinical care activities were generally high across three of the four health services (at least 71% of patients had cholesterol recorded, 89% blood pressure, 84% HbA1c). Patients from DAHS had lower median cholesterol levels (4.4 mmol/L) and the highest proportion of patients meeting clinical targets for HbA1c (31% v 16% ACCHS-3; P = 0.02). Features that facilitated good care included clearly defined staff roles for diabetes management, support and involvement of Aboriginal Health Workers, efficient recall systems, and well-coordinated allied health services. Effective CQI features included seamless and timely data collection, local ownership of the process, openness to admitting deficiencies and willingness to embrace change. Well
Kindström, Daniel; Ottosson, Mikael
Highlights: • Many companies providing energy services are experiencing difficulties. • This research identifies key activities for the provision of energy services. • Findings are aggregated to the business-model level providing managerial insights. • This research identifies two different business model innovation paths. • Energy companies may need to renew parts of, or the entire, business model. - Abstract: Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.
communities were: Sentu, Ile-Apa, Budo-. Aare, Alalubosa ... community for at least six months in order to be used to the ... edition (SPSS-18). Data were ..... Manual for Governments and Other ... gazette. Legal Notice on Publication of.
Campbell, Catherine; Nhamo, Mercy; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon
This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants' efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic.
Nwameme, Adanna Uloaku; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba
Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary. The Community Health Officers (CHOs) and their supervisors are the frontline providers of health in the community and there is a need to analyze and document the health sector response to urban CHPS. The study was solely qualitative and 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with all the CHOs and key health sector individuals in supervisory/coordinating positions working in urban CHPS zones to elicit relevant issues concerning urban CHPS implementation. Thematic content data analysis was done using the NVivo 7 software. Findings from this appraisal suggest that the implementation of this urban concept of the CHPS programme has been well undertaken by the health personnel involved in the process despite the challenges that they face in executing their duties. Several issues came to light including the lack of first aid drugs, as well as the need for the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI) programme and more indepth training for CHOs. In addition, the need to provide incentives for the volunteers and Community Health Committee members to sustain their motivation and the CHOs' apprehensions with regards to furthering their education and progression in their careers were key concerns raised. The establishment of the CHPS concept in the urban environment albeit challenging has been
Ma, Zhi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yue
Community health service is the key point of health reform in China. Based on pertinent studies, this paper constructed an indicator system for the community health service quality evaluation from such five perspectives as visible image, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and sympathy, according to service quality evaluation scale designed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. A multilevel fuzzy synthetical evaluation model was constructed to evaluate community health service by fuzzy mathematics theory. The applicability and maneuverability of the evaluation indicator system and evaluation model were verified by empirical analysis.
Ramsdal, Helge; Hansen, Gunnar Vold
This article addresses questions about health authorities' recommendations on the local organisation of services for people with mental health disorders in Norway. Analysis is made of the dynamic relationship between different evaluations, national guidelines and other knowledge that influence the organisation of services. The analysis is based…
Full Text Available As electronic government services (e-government evolve, traditional applications such as online portals are encountering challenges in a new digital era in which people thirst for more convenient, diverse channels of communication with their government. Despite the efforts devoted to the promotion of Social Networking Service (SNS use in e-government for the past few years, empirical studies regarding this ongoing trend are still insufficient. In the local administration of China, a special collaboration between local governments and private Internet enterprises is happening: government services are imported into commercial SNS platforms known as WeChat and Weibo. This research conducts a case study of a Chinese municipality premised upon survey data (N = 605 collected in Chongqing. It examines the determinants of e-services adoption in four major local applications: two traditional government-led services “Government website portal” and “Government official app” (traditional government-led services, and two built-in government services on social networking applications “Weibo Government official account” “WeChat Public Services”. The paper aims to provide a closer understanding of current trends in local government e-services, or in this case, an innovative trial of Chinese e-government practices.
Calnan, S.; Sixma, H.J.; Calnan, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.
The aims of this paper are threefold: (1) to describe the development of an instrument measuring quality of care from the specific perspective of the users of local authority occupational therapy services; (2) to present the results from a survey of users' views about the quality of services offered
Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus
With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a
Full Text Available This paper describes a network architecture to provide low cost last mile access and cloud services for local content sharing in a poorly resourced township environment. We describe how ICT solutions are developed in close partnership with the local...
