WorldWideScience

Sample records for local community members

  1. Factors That Contribute to Community Members' Support of Local Nature Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew H. E. M.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2018-01-01

    Nature centers can serve as valuable community institutions if they are seen as providing important services to the community. Through survey research in communities surrounding 16 nature centers in the United States, we examine the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that drive hypothetical support for nature centers from local residents.…

  2. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  3. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  4. Evolution properties of the community members for dynamic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Qiang; Li, Sheng-Nan; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2017-03-01

    The collective behaviors of community members for dynamic social networks are significant for understanding evolution features of communities. In this Letter, we empirically investigate the evolution properties of the new community members for dynamic networks. Firstly, we separate data sets into different slices, and analyze the statistical properties of new members as well as communities they joined in for these data sets. Then we introduce a parameter φ to describe community evolution between different slices and investigate the dynamic community properties of the new community members. The empirical analyses for the Facebook, APS, Enron and Wiki data sets indicate that both the number of new members and joint communities increase, the ratio declines rapidly and then becomes stable over time, and most of the new members will join in the small size communities that is s ≤ 10. Furthermore, the proportion of new members in existed communities decreases firstly and then becomes stable and relatively small for these data sets. Our work may be helpful for deeply understanding the evolution properties of community members for social networks.

  5. Can community members identify tropical tree species for REDD+ carbon and biodiversity measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Brofeldt, Søren; Li, Qiaohong

    2016-01-01

    to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require...... minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees. We compare community members and trained scientists' data on tree diversity in permanent vegetation plots in montane forest in Yunnan, China. We show that local community members here can collect tree diversity data of comparable quality...... to trained botanists, at one third the cost. Without access to herbaria, identification guides or the Internet, community members could provide the ethno-taxonomical names for 95% of 1071 trees in 60 vegetation plots. Moreover, we show that the community-led survey spent 89% of the expenses at village level...

  6. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  7. Skill improvement among coalition members in the California Healthy Cities and Communities Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Norton, Barbara L; Aronson, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Community-driven, collaborative approaches to health promotion have the potential to enhance skills among community members and, in turn, increase community capacity. This study uses data from an evaluation of the California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) Program to examine whether, and how, community problem-solving and collaboration skills are improved among coalition members and local coordinators in 20 participating communities. Methods include semi-structured interviews with coordinators and mailed surveys with coalition members (n=330 in planning phase and n=243 in implementation phase). The largest number of coordinators reported skill improvement in defining health broadly and assessing needs and assets. Similarly, coalition members reported greatest skill improvement for defining health broadly, assessing needs and assets and setting priorities and developing action plans. Modest correlations were observed between number of roles played in the local healthy cities and communities project and each skill area assessed. Time committed to the local CHCC coalition and its activities was not meaningfully correlated with any of the skills. Types of skill-building opportunities may be more important than number of hours devoted to meetings and activities in strengthening community problem-solving and collaboration skills among coalition members.

  8. IDENTIFYING COMPETENCIES OF VOLUNTEER BOARD MEMBERS OF COMMUNITY SPORTS CLUBS

    OpenAIRE

    A. BALDUCK; A. VAN ROSSEM; M. BUELENS

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging empirical studies on roles and responsibilities of boards in nonprofit organizations by identifying competencies of volunteer board members. We identified how two types of constituents—volunteer board members and sports members—perceived competencies of volunteer board members in community sports clubs. We used the repertory grid technique to draw cognitive maps and to reveal the perceived reality of these constituents. Our results suggest that constitue...

  9. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  10. The Model of Tourist Virtual Community Members Engagement Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Stepaniuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building numerous and active virtual tourist communities involved in the tourist brand, connected with product, attraction or travel destination is a significant challenge for a dynamic and competitive tourist market. The main aim of presented pilot study was the drawing up guidelines for development of users engagement of selected virtual tourist communities on the example of Facebook. For that purpose a ranking of the most popular indicators of thematic areas, around which virtual tourist communities are formed was built. Simultaneously a typology of members of virtual tourist communities was presented as well as motives for the participation in communities gathered around the definite subject matter were analysed.

  11. Can Community Members Identify Tropical Tree Species for REDD+ Carbon and Biodiversity Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Brofeldt, Søren; Li, Qiaohong; Xu, Jianchu; Danielsen, Finn; Læssøe, Simon Bjarke Lægaard; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Gottlieb, Anna; Maxwell, James Franklin; Theilade, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is a required co-benefit of REDD+. Biodiversity monitoring is therefore needed, yet in most areas it will be constrained by limitations in the available human professional and financial resources. REDD+ programs that use forest plots for biomass monitoring may be able to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees. We compare community members and trained scientists' data on tree diversity in permanent vegetation plots in montane forest in Yunnan, China. We show that local community members here can collect tree diversity data of comparable quality to trained botanists, at one third the cost. Without access to herbaria, identification guides or the Internet, community members could provide the ethno-taxonomical names for 95% of 1071 trees in 60 vegetation plots. Moreover, we show that the community-led survey spent 89% of the expenses at village level as opposed to 23% of funds in the monitoring by botanists. In participatory REDD+ programs in areas where community members demonstrate great knowledge of forest trees, community-based collection of tree diversity data can be a cost-effective approach for obtaining tree diversity information.

  12. Can Community Members Identify Tropical Tree Species for REDD+ Carbon and Biodiversity Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation is a required co-benefit of REDD+. Biodiversity monitoring is therefore needed, yet in most areas it will be constrained by limitations in the available human professional and financial resources. REDD+ programs that use forest plots for biomass monitoring may be able to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees. We compare community members and trained scientists' data on tree diversity in permanent vegetation plots in montane forest in Yunnan, China. We show that local community members here can collect tree diversity data of comparable quality to trained botanists, at one third the cost. Without access to herbaria, identification guides or the Internet, community members could provide the ethno-taxonomical names for 95% of 1071 trees in 60 vegetation plots. Moreover, we show that the community-led survey spent 89% of the expenses at village level as opposed to 23% of funds in the monitoring by botanists. In participatory REDD+ programs in areas where community members demonstrate great knowledge of forest trees, community-based collection of tree diversity data can be a cost-effective approach for obtaining tree diversity information.

  13. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  14. Context Matters: The Importance of Local Culture in Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Aldrich, Daniel; Ayres, Janet; Amberg, Shannon M.; Molloy, Alicia; Saylor, Amber; Thompson, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Encouraging members of the public to get engaged in local decision-making is a key role of Extension educators. The study reported here explores whether local context influences which individuals choose to attend public meetings about the community and the environment. The study surveyed meeting attendees and non-meeting attendees in three…

  15. WIPP and the local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, D.L.; Sankey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 26 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico in southeastern New Mexico. Other neighboring communities include Lovington, Hobbs and Loving, New Mexico. In March 1983, the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) phase of the project was completed. Full scale facility construction began in July of that year. Overall site construction is scheduled to be complete in December 1986. Construction completion will be followed by pre-operational and safety check-out in 1987, prior to receiving the first nuclear waste which is targeted for receipt on or after October 1988. WIPP has had a significant impact on the local communities. Many local people have been hired by the Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Electric, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractors, as well as associated sub-contractors. As of December 31, 1985, 64% of the 643 people working at WIPP were hired from an 80-mile or less radius of the WIPP site. The majority of local residents support WIPP. As declining potash and mining industries negatively impacted the economic condition of Southeastern New Mexico, WIPP brought jobs and new business opportunities to the area

  16. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  17. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  18. Local Community Entrepreneurship in Mount Agung Trekking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudana, I. G.; Sutama, I. K.; Widhari, C. I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Since its last major eruption in 1963, Mount Agung in Selat District, Karangasem Regency, the highest mountain in Bali Province began to be visited by tourists climbers. Because of the informal obligation that every climbing/trekking should be guided by local guides, since the 1990s, there have been initiatives from a number of local community members to serve climbing tourists who were keen to climb the volcano/mountain. This study was conducted to understand and describe the entrepreneurial practices which appeared in the local surrounding community. Specifically, Selat Village, in guiding the climbing/trekking. This study used qualitative data analysis and its theories were adapted to data needed in the field. The results of study showed that Mount Agung was considered attractive by climbing tourists not only because of the exotic beauty and challenges of difficulty (as well as the level of danger) to conquer it, but also because it kept certain myths from its status as a holy/sacred mountain to Balinese Hindus. In fact, a number of tourists who did the climbing/trekking without being guided very often got lost, harmed in an accident, or fell to their death. As a direct result, all climbing activities require guidance. Especially guides from local community organizations who really understand the intricacies of climbing and the curvature of the mountain. The entrepreneurial practices of Selat Village community had arisen not only to serve usual climbing activities, but also to preserve the environment of the mountain and the safety of the climbing tourists with the many taboos related to the climb. These facts could be seen clearly from descriptions of local experts and local climbing guides who have been doing their work for years. As a form of entrepreneurship, they basically did their work for the main purpose of seeking livelihoods (or making money) but their responsibility as local people made them commit to guarding the sanctity of the mountain. This was

  19. Employment Status of the Members of Tehran Deaf Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz nemati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the importance of employment in social and emotional status of individuals, it would be important for the deaf. The purpose of the present study was to assess the employment status of the members of Tehran deaf community.Methods: This descriptive study was performed on all members of Tehran deaf community. A researchers-made questionnaire which had three parts (demographic information, employment status of the deaf members and their attitudes regarding employment was used in this study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: Majority of deaf community members were adult (ages ranging between 18 and 30. Sixty-eight of them (52.5% were female and 53 (47.5% were male, from our participants, 56.2% were unemployed and 43.8% were employed. Main problems were: having no access to facilities regarding their disability (14.5%, communication problems (9.4%, lower salaries because of their disability (12.4%, being far from the working place (15.4%, disproportion of working environment to their disability (11.4%, maltreatment of their coworkers (13.2%, maltreatment of their employer (12.5% and discrimination because of their disability (11.2%, the attitudes of the deaf members were positive regarding the employment in all areas: 90% of them considered it as an essential part of life versus 10% of them mentioned not very important issue.Conclusion: Our findings showed that most of the deaf were supported by their family members, but not by the social facilities or their past education. The social policies should be reformed to support employment of the deaf.

  20. Science literacy in local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko

    2005-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences was established in December, 1990 at Rokkasho, Aomori, as a focal point in the research activities necessary to solve the problems between nuclear energy and the environment. In 2001 the Public Relations and Research Information Office was newly organized in the institute in order to facilitate the communication of scientific knowledge and information with the local inhabitants. The office is expected to play a role, as the communication window opens, to the local community neighboring the nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as other communities in the prefecture. It seems, however, that the methodology for pursuing this aim is not generally provided but needs to be developed on a trial-and-error basis suitable to each situation. The author would like to take this opportunity to consider the given subjects and introduce the experiences, in which the author succeeded in communicating with neighboring people through the common interests regarding the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize is recognized as the greatest honor and authority over the world and is awarded to genuine human wisdom. The public with admiration receives the laureates, and their ways of life along with their arts of thinking are always matters which attract the interest of all the citizens. The people, who sometimes easily understand the scientific background behind the Prizes, always accept the stories of the laureates. The Nobel Prize has played an important role, therefore, not only in disseminating scientific knowledge or information so far, but will function also in cultivating the so-called science literacy'' among the public in the future, even in the issues on acceptance of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-11-01

    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  2. Colleges and Communities: Increasing Local Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    Community colleges in Appalachia are helping boost local economies and expand educational opportunities through the national Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). At the heart of RCCI is a nine-step strategic planning process in which a community group moves from vision to action. Kentucky's Southeast Community College has promoted…

  3. Satisfaction with virtual communities of interest : Effect on members' visit frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valck, Kristine; Langerak, Fred; Verhoef, Peter C.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    The authors develop a four-dimensional scale to measure members' satisfaction with virtual communities of interest (VCIs). The dimensions consist of members' satisfaction with member-to-member interactions, organizer-to-member interactions and organizer-to-community interactions, all of which come

  4. Perceptions of Service Providers and Community Members on Intimate Partner Violence within a Latino Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. Jane; West, Bernadette; Bautista, Leyna; Greenberg, Alexandra M.; Done-Perez, Iris

    2005-01-01

    This study examined perceptions regarding intimate partner abuse (IPV) in a largely Latino community in New Jersey through focus groups with Latino community members and key informant interviews with providers of services to this population. Questions examined definitions of partner abuse; perceptions of factors contributing to, or protecting…

  5. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  6. Supporting the role of community members employed as research staff: Perspectives of community researchers working in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie B; Fisher, Celia B

    2017-08-01

    Community researchers are laypersons who conduct research activities in their own communities. In addiction and HIV research, community researchers are valued for their insider status and knowledge. At the same time, their presence on the research team raises concerns about coercion and confidentiality when community researchers and participants know each other personally, and the work of navigating between the worlds of research and community leads to moral distress and burnout for some community researchers. In this paper, we draw upon the concept of 'moral experience' to explore the local moral worlds of community researchers in the context of addiction research. In February and March 2010, we conducted focus groups with 36 community researchers employed on community-based addiction studies in the United States to elicit perspectives on ethical and moral challenges they face in their work and insights on best practices to support their role in research. Community researchers described how their values were realized or thwarted in the context of research, and their strategies for coping with shifting identities and competing priorities. They delineated how their knowledge could be used to inform development of research protocols and help principal investigators build and maintain trust with the community researchers on their teams. Our findings contribute to current understandings of the moral experiences of community members employed in research, and inform policies and practices for the growing field of community-engaged research. Funders, research organizations, and research ethics boards should develop guidelines and standards to ensure studies have key resources in place to support community researchers and ensure quality and integrity of community-engaged work. Investigators who work with community researchers should ensure channels for frontline staff to provide input on research protocols and to create an atmosphere where challenges and concerns can be

  7. The consideration of rights in delivery aspiration services of the regional representative members to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, I. P.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the performance of the local representative members in serving and channeling people’s aspiration in Sumedang Regency, Indonesia. How the elected members serve their constituents and how they consider the people’s rights were the questions to be answered in this study. The study used a qualitative approach to get the natural settings in which there are many behaviors and events occurred. This study also uses an institutional theory (institutionalism), because the theory could lead the researchers to find the structure, regulation and institutional procedures which could have a significant impact on a public policy and cannot be ignored in policy analysis. This study found that to carry out their functions as elected representatives, the members of the provincial parliament always make themselves available for the community. In doing so, the members of the provincial parliament, among others, absorb and collect the constituents’ aspiration through regular working visits; accommodate and follow up the aspirations and complaints; morally and politically provide accountability to the constituencies. In addition, to receive complaints coming to the local parliament’s office, public aspiration was also obtained in working visits on a regular basis by the members of local parliament in Sumedang as their own region at recess time. In terms of rights, all the services were conducted to fulfill them. Even so, some people still doubt the veracity of such works.

  8. Is Local Community the Answer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Olwig, Mette Fog

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines claims that “local community” and “local/traditional knowledge” are vital contributions to safeguarding socio-economic stability and securing sustainable resource uses in times of stress. The empirical focus is on Central Vietnam, but the argument is relevant...

  9. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  10. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  11. Strategy community development based on local resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirinawati; Prabawati, I.; Pradana, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of progressing regions is not far from economic problems and is often caused by the inability of the regions in response to changes in economic conditions that occur, so the need for community development programs implemented to solve various problems. Improved community effort required with the real conditions and needs of each region. Community development based on local resources process is very important, because it is an increase in human resource capability in the optimal utilization of local resource potential. In this case a strategy is needed in community development based on local resources. The community development strategy are as follows:(1) “Eight Line Equalization Plus” which explains the urgency of rural industrialization, (2) the construction of the village will be more successful when combining strategies are tailored to regional conditions, (3) the escort are positioning themselves as the Planner, supervisor, information giver, motivator, facilitator, connecting at once evaluators.

  12. Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, Migration, and Local Communities, one adverse upshot: A Case Review of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Historically, the lack of highly skilled labour in South Africa has been linked to the legacy of ...

  13. Discourse Communities--Local and Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie

    1992-01-01

    Argues that rhetorical theory needs to keep alive competing concepts of discourse communities, so that alternatives exist in the description and analysis of discourse practices. Proposes distinguishing between two kinds of discourse communities--the local and the global--so that rhetorical analysis can achieve the necessary critical edge,…

  14. Fostering Local Economic Development through Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.

  15. Listening to the Community: Guidance from Native Community Members for Emerging Culturally Responsive Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christine A.; Jaime, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) emphasizes the importance of listening to the counter-narratives of people from marginalized groups. However, the applicability of CRT in practical settings often remains unclear for educators and scholars. This project offers not only a place for Native community members to share their experiences and ideas, it also…

  16. Critical Community Conversations: Cultivating the Elusive Dialogue about Racism with Parents, Community Members, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights how two researchers started Critical Community Conversations (CCC) with a school community in an effort to learn from one another and build solidarity. The intent was for CCC to focus on some of the most pressing issues facing our nation, state, and local neighborhoods, with a special lens on racism.

  17. Cultivating Political Powerhouses: TFA Corps Members Experiences That Shape Local Political Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; White, Rachel; Reckhow, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Teach for America (TFA) has invested in developing corps members as leaders. Although TFA asks corps members for a two-year commitment, TFA celebrates the achievements of alumni who have gone on to careers in politics, public policy, and advocacy. Thus, many community leaders see the arrival of TFA corps members as having a…

  18. Setting up local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larke, Charmian.

    1993-01-01

    A report is given on progress to establish a company in the UK which involves local people at an early stage in the development of wind farms. Particular attention is paid to obtaining local finance for the projects. Because rural communities tend to be relatively poor, larger investors will need to be involved. (UK)

  19. Higher education and local communities | Humphreys | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and advocate for human resource development and the third, as a service provider, building intellectual capital. The article examines the proposition that the most significant contribution that a university or technikon can make to the development of a locality derives from its recruitment of students from the local community.

  20. Bacterial community structure in experimental methanogenic bioreactors and search for pathogenic clostridia as community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Anja B; Baumert, Susann; Klingebiel, Lars; Weiland, Peter; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2011-03-01

    Microbial conversion of organic waste or harvested plant material into biogas has become an attractive technology for energy production. Biogas is produced in reactors under anaerobic conditions by a consortium of microorganisms which commonly include bacteria of the genus Clostridium. Since the genus Clostridium also harbors some highly pathogenic members in its phylogenetic cluster I, there has been some concern that an unintended growth of such pathogens might occur during the fermentation process. Therefore this study aimed to follow how process parameters affect the diversity of Bacteria in general, and the diversity of Clostridium cluster I members in particular. The development of both communities was followed in model biogas reactors from start-up during stable methanogenic conditions. The biogas reactors were run with either cattle or pig manures as substrates, and both were operated at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The structural diversity was analyzed independent of cultivation using a PCR-based detection of 16S rRNA genes and genetic profiling by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Genetic profiles indicated that both bacterial and clostridial communities evolved in parallel, and the community structures were highly influenced by both substrate and temperature. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes recovered from prominent bands from SSCP profiles representing Clostridia detected no pathogenic species. Thus, this study gave no indication that pathogenic clostridia would be enriched as dominant community members in biogas reactors fed with manure.

  1. Strategies for Working with Asian Americans in Mental Health: Community Members' Policy Perspectives and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.

  2. Communication in Local Community (Koprivnica case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Pavlek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is about an article which, based on the research of the local media in Koprivnica, aims to question the current theoretical attitutes to the role of the media nowadays, changes in communication, ways of connecting politics and journalism, censorship and self-censorship, bigger involvement of citizens in informing themselves via social networks, as well as other aspects of the media influence on the public. The local media in Koprivnica, among others, published articles about the biggest political and economic scandals in Croatia. At the same time, local media is significantly intertwined with local politics. How much and how are these things related? The number of local journalists with a degree in journalism is not satisfactory. How does the local community cope with it? What has changed three years after the research of three local media in Koprivnica finished? Can the local community i.e. the experience of the local media draw attention to illogical, unacceptable and illegal anomalies that create a negative perception of journalism in Croatia as well as the rest of the world nowadays?

  3. The local community and the nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidskog, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this book social and political scientists discuss different aspects of the selection of a site for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Special attention is given to the preliminary studies that have been performed at a few localities. The authors study the chain of events after a community is proposed for a site study. What powers are set in motion? How do different groups act in order to support or stop the study? Which is the role played by political parties, local environmentalist movements, media and experts? Why is there a forceful opposition in one community and not in another? Why does one local government invite the nuclear waste company to perform the study, while another refuses? The role of the local government has become crucial, since the nuclear waste company have chosen to perform studies only in municipalities that show a positive interest

  4. Finding local communities in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-09-18

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent, making our application useful for biologists who wish to

  5. Finding local communities in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play fundamental roles in nearly all biological processes, and provide major insights into the inner workings of cells. A vast amount of PPI data for various organisms is available from BioGRID and other sources. The identification of communities in PPI networks is of great interest because they often reveal previously unknown functional ties between proteins. A large number of global clustering algorithms have been applied to protein networks, where the entire network is partitioned into clusters. Here we take a different approach by looking for local communities in PPI networks. Results We develop a tool, named Local Protein Community Finder, which quickly finds a community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. Our tool uses two new local clustering algorithms Nibble and PageRank-Nibble, which look for a good cluster among the most popular destinations of a short random walk from the queried vertex. The quality of a cluster is determined by proportion of outgoing edges, known as conductance, which is a relative measure particularly useful in undersampled networks. We show that the two local clustering algorithms find communities that not only form excellent clusters, but are also likely to be biologically relevant functional components. We compare the performance of Nibble and PageRank-Nibble to other popular and effective graph partitioning algorithms, and show that they find better clusters in the graph. Moreover, Nibble and PageRank-Nibble find communities that are more functionally coherent. Conclusion The Local Protein Community Finder, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/lpcf, allows the user to quickly find a high-quality community close to a queried protein in any network available from BioGRID or specified by the user. We show that the communities found by our tool form good clusters and are functionally coherent

  6. What are fair study benefits in international health research? Consulting community members in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Njue

    Full Text Available Planning study benefits and payments for participants in international health research in low- income settings can be a difficult and controversial process, with particular challenges in balancing risks of undue inducement and exploitation and understanding how researchers should take account of background inequities. At an international health research programme in Kenya, this study aimed to map local residents' informed and reasoned views on the effects of different levels of study benefits and payments to inform local policy and wider debates in international research.Using a relatively novel two-stage process community consultation approach, five participatory workshops involving 90 local residents from diverse constituencies were followed by 15 small group discussions, with components of information-sharing, deliberation and reflection to situate normative reasoning within debates. Framework Analysis drew inductively and deductively on voice-recorded discussions and field notes supported by Nvivo 10 software, and the international research ethics literature. Community members' views on study benefits and payments were diverse, with complex contextual influences and interplay between risks of giving 'too many' and 'too few' benefits, including the role of cash. While recognising important risks for free choice, research relationships and community values in giving 'too many', the greatest concerns were risks of unfairness in giving 'too few' benefits, given difficulties in assessing indirect costs of participation and the serious consequences for families of underestimation, related to perceptions of researchers' responsibilities.Providing benefits and payments to participants in international research in low-income settings is an essential means by which researchers meet individual-level and structural forms of ethical responsibilities, but understanding how this can be achieved requires a careful account of social realities and local

  7. Identifying and intervening on barriers to healthcare access among members of a small Korean community in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Song, Eunyoung; Nam, Sang; Choi, Sarah J; Choi, Seungyong

    2015-04-01

    We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to explore barriers to healthcare access and utilization and identify potentially effective intervention strategies to increase access among members of the Korean community in North Carolina (NC). Our CBPR partnership conducted 8 focus groups with 63 adult Korean immigrants in northwest NC and 15 individual in-depth interviews and conducted an empowerment-based community forum. We identified 20 themes that we organized into four domains, including practical barriers to health care, negative perceptions about care, contingencies for care, and provider misconceptions about local needs. Forum attendees identified four strategies to improve Korean community health. Despite the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), many Korean community members will continue to remain uninsured, and among those who obtain insurance, many barriers will remain. It is imperative to ensure the health of this highly neglected and vulnerable community. Potential strategies include the development of (1) low-literacy materials to educate members of the Korean community about how to access healthcare services, (2) lay health advisor programs to support navigation of service access and utilization, (3) church-based programming, and (4) provider education to reduce misconceptions about Korean community needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Community members' views on Addis Ababa University's rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... University's rural community health training program: A qualitative study. ... A total of five FGDs and six key informant interviews were conducted using a ... The audio-taped data was later transcribed verbatim and translated into English.

  9. The Model of Tourist Virtual Community Members Engagement Management

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Building numerous and active virtual tourist communities involved in the tourist brand, connected with product, attraction or travel destination is a significant challenge for a dynamic and competitive tourist market. The main aim of presented pilot study was the drawing up guidelines for development of users engagement of selected virtual tourist communities on the example of Facebook. For that purpose a ranking of the most popular indicators of thematic areas, around which virtual tourist c...

  10. SOCIAL ANALYSES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT POTENTIAL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Ткачев

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66

  11. Engaging and Working in Solidarity with Local Communities in Preparing the Teachers of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Ken; Bowman, Michael; Guillen, Lorena; Napolitan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes a programmatic effort in teacher education, "The Community Teaching Strand" (CTS), to engage local community members as mentors of teacher candidates (TCs) in two postgraduate teacher preparation programs in a large research university. Three different conceptions of the nature and purpose of…

  12. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods: Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results: Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such...

  14. Determinants of Success for Online Communities: An Analysis of Three Communities in Terms of Members' Perceived Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence suggests that the updated DeLone and McLean's information systems (D&M IS) model can identify the determinants of success of online communities in terms of member loyalty (Lin and Lee 2006). This study is similarly concerned with the challenge of identifying the determinants of success of online communities, but it…

  15. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nyantekyi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  16. An Empirical Investigation of Preferential Attachment Among Influential Members of a Large Artificial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADERICK P. PABICO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One among the many questions in social network analysis is how links form among members of Internet-mediated social network (ISN, where most members are usually anonymous, while link formation (i.e., interactions between members are facilitated only by non-personal communication technologies. Researchers offer preferential attachment (PA as a possible mechanism that can explain the behaviour of link formation, not only for real-world communities, but for artificial communities, such as ISNs, as well. PA suggests that members choose to be linked with members characterized with many links who are considered “central” to the community. This is because it is believed that central members can be relied to as a channel, if not the source themselves, of information, of wealth, or of any other kind of currency that the community is using. In this paper, the link formation process of members of one large ISN was examined to look for empirical evidences of PA among members who were clustered together according to the order of magnitude of their number of links at the global level. Members whose initial number of links that totals only up to ten thousand exhibit the opposite of PA, while members whose initial number of links that sums greater than ten thousand exhibit PA. This means that the lower bound for initial links for PA, at least for this particular ISN, is 10,000. Additionally, for those members whose link formation follow the PA mechanism, the order of magnitude of the rate of increase in their number of links is proportional to the order of magnitude of their initial number of links.

  17. Which Members of the Microbial Communities Are Active? Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.

    only at the early stages of understanding the microbial processes that occur in petroliferous formations and the surrounding subterranean environment. Important first steps in characterising the microbiology of oilfield systems involve identifying the microbial community structure and determining how population diversity changes are affected by the overall geochemical and biological parameters of the system. This is relatively easy to do today by using general 16S rRNA primers for PCR and building clone libraries. For example, previous studies using molecular methods characterised many dominant prokaryotes in petroleum reservoirs (Orphan et al., 2000) and in two Alaskan North Slope oil facilities (Duncan et al., 2009; Pham et al., 2009). However, the problem is that more traditional molecular biology approaches, such as 16S clone libraries, fail to detect large portions of the community perhaps missing up to half of the biodiversity (see Hong et al., 2009) and require significant laboratory time to construct large libraries necessary to increase the probability of detecting the majority of even bacterial biodiversity. In the energy sector, the overarching desire would be to quickly assess the extent of in situ hydrocarbon biodegradation or to disrupt detrimental processes such as biofouling, and in these cases it may not be necessary to identify specific microbial species. Rather, it would be more critical to evaluate metabolic processes or monitor gene products that are implicated in the specific activity of interest. Research goals such as these are well suited for a tailored application of microarray technology.

  18. The experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice: a collaborative reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighide M. Lynch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010 a community of practice was set up for and by doctoral students engaged in person-centred and practitioner research. After three years, this community became part of a larger international community of practice. Aims and objectives: Captured under the stanzas of a poem and supported by the literature, this paper uses member narratives and creative expressions in a critical reflection on the experience of being a member of the Student International Community of Practice. Conclusions: Membership in the community of practice was experienced as beneficial, providing both support and challenge to enrich the doctoral students’ development as person-centred researchers. Retaining connectivity across an international landscape and finding effective ways to integrate new members into the community presented the greatest challenges. Implications for practice development: • The theoretical foundation and experiential knowledge could assist others considering support structures for the development of person-centred practices • Shared learning and co-creation of knowledge add value to the experience of being a doctoral researcher • Membership fluctuations present challenges to continuity of learning and the maintenance of a safe space with communities of practice. Such fluctuations, however, create chances for community members to experience diverse roles within the group and encourage explicit attention to person-centredness

  19. Exploring the Mediating Effect of E-social Capital Between Community Members Interaction and Consumer Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Bingsheng; Li Lihua; Sun Hongtao

    2017-01-01

    This article explored the effect of instrumental interaction and relational interaction on consumer engagement (community engagement and brand engagement) among community members. The mediating effect of E-social capital was investigated as well. The research results showed that: both instrumental interaction and interpersonal interaction promote the formation of E-social capital (online trust and online reciprocity); online trust plays a partial mediating role between community interaction (...

  20. Exploring the Mediating Effect of E-social Capital Between Community Members Interaction and Consumer Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explored the effect of instrumental interaction and relational interaction on consumer engagement (community engagement and brand engagement among community members. The mediating effect of E-social capital was investigated as well. The research results showed that: both instrumental interaction and interpersonal interaction promote the formation of E-social capital (online trust and online reciprocity; online trust plays a partial mediating role between community interaction (instrumental interaction, relational interaction and community engagement, but the influence of online reciprocity on community engagement is not significant; community engagement leads to brand engagement. The findings enrich the theories of brand community and consumer engagement and contribute to the virtual community management.

  1. Exposure to Violence During Ferguson Protests: Mental Health Effects for Law Enforcement and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Strasshofer, David R; Held, Philip; Fletcher, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    There is little information available on the mental health effects of exposure to shared community violence such as the August 2014 violence that occurred in Ferguson, Missouri. This study sought to examine the relationship between proximity to community violence and mental health in both community members and police officers. We recruited 565 adults (community, n = 304, and police, n = 261) exposed to the violence in Ferguson to complete measures of proximity to violence, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anger. Using structural equation modeling, we assessed aspects of proximity to violence-connectedness, direct exposure, fear from exposure, media exposure, reactions to media, and life interruption-as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and anger. The final model yielded (n = 432), χ(2) (d = 12) = 7.4, p = .830; comparative fit index = 1.0, root mean square error of approximation = 0 [0, .04]. All aspects of proximity except direct exposure were associated with mental health outcomes. There was no moderation as a function of community versus police. Race moderated the relationship between life interruptions and negative outcomes; interruption was related to distress for White, but not Black community members. Based on group comparisons, community members reported more symptoms of PTSD and depression than law enforcement (ηp (2) = .06 and .02, respectively). Black community members reported more PTSD and depression than White community members (ηp (2) = .05 and .02, respectively). Overall, distress was high, and mental health interventions are likely indicated for some individuals exposed to the Ferguson events. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  2. Enhancing community detection by using local structural information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Ju; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Li, Jian-Ming; Hu, Ke; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world networks, such as gene networks, protein–protein interaction networks and metabolic networks, exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have a positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract local structural information, which is then applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial for the improvement of community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and applied community detection methods. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  3. Attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoling, Zhong; Jun, Wang; Graham, Mellsop; Chen, Chen; Simei, Zhang; Qiguang, Li; Qun, Wang; Jiansong, Zhou; Xiaoping, Wang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments. A questionnaire designed to record attitudes toward the current forensic psychiatric assessment procedures and the disposal of mentally ill offenders was developed and distributed via a mobile App. A total of 134 community members and 132 psychiatrists voluntarily completed the questionnaire. Most of responders agreed that the department of public-security has the right to apply for a forensic psychiatric assessment but should not be held solely by that department. Community members were less significantly confident in the validation of forensic psychiatric opinions than were the psychiatrists. A significantly higher proportion of community members than psychiatrists considered that offenders judged Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) should be punished as would be sane people. In addition, only a minority of responders supported that NCRMD should not be held criminally responsible. Our results indicate that both groups have comments on the current distribution of right of startup of forensic psychiatric assessments. Compared to psychiatrists, community members have lower confidence in the validation of forensic psychiatric assessment and have stricter attitudes toward the disposal of offenders with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a nursing student health fair program: Meeting curricular standards and improving community members' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John P; McEwing, Evan; Matsuda, Yui; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Ogunrinde, Olutola; Azaiza, Mona; Williams, Jessica R

    2018-04-17

    Public health nursing (PHN) is an essential component of baccalaureate nursing education. In order to build PHN competencies, universities must design and operationalize meaningful clinical activities addressing community and population health. Currently, there is a paucity of literature delineating best practices for promoting competency in PHN. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a PHN-student health fair program as a means for meeting undergraduate PHN curricular standards, and to report results of an evaluation conducted examining its effectiveness in improving community member's health knowledge. Health fairs were held at community agencies that served the homeless or victims of intimate partner violence. A total of 113 community members that attended a health fair were assessed at baseline and immediate posttest using open-ended questionnaires. The design of the health fairs included a community assessment, intervention, and evaluation flow that followed the nursing process. We report that results from participants surveyed indicated that PHN-student delivered health fairs improved health knowledge among community members in this sample (p = .000). Health fairs conducted by PHN students appear to be promising community health promotion and disease prevention interventions that can serve as an effective strategy for teaching PHN student competencies and facilitating engagement with the community. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-10-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people

  6. Building local communities: Place-shaping as nation-building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Lyons Inquiry into Local Government has introduced the English local government community to the concept of ‘place-shaping’. Place-shaping refers to the new role for local governments in promoting the well-being of communities and citizens. The processes of place-shaping are

  7. Sense of community: perceptions of individual and group members of online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Bishop, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses the relation community-society in the case of Web-based constellations; how is society represented if we meet Web-based communities? Why are Web-based societies kept invisible while Web-communities emerge as a quasi-natural consequence of Web presence? Did Web-communities

  8. Transforming community members into diabetes cultural health brokers: the Neighborhood Health Talker project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Renee B; Craig, Mary; Rowe, Jimmy; Kahn, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based diabetes education pilot project. The Neighborhood Health Talker project aimed to train and implement cultural health brokers primarily targeting communities of color to improve community members' diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-management skills. A secondary aim was to establish diabetes resource libraries accessible to communities that normally experience barriers to these resources. Recruited community members completed 1 week of formal training developed by a multidisciplinary team in Buffalo, NY. The effect of training was evaluated through the use of baseline surveys, a pretest/posttest covering all training content, and daily quizzes evaluating knowledge relevant to each of the five training modules. Trained NHTs then held at least five community conversations in various locations and administered anonymous postconversation surveys to participants. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis techniques were used to summarize test, quiz, and survey results. Twelve women and 1 man completed the training program. Working alone as well as in pairs, each held at least five community conversations reaching over 700 community members of all ages over 3 months and established 8 diabetes resource libraries in the community. All trainees increased their diabetes knowledge and confidence as well as their abilities to perform the tasks of a cultural health broker. Trainees also indicated that the goals they set at training initiation were met. The training was successful in increasing trainee knowledge and confidence about diabetes prevention and self-management. Participants not only developed proficiency in discussing diabetes, they also made important lifestyle changes that demonstrated their commitment to the cause and the project. Low-cost initiatives like this are easily reproducible in other communities of color and could be modified to meet the needs of other communities as well.

  9. Sustainable mining, local communities and environmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable mining is an objective as well as a tool for balancing economic, social, and environmental considerations. Each of these three dimensions of mining – and sustainable development – has many components, some of which were chosen for closer study in the SUMILCERE project. While there is no single component that in itself provides a definitive argument for or against sustainable mining, the research reveals some that have proven valuable in the process of balancing the different dimensions of sustainability. In the SUMILCERE project, comparative studies enabled us to identify factors such as the following, which are essential when discussing the balancing in practice of the three dimensions of sustainable mining cited above: the framework and functionality of environmental regulation to protect the environment (environmental sustainability; competitiveness of the mining industry in light of environmental regulation and its enforcement (economic sustainability; public participation and the opportunities local communities have to influence their surroundings, as well as communities’ acceptance of projects (social sustainability before and during operations; and the protection of Sámi cultural rights in mining projects (social and cultural sustainability. Although each of the three dimensions of sustainability leaves room for discretion in the weight assigned to it, ecological sustainability, protected by smart environmental regulation and minimum standards, sets essential boundaries that leave no room for compromises. Economic and social sustainability are possible only within these limits. Details of the analyses in the Kolarctic area and accounts of the methods used can befound in the cited SUMILCERE articles.

  10. Transformative Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Realizing Equity Praxis through Community Connections and Local Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marisol; Valverde, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Schools serve as antidemocratic spaces where teacher, parent, community member, and student voices are typically disregarded. Instead, philanthropists and businesses are allowed to drive school and district agendas. An exploration of 3 local efforts that connect a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) with prekindergarten to Grade 12 students and…

  11. Local Community Detection Algorithm Based on Minimal Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the structure of local community more effectively, this paper puts forward a new local community detection algorithm based on minimal cluster. Most of the local community detection algorithms begin from one node. The agglomeration ability of a single node must be less than multiple nodes, so the beginning of the community extension of the algorithm in this paper is no longer from the initial node only but from a node cluster containing this initial node and nodes in the cluster are relatively densely connected with each other. The algorithm mainly includes two phases. First it detects the minimal cluster and then finds the local community extended from the minimal cluster. Experimental results show that the quality of the local community detected by our algorithm is much better than other algorithms no matter in real networks or in simulated networks.

  12. Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Cancer Survivors and Their Family Members: Korea Community Health Survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mi Ah

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of perceived stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members compared with subjects without cancer and without family members with cancer. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were adults ≥19 years old who participated in the 2012 Korea Community Health Survey. Stress and depressive symptoms in cancer survivors and their family members were assessed and compared to symptoms in control groups by chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 6783 cancer survivors, 26.9% and 8.7% reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively, and 27.7% and 5.9% of family members of cancer survivors reported having stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. Cancer survivors showed higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stress (aOR = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-1.37) and depressive symptoms (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.57-2.11) than subjects without cancer history. Family members of cancer survivors showed a higher OR for stress and depressive symptoms than subjects without a family member who survived cancer. Cancer survivors and family members of cancer survivors had more stress and depressive symptoms than controls. Careful management for cancer patients and their family members should include screening for stress and depression to improve mental health associated with cancer survivorship.

  13. With Their Help: How Community Members Construct a Congruent Third Space in an Urban Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.

    2013-01-01

    Through the use of narrative enquiry, this paper tells the story of how a kindergarten teacher in an all-girls' school incorporates family and community members' involvement to the construction of the congruent Third Space present in the classroom, and the ways the girls respond to this involvement, thereby providing a successful model for other…

  14. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  15. Community Reintegration Problems Among Veterans and Active Duty Service Members With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Suzanne; Barnett, Scott D; Lamberty, Greg; Kretzmer, Tracy; Powell-Cope, Gail; Patel, Nitin; Nakase-Richardson, Risa

    To examine community reintegration problems among Veterans and military service members with mild or moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 year postinjury and to identify unique predictors that may contribute to these difficulties. VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers. Participants were 154 inpatients enrolled in the VA TBI Model Systems Program with available injury severity data (mild = 28.6%; moderate/severe = 71.4%) and 1-year postinjury outcome data. Prospective, longitudinal cohort. Community reintegration outcomes included independent driving, employability, and general community participation. Additional measures assessed depression, posttraumatic stress, and cognitive and motor functioning. In the mild TBI (mTBI) group, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of various community reintegration outcomes. In the moderate/severe TBI group, cognition and motor skills were significantly associated with lower levels of community participation, independent driving, and employability. Community reintegration is problematic for Veterans and active duty service members with a history of TBI. Unique comorbidities across injury severity groups inhibit full reintegration into the community. These findings highlight the ongoing rehabilitation needs of persons with TBI, specifically evidence-based mental healthcare, in comprehensive rehabilitation programs consistent with a chronic disease management model.

  16. Internal Guidelines for interactions with communities and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    These Guidelines provide principles for interactions with local populations. Interaction with communities and local govenments are the responsibility of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Wastes Management program's implementing offices. The Guidelines provide policy direction to these implementing offices, while preserving their ability to tailor local interactions to fit a given situation, taking into account the social and political context and the history of local involvement in the program. Project Offices conduct community and local interactions within overall program resources which must be husbanded prudently. Careful planning by implementing offices should ensure that adequate resources are available to foster effective interactions with local representatives

  17. The use of local anesthesia during dental rehabilitations: a survey of AAPD members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Martin, Ashla; Hagan, Joseph L; Needleman, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document current practices among pediatric and general dentists who are members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) regarding the use of local anesthesia (LA) on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA). A survey was administered via e-mail to AAPD members to document the use of LA during dental rehabilitations under GA and the rationales for its use. A total of 952 of 5,599 members responded to this survey; 79 percent of respondents use LA at least part of the time during dental rehabilitations under GA. "Improved patient recovery" was the most commonly cited rationale for administering LA. Extraction of permanent and primary teeth were the two most common procedures cited for the use of LA, respectively. There is no consensus among the respondents on the use of local anesthesia during dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia, but the majority responded that it does play a role in their perioperative patient management.