This paper explores an emerging and largely unresearched sector of the school education market, the transfer of local authority support services to external social enterprises. It locates these new social enterprises as a consequence of government strategies to reduce public spending, shrink local government and create competitive markets in…
Aaberge, Rolf; Langørgen, Audun; Mogstad, Magne; Østensen, Marit
Abstract: Despite a broad consensus on the need to account for the value of public services and geographical cost of living differences on the measurement of poverty, there is little reliable evidence on how these factors actually affect poverty estimates. Unlike the standard approach in studies of the distribution of public services, this paper employs a method for valuing sector-specific local public services that accounts for differences between municipalities in the costs and capacity ...
Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel
Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gurel, Derya Kaltakci
In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.
Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J
A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The establishment of the 2001 Special Autonomy Law in Papua Province is not exempted from economic, political and socio-cultural problems. The law is intended to empower the people by preserving their interests and upholding the basic rights of native Papuans. This research aims at finding out a theoretical understanding on the forms of local community empowerment during the implementation of special autonomy in Papua Province. The study is performed through a qualitative approach with a phenomenological strategy. The research was conducted at a location in Jayapura. Empirical data were obtained using the techniques of observation, in-depth interviews, and other secondary data. The implementation of Special Autonomy in Papua Province has brought forth a fundamental change in the approaches and policies of community development, particularly local community empowerment that includes indigenous communities, women, and religion. Local community empowerment in the economic and socio-cultural aspects represents the effort to improve the welfare and sense of justice within the local community in development.
Smith, Alesha J; Scahill, Shane L; Harrison, Jeff; Carroll, Tilley; Medlicott, Natalie J
Recently, New Zealand has taken a system wide approach providing the biggest reform to New Zealand community pharmacy for 70 years with the aim of providing more clinically orientated patient centred services through a new funding model. The aim of this study was to understand the types of services offered in New Zealand community pharmacies since introduction of the new funding model, what the barriers are to providing these services. A survey of all community pharmacies were undertaken between August, 2014 and February, 2015. Basic descriptive statistics were completed and group comparisons were made using the chi squared test with significance set at p funding attached. Costs and staff availability are the most common barriers to undertake services, more predominantly in patient centred services. This study was the first to provide an evaluation of service provision in response to a new funding model for New Zealand Community Pharmacies. A broad range of services are being undertaken in New Zealand community pharmacies including patient-centred services. A number of barriers to service provision were identified. This study provides a baseline for the current levels of service provision upon which future studies can compare to and evaluate any changes in service provision with differing funding models going forward.
Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment relation-service to a local lodge... relation—service to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization. Service by an individual to a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization shall be creditable under the Railroad...
Hernandez, John; Hernández, Ignacio
The unique nature and mission of community colleges directly shapes the role and function of a senior student affairs officer (SSAO). Broadly, the community college mission is shaped by a vision of fulfilling several commitments to local communities. This includes admitting all applicants through an open access admissions policy and providing…
Full Text Available For quite some time, Slovenian society has been preserving a specific model of social organisation rooted in the communal form. In functioning as a socio-cultural centre of the local community the school greatly surpassed its primary role of educating children. The process of urbanisation that has reached rural areas brought very interesting changes to the previously expanded function of the local school. We examined how, today, schools perceive a need to connect with and engage in their local environments. The perceptions of connections and their real modalities do differ and the ways in which schools respond to the needs of the localities (and vice versa depend on the prevalent model of social organisation. Exceptions to this are more significant in localities where the school might be one of very few public institutions or the only public institution present at the local level. Although the schools wish to motivate and engage local residents also in other environments, they often lack the time and energy to do so. The results of qualitative analysis indicated that merging or closing local schools could have negative demographic and socio-cultural consequences. At the same time, the analysis pointed to unrealised potential in the localities lacking tradition, such as new urban areas where the school could be the crucial element in the social organisation of the local community.
Shiel, Chris; Leal Filho, Walter; do Paço, Arminda; Brandli, Luciana
Universities have the potential to play a leading role in enabling communities to develop more sustainable ways of living and working however, sustainable communities may only emerge with facilitation, community learning and continual efforts to build their capacities. Elements of programme planning and evaluation on the one hand, and capacity building on the other, are needed. The latter entails approaches and processes that may contribute to community empowerment; universities may either lead such approaches, or be key partners in an endeavour to empower communities to address the challenges posed by the need for sustainable development. Although capacity building and the promotion of sustainable development locally, are on the agenda for universities who take seriously regional engagement, very little is published that illustrates or describes the various forms of activities that take place. Further, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the work performed by universities in building capacity for sustainable development at the local level. This paper is an attempt to address this need, and entails an empirical study based on a sample of universities in the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal and Brazil. The paper examines the extent to which capacity building for sustainable development is being undertaken, suggests the forms that this might take and evaluates some of the benefits for local communities. The paper concludes by reinforcing that universities have a critical role to play in community development; that role has to prioritise the sustainability agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.