  18. Situation and prospects of radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Orlowski, S.

    1990-01-01

    All Member States of the European Community with a nuclear power production programme are preparing for the disposal of radioactive waste produced in the nuclear fuel cycle and through the use of radionuclides in health care, research and industry. The situation of storage and planned, on-going - and already performed - disposal of radioactive waste in these States is first summarised. Suitable sites for disposal of radioactive waste of all categories exist in all Member States concerned. The general principles and international recommendations, and common principles, standards and requirements applicable to disposal in the European Community are then presented, followed by a description of existing disposal facilities and of those which are in an advanced planning stage, and the implementation of basic criteria by national authorities. Finally, policies and strategies for long-term storage and disposal for definitively shut-down nuclear installations, and contributions to research in this field in the ''Communities' Radioactive Waste Management Programme'' are discussed. (author)

  19. Facilitating the Growth of Local Energy Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Willem Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Energietransitie staat hoog op de agenda. Op de route naar een duurzamer energiesysteem zien we de laatste jaren een grote toename van het aantal lokale energie communities. Deze energie communities streven naar duurzaamheid door middel van het stimuleren van energiebesparingen en het realiseren van

  20. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  1. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  2. Coincidence of role expectations between staff and volunteer members of drug free community coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marc B; Sapere, Heather; Daviau, John

    2017-08-01

    Community coalitions have proliferated as a means of addressing a range of complex community problems. Such coalitions often consist of a small paid staff and volunteer members. The present study examines one likely contributor to coalition effectiveness: the degree of agreement on role expectations between paid staff and volunteer members. Role confusion occurs when paid staff and volunteers differ in their expectations of who is responsible for accomplishing specific tasks. Staff and volunteer members from 69 randomly selected Drug Free Coalitions in the United States as well as 21 Drug Free Coalitions in Connecticut were asked to respond to an online survey asking about 37 specific coalition tasks critical for effective coalition functioning and the degree to which paid staff and/or voluntary members should be responsible for accomplishing each. Our final sample consisted of 476 individuals from 35 coalitions. Using coalitions as the unit of analysis, we found significant differences between paid staff and volunteer coalition members on nine tasks reflecting four domains: meeting leadership and participation, (2) planning and implementation leadership, (3) publicity/media relations, and (4) logistical functions. Implications of these differences and ways that evaluators could help coalitions deal with differing role expectations were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Garry

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)

  4. Indigenous knowledge systems, local community and community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...

  5. What works in Indigenous tobacco control? The perceptions of remote Indigenous community members and health staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Thomas, David P

    2010-04-01

    To explore the perceptions of remote Indigenous community members and health staff regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of different tobacco control health promotion interventions. Qualitative methods were used for this exploratory study, including interviews with remote Indigenous community members and health staff, as well as observations of the delivery of different tobacco control activities in three remote communities in the Northern Territory (NT). Several tobacco control interventions for which there is strong evidence in other settings were generally perceived as acceptable and efficacious in the remote Indigenous setting. Primary care interventions, such as brief advice and pharmaceutical quitting aids, when available and accessible, were perceived as important and effective strategies to help people quit, as were the promotion of smokefree areas. By contrast unmodified Quit programs were perceived to have questionable application in this context and there were conflicting findings regarding taxation increases on tobacco and social marketing campaigns. Several evidence-based 'mainstream' activities are perceived to be acceptable to this population, but we may also need to address the concerns raised by health staff and community members about the acceptability of some unmodified activities. Additionally, organisational barriers within the health system may be contributing to the reduced effectiveness of tobacco control in this setting.

  6. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  7. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misenta, R.; Matfield, R.S.; Volta, G.; Ancarani, A.; Lhoir, J.

    1981-01-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident the Commission of the European Communities undertook various actions in order to assess the status of the training of nuclear power plant personnel with particular attention to their training for incidents and accidents. This presentation attempts a review of the training situation in the six member states of the European Community together with some other European states, that are operating nuclear power plants. Schemes for the training of control room operators, shift leaders, major European training centres and simulator training will be described

  8. LOCAL COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM DEVEOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of community participation in tourism development has been brought in front of the sector decision makers and researchers mostly during the last period of time. It could be a source of benefits and it could also create a better relationship between the tourism companies and the community groups. In this paper the author writes a literature review on this subject in order to draw attention on this issue in the Romanian tourism literature and to create an analysis framework for specific cases of tourism development plans.

  9. Experiencing local community resilience in action : Learning from post-disaster communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Although increasing attention has been given to the need to engage local communities and facilitate community resilience, discrepancies between theory and practice remain evident. Myths, misconceptions and mistakes persist in post-disaster emergency operations, and in the reconstruction and

  10. Community Reintegration, Participation, and Employment Issues in Veterans and Service Members With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Christina; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2018-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called the signature injury of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and neighboring countries. Although similarities exist between veterans and service members with TBI, levels of severity and different constellations of coexisting comorbid conditions affect them differently. These conditions affect physical, cognitive, and emotional function, which in turn can complicate community reintegration (CR), or the ability to return to family, vocational, and community life. This special supplement of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation consists of articles written by accomplished teams from multiple disciplines, including anthropology, neuropsychology, nursing, occupational therapy, psychology, and rehabilitation sciences. Each article brings a different perspective to bear on what CR means for veterans and service members from examination of predictors and perceptions of veterans and service members and others to measurement studies. Collectively, this group of articles represents current thinking about CR and lays the groundwork for testing interventions to improve CR outcomes for veterans and service members (eg, employment, living situation, family life). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sociology Faculty Members Employed Part-Time in Community Colleges: Structural Disadvantage, Cultural Devaluation, and Faculty-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, John W.; Mahabir, Cynthia; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of faculty members teaching in community colleges are employed on a part-time basis, yet little is known about their working conditions and professional engagement. This article uses data from a recent national survey of faculty members teaching sociology in community colleges to provide this information, with particular…

  12. Insights into the Shifting Perspectives of Members of the Gypsy and Traveller Community on Schooling, and Implications for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions and experiences of education of two female adult members of the Gypsy and Traveller community and one female adult member of the settled community who works closely with Travellers. Narrative interviews were conducted in England in 2016, to gain some understanding of the factors contributing to the…

  13. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    OpenAIRE

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This ana...

  14. Emergency preparedness training for local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, M.J.; Thompson, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    Detroit Edison, in cooperation with Monroe County, has developed a comprehensive training program for local emergency workers in the area surrounding the Fermi 2 Nuclear Power Plant. Using expertise from both organizations, a program consisting of two videotapes, two slide-tapes and nine narrated slide series was produced to address the worker-specific training needs of county emergency workers. In June of 185, the program was approved by Detroit Edison and the Monroe County Board of Commissioners. To date, Monroe County has trained more than 1000 emergency workers. This program has been so well received that the county staff has developed and presented a modified version of this program to the general public. The result of this cooperative effort is increased public confidence in emergency preparedness at the state, local and utility level and a renewed spirit of cooperation and trust between the utility and local units of government

  15. Global and local targeted immunization in networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Zheng, Zhiming; Fang, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    Immunization plays an important role in the field of epidemic spreading in complex networks. In previous studies, targeted immunization has been proved to be an effective strategy. However, when extended to networks with community structure, it is unknown whether the superior strategy is to vaccinate the nodes who have the most connections in the entire network (global strategy), or those in the original community where epidemic starts to spread (local strategy). In this work, by using both analytic approaches and simulations, we observe that the answer depends on the closeness between communities. If communities are tied closely, the global strategy is superior to the local strategy. Otherwise, the local targeted immunization is advantageous. The existence of a transitional value of closeness implies that we should adopt different strategies. Furthermore, we extend our investigation from two-community networks to multi-community networks. We consider the mode of community connection and the location of community where epidemic starts to spread. Both simulation results and theoretical predictions show that local strategy is a better option for immunization in most cases. But if the epidemic begins from a core community, global strategy is superior in some cases. (paper)

  16. Local community participation in enhanced landfill mining: the challenge to bridge between communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Ballard, M.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  17. National labs working with local communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Existing Buildings Efficiency Research Program

    1996-10-01

    In mid September Argonne National Laboratory celebrated its fiftieth anniversary with an open house in which more than 20,000 people toured the site and viewed some 100 demonstrations, exhibits and presentations of the scientific and engineering programs currently being pursued at Argonne. During the course of the open house it became obvious that to even long time residents of the Chicago area the activities of ANL were unknown or unclear. Part of this lack of knowledge about the scientific and engineering research occurring at DOE national laboratories is the remoteness of most research programs from the everyday lives of citizens. It is both the discussions that are remote as well as a remoteness of impacts on ordinary lives that often leads people to miss the exciting research activity occurring nearby. However, at least one research program at Argonne is structured to be purposefully different. The Existing Buildings Efficiency Research (EBER) program pursues its scientific work in concert with architects, engineers, and community developers as they attempt to provide high quality energy efficient, high performance buildings at reasonable cost. Instead of conducting experiments inside the barbed wire fences of secure facilities, technical assistance for the inclusion of DOE tools, techniques, and technologies is offered at the construction site within the community and research results are drawn back as projects are monitored for the performance of the energy conservation measures. In this report several projects at ANL are briefly discussed to give a sense of the possibilities for the laboratory and broader scientific community to work one-on-one with community-based organizations and the agencies that directly serve the needs of low-income neighborhoods.

  18. Local community perceptions of conservation policy: rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions have provoked a wide range of mostly negative reactions amongst local villagers ... conservation, afin notamment que ces actions soient efficaces. Cette étude se focalise .... since the 1980s, there has been a gradual move towards more in- .... getting as equal a representation of male and female informants as well as ...

  19. Small heating reactors for local heating of communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1985-08-01

    The incentives to introduce relatively small heating reactors for local heating of communities are presented and the reasons why this vertically integrated energy system will meet the requirement of an emission - free substitution system are outlined. (author)

  20. SHARING TOURISM BENEFITS WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-12

    Mar 12, 2012 ... Local communities' participation in tourism benefit-sharing is central to tourism ... potential to provide economic benefits through ..... tours with a combination of both cultural and ... resources, also has a system of employing.

  1. Communicative Interaction among Local Editorial Staff Members: Current Situation and the Ways of its Improving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Korotitskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication between management and employees is very important in organizations. However, communication problems might be more felt in any media organization as a whole and in the local media staff in particular. It’s obvious that news workers have everyday communicative interaction with different newsmakers. The article deals with the study and analysis of the communicative interaction between the local editorial creative staff members. Internal and external organizational understanding data are considered. It is determined that the level of organizational communication development influences the local editorial success and employees’ performance. Mutual understanding as the basic criterion of effective communication has several forms. The subject of our study is organizational understanding, that is, a special type of editorial staff relationship which is limited by the boundaries of the organization and is essential for its successful functioning and development. The analysis of empirical data allowed to identify the main problematic aspects and to work out the recommendations for vertical and horizontal communication development.

  2. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  3. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furaha August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design: A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions: This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via

  4. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers

  5. Birth preparedness and complication readiness - a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers.

  6. Family members facilitating community re-integration and return to productivity following traumatic brain injury - motivations, roles and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alicia; Lin, Jenny; Stergiou-Kita, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of family members in supporting community re-integration and return to productive occupations of the traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivor in order to: (i) describe family members' supportive roles, (ii) determine challenges family members experience in supporting the TBI survivor; and (iii) identify supports that family members require to maintain and enhance their roles. This qualitative descriptive study involved 14 interviews with immediate family members of TBI survivors. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Family members expressed strong motivation and engaged in six key roles to support TBI survivors: researcher, case manager, advocate, coach, activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental ADLs and emotional supporter. Personal and family stressors and challenges navigating the health care system were perceived as challenges in meeting demands of their supportive roles. Stigma also presented a barrier to successful community and vocational re-integration. Subsequently, family members desired more education related to the functional implications of TBI, to be connected to health care and community resources, and sought a greater family-centred care approach. Family members require on-going counseling and community supports to prevent burnout and allow for their continued engagement in their supportive roles. Further education on how to navigate the health care system, access community programs and rights to workplace accommodation is also warranted. Family members are strongly motivated to support survivors' return to productive occupation following a traumatic brain injury, but require counseling and community support to enable their on-going engagement and prevent burnout. Family members can be further empowered through the implementation of family-centred care. Family members requested further education on the long-term functional implications of TBI, how to navigate the health care system, how to access community

  7. Engaging with Community Advisory Boards (CABs) in Lusaka Zambia: perspectives from the research team and CAB members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinga, Alwyn; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2015-06-03

    The use of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) is one method of ensuring community engagement in community based research. To identify the process used to constitute CABs in Zambia, this paper draws on the perspectives of both research team members and CAB members from research groups who used CABs in Lusaka. Enabling and restricting factors impacting on the functioning of the CAB were identified. All studies approved by the University of Zambia Bioethics Research Committee (UBNZABREC) from 2008 - 2012 were reviewed to identify those studies that were likely to include a CAB. Eight teams with studies that included a CAB were identified. For each of these studies, consent was obtained to conduct an informal interview with a research team member and to obtain contact details for one CAB member. In total 14 interviews were conducted with 8 research team members and 6 CAB members from 12-30 August 2013. Identification of potential CAB members from the community and their participation in developing the terms of reference for CABs was perceived to have contributed to the success of the CAB. Due to the trust that the community had in members of their community the CABs were then in a stronger position to influence community participation in the research. Training of CAB members was identified as a factor that enhanced the functioning of a CAB. Lack of commitment and low literacy levels of CAB members posed a threat to the role of the CAB. Although compensation in the form of a stipend was not provided, CAB members were provided with transport reimbursements for attending meetings. Selection of CAB members from within the community contributed to community confidence in the CAB, enhancing its ability to act as an effective link between study team and community. This contributed positively to the conduct of the study and enhanced community awareness and acceptance of the research. However, establishment of study specific CABs has the potential to compromise CAB independence

  8. Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Developing Local Global Health Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sarah; Butteris, Sabrina M; Houser, Laura; Coller, Karen; Coller, Ryan J

    2018-02-07

    A significant and growing proportion of US children have immigrant parents, an issue of increasing importance to pediatricians. Training globally minded pediatric residents to address health inequities related to globalization is an important reason to expand educational strategies around local global health (LGH). We developed a curriculum in the pediatric global health residency track at the University of Wisconsin in an effort to address gaps in LGH education and to increase resident knowledge about local health disparities for global community members. This curriculum was founded in asset-based community development (ABCD), a strategy used in advocacy training but not reported in global health education. The initial curriculum outputs have provided the foundation for a longitudinal LGH curriculum and a community-academic partnership. Supported by a community partnership grant, this partnership is focused on establishing a community-based postpartum support group for local Latinos, with an emphasis on building capacity in the Latino community. Aspects of this curriculum can serve other programs looking to develop LGH curricula rooted in building local partnerships and capacity using an ABCD model. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of mental health first aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-09-07

    The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient evidence to scale up to a population

  10. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  11. Traditional knowledge for promotion of socioeconomic inclusion of local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Francisco Sorte Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the key role played by public research institutes for promoting socioeconomic inclusion of local communities based on traditional knowledge and traditional medicine. Nongovernmental organizations and cooperatives have had an important role in raising financial resources, being involved with advocacy of local communities and advancing legislation changes. But strict best manufacturing practices regulations imposed by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency on the requirements for approval and commercialization of drugs based on herbal medicine products call for the involvement of strong public research institutes capable of supporting community-based pharmacies. Thus, public research institutes are pivotal as they can conduct scientific research studies to evidence the efficacy of herbal medicine products and help building the capacity of local communities to comply with current regulations.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  13. Institutional review board community members: who are they, what do they do, and whom do they represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The roles of nonaffiliated and nonscientific institutional review board (IRB) members at academic medical centers have received some attention, but questions remain-Who are they, what do they do, and whom, if anyone, do they represent? The author interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members in 2007-2009. He contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions, then recruited 7 additional members from these IRBs to interview. Regular IRB members often called these individuals community members and were confused as to who these members were, or should be, and whether they did, or should, represent anyone and, if so, whom. IRBs encountered challenges in finding, training, and retaining these community members. Tensions emerged because nonscientific members, by definition, have no scientific training, so they have difficulty understanding key aspects of protocols, making them feel unempowered to contribute to reviews. IRBs varied in how much they encouraged these members to participate, in what ways, and with what success. At academic medical centers, IRBs struggled with how to view, choose, employ, and retain nonaffiliated and nonscientific members, and they varied widely in these regards. Some IRBs had these members review entire protocols, others only limited parts (particularly reading consent forms for comprehension), pro forma. Yet, at times, these members' input proved very important. These findings have critical implications for policy, practice, and research.

  14. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lois A.

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which influence their contributions to America's science literacy and school science education. This emergent design nested case study described how an innovative program provided professional development and enabled growth in participants' abilities to contribute to science literacy. Data were collected through interviews, participant observations, and class artifacts. The program by design and constituency was the overarching entity that accounted for members' experiences. Three principal aspects of the ISI certificate program and cohort which influenced perceptions and reported positive outcomes were (1) the cohort's composition and their collaborative activities which established a vigorous community of practice and fostered community building, mentoring, and networking, (2) long term program design and implementation which promoted experiential learning in a generative classroom, and (3) ability of some members who were able to be independent or autonomous learners to embrace science education reform strategies for greater self-efficacy and career advancement. This research extends the limited literature base for professional development of informal science educators and may benefit informal science institutions, informal and formal science educators, science education reform efforts, and public education and science-technology-society understanding. The study may raise awareness of the need to establish more professional development opportunities for ISEs and to fund professional development. Further, recognizing and appreciating informal science educators as a diverse committed community of professionals who positively

  15. Can Online Forums Be Designed to Empower Local Communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerill Dunne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing concern regarding political disengagement among citizens within western representative democracies. This concern has brought about calls for local communities to be empowered by giving citizens more control over local decision making. The objective of this paper is to examine if local political online forums can be built to empower local communities. That is to say, this paper will test if the E-Democracy.org’s Local Issues Forum Guidebook recommendations (A to do list for building successful online forums actually work and produce forums which facilitate citizens to have a greater say on local decision making and thus, induce empowerment. In order to test these recommendations a two-pronged methodological approach was taken. Firstly, using these recommendations an online forum was constructed in-conjunction with a local authority within the UK. Secondly, the recommendations were tested again except in this second approach a sample of online forums from around the world was examined. This paper argues that the E-Democracy.org’s recommendations do not always produce forums which empower local communities - Based on lessons learned from both experiments new guidelines are provided.

  16. Exploring the impacts of protected area tourism on local communities using a resilience approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Strickland-Munro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the protected area mandate expands to include social equity, the impacts of parks and their tourism on neighbouring indigenous and local communities is receiving growing practical and theoretical interest. This article reported on one such study, which explored the impacts of protected area tourism on communities bordering the iconic Kruger National Park in South Africa and Purnululu National Park in Australia. The study drew on interviews with park staff, tourism operators and community members. Guided by a conceptual framework grounded in resilience thinking, interactions amongst the parks, tourism and local communities were revealed as complex, contested and multi-scalar. Underlying drivers included cultural norms and values based on nature, entrenched poverty, poor Western education and economic opportunities associated with tourism. Park tourism offered intrinsic opportunities and benefits from nature conservation and associated intangible cultural values. More tangible benefits arose through employment. Damage-causing animals and visitation difficulties were negative impacts. Interaction with tourists was limited, with a sense of disconnect evident. Findings indicated the need for multifaceted, carefully considered policy responses if social equity and benefits for local communities are to be achieved. Framing the impacts of protected area tourism through the resilience framework provided a useful way to access local community perceptions whilst retaining awareness of the broader multi-scalar context in which interactions occur. Conservation implications: Perceptions of separation and lack of education to engage in economic opportunities are major issues. Intrinsic appreciation of parks is an important platform for building future opportunities. Accrual of future benefits for local communities from park tourism depends on developing diverse economic opportunities, building community capacity and managing expectations and addressing

  17. Improving local health through community health workers in Cambodia: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozano, Kim; Simkhada, Padam; Thann, Khem; Khatri, Rose

    2018-01-06

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are an important link between the public health system and the community. The 'Community Participation Policy for Health' in Cambodia identifies CHWs as key to local health promotion and as a critical link between district health centres and the community. However, research on the challenges CHWs face and identifying what is required to optimise their performance is limited in the Cambodian context. This research explores the views of CHWs in rural Cambodia, on the challenges they face when implementing health initiatives. Qualitative methodology was used to capture the experiences of CHWs in Kratie and Mondulkiri provinces. Two participatory focus groups with CHWs in Mondulkiri and ten semi-structured interviews in Kratie were conducted. Results from both studies were used to identify common themes. Participants were CHWs, male and female, from rural Khmer and Muslim communities and linked with seven different district health centres. Findings identify that CHWs regularly deliver health promotion to communities. However, systemic, personal and community engagement challenges hinder their ability to function effectively. These include minimal leadership and support from local government, irregular training which focuses on verticalised health programmes, inadequate resources, a lack of professional identity and challenges to achieving behaviour change of community members. In addition, the CHW programme is delivered in a fragmented way that is largely influenced by external aid objectives. When consulted, however, CHWs demonstrate their ability to develop realistic practical solutions to challenges and barriers. The fragmented delivery of the CHW programme in Cambodia means that government ownership is minimal. This, coupled with the lack of defined core training programme or adequate resources, prevents CHWs from reaching their potential. CHWs have positive and realistic ideas on how to improve their role and, subsequently

  18. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Psychological States in Online Health Community Members: Understanding the Long-Term Effects of Participating in an Online Depression Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2017-03-20

    Major depression is a serious challenge at both the individual and population levels. Although online health communities have shown the potential to reduce the symptoms of depression, emotional contagion theory suggests that negative emotion can spread within a community, and prolonged interactions with other depressed individuals has potential to worsen the symptoms of depression. The goals of our study were to investigate longitudinal changes in psychological states that are manifested through linguistic changes in depression community members who are interacting with other depressed individuals. We examined emotion-related language usages using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program for each member of a depression community from Reddit. To measure the changes, we applied linear least-squares regression to the LIWC scores against the interaction sequence for each member. We measured the differences in linguistic changes against three online health communities focusing on positive emotion, diabetes, and irritable bowel syndrome. On average, members of an online depression community showed improvement in 9 of 10 prespecified linguistic dimensions: "positive emotion," "negative emotion," "anxiety," "anger," "sadness," "first person singular," "negation," "swear words," and "death." Moreover, these members improved either significantly or at least as much as members of other online health communities. We provide new insights into the impact of prolonged participation in an online depression community and highlight the positive emotion change in members. The findings of this study should be interpreted with caution, because participating in an online depression community is not the sole factor for improvement or worsening of depressive symptoms. Still, the consistent statistical results including comparative analyses with different communities could indicate that the emotion-related language usage of depression community members are improving either

  20. Supportive Environments for Physical Activity, Community Action and Policy in Eight EU Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multi-level theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. METHODS: Most-different and most...... on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion...... and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Framework...

  1. Local communities obstruct global consensus: Naming game on multi-local-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Fan, Zhengping; Xiang, Luna

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is essential for social communications, where individuals belonging to the same community are much more actively interacting and communicating with each other than those in different communities within the human society. Naming game, on the other hand, is a social communication model that simulates the process of learning a name of an object within a community of humans, where the individuals can generally reach global consensus asymptotically through iterative pair-wise conversations. The underlying network indicates the relationships among the individuals. In this paper, three typical topologies, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed, which are embedded with the multi-local-world community structure, to study the naming game. Simulations show that (1) the convergence process to global consensus is getting slower as the community structure becomes more prominent, and eventually might fail; (2) if the inter-community connections are sufficiently dense, neither the number nor the size of the communities affects the convergence process; and (3) for different topologies with the same (or similar) average node-degree, local clustering of individuals obstruct or prohibit global consensus to take place. The results reveal the role of local communities in a global naming game in social network studies.

  2. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  3. Who Manages Space? Eco-DRR and the Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Aini Dalimunthe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (DRR has only recently emerged in Indonesia. The Indonesian central government now adopts some policies related to ecosystem-based DRR with formal commitments from local administrations. At the implementation level, various activities have taken place, such as mangrove planting and restoration along the coastline to address the rising sea level and the “one billion trees” program to address the urgent issue of deforestation. These governmental activities have involved local communities that reside in the high-risk area, while nonlocal actors, particularly from the private and the nongovernmental sectors, have contributed as a third element to development. This paper examines space management in the context of Eco-DRR, paying special attention to uncertainty and anxiety in the local communities as the government and private sectors engage in development activities that have significant impacts on their present and future lives. The present study pursues this purpose by means of in-depth interview and focus group discussions (FGD with local leaders in mangrove planting and restoration programs. The study took place in a small island community in a part of the Jakarta Megapolitan Region, Indonesia. The results point out that the community feels left behind due to lack of trust in managing the conservation space. Another issue to be addressed is how to improve the democratization of environment management and livelihood base of the local community. Therefore, building confidence and ameliorating relationships between actors within/without the local community should lead to a better Eco-DRR initiative.

  4. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Design democratization with communities: Drawing toward locally meaningful design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Goagoses, Naska; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    The authors present community drawing as meaningful representations to inform locally valid technology design. They investigate recognition within and across cultural borders, thereby exposing variances of localities. The study contributes to the still scarce body of empirical work on culturally...... meaningful development of visual representations and recognition, as part of a longitudinal research project in which we co-design a 3D visualization for a specific Namibian pilot site....

  6. Evaluation of Mental Health First Aid training with members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes, ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental

  7. Exploring the Therapeutic Affordances of Self-Harm Online Support Communities: An Online Survey of Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Neil S; Bullock, Emma; Rodham, Karen

    2017-10-13

    A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face-to-face support. ©Neil S Coulson, Emma Bullock, Karen Rodham

  8. Exploring the Therapeutic Affordances of Self-Harm Online Support Communities: An Online Survey of Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. Methods In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Conclusions Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face

  9. The regulatory framework for storage and disposal of radioactive waste in the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, G.D.; Martin, A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to collate information and to summarise the present situation with regard to the regulatory framework for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste in each of the member countries of the European Community together with several important countries outside the Community. (author)

  10. 'A Farmer, a Place and at least 20 Members': The Development of Artifact Ecologies in Volunteer-based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Korsgaard, Henrik; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    on what the members bring to the table, as well as on particular situations of use. The community artifact ecology concept is important for CSCW as it enables framing of the relationship between communities and technologies beyond the single artifact and beyond a static view of a dedicated technology....

  11. Capacity issues in local communities for integral urban regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđenović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in wider sense is organizational-communication capacity of local communities in Serbia in the frame of sustainable development. Along with this, the paper will explore potentialities of Faludi's model of multiplanning agencies as well as Healey's collaborative theory for better efficiency and effectiveness of planning in the process of urban regeneration. Specifically the paper will research relation between organizational structure of local communities in Serbia and their potentialities to provide adequate communication towards integral information for urban regeneration. Research is framed with a problem of efficiency and effectiveness in creating urban regeneration policies, strategies, designs, and technical solutions. The problem will be focused to Serbian context; characterized with inadequate, transitional, system of governance that is moving from centralistic towards decentralist model. This will be further explored through level and type of participation in the process of urban regeneration. The hypothesis of the research explores the nature of the relation between number and types of communication channels, provided by organizational structure of local communities that should enable effectiveness and efficiency of urban regeneration. In other words the hypothesis is: number and types of communication channels (variable A influences the effectiveness and efficiency of urban planning for sustainable urban regeneration (variable B. The aims of the paper are identification of the regulations between the variables. Expected result is establishing the model for measuring the capacity of local communities for integral urban regeneration.

  12. Local embeddedness in community energy projects. A social entrepreneurship perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.

  13. ACHP |Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Heritage Tourism arrow Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in Local Communities: Guidance for Federal Agencies Partnering to Promote Heritage Tourism in historic places. Such tourism - heritage tourism -can result in a variety of tangible and intangible

  14. Local Safety Toolkit: Enabling safe communities of opportunity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtmann, B

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available remain inadequate to achieve safety. The Local Safety Toolkit supports a strategy for a Safe South Africa through the implementation of a model for a Safe Community of Opportunity. The model is the outcome of work undertaken over the course of the past...

  15. Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble ... findings of the study showed that rural people in the Soye district have identifiable information needs mainly in the areas of agriculture, health, government programmes and small scale industries.

  16. VCE Model of Community, Local, Regional Food Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Niewolny, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This document is a chart illustrating the Virginia Cooperative Extension model for food systems at the community, local and regional level. This chart shows an interrelationship between basic and applied research, leveraging of resources and opportunities, communication and marketing, assessment, evaluation and impact, knowledge, skills, and social change, facilitation of partnerships, and also teaching.

  17. ENCOURAGING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, A TRAINING GUIDE FOR LOCAL WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDDLE, LOUREIDE J.; BIDDLE, WILLIAM W.

    THIS TRAINING GUIDE IS WRITTEN TO MEET THE NEEDS OF UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO WHICH THE PEACE CORPS, VISTA, CHURCHES, AND OTHER VOLUNTEER-USING AGENCIES TURN FOR HELP IN TRAINING THE NONPROFESSIONAL OR PREPROFESSIONAL LOCAL WORKER IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. THE LESSONS ARE DIRECTED TO THE "ENCOURAGER" WHO LIVES WITH THE PEOPLE PARTICIPATING IN…

  18. Tungiasis in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...

  19. Green Richland: Building Sustainable Local and World Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Carole N.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares the college's experiences and the lessons learned in the creation of the GREENRichland Program and the other approaches to building sustainability. These programs directly support the college's vision to be the best place to learn, teach, and build sustainable local and world community. This discussion features details…

  20. Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael; Shao, Yongzhao; Bhatt, D. Harshad; Stecker, Mark M.; Berger, Kenneth I.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Rosen, Rebecca L.; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Kazeros, Angeliki; Pradhan, Deepak; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Reibman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Paresthesias can result from metabolic disorders, nerve entrapment following repetitive motions, hyperventilation pursuant to anxiety, or exposure to neurotoxins. We analyzed data from community members exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001, to evaluate whether exposure to the disaster was associated with paresthesias. Methods: Analysis of data from 3141 patients of the WTC Environmental Health Center. Results: Fifty-six percent of patients reported paresthesias at enrollment 7 to 15 years following the WTC disaster. After controlling for potential confounders, paresthesias were associated with severity of exposure to the WTC dust cloud and working in a job requiring cleaning of WTC dust. Conclusions: This study suggests that paresthesias were commonly associated with WTC-related exposures or post-WTC cleaning work. Further studies should objectively characterize these paresthesias and seek to identify relevant neurotoxins or paresthesia-inducing activities. PMID:28157767

  1. 'What vision?': experiences of Team members in a community service for adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, I C H; Madden, E M; Holland, A J; Farrington, C J T; Whitson, S; Broughton, S; Lillywhite, A; Jones, E; Wade, K A; Redley, M; Wagner, A P

    2017-03-01

    In the UK, the closure of 'long-stay' hospitals was accompanied by the development of community teams (CTs) to support people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to live in community settings. The self-reported experiences of staff working in such teams have been neglected. Focusing on a single county-wide service, comprising five multi-disciplinary and inter-agency CTs, we measured perceptions among the health care and care management Team members of (1) their personal well-being; (2) the functioning of their team; and (3) the organisation's commitment to quality, and culture. Almost three-quarters of the questionnaires were returned (73/101; 72%). The scores of health care practitioners and care managers were very similar: (1) the MBI scores of more than half the respondents were 'of concern'; (2) similarly, almost four in ten respondents' scores on the Vision scale of the TCI were 'of concern'; (3) the perceived commitment to quality (QIIS-II Part 2) was uncertain; and (4) the organisational culture (QIIS-II, Part 1) was viewed as primarily hierarchical. The perceived absence of a vision for the service, combined with a dominant culture viewed by its members as strongly focussed on bureaucracy and process, potentially compromises the ability of these CTs to respond proactively to the needs of people with IDs. Given the changes in legislation, policy and practice that have taken place since CTs were established, it would be timely to revisit their role and purpose. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  3. LOCAL COMMUNITY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE IMPACT OF TOURISM ON PROSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anallely BELLO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.

  4. [Local health systems. Moral rationality of community decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tealdi, J C

    1990-01-01

    The author examines the points of convergence between local health systems and bioethics in three basic areas: structural or institutional, methodological or justificatory, and regulatory or normative. Comparisons are drawn between the decentralization of the health system posed by local health systems and deconcentration of the power vested in multidisciplinary ethics committees; the strategy of social participation and the movement in the United States of community decision-making in the area of health; and the basic concepts of primary health care and the principle of justice. The theories of Pellegrino and Thomasma on the philosophic bases for medical practice provide the framework of this comparative analysis. The article concludes with a call for a local health systems-bioethical nexus in which this discipline can provide the basis for infusing an ethical component into participatory planning and community decision-making.

  5. Experiences of a Community-Based Lymphedema Management Program for Lymphatic Filariasis in Odisha State, India: An Analysis of Focus Group Discussions with Patients, Families, Community Members and Program Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Cassidy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally 68 million people are infected with lymphatic filariasis (LF, 17 million of whom have lymphedema. This study explores the effects of a lymphedema management program in Odisha State, India on morbidity and psychosocial effects associated with lymphedema.Focus groups were held with patients (eight groups, separated by gender, their family members (eight groups, community members (four groups and program volunteers (four groups who had participated in a lymphedema management program for the past three years. Significant social, physical, and economic difficulties were described by patients and family members, including marriageability, social stigma, and lost workdays. However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease. Program volunteers and community members stressed the role that the program had played in educating people, though interestingly, local explanations and treatments appear to coexist with knowledge of biomedical treatments and the mosquito vector.Local and biomedical understandings of disease can co-exist and do not preclude individuals from participating in biomedical interventions, specifically lymphedema management for those with lymphatic filariasis. There is a continued need for gender-specific psychosocial support groups to address issues particular to men and women as well as a continued need for improved economic opportunities for LF-affected patients. There is an urgent need to scale up LF-related morbidity management programs to reduce the suffering of people affected by LF.

  6. Re-embedding science in the realities of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Eames, Malcolm

    leads to sustainable solutions. A major question facing the S&T policy community, and indeed society at large, is therefore how science and technology can be more effectively harnessed to addressing the sustainability needs and priorities of particular communities. It is in this context that this paper...... in particular times and places, in particular practices and communities of actors. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that science, technology and innovation have a critical role to play in addressing the challenges of sustainable development it is far from evident that investment in science and technology per se...... examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between local communities and academia. Building on the insights from critical theory; mode-2 conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science...

  7. Radioactive Waste Repositories and Incentives to Local Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste (RW) repository depends on various and often community-specific factors. Although radiological risk from a properly constructed low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository is practically negligible, routine safety considerations will favor low populated areas and therefore probably underdeveloped communities. Repository acceptance in such communities is more likely to be facilitated by prospective benefits to local economy, such as infrastructure development and increased employment, as well as by dedicated financial incentives to the community. Direct financial compensation to the local community for acceptance of the repository has been considered in some documents in countries experienced in RW management, but it has not become a widely accepted practice. In Croatia, a possibility for such compensation is mentioned in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository site. In Slovenia, the government has already specified the annual amount of 2.33 million euro as a compensation for 'limited land use' to be shared by local communities in the vicinity of the planned LILW repository during its operation. Applicability of the Slovenian compensations to the prospective joint Slovenian-Croatian repository is not yet clear, at least in the aspect of joint funding. The joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 did conservatively include the compensations into the repository cost estimates, but that might not be retained in subsequent revisions of the Program. According to the agreement between governments of Slovenia and Croatia on the Nuclear power plant Krsko, Croatian side has no obligations to participate in 'public expenditures' introduced after the agreement, as would be the case of community compensations for LILW repository in Slovenia. Before further decisions on joint NPP Krsko waste management are made, including the issue of LILW

  8. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  9. Exploring the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district, KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celenkosini T. Nxumalo

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, in order to develop recommendations to help families cope with such stigma. Methods: This was a descriptive qualitative study; data was collected from a purposive sample of six family members, which resulted in data saturation. Semi-structured interview questions were used during data collection and content analysis using Creswell's (2009 method was done to analyse the data; resulting in the formation of themes and sub-themes which were supported by the participants' responses and existing literature. Results: Participants reported experiencing stigma from the community in the form of isolation, blame and exploitation, community neglect, as well as labelling and stereotyping. The majority of the participants reported using emotion-focused coping mechanisms to deal with the stigma they faced. Participants suggested that education of communities regarding the myths and facts about mental illness may help to curb the stigma faced by the family members of persons with mental illness. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was recommended that a combination of coping strategies, together with the integration of public and private sector support, be used to holistically deal with family related stigma. It was found that ground level education and support to families is the key to curbing family related stigma of mental illness, local NGO's and the clinics would be instrumental in this area.

  10. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE

  11. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Frank; Heinz, Michael; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and performs very similarly to GCE.

  12. Building sustainable health and education partnerships: stories from local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change. © 2015 Institute for Educational Leadership. Journal of School Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American School Health Association.

  13. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garett Sansom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As, barium (Ba, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, lead (Pb, selenium (Se, silver (Ag, and mercury (Hg. Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L, barium at 3296 (μg/L, chromium at 363 (μg/L, lead at 1448 (μg/L, and mercury at 10 (μg/L. These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  14. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-08-23

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  15. What affects local community hospitals' survival in turbulent times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing

    2015-06-01

    Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  16. Participation in design between public sector and local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses three cases where design was carried out at the intersection between public sector and citizen communities. Based on three dominant traditions meeting there–public (municipal) decision-making, Web 2.0 and participatory design–we identify challenges and solutions regarding......-win situations, rather than to maximize participation; to work with motivation for long-term projects across municipality and communities; to identify and work with early movers, and not just representative citizens; and to create space for local municipal agencies to develop bottom-up technological solutions...

  17. Linking vegetable preferences, health and local food systems through community-supported agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jennifer L; Farrell, Tracy J; Rangarajan, Anusuya

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the influence of participation in community-supported agriculture (CSA) on vegetable exposure, vegetable intake during and after the CSA season, and preference related to locally produced vegetables acquired directly from CSA growers. Quantitative surveys were administered at three time points in two harvest seasons to four groups of CSA participants: new full-paying, returning full-paying, new subsidized and returning subsidized members. Questionnaires included a vegetable frequency measure and measures of new and changed vegetable preference. Comparisons were made between new and returning CSA members and between those receiving subsidies and full-paying members. The research was conducted in a rural county in New York, USA. CSA members who agreed to participate in the study. Analysis was based on 151 usable questionnaires. CSA participants reported higher intake of eleven different vegetables during the CSA season, with a sustained increase in some winter vegetables. Over half of the respondents reported trying at least one, and up to eleven, new vegetables. Sustained preferences for CSA items were reported. While those who choose to join a CSA may be more likely to acquire new and expanded vegetable preferences than those who do not, the CSA experience has the potential to enhance vegetable exposure, augment vegetable preference and increase overall vegetable consumption. Dietary patterns encouraged through CSA participation can promote preferences and consumer demand that support local production and seasonal availability. Emphasis on fresh and fresh stored locally produced vegetables is consistent with sustainable community-based food systems.

  18. Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katikiro, R.E.; Macusi, E.D.; Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how the history and process of establishing a marine protected area (MPA) under the control of the state has led to limited interest in community-based management amongst local stakeholders. The study contributes to the understanding of historical events that have discouraged

  19. Causes of schizophrenia reported by urban African American lay community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth

    2008-01-01

    Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes

  20. What we might accomplish by engaging in our local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Sue Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As we learn more about the importance of social determinants of health—describing how poverty, neighborhood, access to healthy food, and education, all play important roles in health—having an educator who can teach about the specific local community assets and influences on health may be as important as teaching which antibiotic to use. Academia and funders could increase this kind of knowledge acquisition and dissemination by rewarding and valuing these clinicians.

  1. ECOLOGICAL ETHICS. VALUES AND NORMS IN LOCAL RURAL COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzimierz Kaczocha; Jan Sikora

    2016-01-01

    An important role in sustainable rural development, involving economy, local communities and nature, should be played by ethics. This paper presents a theoretical and empirical characterization of basic problems of ecological ethics. First and foremost, the study characterizes the philosophical fundamentals of this ethics, with emphasis on ontological and anthropological views of selected thinkers. A universal concept of ecological ethics was proposed, containing values and moral norms that p...

  2. Local community and ethical citizenship: Neoliberal configurations of social protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Čarna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the consequences of redefining citizenship as an ethical category during social protection reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. Ethical citizenship refers to a particular way of defining the relationship between the state and a person; a special politics of behavior that seeks to redefine citizens as moral subjects of responsible communities. The article ethnographically demonstrates that a local community, imagined as a collective of ethical actors, was expected to take over a major portion of financing and organizing social protection. Translating neoliberal policies to BiH, under supervision of the international community, created an ambiguous environment without a «clear system or model» in which personal relationships gained a special relevance. The article argues that favors and informal practices, such as veze and stela, were not strategies people used to overcome problems of postsocialist markets and democracies. Veze and stela have become particularly important for the organization social protection because neoliberal reforms left undefined roles, responsibilities, and procedures of protection. The very need to personalize social protection was a constitutive element of contemporary, global, neoliberal ideas about the relationship between the state and society, while veza and stela enabled people to actively negotiate roles, responsibilities, and procedures of social protection within their local communities.

  3. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043: results from in-depth interviews with a longitudinal cohort of community members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043 is a community- randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of a community-level intervention designed to increase testing and lower HIV incidence in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Thailand. The evaluation design included a longitudinal study with community members to assess attitudinal and behavioral changes in study outcomes including HIV testing norms, HIV-related discussions, and HIV-related stigma.A cohort of 657 individuals across all sites was selected to participate in a qualitative study that involved 4 interviews during the study period. Baseline and 30-month data were summarized according to each outcome, and a qualitative assessment of changes was made at the community level over time.Members from intervention communities described fewer barriers and greater motivation for testing than those from comparison communities. HIV-related discussions in intervention communities were more grounded in personal testing experiences. A change in HIV-related stigma over time was most pronounced in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Participants in the intervention communities from these two sites attributed community-level changes in attitudes to project specific activities.The Project Accept intervention was associated with more favorable social norms regarding HIV testing, more personal content in HIV discussions in all study sites, and qualitative changes in HIV-related stigma in two of five sites.

  4. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043): results from in-depth interviews with a longitudinal cohort of community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; van Rooyen, Heidi; Stankard, Petra; Chingono, Alfred; Muravha, Tshifhiwa; Ntogwisangu, Jacob; Phakathi, Zipho; Srirak, Namtip; F Morin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) is a community- randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of a community-level intervention designed to increase testing and lower HIV incidence in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Thailand. The evaluation design included a longitudinal study with community members to assess attitudinal and behavioral changes in study outcomes including HIV testing norms, HIV-related discussions, and HIV-related stigma. A cohort of 657 individuals across all sites was selected to participate in a qualitative study that involved 4 interviews during the study period. Baseline and 30-month data were summarized according to each outcome, and a qualitative assessment of changes was made at the community level over time. Members from intervention communities described fewer barriers and greater motivation for testing than those from comparison communities. HIV-related discussions in intervention communities were more grounded in personal testing experiences. A change in HIV-related stigma over time was most pronounced in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Participants in the intervention communities from these two sites attributed community-level changes in attitudes to project specific activities. The Project Accept intervention was associated with more favorable social norms regarding HIV testing, more personal content in HIV discussions in all study sites, and qualitative changes in HIV-related stigma in two of five sites.