Arwa Z. Al-Riyami
Full Text Available Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman. This information is especially pertinent to medical professionals and policy-makers developing required services for the standardised transfusion support of these patients.
Hannon, Matthew J.; Bolton, Ronan
This paper explores how some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have opted to engage with the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model in a bid to enhance their influence over local energy system change and help them to deliver on their political ‘public good’ objectives. Three common approaches to LA ESCo model engagement are outlined including the: (1) LA owned ‘arm's-length’ model; (2) private sector owned concession agreement model; and (3) community owned and run model. The LA's decision to establish its own ESCo, or alternatively enter into a partnership with another, predominantly depends on: its willingness to expose itself to risk, the level of strategic control it desires and the resources it has at its disposal. However, the business case is contingent on the extent to which the national policy and regulatory framework facilitates and obligates LAs to play an active energy governance role. Stronger alignment of local and national energy agendas through communication and coordination between different governance actors could help to remove critical barriers to LA ESCo engagement and their wider energy governance activities. - Highlights: • Some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have engaged with Energy Service Company (ESCo). • Driven by a desire to shape local energy system to deliver on their objectives. • LA may establish an ‘arm's length’ ESCo or partner with a private or community ESCo. • Trade-off between strategic control over energy system change and exposure to risk. • LA can bolster ESCo business case but ultimately depends on central government
Full Text Available As drought forces hundreds of thousands of Somalis to flee, providing financial services might not seem an immediate priority. However these services are a lifeline for millions of people…
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This web service includes...
Carroll, Raymond; Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan; Botvich, Dmitri; Donnelly, William
The Future Internet is expected to cater for both a larger number and variety of services, which in turn will make basic tasks such as service lifecycle management increasingly important and difficult. At the same time, the ability for users to efficiently discover and compose these services will become a key factor for service providers to differentiate themselves in a competitive market. In previous work, we examined the effect adding biological mechanisms to services had on service management and discovery. In this paper we examine the effects of community on services, specifically in terms of composing services in a distributed fashion. By introducing aspects of community we aim to demonstrate that services can further improve their sustainability and indeed their efficiency.
Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo
performance of the tsunami predictors. The role of the local communities in defining the strategies in case of uncertain data is essential: only involvement of such communities since the beginning of the planning and implementation phase of the TEWS as well as in the definition of a decision making matrix can ensure appropriate response in case of emergency, and most importantly, the acceptance of the system in the long run. The efforts to implement the Tsunami Warning System in Italy should take into proper account the above mentioned aspects. Involvement of local communities should be primarily realized through the involvement of the local components of the Civil Protection Agency that is responsible for the implementation of the system over the Italian territory. A pilot project is being conducted in cooperation between the Civil Protection Service of Sicily and the University of Bologna (UNIBO) that contemplates the empowering of the local sea-level monitoring system (TSUNET) and specific vulnerability and risk analyses, also exploiting results of national and European research projects (e.g. TRANSFER and SCHEMA) where UNIBO had a primary role.
Doucette, William R; McDonough, Randal P; Mormann, Megan M; Vaschevici, Renata; Urmie, Julie M; Patterson, Brandon J
To assess the financial performance of pharmacy services including vaccinations, cholesterol screenings, medication therapy management (MTM), adherence management services, employee health fairs, and compounding services provided by an independent community pharmacy. Three years (2008-10) of pharmacy records were examined to determine the total revenue and costs of each service. Costs included products, materials, labor, marketing, overhead, equipment, reference materials, and fax/phone usage. Costs were allocated to each service using accepted principles (e.g., time for labor). Depending on the service, the total revenue was calculated by multiplying the frequency of the service by the revenue per patient or by adding the total revenue received. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the adherence management services to account for average dispensing net profit. 7 of 11 pharmacy services showed a net profit each year. Those services include influenza and herpes zoster immunization services, MTM, two adherence management services, employee health fairs, and prescription compounding services. The services that realized a net loss included the pneumococcal immunization service, cholesterol screenings, and two adherence management services. The sensitivity analysis showed that all adherence services had a net gain when average dispensing net profit was included. Most of the pharmacist services had an annual positive net gain. It seems likely that these services can be sustained. Further cost management, such as reducing labor costs, could improve the viability of services with net losses. However, even with greater efficiency, external factors such as competition and reimbursement challenge the sustainability of these services.