  5. Security Sector Reform, Local Ownership and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

  6. Short-Term Faculty Members: A National Dilemma and a Local Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Surveys English department chairs nationwide, examining the status of full-time non-tenure-track teachers in English departments of PhD-granting institutions. Finds that universities commonly hire short-term lecturers to teach when regular faculty members are "too expensive" for the job. Reports a plan adopted by Texas Tech University to deal with…

  7. Patterns and Perceptions of Dextromethorphan Use in Adult Members of an Online Dextromethorphan Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, George; McDonald, Michael P; Gabriel, Kara I

    2015-01-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a widely available antitussive that has, at elevated dose levels, euphoric and dissociative effects. This article presents the reported patterns and preferences of DXM use, and perceptions of DXM use among adult members of an online DXM community. Analyses were conducted of quantitative and qualitative responses from nine female and 43 male individuals, aged 18-63 years old. All respondents reported illegal and DXM drug use, beginning, on average, at 15.7 and 17.1 years of age, respectively. The majority of respondents first heard about DXM online or from a friend, preferred to use DXM alone, ingested substances concurrently with DXM to modify its effects, had not been to an emergency room or arrested because of their DXM use, and used DXM for its dissociative and mind-altering effects. DXM was perceived as safe and in no need of further regulation with only 14% of respondents mentioning DXM's addictive qualities. Findings from this sample of adult DXM users reveal a sophisticated subculture in which users report using DXM specifically to induce changes to their mental state and use a variety of substances to modify or enhance DXM's effects.

  8. Local Food Systems Supported by Communities Nationally and Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Mária Bakos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concerns about the long-term sustainability of globalized retail trade as well as the more and more determining health-conscious food-consuming attitude the systems of government respectively the groups of conscious consumers all over the world put emphasis on the popularization and development of local food chains and small-scale supply chains simultaneously they connect the retailers producing highquality, local foods with the direct markets. In my study, I would like to present an overview of the development and current state of community supported agricultural systems on the international and Hungarian level and on the basis of the results of my questionnaire survey. I will indicate whether there are any demand for local food in Hungary and about how much the population of the six investigated settlements are familiar with it. Within this type of alternative local food systems, farmers and their buyers form a community based on social capital (co-operation, mutual trust and mutual responsibility, a direct sales channel, in such a way that cooperation is also beneficial to the producer and the consumer. The producer is in an advantageous position as he can form a direct and long-term relationship with his consumers selling his high-quality products locally consequently he can work in a cost-effective and optimal way. However, the advantage of the consumer is that he can obtain healthy foods from reliable sources contributing to the maintenance of his health respectively to the development of local economy.

  9. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  10. Reaching out: medical students leading in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Aidan; O'Hare, Niamh; Corr, Michael; Sterling, Margaret; Gormley, Gerard J

    2015-06-01

    Queen's University Red Cross is a medical student-led volunteer group with a key aim of promoting social change within local communities and empowering young people to aspire to higher education. We describe 'The Personal Development Certificate', a 12-week community development programme devised by third-year medical students at Queen's University Belfast to target young people who are lacking educational motivation, are disengaged at home or are marginalised through social circumstances. Community-based education is of increasing importance within undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in the UK, and further afield. We evaluated the perceived improvements in key skills such as teamwork, leadership, communication, and problem solving in students following participation in this programme, and the extent to which their attitude and appreciation of community-based medicine changed. [Students] appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments Following facilitation of this community-based initiative, all students reported a perceived improvement in the acquired skill sets. Students made strong links from this programme to previous clinical experiences and appreciated the opportunity to translate a series of classroom-learned skills to real-life environments and interactions. The students' appreciation and understanding of community-based medicine was the single most improved area of our evaluation. We have demonstrated that medical students possess the skills to develop and facilitate their own educational projects. Non-clinical, student-led community projects have the potential to be reproduced using recognised frameworks and guidelines to complement the current undergraduate medical curriculum. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  12. Party Members in Context. Social networks and local branches as context for party membership

    OpenAIRE

    Paulis, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation, I put party members and activists back in context. I stress theimportance of two contextual dimensions, often overlooked in the scientific literature. On theone hand, I put forward social network explanations of party membership and activism,emphasizing the importance of social interactions, relations and structures, which were scarcelyexplored as potential triggers. Like other forms of participation, party membership haspredominantly been portrayed through indi...

  13. Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based environmental Governance beyond the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Marshall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-based approaches to environmental management have become widely adopted over the last two decades. From their origins in grassroots frustrations with governmental inabilities to solve local environmental problems, these approaches are now sponsored frequently by governments as a way of dealing with such problems at much higher spatial levels. However, this 'up-scaling' of community-based approaches has run well ahead of knowledge about how they might work. This article explores how Elinor Ostrom's 'nesting principle' for robust common property governance of large-scale common-pool resources might inform future up-scaling efforts. In particular, I consider how the design of nested governance systems for large-scale environmental problems might be guided by the principle of subsidiarity. The challenges of applying this principle are illustrated by Australia's experience in up-scaling community-based natural resource management from local groups comprising 20-30 members to regional bodies representing hundreds of thousands of people. Seven lessons are distilled for fostering community-based environmental governance as a multi-level system of nested enterprises.

  14. Local Community Advocacy for the Thirty Meter Telescope on the Big Island of Hawai’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Ha, Richard; Imai-Hong, Amber; Silva, Jasmin; Stark, Chris; Naea Stevens, Dashiel

    2018-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope project is a next-generation ground-based optical/infrared telescope planned for construction on Mauna Kea. It is also a prominent social issue in Hawai’i, touching upon a wide range of island-specific issues, including economic/educational opportunities and justice, Hawaii’s long and proud history of astronomy/navigation, the cultural significance of Mauna Kea to some Hawaiians, and Hawaiian sovereignty. In this talk, we describe local community outreach carried out by Hawai’i island resident members of our group, Yes2TMT, and also by the pro-TMT Hawaiian group P.U.E.O based in Hilo. We have cultivated a substantial social media community and persistent on-the-ground advocacy that addresses the many misconceptions about TMT while providing an outlet for concerns from our neighbors. Since early 2016 and thanks to the efforts of many on Hawai’i, support for TMT has increased, especially from the Hawaiian community: the project is now favored by at least 70% of Hawaii’s residents. Our goal is to help bring TMT to Hawai’i under conditions deemed acceptable by the vast majority of the local community.

  15. Feeding guild of non-host community members affects host-foraging efficiency of a parasitic wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de Marjolein; Yang, Daowei; Engel, Bastiaan; Dicke, Marcel; Poelman, Erik H.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between predator and prey, or parasitoid and host, are shaped by trait-and density-mediated processes involving other community members. Parasitoids that lay their eggs in herbivorous insects locate their hosts through infochemicals such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs)

  16. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  17. Network Correlates of Sexual Health Advice Seeking and Substance Use among Members of the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Wong, Carolyn F.; Dunlap, Shannon L.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    House and Ball communities (HBCs), represent a prime context for human immunodeficiency virus prevention with African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons. This study sought to understand the composition and function of social support and sexual networks of HBC members in Los Angeles, California (N = 263). Participants…

  18. MANGROVE RESOURCE USES BY LOCAL COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelagic country of more than 17,504 islands (28 big islands and 17,475 small islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km, which bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They are estimated at 3.2 million hectares growing extensively in the five big islands (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua with various community types comprising of about 157 species (52 species of trees, 21 species of shrubs, 13 species of lyana, seven species of palms, 14 species of grasses, eight species of herbs, three species of parasites, 36 species of epiphytes, three species of ferns. The mangroves resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna, and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs, especially for local community living in surrounding mangroves. For centuries, the Indonesian people have traditionally utilized mangroves. The most significant value of mangrove utilization is the gathering of forest products, classified into timber and non-timber products. The timber refers to poles and firewood, charcoal, and construction materials (e.g. housing material and fishing gears; the latter include tannin, medicines, dye, nypa thatch and shingles, nypa sap for vinegar and winemaking, and food drinks. Traditional uses of mangrove forest products are mainly the direct utilization of the products, usually in small scale. Beside of those, local community are used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for signicantly supporting the welfare of coastal community

  19. HIV Partner Notification Values and Preferences Among Sex Workers, Fishermen, and Mainland Community Members in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Caitlin; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William; Burke, Virginia M; Hutchinson, Naadiya; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2018-01-25

    HIV partner notification involves contacting sexual partners of people who test HIV positive and referring them to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention services. To understand values and preferences of key and general populations in Rakai, Uganda, we conducted 6 focus group discussions and 63 in-depth interviews in high prevalence fishing communities and low prevalence mainland communities. Participants included fishermen and sex workers in fishing communities, male and female mainland community members, and healthcare providers. Questions explored three approaches: passive referral, provider referral, and contract referral. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using a team-based matrix approach. Participants agreed that passive referral was most suitable for primary partners. Provider referral was acceptable in fishing communities for notifying multiple, casual partners. Healthcare providers voiced concerns about limited time, resources, and training for provider-assisted approaches. Options for partner notification may help people overcome barriers to HIV serostatus disclosure and help reach key populations.

  20. AIRPORT NOISE CHARGES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES: APPLICATION TO REGIONAL AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MANTECCHINI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  1. Incorporating Traditional Healing Into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113

  2. Creating Community Engagements Between People with Disability and the Local Community Through Digital Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Funaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.

  3. Compensations to Local Communities in the Krsko NPP Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Knapp, A.; Lokner, V.

    2010-01-01

    In Slovenia, direct financial compensations (for 'limited land use') to local communities hosting nuclear facilities were initially specified by a government Decree from 2003. In Croatia, a possibility of direct financial compensations had been indicated in the land use plan in conjunction with the prospective RW repository siting about a decade earlier, but the topic was subsequently abandoned together with the repository project. In 2004, the joint Slovenian-Croatian Decommissioning and LILW and SF management program for NPP Krsko from 2004 (the 1st revision of the joint Program) conservatively included the compensation amounts from the Slovenian Decree into the cost estimates of LILW and SF repositories, although their location was entirely unspecified ('in Slovenia or in Croatia'). Shortly before the 2nd revision of the joint Program started in the fall of 2008, the Slovenian government had amended its Decree, practically doubling the amounts of the repository compensations. Assuming that some (or possibly all) nuclear facilities and waste, dealt with in the Program, may be located in Slovenia, the revision has adopted a conservative approach to include all compensations to local communities that may be required by the Slovenian regulations into the Program costs. This paper discusses the Slovenian government Decree, its impact on the joint Program costs, and its implications on RW and SF management in the region. The Decree suffers from the lack of self-consistency, clarity, and consistency with the more general legal provisions on which it should have been based, but it may have an important supporting role in the process of RW and SF management facilities siting. The Decree introduced significant additional costs into the joint Program, which have grown from about one hundred million eur in the 1st revision to about half a billion in this revision (depending on the Program scenario). Besides, application of the Decree in the joint Program has set a precedent

  4. Applying the energy productivity index that considers maximized energy reduction on SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.

  5. Perceptions and Attitudes of the Local Community towards the Dagbon Conflict Management in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takyi Harriet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The existence of ethnic conflicts dates back hundreds of years. Indeed most of these ethnic conflicts are characterized by lot of bloodshed and Dagban ethnic conflict in northern Ghana is no exception. The principle of conflicts management recognizes the threat of conflicts to socio-economic development. For this reason, conflict resolution is key and its success is very much dependent on the attitudes of the parties involved. The broad aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of the Local Community towards the Dagbon conflict management since 2002. In view of this, a social survey with a sample size of 212 males and females comprising 200 community members, 6 traditional leaders and 6 members of the Regional Security Council (REGSEC was selected for the study. Structured and in-depth interview was used .The study revealed that social relationships between Abudus and Andanis were very bad, serious security implications still persisted, the two royal families had damaging negative perceptions about each other, and serious human rights abuses in relation to the conflict abound in Dagbon still prevails. It was also revealed that the conflict remained unresolved because of the entrenched positions taken by both parties. Politicians should be decorous in dealing chieftaincy matters as well as the Dagbon conflict. Government should also exercise strong political will by taking bold steps to identify and deal with the perpetrators of the Yendi incident to serve as deterrence for other. These among others would pave the way for a peaceful resolution of the conflict.

  6. Civic engagement and local government strategies for sustainable local community development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Across Europe more and more citizens involve in voluntary grassroots and NGO activity. Concurrently, more local and national governments express an interest in increasing collaboration with voluntary organisations. The curiosity and interest as regards voluntary labour from public bodies seems...... to have grown as the financial crisis puts more and more pressure on municipal and national budgets. As such, the contribution of voluntary associations is seem as a supplement to more and more reduced public services, particularly within the social services field, care for the elderly, etc. but even...... in local communities and in relation to social capital, the diversity within the world of voluntary organisations, and the difference in views between public planners and volunteers of the role of volunteers. Three cases illustrate this as well as the need for capacity building of VCOs and the urban...

  7. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

  8. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

  9. Single-Layer Laser Scanner for Detection and Localization of Unmanned Swarm Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T.; Nowak, S.; Matthaei, J.; Bestmann, U.

    2013-08-01

    In the presented work unmanned vehicles are used for an extra-terrestrial exploration mission. In this scenario a high factor of redundancy for all systems has to be considered. Defective sensors for instance cannot be repaired and any damage has to be compensated through an intelligent use of the remaining sensors and a robust data fusion. Therefore this work proposes the utilization of a singlelayer laser scanner, which is used for Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) for the compensation of a defective relative positioning system. An Extended Kalman-Filter (EKF) with error states is used to perform the loosely coupled integration of the estimated states and the measured relative position in discrete updates. Subsequently the improvement of the navigation solution onboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be estimated. The outcomes of a specifically developed simulation will be shown, delivering theoretic results for the proposed method. A flight test is done finally in order to prove the capability of the laser scanner to detect and locate an UAV.

  10. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  11. Extracellular Lipase and Protease Production from a Model Drinking Water Bacterial Community Is Functionally Robust to Absence of Individual Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G Willsey

    Full Text Available Bacteria secrete enzymes into the extracellular space to hydrolyze macromolecules into constituents that can be imported for microbial nutrition. In bacterial communities, these enzymes and their resultant products can be modeled as community property. Our goal was to investigate the impact of individual community member absence on the resulting community production of exoenzymes (extracellular enzymes involved in lipid and protein hydrolysis. Our model community contained nine bacteria isolated from the potable water system of the International Space Station. Bacteria were grown in static conditions individually, all together, or in all combinations of eight species and exoproduct production was measured by colorimetric or fluorometric reagents to assess short chain and long chain lipases, choline-specific phospholipases C, and proteases. The exoenzyme production of each species grown alone varied widely, however, the enzyme activity levels of the mixed communities were functionally robust to absence of any single species, with the exception of phospholipase C production in one community. For phospholipase C, absence of Chryseobacterium gleum led to increased choline-specific phospholipase C production, correlated with increased growth of Burkholderia cepacia and Sphingomonas sanguinis. Because each individual species produced different enzyme activity levels in isolation, we calculated an expected activity value for each bacterial mixture using input levels or known final composition. This analysis suggested that robustness of each exoenzyme activity is not solely mediated by community composition, but possibly influenced by bacterial communication, which is known to regulate such pathways in many bacteria. We conclude that in this simplified model of a drinking water bacterial community, community structure imposes constraints on production and/or secretion of exoenzymes to generate a level appropriate to exploit a given nutrient environment.

  12. Understanding the Role of Trust in Virtual Communities of Practice: Perspectives from Members and Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thu Pho, Hang; Saustrup, Nina; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Trust has different connotations characterized by various aspects such as sociology, psychology and economics. However, the focus of this paper is on trust within virtual context in the field of digital information, where trust reflects human-computer interaction. Virtual communities have extended...... the reach of our interactions beyond the geographical limitations of traditional communities, forming new kinds of communities based on shared practice (Wenger 2006). On this basis, we emphasize trust in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) where online groups exchange information, knowledge...... and experience. This paper is qualitative based on literature studies and employs a comparative methodology in studying trust, trust perception and psycho-social relations to VCoPs. This paper investigates three case studies of virtual community providers (VCPs) (Facebook, LinkedIn and Experts-Exchange) grounded...

  13. Why do local communities support or oppose seawater desalination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Heck, N.; Faraola, S.; Paytan, A.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater shortages have become a global problem due to increasing water consumption and environmental changes which are reducing the reliability of traditional water resources. One option to address water shortages in coastal areas is the use of seawater desalination. Desalination technology is particularly valued for the production of high quality drinking water and consistent production. However, seawater desalination is controversial due to potential environmental, economic, and societal impacts and lack of public support for this water supply method. Compared to alternative potable water production methods, such as water recycling, little is known about public attitudes towards seawater desalination and factors that shape local support or rejection. Our research addresses this gap and explores variables that influence support for proposed desalination plants in the Monterey Bay region, where multiple facilities have been proposed in recent years. Data was collected via a questionnaire-based survey among a random sample of coastal residents and marine stakeholders between June-July, 2016. Findings of the study identify the influence of socio-demographic variables, knowledge about desalination, engagement in marine activities, perception of the environmental context, and the existence of a National Marine Sanctuary on local support. Research outcome provide novel insights into public attitudes towards desalination and enhances our understanding of why communities might support or reject this water supply technology.

  14. Measuring the Effect of Using Simulated Security Awareness Training and Testing on Members of Virtual Communities of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L. Tidwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Information security (Infosec has become a major challenge for all private and public organizations. The protecting of proprietary and secret data and the proper awareness of what is entailed in protecting this data is necessary in all organizations. How does simulation and training influence virtual communities of practice information security awareness over time and with a variety of security scenarios. Can members of a virtual community be significantly changed in how they respond to routine security processes and attempts to breach security or violate the security policy of their organization? How does deterrence play a role in this prevention and education? A study is planned that will train and test users of a virtual community of practice over a 3 month period of time, via a web interface, and using simulated events, to see if the planned security awareness training will be effective in changing their responses to the events and further testing.

  15. Hiring Diverse Faculty Members in Community Colleges: A Case Study in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Eugene Oropeza

    2012-01-01

    As the diversity of students on college campuses continues to increase, the racial and ethnic diversity among faculty members continues to lag (Jayakumar, Howard, Allen, & Han, 2009; Turner, Myers, & Creswell, 1999). An often overlooked segment of this problem is the 2-year-college setting. With increasing numbers of students of color achieving…

  16. Barriers to Local Residents’ Participation in Community-Based Tourism: Lessons from Houay Kaeng Village in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sangkyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the barriers to local residents’ participation in the process of community-based tourism planning and development in a developing country. Focusing on the case of Houay Kaeng Village in Sayabouly Province, Laos, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted by adopting in-depth interviews with the various levels of local community’s members. The key barriers to local community participation identified in this research include: (1 low education levels and lack of knowledge about tourism; (2 poor living conditions and lack of financial support; (3 busy daily routine and lack of time for tourism participation; (4 local community’s perception of tourism as a seasonal business with low income; and (5 power disparities, institutional disincentives and local’s distrust in authorities. The results suggest that only a small number of the local residents in the village were satisfied with their current and on-going participation expressing their strong willingness to continue in participating in the process of tourism planning and development, whereas a large group of the residents were not willing to do it at all in the future. The paper further discusses implications for the government and communities in regard to community-based sustainable tourism development.

  17. HIV self-testing values and preferences among sex workers, fishermen, and mainland community members in Rakai, Uganda: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Burke

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex. Concerns focused on the absence of a health professional, risks of careless kit disposal and limited linkage to care. Participants also discussed issues of kit distribution strategies and cost, among others. Ultimately, most participants concluded that benefits outweighed risks. Our findings suggest a potential role for HIV self-testing across populations in these settings, particularly among these key populations. Program implementers will need to consider how to balance HIV self-testing accessibility with necessary professional support.

  18. Community member and faith leader perspectives on the process of building trusting relationships between communities and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Vaughan, Elaine; Pham, Jennifer; Tran, Tuyet; Jones, Marissa; Baker, Dean; Swanson, James M; Olshansky, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    In the first phase of this research, we conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed seven focus groups with more than 50 English- or Spanish-speaking women of childbearing age. Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) expectation that participation would involve relationships based on trust that is built over time and impacted by cultural factors; (2) perceived characteristics of research staff that would help facilitate the development of trusting relationships; (3) perceptions about the location of the visits that may affect trust; (4) perceptions of a research study and trust for the institution conducting the study may affect trust; (5) connecting the study to larger communities, including faith communities, could affect trust and willingness to participate. In the second phase of this research, we conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed interviews with leaders from diverse faith communities to explore the potential for research partnerships between researchers and faith communities. In addition to confirming themes identified in focus groups, faith leaders described an openness to research partnerships between the university and faith communities and considerations for the formation of these partnerships. Faith leaders noted the importance of finding common ground with researchers, establishing and maintaining trusting relationships, and committing to open, bidirectional communication. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Local Alternative for Energy Supply : Performance Assessment of Integrated Community Energy Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koirala, B.P.; Chaves Avila, J.P.; Gomez, T.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated community energy systems (ICESs) are emerging as a modern development to re-organize local energy systems allowing simultaneous integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and engagement of local communities. Although local energy initiatives, such as ICESs are rapidly emerging due

  20. Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community based tourism (CBT) is seen as an opportunity which mass tourism does not offer for, especially, rural communities to develop their natural and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. The point of CBT is that the community, collectively and individually, gains a livelihood from ...

  1. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Local community detection as pattern restoration by attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Densely connected parts in networks are referred to as "communities". Community structure is a hallmark of a variety of real-world networks. Individual communities in networks form functional modules of complex systems described by networks. Therefore, finding communities in networks is essential to approaching and understanding complex systems described by networks. In fact, network science has made a great deal of effort to develop effective and efficient methods for detecting communities in networks. Here we put forward a type of community detection, which has been little examined so far but will be practically useful. Suppose that we are given a set of source nodes that includes some (but not all) of "true" members of a particular community; suppose also that the set includes some nodes that are not the members of this community (i.e., "false" members of the community). We propose to detect the community from this "imperfect" and "inaccurate" set of source nodes using attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks. Community detection by the proposed method can be viewed as restoration of the original pattern from a deteriorated pattern, which is analogous to cue-triggered recall of short-term memory in the brain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method using synthetic networks and real social networks for which correct communities are known. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory: Building partnerships and developing tools to support local Tribal community response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. D.; Wee, B.; Kuslikis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Response of Tribal nations and Tribal communities to current and emerging climate change challenges requires active participation of stakeholders who have effective access to relevant data, information and analytical tools. The Tribal Lands Collaboratory (TLC), currently under development, is a joint effort between the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), the Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri), and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). The vision of the TLC is to create an integrative platform that enables coordination between multiple stakeholders (e.g. Tribal resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, farmers, ranchers, and other local community members) to collaborate on locally relevant climate change issues. The TLC is intended to facilitate the transformation of data into actionable information that can inform local climate response planning. The TLC will provide the technical mechanisms to access, collect and analyze data from both internal and external sources (e.g. NASA's Giovanni climate data portal, Ameriflux or USA National Phenology Network) while also providing the social scaffolds to enable collaboration across Tribal communities and with members of the national climate change research community. The prototype project focuses on phenology, a branch of science focused on relationships between climate and the seasonal timing of biological phenomena. Monitoring changes in the timing and duration of phenological stages in plant and animal co­­­­mmunities on Tribal lands can provide insight to the direct impacts of climate change on culturally and economically significant Tribal resources . The project will leverage existing phenological observation protocols created by the USA-National Phenology Network and NEON to direct data collection efforts and will be tailored to the specific needs and concerns of the community. Phenology observations will be captured and managed within the Collaboratory

  4. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eBabauta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode with tip size ~20 µm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  5. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babauta, Jerome T; Atci, Erhan; Ha, Phuc T; Lindemann, Stephen R; Ewing, Timothy; Call, Douglas R; Fredrickson, James K; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  6. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  7. Perceptions of Corporal Punishment among Creole and Maroon Professionals and Community Members in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Nieuwendam, Josta; Moerman, Gerben; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    Child discipline is a vital part of child-rearing in all cultures. The need for child discipline is generally recognised, but considerable debate exists regarding the best methods. Corporal punishment (CP) is a dominant practice in Caribbean cultures. This qualitative study investigated community

  8. 77 FR 14787 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... 2010 fifth round community support review cycle: Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston--District 1 People's... Association Canton Georgia. Bank of Chickamauga Chickamauga Georgia. The Peoples Bank Eatonton Georgia. The........... Kentucky. Peoples Bank of Kentucky, Inc Flemingsburg......... Kentucky. The Farmers Bank Hardinsburg...

  9. Lighting the Way: Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College Serves as a Beacon Light for Tribal Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Sherrole

    2015-01-01

    On the shores of Lake Superior, the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC), a small cluster of Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), keep their fires alive in the face of daunting pressures to let go of their ways. After the ravages of war, colonization, and territorial loss, KBIC continues to make a stand for their people and future generations. Their…

  10. 77 FR 35965 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .... Crown Bank Ocean City New Jersey. Hopewell Valley Community Bank Pennington New Jersey. Rumson-Fair... Thomasville Georgia. The Park Avenue Bank Valdosta Georgia. Oconee State Bank Watkinsville Georgia. Atlantic... First Bank, National Forest Ohio. Association. The Croghan Colonial Bank Fremont Ohio. Ohio Catholic...

  11. Community College Faculty Members' Perceived Multicultural Teaching Competence and Attitudes Regarding Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittz, Mia Web

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the Survey of Community College Faculty (SCCF), a combined survey of the Multicultural Teaching Scale (MTS) and Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment (PADAA) that framed the research. The MTS assessed self-reported cultural competencies categorized into five dimensions: (a) Content Integration, (b) Knowledge Construction,…

  12. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  13. Being connected to the local community through a Festival mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Wirth, Richard; Hanrahan, Benjamin; Chen, Jiawei; Lee, Sooyeon; Carroll, John M.

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report our investigation into how using and interacting with a local festival mobile app enhanced users’ festival experiences and connected them to other local users and their community. We explored the relationship between users’ perceived basic affordances of mobile technology, perceived opportunities of the festival app, and three elements that sustain the local community — attachment, engagement, and social support networks. Based on the usage logs of 348 active users, as well as survey responses from 80 users, we present a mobile-mediated local community framework and found that engagement is a key mediator of mobile experiences and facets of community.

  14. The nuclear fuel cycle: review on R and D policies in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Member States of the European Communities. It covers the following steps of the fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste management and, in addition, decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Research carried out both in the public and private sectors has been covered. However, information on the scope and volume of research carried out in the private sector is only in part available, as access to such information is difficult, in particular where it concerns activities which have a competitive commercial character

  15. Local participation in complex technological projects as bridging between different communities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, K.; Craps, M.; Dewulf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent

  16. Building Trust in Natural Resource Management Within Local Communities: A Case Study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mae A.; Leahy, Jessica E.; Anderson, Dorothy H.; Jakes, Pamela J.

    2007-03-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency’s programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A significant body of research has examined barriers to effective public participation as well as strategies for relationship building in planning processes; many of which point to trust as a key factor. Trust is especially tenuous in local communities. This paper explores perceptions of trust, expectations for management, as well as constraints to building trust. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 community members and USDA Forest Service personnel at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in northeastern Illinois. The interviews revealed that trust is perceived as important to effective management. Distinct expectations for management outcomes and processes emerged, including the values, knowledge, and capacity demonstrated in management decisions and actions and opportunities provided for communication, collaboration, and cooperation within the agency-community relationship. The case study identified several constraints to building trust, including competing values, knowledge gaps, limited community engagement, and staff turnover.

  17. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...

  18. Perceived Stigma towards Leprosy among Community Members Living Close to Nonsomboon Leprosy Colony in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Nils; Adhikar, Bipin; Raut, Shristi; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpretation of Leprosy as a sickness differs among society. The set of beliefs, knowledge and perceptions towards a disease play a vital role in the construction of stigma towards a disease. The main purpose of this study was to explore the extent and correlates of the perceived stigma towards leprosy in the community living close to the leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 leprosy unaffected community participants, above the age of 18 who were living close to the Leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Thailand. Each participant was asked a questionnaire containing characteristics of the participants in terms of socio-demographic background and knowledge regarding the disease. In addition perceived stigma towards leprosy was measured using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) questionnaire. Results Among EMIC items, shame or embarrassment in the community due to leprosy was felt by 54.5%, dislike to buy food from leprosy affected persons were 49.8% and difficulty to find work for leprosy affected persons were perceived by 47.1%. Higher total EMIC score was found in participants age 61 years or older (p = 0.021), staying longer in the community (p = 0.005), attending fewer years of education (p = 0.024) and who were unemployed (p = 0.08). Similarly, perceptions about leprosy such as difficult to treat (p = 0.015), severe disease (p = 0.004) and punishment by God (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with higher perceived stigma. Conclusions Perceived stigma towards leprosy was found highest among participants with age 61 years or older, longer duration of stay in community close to the leprosy colony, lower duration of education and participants who were unemployed had higher perceived stigma. Similarly, participants with perceptions of leprosy such as difficult to treat, severe disease and punishment by God had higher perceived stigma towards

  19. Local School Board Members Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Local school board members need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Most state public reporting is designed to serve information needs, and are geared toward compliance with state…

  20. Newly qualified nurses — Experiences of interaction with members of a community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Lars; Hounsgaard, Lise; Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2012-01-01

    of their career. Studies indicate that interaction between NQNs and their colleagues has an important influence of the way in which the NQNs experience their participation in the community of practice. Methodology: Nine NQNs participated in the study. The data collection took place six months after graduating...... for Clinical Practice: NQNs' participation in a COP is influenced by the extent to which they are included in both professional and social interactions and afforded the opportunity to contribute with knowledge and experience from their nursing studies. Furthermore, the study indicates that NQNs' experience...

  1. A new scale to measure family members' perception of community health care services for persons with Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Valmi D; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, Jack J; Reed, David A

    2010-06-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive genetic brain disease leading to disruptive cognitive, behavioural and physical impairments. Persons with the condition and their caregivers need appropriate and accessible health care services to help them manage the disease adequately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures family members' perception of community health care services (CHCS) for persons with HD. A methodological design was used to examine the initial reliability and dimensionality of the CHCS scale among 245 family members of persons with a diagnosis of HD. Data analysis consisted of computing Cronbach's alpha coefficients, calculating the 95% confidence interval for alpha and performing item-analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Reliability of the scale based on Cronbach's alpha was 0.83. Factor analysis using principal component analysis and varimax rotation suggested that three interpretable factors underlie the scale. Factor 1, HD knowledge, had alpha = 0.82, eigenvalue of 4.67 and explained 33.42% of the variance; factor 2, HD community resources, had alpha = 0.62, eigenvalue of 1.68 and explained 12.02% of the variance; factor 3, individualized HD management, had alpha = 0.77, eigenvalue of 1.45 and explained 10.39% of the variance. Findings from this study provide evidence of both construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the CHCS scale. Further psychometric testing of the scale in other samples of family caregivers of persons with HD is warranted.

  2. Meeting the needs of a community: teaching evidence-based youth violence prevention initiatives to members of strategic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Daria C; Andresen, Pamela A; Winn, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is among the most serious health threats in the nation today. Violence disproportionately affects young people and people of color. Although the national rates of violent injury and homicide have shown a decline in most regions of the United States over the past 15 years, the rates of violence and related injuries among youth remain unacceptably high. The prevention of youth violence has been a priority of health departments nationwide, including the Cook County Department of Public Health. The goal of this project was to provide key community leaders, social service workers, and nurses within suburban Cook County with educational sessions on Blueprints for Violence Prevention, an initiative to promote evidence-based youth violence prevention programs.

  3. Assessing the Impact of a Program Designed to Develop Sustainability Leadership amongst Staff Members in Higher Education Institutes: A Case Study from a Community of Practice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaher, Iris; Avissar, Ilana

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of a sustainability leadership development program (SLDP) designed to develop staff members as leaders who encourage sustainability practices within institutions of higher education (IHE). Using the framework of community of practice (CoP), we explored the program's contribution by interviewing 16 staff members who…

  4. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  5. Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community-Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…

  6. Perceptions and experiences of community members on caring for preterm newborns in rural Mangochi, Malawi: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Austrida; Munthali, Alister C; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla

    2014-12-02

    The number of preterm birth is increasing worldwide, especially in low income countries. Malawi has the highest incidence of preterm birth in the world, currently estimated at 18.1 percent. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived causes of preterm birth, care practices for preterm newborn babies and challenges associated with preterm birth among community members in Mangochi District, southern Malawi. We conducted 14 focus group discussions with the following groups of participants: mothers (n = 4), fathers (n = 6) and grandmothers (n = 4) for 110 participants. We conducted 20 IDIs with mothers to preterm newborns (n = 10), TBAs (n = 6) and traditional healers (n = 4). A discussion guide was used to facilitate the focus group and in-depth interview sessions. Data collection took place between October 2012 and January 2013. We used content analysis to analyze data. Participants mentioned a number of perceptions of preterm birth and these included young and old maternal age, heredity, sexual impurity and maternal illness during pregnancy. Provision of warmth was the most commonly reported component of care for preterm newborns. Participants reported several challenges to caring for preterm newborns such as lack of knowledge on how to provide care, poverty, and the high time burden of care leading to neglect of household, farming and business duties. Women had the main responsibility for caring for preterm newborns. In this community, the reported poor care practices for preterm newborns were associated with poverty and lack of knowledge of how to properly care for these babies at home. Action is needed to address the current care practices for preterm babies among the community members.

  7. Sometimes more is more: iterative participatory design of infographics for engagement of community members with varying levels of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bales, Michael E; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To collaborate with community members to develop tailored infographics that support comprehension of health information, engage the viewer, and may have the potential to motivate health-promoting behaviors. The authors conducted participatory design sessions with community members, who were purposively sampled and grouped by preferred language (English, Spanish), age group (18-30, 31-60, >60 years), and level of health literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate). Research staff elicited perceived meaning of each infographic, preferences between infographics, suggestions for improvement, and whether or not the infographics would motivate health-promoting behavior. Analysis and infographic refinement were iterative and concurrent with data collection. Successful designs were information-rich, supported comparison, provided context, and/or employed familiar color and symbolic analogies. Infographics that employed repeated icons to represent multiple instances of a more general class of things (e.g., apple icons to represent fruit servings) were interpreted in a rigidly literal fashion and thus were unsuitable for this community. Preliminary findings suggest that infographics may motivate health-promoting behaviors. Infographics should be information-rich, contextualize the information for the viewer, and yield an accurate meaning even if interpreted literally. Carefully designed infographics can be useful tools to support comprehension and thus help patients engage with their own health data. Infographics may contribute to patients' ability to participate in the Learning Health System through participation in the development of a robust data utility, use of clinical communication tools for health self-management, and involvement in building knowledge through patient-reported outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Using Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Examine the Local HIV Test and Treatment Care Continuum in Order to Reduce Community Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Lounsbury, David; Green, Helena Danielle; Abbott, Maryann; Berman, Marcie; Rohena, Lucy; Gonzalez, Rosely; Lang, Shawn; Mosher, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Achieving community-level goals to eliminate the HIV epidemic requires coordinated efforts through community consortia with a common purpose to examine and critique their own HIV testing and treatment (T&T) care system and build effective tools to guide their efforts to improve it. Participatory system dynamics (SD) modeling offers conceptual, methodological, and analytical tools to engage diverse stakeholders in systems conceptualization and visual mapping of dynamics that undermine community-level health outcomes and identify those that can be leveraged for systems improvement. We recruited and engaged a 25-member multi-stakeholder Task Force, whose members provide or utilize HIV-related services, to participate in SD modeling to examine and address problems of their local HIV T&T service system. Findings from the iterative model building sessions indicated Task Force members' increasingly complex understanding of the local HIV care system and demonstrated their improved capacity to visualize and critique multiple models of the HIV T&T service system and identify areas of potential leverage. Findings also showed members' enhanced communication and consensus in seeking deeper systems understanding and options for solutions. We discuss implications of using these visual SD models for subsequent simulation modeling of the T&T system and for other community applications to improve system effectiveness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  9. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  10. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    people in need, but a process of empowerment where rural communities can acquire mastery over their .... in each zone to make the study more interactive and participatory oriented. Items discussed were .... Friends and neighbours. 22.00. 3 ... communities because of their high influence on the people. When extension ...

  11. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  12. The Role of Local Leaders in Community Development Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... like their male counterparts. Incompatibility of government policies with community programmes (= 3.84), insufficient sources of funds (= 3.83), poor implementation of programmes (= 3.80), and gender bias (= 3.77) constituted the major constraints to effective leadership in community development programmes in the area.

  13. Community-led local development approach principles implementation when forming a regional local development projects support system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Udod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a brief description of the Community-led local development approach (local development under the leadership of the community, CLLD and the main purpose of its use in the European Union. The study indicated periods of the major initiatives to support local development in EU. Moreover the article posted CLLD approach principles’ evolution and the basic principles of the LEADER method and its application in CLLD, which can be applied in Ukraine. Subject to the provisions of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC for further CLLD-approach distribution the five trends were identified that must be considered when forming a Regional local development projects support system in Ukraine: Multi-fund financing; Unification; Networking and collaboration; Extending the approach; Simplifying the process. The characteristic of the present phase of CLLD-approach, in particular, of the European Network for Rural Development (ENRD, which attaches great importance to the dissemination of the most effective CLLD practices and establish partnerships between communities and territories where the approach is implemented. The study found out the relationship between Community-led local development and Community-driven development (CDD supported by the World Bank.

  14. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  15. Chinese student mobility, local engagement and transformation of Chinese communities in England: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese st...

  16. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K.; Fordyce, James A.; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that...

  17. BENEFITS OF LOCAL PRODUCTIVE ARRANGEMENTS (LPA: PERCEPTIONS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE APICULTURE NETWORK ‘REDE ABELHA CEARÁ’ - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlene Vieira de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many projects are currently being developed in Brazil by governmental and non-governmental agencies to support community-based production initiatives, especially through local productive arrangements (LPA. The apiculture network ‛Rede Abelha Ceará’ in Northeastern Brazil is an example of the dynamics of this novel form of productive organization, in which small-scale producers increase their competitiveness through LPAs. The present study poses the question: What are the perceptions of the members of ‛Rede Abelha Ceará’ regarding the dynamics of the network? To answer the question, we inquired beekeepers about the benefits obtained from their affiliation with the network. The investigation took the form of case study with findings submitted to content analysis. The results show that beekeepers recognized benefits derived from participation in the network, especially as related to cooperative purchasing, access to government credit and training in honey production processes. However, the synergy of the network was not fully exploited as half the interviewees reported not using the network logo on their products.

  18. Use of a Unique Farmers' Market Program Targeting Lower-Income Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brittany; Greer, Anna E; Zimeri, Anne Marie; Hernandez, Daphne C; Ahn, SangNam; Jones, Shaakira; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2018-06-01

    We examined use of a farmers' market that leverages community partnerships to provide free produce to lower-income persons. Participants (n = 422) were asked to complete a questionnaire and given an ID number, which was used to track market use from 2014 to 2015. Chi square tests were used to examine associations between 2014/2015 market use and reasons for market use, financial support received, and how attendees had learned about the market. Ordinal regression was used to identify household characteristics associated with increased market attendance. Although the proportion of lower-income attendees declined over the study period, a substantial proportion of households in 2014 (69.1%) and 2015 (54.6%) were below the poverty threshold. We identified significant differences in attendees' reasons for market use and ways attendees heard about the market from 2014 to 2015. The most frequently reported reason for 2014 market use was retirement/fixed income (P market through flyers (P market used the market more times per year (P market fewer times per year. While a substantial proportion of lower-income persons used the free-produce market, frequency of use was still lowest among this group indicating a need to address barriers beyond produce cost.

  19. Potential Conflict Among ASEAN Member States in The Implementation of The ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Pramono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The findings in this article defy the common assumption that the free market, including the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC in Southeast Asia, is correlated with the creation of a spillover and complex interdependency, reducing conflicts between countries in the region. This finding could well contribute as a theory in the academic sphere and as policies in the practical world. The author uses a theoretical framework of structural realism to explain the potential conflict between countries of the Southeast Asian region. There are four potential conflict situations among countries in the implementation of AEC: firstly, the structure of economic disparity. This situation would construct an identity of in-group – out-group or “us” versus “them” in the context of who gains and loses in the AEC. Secondly, similarity of natural resources. This fact led the Southeast Asian countries to compete and create standardization wherein each party is in hostile competition to claim valid findings and arguments associated with efforts to reduce or stop the flow of imports into their respective countries. Thirdly, competition among businesses, in which AEC constructed free market could potentially provoke the emergence of regional trading cartel. Fourthly, the structure of military power. Historical records show that any economic growth occurring in a country will be accompanied by the growth of its military budget.

  20. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  1. Local and regional factors influencing zooplankton communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-19

    Feb 19, 2010 ... important grazer of algae during periods of high zooplank- ton abundance. This is .... arctic tundra pond microcrustacean communities. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. ... Guides to the Identification of the Micro- invertebrates of the ...

  2. Community Participation and Local Government Planning in Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and planning, and promulgated it in 2001. This paper provides a critical appraisal of efforts to put local government planning into practice in Lesotho through the use of the 'Quick and SMART' local government planning model. This article uses the SWOT analysis technique to undertake a critical appraisal of this planning ...

  3. Longitudinal spirometry among patients in a treatment program for community members with World Trade Center (WTC)-related illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengling; Qian, Meng; Cheng, Qinyi; Berger, Kenneth I.; Shao, Yongzhao; Turetz, Meredith; Kazeros, Angeliki; Parsia, Sam; Goldring, Roberta M.; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Marmor, Michael; Reibman, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The course of lung function in community members exposed to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes remains undefined. We studied longitudinal spirometry among patients in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTCEHC) treatment program. Methods Observational study of 946 WTCEHC patients with repeated spirometry measures analyzed on the population as a whole and stratified by smoking status, initial spirometry pattern and WTC-related exposure category. Results Improvement in forced expiratory volume (FVC; 54.4 ml/year; 95% CI: 45.0-63.8) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; 36.8 ml/year; 95% CI: 29.3-44.3) was noted for the population as a whole. Heavy smokers did not improve. Spirometry changes differed depending on initial spirometry pattern and exposure category. Conclusions These data demonstrate spirometry improvement in select populations suggesting reversibility in airway injury and reinforcing the importance of continued treatment. PMID:22995806

  4. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies. © 2010 APJPH.

  5. Local and Community History: Some Cautionary Remarks on an Idea Whose Time Has Returned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes past local history movements and addresses benefits and problems for historical studies and history teaching in the current upsurge of interest in local and community history. Concludes that local history must transcend parochialism in order to see the larger picture. (KC)

  6. Catalogue of facilities in Member States of the European Community for testing the packaging of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format

  7. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  8. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-22

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.

  9. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga

    Full Text Available With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs, the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities' and PA staff's views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation.

  10. Integrating Local Public Health Agencies into the Homeland Security Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Patricia D

    2007-01-01

    After more than seven years of funding through The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, local public health agencies have made inconsistent progress in fulfilling their Homeland Security objectives...