Zhang, Min; Liu, Yupei; Yan, Weiwei; Zhang, Yan
Users' continuance intention plays a significant role in the process of information system (IS) service, especially virtual learning community (VLC) services. Following the IS success model and IS post-acceptance model, this study explores the determinants of users' intention to continue using VLCs' service from the perspective of quality,…
Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeff F.
The central purpose of this study is to increase our understanding of how community service involvement affects the development of undergraduate self-concept. The findings from this study suggest that the quality of service involvement is more important than the amount of service performed by students. (Contains 23 references and 2 tables.)…
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
... Community Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... Services Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force is independent and nonfederal. Its members are nationally.... The Task Force was convened in 1996 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to assess the...
Sundari, I. P.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.
This study examines the performance of the local representative members in serving and channeling people’s aspiration in Sumedang Regency, Indonesia. How the elected members serve their constituents and how they consider the people’s rights were the questions to be answered in this study. The study used a qualitative approach to get the natural settings in which there are many behaviors and events occurred. This study also uses an institutional theory (institutionalism), because the theory could lead the researchers to find the structure, regulation and institutional procedures which could have a significant impact on a public policy and cannot be ignored in policy analysis. This study found that to carry out their functions as elected representatives, the members of the provincial parliament always make themselves available for the community. In doing so, the members of the provincial parliament, among others, absorb and collect the constituents’ aspiration through regular working visits; accommodate and follow up the aspirations and complaints; morally and politically provide accountability to the constituencies. In addition, to receive complaints coming to the local parliament’s office, public aspiration was also obtained in working visits on a regular basis by the members of local parliament in Sumedang as their own region at recess time. In terms of rights, all the services were conducted to fulfill them. Even so, some people still doubt the veracity of such works.
Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Sikron, Fabienne; Glasser, Saralee; Barell, Vita
Despite their engagement in health-risk behaviors and their health-related concerns, adolescents have the lowest rate of health service utilization of any age group. Time constraints during routine medical encounters generally leave little opportunity for professional screening for health-risk behaviors or for discussing psychosocial problems. In addition, providers express low levels of perceived competency in areas such as sexuality, eating disorders or drug abuse. To address these needs, a walk-in Adolescent Health Service was established by the Sheba Medical Center to provide diagnosis and short-term treatment for individual adolescents, as well as counseling and support for local care providers. A three-way model of cooperation and partnership was developed and implemented. A professional and financial partnership with local authorities were established to help define the particular needs of the community's youth and to improve the ability to reach youth with special health needs. The partnership along with the main medical provider (Kupat Holim Clalit) helped define local health needs, served as a referral source of patients with unmet health needs, and improved the continuity of care. The regional medical center (Sheba Medical Center) provided supervision and consultation for the medical staff of the service, as well as a referral center for patients. It was emphasized that the service staff was intended as a professional source for the primary physician and should not be considered a rival. The core staff included a specialist in adolescent medicine, gynecologist, mental health specialist and social worker. A structured intake procedure was developed for assessing health concerns and problems of adolescents in the context of a community clinic. Findings from the first years of services showed that the first 547 female adolescents demonstrated that a majority of adolescents presented with primary complaints of a somatic nature, while one third were diagnosed
Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J; Rahajaharison, Michael; Jones, Julia P G
Despite the growing interest in conservation approaches that include payments for environmental services (PES), few evaluations of the influence of such interventions on behaviors of individuals have been conducted. We used self-reported changes in six legal and illegal forest-use behaviors to investigate the way in which a PES for biodiversity conservation intervention in Menabe, Madagascar, influenced behavior. Individuals (n =864) from eight intervention communities and five control communities answered questions on their forest-use behaviors before and after the intervention began, as well as on their reasons for changing and their attitudes to various institutions. The payments had little impact on individuals' reported decisions to change behaviors, but it had a strong impact on individuals' attitudes. Payments appeared to legitimize monitoring of behaviors by the implementing nongovernmental organization (NGO), but did not act as a behavioral driver in their own right. Although there were no clear differences between changes in behaviors in the intervention and control communities, the intervention did influence motivations for change. Fear of local forest associations and the implementing NGO were strong motivators for changing behavior in communities with the PES intervention, whereas fear of the national government was the main reason given for change in control communities. Behavioral changes were most stable where fear of local organizations motivated the change. Our results highlight the interactions between different incentives people face when making behavioral decisions and the importance of considering the full range of incentives when designing community-based PES interventions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.
Rivera-Holguin, Miryam; Velazquez, Tesania; Custodio, Elba; Corveleyn, Jozef
This study describes a model to intervene in communities affected by the political violence impacting the Ayacucho region of Peru since 1980s. Many community members still experience psychosocial consequences to this day due primarily to grief. Thirty-eight professionals from different sectors in the area received specialized training and implemented five community projects that were accompanied and monitored in the field by a team of community psychologists. This article is grounded on the principles of participation, building community capacity, and community strengthening. We present the analysis of five community action plans implemented over a period of 14 months. The results show a process of internal strengthening of community services and the identification of new social and community resources among the people involved in the action plans. The implications of capacity building for improving community mental health are discussed.
Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja
of the area), formations and dissolutions of families, being either marriages or co-resident couples and sociodemographic background. The pivot for the study is that there is a lack of knowledge about whether local communities differ from neighbourhood to neighbourhood, how they are influenced......In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...... of the research question for an ongoing study on ‘Local community, mobility and belonging’ in Aalborg, from which we report. Contemporary municipality of Aalborg, which is the third largest in Denmark, comprises many various types of communities – from partly segregated neighbourhoods in the City, through...
Macgill, S.M.; Berhout, F.G.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation below draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points. (author)
Macgill, S M; Berhout, F G
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points.
Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou
The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be
Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine
McNeil, Justin; Helwig, Charles C
Many jurisdictions in North America have implemented mandatory community service programs in high schools. However, little research exists examining the reasoning of youth themselves about such programs. This study examined how youth reason about community service programs, and how they balance the prosocial goals of these programs against their personal autonomy. Seventy-two participants between 10 and 18 years old evaluated voluntary community service along with 4 hypothetical mandatory programs that varied according to whether students or the government decided the areas in which students would serve, and whether a structured reflection component was included. The findings reveal that youth are not simply self-focused but rather balance and coordinate considerations of autonomy and community in their judgments and reasoning about community service.
Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
few studies have been conducted so far to explore why patients accept or decline offers of cognitive services at the pharmacy counter. Objective To explore patients’ reasons for accepting a particular cognitive service (the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service) a service intended to detect inhalation...... with 24 patients suffering mainly from asthma and COPD. Researchers from Copenhagen University conducted 11 long interviews and pharmacy internship students from Copenhagen University carried out 13 short interviews. The interviews were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Main outcome measure Patients......’ perceived needs of an inhalation counseling service as well as their motivation for accepting the service, including their accounts of how the service was orally offered by staff. Results The majority of participants were used to using inhaler devices. The participants felt, for several reasons, little need...
Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.
Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.
Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...
Santy Paulla Dewi
Full Text Available Jakarta has a rapid development which attracts newcomers to come and live in. Hereinafter, the newcomers look for the house which in accordance to their income and preferences. They chose inner city kampong for residing and their existence displacing the Betawi people as the local community. The newcomers presence led displacement and transformed the neighbourhood. Likewise, they had also influenced in the socio-economic transformation related with education, women worker, community relationship, and lifestyle.
Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma
The purpose of this research is to understand factors contributing to successes and challenges in community participation especially in waste minimization initiatives; in order to inform policies and contribute to improve the design of the initiative. The objectives of the research are: firstly, to understand the current state of public participation in waste minimization at Emfuleni Local Municipality. Secondly, it is to determine the extent of willingness of the community to participate in ...
Full Text Available (1 Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO. (2 Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3 Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4 Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements.
Hanna Andersson founder Gun Denhart and successful entrepreneur Laury Hammel show how every aspect of a business (from product creation to employee recruitment to vendor selection) holds the dual promise of bigger profits and a stronger local community. With practical tools and real-life examples of the best practitioners and techniques of values-driven business, "Growing Local Value" provides a framework for the full spectrum of ways in which a business can contribute to its community - and the benefits a company receives when it does so.
Chiu, Frank P.F.