  11. Challenging obduracy: how local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alexander

    Paper discussing the contribution of local energy initiatives to the energy transition in the Netherlands. Highlights: New energy movement challenges present governance of energy system. Sustainability and strengthening regional economy are primary goals. Democratic cooperative model should

  12. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetables listed by FAO shows that onion ranks second after ... who sell their produce in local, regional and international markets. ..... Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute. (TOSCI), a seed .... through integrated and organic horticulture.

  13. Does stability in local community composition depend on temporal variation in rates of dispersal and connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf

    2015-04-01

    In ecology understanding variation in connectivity is central for how biodiversity is maintained. Field studies on dispersal and temporal dynamics in community regulating processes are, however, rare. We test the short-term temporal stability in community composition in a soft-sediment benthic community by determining among-sampling interval similarity in community composition. We relate stability to in situ measures of connectivity (wind, wave, current energy) and rates of dispersal (quantified in different trap types). Waves were an important predictor of when local community taxa are most likely to disperse in different trap-types, suggesting that wave energy is important for connectivity in a region. Community composition at the site was variable and changed stochastically over time. We found changes in community composition (occurrence, abundance, dominance) to be greater at times when connectivity and rates of dispersal were low. In response to periods of lower connectedness dominant taxa in the local community only exhibited change in their relative abundance. In contrast, locally less abundant taxa varied in both their presence, as well as in relative abundance. Constancy in connectivity and rates of dispersal promotes community stability and persistence, suggesting that local community composition will be impacted by changes in the spatial extent over which immigration and emigration operates in the region. Few empirical studies have actually measured dispersal directly in a multi-species context to demonstrate the role it plays in maintaining local community structure. Even though our study does not evaluate coexistence over demographic time scales, it importantly demonstrates that dispersal is not only important in initial recruitment or following a disturbance, but also key in maintaining local community composition.

  14. The effectiveness of an online support group for members of the community with depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet support groups (ISGs are popular, particularly among people with depression, but there is little high quality evidence concerning their effectiveness. AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an ISG for reducing depressive symptoms among community members when used alone and in combination with an automated Internet-based psychotherapy training program. METHOD: Volunteers with elevated psychological distress were identified using a community-based screening postal survey. Participants were randomised to one of four 12-week conditions: depression Internet Support Group (ISG, automated depression Internet Training Program (ITP, combination of the two (ITP+ISG, or a control website with delayed access to e-couch at 6 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: There was no change in depressive symptoms relative to control after 3 months of exposure to the ISG. However, both the ISG alone and the combined ISG+ITP group showed significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms at 6 and 12 months follow-up than the control group. The ITP program was effective relative to control at post-intervention but not at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ISGs for depression are promising and warrant further empirical investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN65657330.

  15. The MEDIA model: An innovative method for digitizing and training community members to facilitate an HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Tiffaney; Johnson, Erin; Lambert, Danielle N; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2018-02-17

    As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention. Lay educators were trained by translating a face-to-face Training of Facilitators (TOF) to a digital platform using the MEDIA (Motivate-Engage-Digitize-Implement-Assess) model. Formative evaluations, consultation with experts in the digital platform of choice, and the experience of two P4 for Women Master Trainers informed our translation. The model guided the translation process as our research team worked alongside topical experts and a production company to develop storyboards for core curriculum activities, which were later scripted and filmed with mock participants. A user guide, toolkit, and program website were also developed as supplemental materials to accompany the video training. Lessons learned from this study indicate future attempts at digitizing TOFs should keep in mind that digitization can be a time-consuming process, pilot testing in the new format is necessary even for a previously tested intervention, and the structure provided by facilitators in face-to-face training must be embedded into the format of digitized trainings.

  16. From Sociocultural Disintegration to Community Connectedness Dimensions of Local Community Concepts and Their Effects on Psychological Health of Its Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of community mental health promotion studies in Lofoten, Norway, the concept of sociocultural integration is used to describe properties of a local community that are related to people's psychological health. Starting with Durkheim's description of a cohesive society, we compare different concepts that are related to sociocultural integration, for example, sense of community, social capital, and social cohesion. We then examine the relationship of various individual oriented social psychological concepts to sociocultural integration. These concepts often share theoretical and operational definitions. The concept of sociocultural integration in the Lofoten studies was proved to be very valuable in understanding how the properties of a community can affect people's mental health and their social psychological properties. It has also shown its value in the planning of mental health services and demonstrating its success in concrete community-based mental health promotion projects. Thus they could make important contributions to further studies and actions in local communities where the intersection between the individual, their social network, and their local community occurs.

  17. Evaluating the Struggles with International Students and Local Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, Weronika A.

    2015-01-01

    International students are not only important for universities, but even more so to the host communities, towns and regions where higher education institutions are located. This pilot study looked at a public university located in a small college town in Ohio. The study explored the relationship between international students and the local…

  18. Acting Locally: A Guide to Model, Community and Demonstration Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Debbie Pella

    1993-01-01

    Describes Canada's efforts in sustainable forestry, which refers to management practices that ensure long-term health of forest ecosystems so that they can continue to provide environmental, social, and economic benefits. Describes model forests, community forests, and demonstration forests and lists contacts for each of the projects. (KS)

  19. Open Source Communities in Technical Writing: Local Exigence, Global Extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill

    2011-01-01

    By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…

  20. The Community Development Process: The Rediscovery of Local Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, William W.; Biddle, Loureide J.

    The development process in two communities, a mining county in rural Appalachia and a deteriorating neighborhood in a northern industrial city, is presented in case-study form. Concepts and commonly used terms are defined; a process of development is identified that can be used in groups small enough to permit attention to the growth of persons.…

  1. Evaluation of a Community College Technical Program by Local Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 11 of 17 plastics employers showed a low level of satisfaction with community college plastics courses. Focus groups of 10 plastics students indicated satisfaction with course costs and locations. Courses focused on associate degree requirements and articulation, whereas employers were interested in focused training for jobs and…

  2. Building Sustainable Health and Education Partnerships: Stories from Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people's educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high…

  3. Asynchrony among local communities stabilises ecosystem function of metacommunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, Kevin R.; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Koerner, Sally E.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal stability of ecosystem functioning increases the predictability and reliability of ecosystem services, and understanding the drivers of stability across spatial scales is important for land management and policy decisions. We used species-level abundance data from 62 plant communities...

  4. Rate Familiarity of the Members of local Organizations in the Northen Provinces of Iran about the Family Physician Programme and Rural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kabir

    2015-09-01

    Results: 521 (84.7% individuals (out of 601 members of local organizations were male. The age range was 19-81 years. Mean and standard deviation of participants age was 45±9.7 years. 47.1% of persons had academic education level. Out of total score 27, mean and SD of the familiarity in village magor was 12.4±4, in health council’s members 11.6±3.7, in village council’s members 11.4±4.1, in school managers 10.6±3.3. in dispute resolation council’s members 10.5±5.1 and in native teachers was 8.8±4.9. There were significant relationships between the level of familiarity and being participated in trustees council of the health center, sex and the work type of local organization (p0.05. Conclusion: This Study Showed that the level of familiarity of members of local organizations in rural regions of Iran is not sufficient and interventional Programs must be Planned and Performed for improvement.

  5. Detection of a Reproducible, Single-Member Shift in Soil Bacterial Communities Exposed to Low Levels of Hydrogen▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Catherine A.; Peoples, Mark B.; Janssen, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Soil is exposed to hydrogen when symbiotic rhizobia in legume root nodules cannot recycle the hydrogen that is generated during nitrogen fixation. The hydrogen emitted is most likely taken up by free-living soil bacteria that use hydrogen as an energy source, though the bacteria that do this in situ remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen exposure on the bacteria of two different soils in a microcosm setup designed to simulate hydrogen-emitting root nodules. Although the size and overall composition of the soil bacterial community did not significantly alter after hydrogen exposure, one ribotype increased in relative abundance within each soil. This single-ribotype shift was identified by generating multiple terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 16S rRNA genes from each soil sample, with gene sequence confirmation to identify terminal restriction fragments. The increased abundance of a single ribotype after hydrogen exposure, within an otherwise similar community, was found in replicate samples taken from each microcosm and was reproducible across replicate experiments. Similarly, only one member of the soil bacterial community increased in abundance in response to hydrogen exposure in soil surrounding the root nodules of field-grown soybean (Glycine max). The ribotypes that increased after hydrogen exposure in each soil system tested were all from known hydrogen-oxidizing lineages within the order Actinomycetales. We suggest that soil actinomycetes are important utilizers of hydrogen at relevant concentrations in soil and could be key contributors to soil's function as a sink in the global hydrogen cycle. PMID:20061453

  6. Local communities and health disaster management in the mining sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Cronjé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities throughout the Southern African Development Community (SADC have impacted on the health and safety of mining communities for many decades. Despite the economic contribution of mining to surrounding communities, a huge amount of social and environmental harm is associated with the industry. In this regard, mining companies have, on the one hand, contributed toward improved social development by providing jobs, paying taxes and earning foreign exchange. On the other hand, they have been linked publicly to poor labour conditions, corruption, pollution incidents, health and safety failings, as well as disrespect of human rights. The objectives of this study are to give an overview of social and natural factors relating to health disasters in selected communities in the mining environment. Regarding the findings, this paper focuses on the social and natural factors involved in the creation of health disasters. The social factors include poverty, unemployment, poor housing and infrastructure, prostitution and a high influx of unaccompanied migrant labour. Major health issues in this regard, which will be highlighted, are the extraordinary high incidence rate of HIV and STIs (sexually transmitted infections, addiction and mental illness. The environmental (natural threats to health that will be discussed in the study are harmful particles in the air and water, excessive noise and overcrowded and unhygienic living conditions. In conclusion, the paper also finds that communities need to be ‘fenced in’ in terms of health disaster management instead of being excluded. Specific recommendations to mining companies to reduce health and safety disasters will be made to conclude the paper.

  7. Online participation: a content analysis of differences in utilization of two online cancer communities by men and women, patients and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    The Internet provides a new modality for health communication by facilitating the creation of virtual communities. These communities have the potential to influence health behavior beyond traditional FTF support groups. This study utilized content analysis of 1,424 e-mail messages posted to 2 online cancer communities to examine uses of these groups. Findings revealed (a) similarities in the content of communication in the 2 virtual communities, (b) gender differences in participation, and (c) differences in utilization of these online groups between patients and family members. These results are discussed in light of the diverse uses of online cancer communities that they reveal, the role of family members in support seeking and provision, and gender communication styles in health computer-mediated communication.

  8. Cooperation and development in local communities of Spain and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quevedo Alejos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world faces a scenario of growing competition between companies and territories. The challenges of globalization requires cities and regions to propose strategies that stimulate the processes of capital accumulation by the diffusion of innovation and knowledge, the adoption of more flexible forms of production organization and the development of economies of urbanization, between others. Therefore, in this paper three experiences of endogenous development represented by the Spanish Development Agency Iraurgi Lantzen (Spain, Finca Peru (Peruvian civil non-profit organization and the Rural Community of Cullpe (Peru will be analysed, in order to identify and compare the various aspects related to the autonomous development of communities. The dynamics of development in each region or city is directly related to investment decisions and the attractions of the dependent territories. For Iraurgi Lantzen improvement is reported in the region 1, medium 2 Urola with the construction of a new road, which encourages municipalities in the area to look for a consensus to help generate employment and wealth in line with the interests for development and promotion of the valley. On the other hand, the case of Finca Peru shows a joint initiative to foster progress and development in the hardest hit by poverty and subversion regions, as the provinces of Huancavelica and Ayacucho were, in the Peruvian Andes. This organization ensures the socio-economic improvement of the population, particularly women, through the creation of community bank, acting on the basis of three pillars: human development, credit and savings. Finally, the case of the Rural Community of Cullpe shows an example of social leadership, innovation, ability to call and ethical-moral principles resuscitating a community stricken by poverty and limited resources, creating comparative advantages and opportunities for development rural. In conclusion, the case studies

  9. Aging in community and local NGOs: Empowering marginalized older women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjeong

    2017-10-23

    This article is based on an embedded case study of selected older people's self-help groups in urban South Korea, which aim to assist community-dwelling older adults, particularly poor and marginalized women, to age in their community and remain active and contributing members. The study highlights the importance of the role and capacity of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as partner organizations. Implications are important for other aging societies, particularly in Asia, where older women have been often confined by patriarchal oppression.

  10. Rapid adjustment of bird community compositions to local climatic variations and its functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover

  11. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  12. From link-prediction in brain connectomes and protein interactomes to the local-community-paradigm in complex networks.

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, C.V.; Alanis-Lobato, G.; Ravasi, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    for the singular topology of several real networks organised in multiple local communities - a tendency here named local-community-paradigm (LCP). We observe that LCP networks are mainly formed by weak interactions and characterise heterogeneous and dynamic systems

  13. Global knowledge, local implications: a community college's response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Marjorie R.; Stroup, Margaret H.; Donnelly, Judith F.

    2005-10-01

    Three Rivers Community College (TRCC), with federal funding, provided a customized laser program for Joining Technologies in Connecticut, which offers world-class resources for welding and joining applications. This program addresses the shortage of skilled labor in the laser arena, lack of knowledge of fundamental science of applied light, and an increase in nonperforming product. Hiring and retraining a skilled workforce are important and costly issues facing today's small manufacturing companies.

  14. Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Govern- ance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    ments in women's land rights and their participation in local decision-making processes. In parallel, the teams are conducting country-specific studies in ... methods is being used, such as baseline & post- service surveys and focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and direct observation. • In Uganda, LEMU has ...

  15. Enhancing Homeland Security Efforts by Building Strong Relationships between the Muslim Community and Local Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    ... to follow up on the incident and to prevent future attacks. It is undeniable that building a strong relationship between the local police and the Muslim community is essential in defending America against acts of terrorism...

  16. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  17. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  18. Building a local community of practice in scientific programming for Life Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Sarah; Kuzak, Mateusz; Martinez, Carlos; Moser, Aurelia; Bleeker, Petra; Galland, Marc

    2018-01-01

    For most experimental biologists, handling the avalanche of data generated is similar to self-learn how to drive. Although that might be doable, it is preferable and safer to learn good practices. One way to achieve this is to build local communities of practice by bringing together scientists that perform code-intensive research to spread know-how and good practices. Here, we indicate important challenges and issues that stand in the way of establishing these local communities of practice. F...

  19. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  20. Localizing HIV/AIDS discourse in a rural Kenyan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Oketch, Omondi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of multimodal texts used in HIV/AIDS campaigns in rural western Kenya using multimodal discourse analysis (Kress and Van Leeuwen, 2006; Martin and Rose, 2004). Twenty HIV/AIDS documents (posters, billboards and brochures) are analysed together with interview data (20 unstructured one-on-one interviews and six focus groups) from the target group to explore the effectiveness of the multimodal texts in engaging the target rural audience in meaningful interaction towards behavioural change. It is concluded that in some cases the HIV/AIDS messages are misinterpreted or lost as the multimodal texts used are unfamiliar and contradictory to the everyday life experiences of the rural folk. The paper suggests localization of HIV/AIDS discourse through use of local modes of communication and resources.

  1. Local and global: seafaring communities in the North Sea area, c. 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    A seafaring community is a village, a small town or a neighbourhood where a substantial part of the population earns its livelihood wholly or partly by work at sea or is directly dependent on seafaring. A seafaring community can arise because an established population at a particular locality

  2. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  3. The Use of Information by Policymakers at the Local Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Evelyn; DeMartini, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of decision making focuses on a study that was conducted to examine how policymakers at the local community level use social science information in making decisions. The use of social science information and other information sources in two communities examining health care issues is described. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  4. A unique resource mutualism between the giant Bornean pitcher plant, Nepenthes rajah, and members of a small mammal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Greenwood

    Full Text Available The carnivorous pitcher plant genus Nepenthes grows in nutrient-deficient substrates and produce jug-shaped leaf organs (pitchers that trap arthropods as a source of N and P. A number of Bornean Nepenthes demonstrate novel nutrient acquisition strategies. Notably, three giant montane species are engaged in a mutualistic association with the mountain treeshrew, Tupaia montana, in which the treeshrew defecates into the pitchers while visiting them to feed on nectar secretions on the pitchers' lids.Although the basis of this resource mutualism has been elucidated, many aspects are yet to be investigated. We sought to provide insights into the value of the mutualism to each participant. During initial observations we discovered that the summit rat, R. baluensis, also feeds on sugary exudates of N. rajah pitchers and defecates into them, and that this behavior appears to be habitual. The scope of the study was therefore expanded to assess to what degree N. rajah interacts with the small mammal community.We found that both T. montana and R. baluensis are engaged in a mutualistic interaction with N. rajah. T .montana visit pitchers more frequently than R. baluensis, but daily scat deposition rates within pitchers do not differ, suggesting that the mutualistic relationships are of a similar strength. This study is the first to demonstrate that a mutualism exists between a carnivorous plant species and multiple members of a small mammal community. Further, the newly discovered mutualism between R. baluensis and N. rajah represents only the second ever example of a multidirectional resource-based mutualism between a mammal and a carnivorous plant.

  5. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  6. Social – Cultural Sustainability of a Local Community through Visual Identification on the Example of the Town of Zabok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dončić Siniša Hajdaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for a local community to set up mechanisms for shaping and enforcing public politics which strengthen local communities, historical research that would lead to the identity of a local community must be conducted thus enabling the identification of the community as a tourist destination. Analytical-synthetic method will be used to define the concept of a local community, that is the sustainability of a local community as one element of sustainability in general, as well as the concept of a tourist destination. The identity of a local community may be presented using basic means of visual communication (graphic design, typography, photography, illustration, which if defined and applied appropriately, will improve the distinguished identity of a local community.

  7. Ecological changes and local knowledge in a giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.) hunting community in Palawan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2018-02-24

    One of the traditional livelihood practices of indigenous Tagbanuas in Palawan, Philippines is wild honey hunting and gathering from the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata F.). In order to analyze the linkages of the social and ecological systems involved in this indigenous practice, we conducted spatial, quantitative, and qualitative analyses on field data gathered through mapping of global positioning system coordinates, community surveys, and key informant interviews. We found that only 24% of the 251 local community members surveyed could correctly identify the giant honey bee. Inferential statistics showed that a lower level of formal education strongly correlates with correct identification of the giant honey bee. Spatial analysis revealed that mean NDVI of sampled nesting tree areas has dropped from 0.61 in the year 1988 to 0.41 in 2015. However, those who correctly identified the giant honey bee lived in areas with high vegetation cover. Decreasing vegetation cover limits the presence of wild honey bees and this may also be limiting direct experience of the community with wild honey bees. However, with causality yet to be established, we recommend conducting further studies to concretely model feedbacks between ecological changes and local knowledge.

  8. The role local initiatives in community based disaster risk management in Kemijen, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzie, W. Z.; Sariffudin, S.

    2017-06-01

    Community-based disaster risk reduction is one of the homegrown initiatives efforts and community empowerment oriented in disaster management. This approach is very important because no one can understand the conditions in a region better than the local communities. Therefore, the implementation of CBDRM always emphasize local initiatives in decision making. The existence of local initiative is necessary specially to anticipate the impact of climate change which is increasingly affecting towns in coastal areas, including settlements in Semarang. Kemijen Urban Village is one of the informal settlements in Semarang, which has the highest intensity of flood that is 12 times during 5 years (2011-2015). The research question is how the level of local initiatives in flood disaster management in Kemijen, Semarang? This study aims to assess the level of local initiatives in Kemijen as the community adaptive capacity of flood prevention in pre-disaster, emergency response, and post-disaster. Local initiatives assessed on water supply, sanitation, food, shelter, health, drainage maintenance and waste management. This study shows the level of local initiatives in pre-disaster and post-disaster is almost same and bigger than the response phase. Scoring results showed that pre-disaster is 35.002, 27.9577 for emergency response, and post-disaster is 34.9862 with each category that is independent, empowered, and independent. This study also shows that local initiatives in Kemijen largely formed by individual initiative and only a few were formed by a collective initiative.

  9. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  10. Engaging Citizens In Discussions of Coastal Climate ChangeTwo examples of place-based research that engaged community members will be presented. Lessons learned in how to engage community members and working with high school students and hands-on learning across generations can provide insights into social and ecosystem change will be shared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, L. E.; Johnson, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    By engaging community members as research partners, people become not just the subject of the story, they become storytellers as well. Participatory community-based research that engages community residents in gathering and sharing their lived experiences is instrumental in connecting people to each other and their forests and forest science and helpful when confronted by change. Two examples of place-based research that engaged community members as researchers will be presented. What factors led to collaborative outcomes that integrated citizen-informed knowledge with scientific knowledge? What lessons were learned in how best to engage community members? How did working with high school students draw even hesitant members of the community to participate? By strengthening bonds between students and their communities, both natural and social environments, we can provide young people with opportunities to better understand how they fit into the greater community and their natural environment. Hands-on learning that explores experiences in nature across generations can benefit communities, especially youth, and can provide insights into social and ecosystem change.

  11. Research partnerships with local communities: two case studies from Papua New Guinea and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, G. R.; Hamilton, R. J.; Williamson, D. H.; Evans, R. D.; Jones, G. P.; Matawai, M.; Potuku, T.; Rhodes, K. L.; Russ, G. R.; Sawynok, B.