Before the 1960s in Hong Kong, specialized vocational services for people with mental illness were very limited, and sheltered workshop seemed to be the only option for their future vocational placement at that time. As discussed in the literature, there are still many shortcomings of the sheltered workshop model, that brings us to the emergence of another community-based vocational service: Supported Employment. Unlike traditional vocational services, the concept of supported employment emphasizes the placing of the clients into integrated work environments and then providing on-going support and work-related skills training in the job post. Though supported employment services help many clients to sustain a job in the competitive market, many service barriers and problems still remain unsolved. These service barriers and problems will be discussed in this article, and suggestions will be made.
Knowles, Tony; McCall, M.K.; Skutsch, Margaret; Theron, Leon; Zhu, Xianli; Ravnkilde Moller, Lea; De Lopes, Thanakvaro; Zaballa Romero, Mauricio
Based on fieldwork carried out over the last five years, this article presents the case for communities being permitted to make their own forest carbon inventories for the purposes of monitoring under national REDD+ programmes, following brief training. Modern technology, particularly PDAs (small,
Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel
Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.
Davies, Philippa; Wye, Lesley; Horrocks, Sue; Salisbury, Chris; Sharp, Debbie
Quality indicators exist for the acute and primary care sectors in the National Health Service (NHS), but until recently little attention has been given to measuring the quality of community services. The innovative project described in this paper attempted to address that gap. To produce a framework for developing quality indicators for Bristol Community Health services. To develop a set of initial indicators for Bristol Community Health services using the proposed framework. After familiarising ourselves with community services and NHS policy, gathering the views of stakeholders and consulting the literature on quality indicators, we designed a framework for indicator development, using the 'test' case of the district nursing service. The long list of possible indicators came from best practice guidelines for wound, diabetes and end of life care, the three conditions most commonly treated by district nurses. To narrow down this list we surveyed and held workshops with district nurses, interviewed service users by telephone and met with commissioners and senior community health managers. The final set of quality indicators for district nurses included 23 organisational and clinical process and outcome indicators and eight patient experience indicators. These indicators are now being piloted, together with two potential tools identified to capture patient reported outcomes. Developing quality indicators for community services is time consuming and resource intensive. A range of skills are needed including clinical expertise, project management and skills in evidence-based medicine. The commitment and involvement of front-line professionals is crucial.
Scotten, E Shirin L; Absher, Ann C
In 2003, the Wilkes County Health Department joined with county healthcare providers to develop the HealthCare Connection, a coordinated and continuous system of low-cost quality care for uninsured and low-income working poor. Through this program, local providers of primary and specialty care donate specialty care or ancillary services not provided by the Health Department, which provides case management for the program. Basing their methods on business models learned through the UNC Management Academy for Public Health, planners investigated the best practices for extending healthcare coverage to the underinsured and uninsured, analyzed operational costs, discovered underutilized local resources, and built capacity within the organization. The HealthCare Connection is an example of how a rural community can join together in a common business practice to improve healthcare access for uninsured and/or low-income adults.
Miller, Rachel K; Michener, Jennifer; Yang, Phyllis; Goldstein, Karen; Groce-Martin, Jennine; True, Gala; Johnson, Jerry
Community-based service learning (CBSL) provides an opportunity to teach internal medicine residents the social context of aging and clinical concepts. The objectives of the current study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a CBSL program targeting internal medicine residents and to assess its effect on medical residents and community participants. internal medicine residents participated in a CBSL experience for half a day during ambulatory blocks from 2011 to 2014. Residents attended a senior housing unit or center, delivered a presentation about a geriatric health topic, toured the facility, and received information about local older adult resources. Residents evaluated the experience. Postgraduate Year 3 internal medicine residents (n = 71) delivered 64 sessions. Residents felt that the experience increased their ability to communicate effectively with older adults (mean 3.91 ± 0.73 on a Likert scale with 5 = strongly agree), increased their knowledge of resources (4.09 ± 1.01), expanded their knowledge of a health topic pertinent to aging (3.48 ± 1.09), and contributed to their capacity to evaluate and care for older adults (3.84 ± 0.67). Free-text responses demonstrated that residents thought that this program would change their practice. Of 815 older adults surveyed from 36 discrete teaching sessions, 461 (56%) thought that the medical residents delivered health information clearly (4.55 ± 0.88) and that the health topics were relevant (4.26 ± 0.92). Free-text responses showed that the program helped them understand their health concerns. This CBSL program is a feasible and effective tool for teaching internal medicine residents and older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.