    2010-09-01

    Partnerships between scientists and local communities can increase research capacity and data delivery while improving management effectiveness through enhanced community participation. To encourage such collaboration, this study demonstrates how these partnerships can be formed, drawing on two case studies in coral reef ecosystems in very different social settings (Papua New Guinea and Australia). In each case, steps towards successfully engaging communities in research were similar. These included: (1) early engagement by collaborating organizations to build trust, (2) ensuring scientific questions have direct relevance to the community, (3) providing appropriate incentives for participation, and (4) clear and open communication. Community participants engaged in a variety of research activities, including locating and capturing fishes, collecting and recording data (weight, length and sex), applying external tags, and removing otoliths (ear bones) for ageing and elemental analysis. Research partnerships with communities enhanced research capacity, reduced costs and, perhaps more importantly, improved the likelihood of long-term community support for marine protected areas (MPAs).

  12. Impacts of Educational Tourism on Local Community: The Case of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus.

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyeva, Gunay

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of educational tourism on the local community of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus through the cultural exchange that took place between local and international students. The study used an inductive approach in order to achieve a qualitative understanding of the research area. Semi-structured interviews with Turkish Cypriot students supplied valuable information about the experiences, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and perspectives of the local students.The findings ...

  13. Urban shrinkage, local housing markets and the role of voluntary community organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of that municipalities’ tax income drop and they therefore need to reduce or completely withdraw public services. The aim of the paper is to explore what options, if any, are available to local communities and local governments to counteract these detrimental economic, spatial and social developments? It is discussed...... why and how communities’ social capital enables voluntary initiatives to grow and if there are options available to local government to encourage and strengthen voluntary community-based organisations. Evidence from two case studies shows a number of successful initiatives by both municipalities...

  14. Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the

  15. A carbon finance fund for local communities: why? how? Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Nicolas; Delbosc, Anais; Dupont, Marion; Leseur, Alexia

    2013-09-01

    This study aims at promoting practices of ecological and social transition and sustainable development for local communities, and at developing the North-South solidarity in terms of development and struggle against poverty on issues like access to water and sanitation, and access to electrification by means of renewable energies. The first part describes the role of voluntary offsetting within the carbon finance, gives an overview of the use of carbon finance by local communities. The second part discusses the involvement of local communities in decentralized cooperation for climate-energy projects. The third one reports the analysis of the main benefits and constraints of the implementation of a local carbon fund in relationship with a decentralized cooperation approach

  16. Tax-Exempt Hospitals' Investments in Community Health and Local Public Health Spending: Patterns and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Primary assembly of soil communities: disentangling the effect of dispersal and local environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimarsdóttir, María; Caruso, Tancredi; Ripa, Jörgen; Magnúsdóttir, Olöf Birna; Migliorini, Massimo; Hedlund, Katarina

    2012-11-01

    It has long been recognised that dispersal abilities and environmental factors are important in shaping invertebrate communities, but their relative importance for primary soil community assembly has not yet been disentangled. By studying soil communities along chronosequences on four recently emerged nunataks (ice-free land in glacial areas) in Iceland, we replicated environmental conditions spatially at various geographical distances. This allowed us to determine the underlying factors of primary community assembly with the help of metacommunity theories that predict different levels of dispersal constraints and effects of the local environment. Comparing community assembly of the nunataks with that of non-isolated deglaciated areas indicated that isolation of a few kilometres did not affect the colonisation of the soil invertebrates. When accounting for effects of geographical distances, soil age and plant richness explained a significant part of the variance observed in the distribution of the oribatid mites and collembola communities, respectively. Furthermore, null model analyses revealed less co-occurrence than expected by chance and also convergence in the body size ratio of co-occurring oribatids, which is consistent with species sorting. Geographical distances influenced species composition, indicating that the community is also assembled by dispersal, e.g. mass effect. When all the results are linked together, they demonstrate that local environmental factors are important in structuring the soil community assembly, but are accompanied with effects of dispersal that may "override" the visible effect of the local environment.

  18. Elevation modulates how Arctic arthropod communities are structured along local environmental gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas; Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds

    2017-01-01

    The organisation of ecological communities along local environmental gradients provides important information about how such communities may respond to environmental change. In the Arctic, the importance of gradients in shrub cover and soil moisture for non-marine arthropod communities has been...... clearly demonstrated. By replicating studies along shrub and moisture gradients at multiple elevations and using space-for-time substitution, it is possible to examine how arthropod communities may respond to future environmental change. We collected and identified 4640 adult specimens of spiders...... and beetles near Narsarsuaq, South Greenland between 8 July and 25 August, 2014 from 112 pitfall traps. The traps were arranged in eight plots covering local gradients in either soil moisture or tall shrub dominance at both low and high elevation. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed that community...

  19. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  20. CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Gandiwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts are a global problem, and are occurring in many countries where human and wildlife requirements overlap. Conflicts are particularly common near protected areas where societal unrest is large. To ease conflict, integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs have been implemented. The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE is an example of an ICDP. We hypothesized that (i a higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE would be associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, and (ii local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs would have more favorable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Four focus group discussions and interviews with 236 respondents were conducted in four local communities adjacent to northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe from December 2010 to August 2011. Moreover, we included data on recorded incidences of human-wildlife conflicts and CAMPFIRE financial returns to study communities between 2000 and 2010. Our results indicate that local communities showed considerable differences in how CAMPFIRE effectiveness was perceived. Local communities with higher ratings of CAMPFIRE effectiveness generally perceived a decline in human-wildlife conflicts, although some people had experienced problems with wild animals. Attitudes towards main problematic wild animals varied across the study communities and were partly associated with perceived CAMPFIRE effectiveness. Our findings partly support both of our study hypotheses. Contextual factors across the four local communities seemed to influence the perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species. We recommend that decisions and actions regarding the control of problem animals be devolved to the community level in order to help reduce human-wildlife conflicts in community-based natural resources management programs.

  1. The role of community conversations in facilitating local HIV competence: case study from rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Nhamo, Mercy; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Skovdal, Morten; Gregson, Simon

    2013-04-17

    This paper examines the potential for community conversations to strengthen positive responses to HIV in resource-poor environments. Community conversations are an intervention method through which local people work with a facilitator to collectively identify local strengths and challenges and brainstorm potential strategies for solving local problems. We conducted 18 community conversations (with six groups at three points in time) with a total of 77 participants in rural Zimbabwe (20% HIV positive). Participants were invited to reflect on how they were responding to the challenges of HIV, both as individuals and in community groups, and to think of ways to better support openness about HIV, kindness towards people living with HIV and greater community uptake of HIV prevention and treatment. Community conversations contributed to local HIV competence through (1) enabling participants to brainstorm concrete action plans for responding to HIV, (2) providing a forum to develop a sense of common purpose in relation to implementing these, (3) encouraging and challenging participants to overcome fear, denial and passivity, (4) providing an opportunity for participants to move from seeing themselves as passive recipients of information to active problem solvers, and (5) reducing silence and stigma surrounding HIV. Our discussion cautions that community conversations, while holding great potential to help communities recognize their potential strengths and capacities for responding more effectively to HIV, are not a magic bullet. Poverty, poor harvests and political instability frustrated and limited many participants' efforts to put their plans into action. On the other hand, support from outside the community, in this case the increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment, played a vital role in enabling communities to challenge stigma and envision new, more positive, ways of responding to the epidemic.

  2. The Quest for Continuous Improvement: A Qualitative Study on Diffusion of Outcomes Assessment among Career and Technical Education Faculty Members at Rocky Mountain States Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The following qualitative multicase study presents an examination of outcomes assessment adoption as it relates to Career and Technical Education faculty at community colleges and outlines recommendations for postsecondary education administration as they introduce innovations to faculty members. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  3. Challenges of Knowledge Management and Creation in Communities of Practice Organisations of Deaf and Non-Deaf Members: Requirements for a Web Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Daniela; Guimaraes, Cayley; Antunes, Diego Roberto; Garcia, Laura Sanchez; Lopes da Silva, Rafaella Aline; Fernandes, Sueli

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the role of knowledge management (KM) tools used to cultivate a community of practice (CP) in its knowledge creation (KC), transfer, learning processes. The goal of such observations was to determine requirements that KM tools should address for the specific CP formed by Deaf and non-Deaf members of the CP. The CP studied is a…

  4. A qualitative study on health workers' and community members' perceived sources, role of information and communication on malaria treatment, prevention and control in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeano-Enemuoh, Jane C; Uzochukwu, Benjamim; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Wiseman, Virginia; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-10-22

    It has been widely acknowledged that well-planned and executed communication programmes can contribute to achieving malaria prevention and treatment goals. This however requires a good understanding of current sources and roles of information used by both health workers and communities. The study aimed at determining health workers' and community members' sources, value and use of information on malaria prevention and treatment in Nigeria. Qualitative data was collected from six selected communities (three urban and three rural) in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. A total of 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 179 community members and 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health workers in public and private health facilities were used to collect data on where people receive treatment for malaria and access information on malaria. The FGDS and IDIs also provided data on the values, uses and effects of information and communication on malaria treatment seeking and provision of services. The findings revealed that the major sources of information on malaria for health workers and community members were advertisements in the mass media, workshops and seminars organized by donor agencies, facility supervision, posters, other health workers, television and radio adverts. Community involvement in the design and delivery of information on malaria control was seen as a strong strategy for improving both consumer and provider knowledge. Information from the different sources catalyzed appropriate provision and consumption of malaria treatment amongst health workers and community members. Health workers and consumers receive information on malaria prevention and treatment from multiple sources of communication and information, which they find useful. Harnessing these information sources to encourage consistent and accurate messages around malaria prevention and treatment is a necessary first step in the design and implementation of malaria communication and behaviour change

  5. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LOCAL COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT IN THE SPECIAL AUTONOMY LAW IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pakasi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the 2001 Special Autonomy Law in Papua Province is not exempted from economic, political and socio-cultural problems. The law is intended to empower the people by preserving their interests and upholding the basic rights of native Papuans. This research aims at finding out a theoretical understanding on the forms of local community empowerment during the implementation of special autonomy in Papua Province. The study is performed through a qualitative approach with a phenomenological strategy. The research was conducted at a location in Jayapura. Empirical data were obtained using the techniques of observation, in-depth interviews, and other secondary data. The implementation of Special Autonomy in Papua Province has brought forth a fundamental change in the approaches and policies of community development, particularly local community empowerment that includes indigenous communities, women, and religion. Local community empowerment in the economic and socio-cultural aspects represents the effort to improve the welfare and sense of justice within the local community in development.

  7. Risk factors for persistence of lower respiratory symptoms among community members exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Friedman, Stephen M; Reibman, Joan; Goldring, Roberta M; Miller Archie, Sara A; Ortega, Felix; Alper, Howard; Shao, Yongzhao; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Berger, Kenneth I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We studied the course of lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze or dyspnoea) among community members exposed to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks during a period of 12–13 years following the attacks, and evaluated risk factors for LRS persistence, including peripheral airway dysfunction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Non-smoking adult participants in a case-control study of post-9/11-onset LRS (exam 1, 2008–2010) were recruited for follow-up (exam 2, 2013–2014). Peripheral airway function was assessed with impulse oscillometry measures of R5 and R5-20. Probable PTSD was a PTSD checklist score ≥44 on a 2006–2007 questionnaire. Results Of 785 exam 1 participants, 545 (69%) completed exam 2. Most (321, 59%) were asymptomatic at all assessments. Among 192 participants with initial LRS, symptoms resolved for 110 (57%) by exam 2, 55 (29%) had persistent LRS and 27 (14%) had other patterns. The proportion with normal spirometry increased from 65% at exam 1 to 85% at exam 2 in the persistent LRS group (p<0.01) and was stable among asymptomatic participants and those with resolved LRS. By exam 2, spirometry results did not differ across symptom groups; however, R5 and R5-20 abnormalities were more common among participants with persistent LRS (56% and 46%, respectively) than among participants with resolved LRS (30%, p<0.01; 27%, p=0.03) or asymptomatic participants (20%, p<0.001; 8.2%, p<0.001). PTSD, R5 at exam 1, and R5-20 at exam 1 were each independently associated with persistent LRS. Conclusions Peripheral airway dysfunction and PTSD may contribute to LRS persistence. Assessment of peripheral airway function detected pulmonary damage not evident on spirometry. Mental and physical healthcare for survivors of complex environmental disasters should be coordinated carefully. PMID:28341697

  8. Primary school as the hub of the social and cultural life in the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mažgon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For quite some time, Slovenian society has been preserving a specific model of social organisation rooted in the communal form. In functioning as a socio-cultural centre of the local community the school greatly surpassed its primary role of educating children. The process of urbanisation that has reached rural areas brought very interesting changes to the previously expanded function of the local school. We examined how, today, schools perceive a need to connect with and engage in their local environments. The perceptions of connections and their real modalities do differ and the ways in which schools respond to the needs of the localities (and vice versa depend on the prevalent model of social organisation. Exceptions to this are more significant in localities where the school might be one of very few public institutions or the only public institution present at the local level. Although the schools wish to motivate and engage local residents also in other environments, they often lack the time and energy to do so. The results of qualitative analysis indicated that merging or closing local schools could have negative demographic and socio-cultural consequences. At the same time, the analysis pointed to unrealised potential in the localities lacking tradition, such as new urban areas where the school could be the crucial element in the social organisation of the local community.

  9. Evaluating the engagement of universities in capacity building for sustainable development in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Chris; Leal Filho, Walter; do Paço, Arminda; Brandli, Luciana

    2016-02-01

    Universities have the potential to play a leading role in enabling communities to develop more sustainable ways of living and working however, sustainable communities may only emerge with facilitation, community learning and continual efforts to build their capacities. Elements of programme planning and evaluation on the one hand, and capacity building on the other, are needed. The latter entails approaches and processes that may contribute to community empowerment; universities may either lead such approaches, or be key partners in an endeavour to empower communities to address the challenges posed by the need for sustainable development. Although capacity building and the promotion of sustainable development locally, are on the agenda for universities who take seriously regional engagement, very little is published that illustrates or describes the various forms of activities that take place. Further, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the work performed by universities in building capacity for sustainable development at the local level. This paper is an attempt to address this need, and entails an empirical study based on a sample of universities in the United Kingdom, Germany, Portugal and Brazil. The paper examines the extent to which capacity building for sustainable development is being undertaken, suggests the forms that this might take and evaluates some of the benefits for local communities. The paper concludes by reinforcing that universities have a critical role to play in community development; that role has to prioritise the sustainability agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN ALTERNATIVE FOR NEW FUNDING SOURCES OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Petru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to answer mainly the questions: What are the consequences of the taxation base increase? What forms does the taxation base have? What can local authorities do in order to make certain areas attractive? Which are the specific players involved in the local economic development? Also, beyond the rigours imposed by the mathematical presentation of the sustainable economic development, we appreciate that for the financial management, too, knowing the gear determined by the allocation of public resources and generation of additional revenues will be very useful in establishing and underlying the decisions to invest in the public infrastructure and, also, to calculate the time period in which these can be depreciated especially based on the financial flows from supplementary revenues.

  11. Land Use and Land Cover, Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members., Published in 2000, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Portage County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2000. Existing land use derived from orthoimagery. Ground-truthing from discussion with local plan commission members..

  12. Local Community, Mobility and Belonging. Identification of and Socio- demographic Characteristics of Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Arp Fallov, Mia; Jørgensen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    of the area), formations and dissolutions of families, being either marriages or co-resident couples and sociodemographic background. The pivot for the study is that there is a lack of knowledge about whether local communities differ from neighbourhood to neighbourhood, how they are influenced......In a perspective of socio-geographic segregation and it’s socio-demographic consequences, depopulation of specific rural areas in the outskirts of Denmark has become an issue of increasing importance in public debate and in part of the research community. The question of depopulation is also part...... of the research question for an ongoing study on ‘Local community, mobility and belonging’ in Aalborg, from which we report. Contemporary municipality of Aalborg, which is the third largest in Denmark, comprises many various types of communities – from partly segregated neighbourhoods in the City, through...

  13. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.; Berhout, F.G.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation below draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points. (author)

  14. Child leukaemia around Sellafield: local community attitudes and the Black Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgill, S M; Berhout, F G

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of the Black Report to the communities whose situation it was primarily addressing - the communities of the towns and villages around Sellafield in West Cumbria. The authors are concerned (1) with examining in what ways and to what extent the Black Report was received by these communities, (2) with examining the extent to which these communities were reassured by the report's message (and, prior to that, in need of reassurance); and, (3) with revealing and examining the terms in which local people themselves speak about the report and related issues. Through a comprehensive linguistic analysis of these aspects the authors are concerned, inter alia, to recast the research priorities and methodology of work on risk 'perception'. The analysis and evaluation draws on an original local attitude survey and is set against a number of contextual points.

  15. THE VALUE AND ROLE OF LAND MANAGEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapinos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of land use by land - is an integral part of the management of land use, which provides a mechanism by which decisions are coordinated among various local, regional and national authorities, and helps implement social responsibilities of public authorities in the use and protection of land and other natural resources. Today, during the implementation of the decentralization of power, much attention is given to the transition from the existing centralized approach to conventional land-use planning (conventional land use planning, which the world is seen more as a institutional approach (institutional approach to the agreed land use planning (rarticipatory land use planning, which puts the interests of the foundation rights of economic, environmental, technological and socio-cultural conditions. Accordingly, it is important to define the relationship between the components of local governance in land development and local communities to identify the main stages of its planning, which will allow to solve social and economic problems of land use while preserving the natural ecological sustainability of land and other natural resources like land development and land use planning. It is also associated with a change in the land system ofUkraineand the transition to market land relations, which requires the transition to a new system of land use and proper planning it with the realities of today. During the 2000-2016 biennium. Ukraine has experienced an unprecedented reform of collective agricultural enterprises in market-oriented agricultural farm land for the project made it possible to dramatically increase the share of agricultural land owned by agricultural cooperatives (14.5%, limited liability companies (26.4% and private (private rental companies (10.4%. Nearly 405,000 farmers based on their land shares (shares created over an area of more than 1.6 mln. Ha of farmland farms. However, after the enactment of the Land Code of Ukraine

  16. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  17. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  18. Socio-economic transformation of the local community as gentrifications implication in DKI Jakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santy Paulla Dewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta has a rapid development which attracts newcomers to come and live in. Hereinafter, the newcomers look for the house which in accordance to their income and preferences. They chose inner city kampong for residing and their existence displacing the Betawi people as the local community. The newcomers presence led displacement and transformed the neighbourhood. Likewise, they had also influenced in the socio-economic transformation related with education, women worker, community relationship, and lifestyle.

  19. Community participation in waste minimization : the case of Emfuleni Local Municipality / Nompazamo Alma Ludidi

    OpenAIRE

    Ludidi, Nompazamo Alma

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to understand factors contributing to successes and challenges in community participation especially in waste minimization initiatives; in order to inform policies and contribute to improve the design of the initiative. The objectives of the research are: firstly, to understand the current state of public participation in waste minimization at Emfuleni Local Municipality. Secondly, it is to determine the extent of willingness of the community to participate in ...

  20. Growing Local Value How to Build Business Partnerships That Strengthen Your Community

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Laury

    2007-01-01

    Hanna Andersson founder Gun Denhart and successful entrepreneur Laury Hammel show how every aspect of a business (from product creation to employee recruitment to vendor selection) holds the dual promise of bigger profits and a stronger local community. With practical tools and real-life examples of the best practitioners and techniques of values-driven business, "Growing Local Value" provides a framework for the full spectrum of ways in which a business can contribute to its community - and the benefits a company receives when it does so.

  1. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence region. Young unmarried women bore the

  2. Preparing community forestry for REDD+: engaging local communities in the mapping and MRV requirements of REDD+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knowles, Tony; McCall, M.K.; Skutsch, Margaret; Theron, Leon; Zhu, Xianli; Ravnkilde Moller, Lea; De Lopes, Thanakvaro; Zaballa Romero, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Based on fieldwork carried out over the last five years, this article presents the case for communities being permitted to make their own forest carbon inventories for the purposes of monitoring under national REDD+ programmes, following brief training. Modern technology, particularly PDAs (small,

  3. Community perspectives on barriers and strategies for promoting locally grown produce from an urban agriculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Alice; Acosta, Angela; McDaniel, Abigail; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Although much is understood about barriers to healthy food consumption in low-income, urban communities, knowledge regarding the crucial next step of building feasible, community-supported approaches to address those barriers remains limited. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews (n = 20), focus groups (n = 2), and participant observations (n = 3) to identify strategies to promote locally grown produce from an urban food security project, Produce From the Park (PFP), an urban farm. Informants included community organization representatives and residents from low-income neighborhoods in a mid-Atlantic city. Informants identified structural and cultural barriers to purchasing healthy food, including price, location, food culture, and lack of interest. Participants proposed a number of strategies, such as distribution through mobile food carts and farm stands, marketing new foods through taste tests and cooking demonstrations, and youth mentorship. Informants also described their perceptions of the local urban farm and suggested ways to increase community buy-in. Strategies mentioned were inexpensive and incorporated cultural norms and local assets. These community perspectives can provide insights for those promoting healthy eating in urban African American communities through urban food security projects.

  4. Developing a scale to measure "attachment to the local community" in late middle aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."

  5. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  6. Factors that influence the way local communities respond to consultation processes about major service change: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Harrison, David A; Raine, Rosalind; Fulop, Naomi J

    2015-09-01

    In England, proposed service changes such as Emergency Department closures typically face local opposition. Consequently, public consultation exercises often involve protracted, hostile debates. This study examined a process aimed at engaging a community in decision-making about service reconfiguration, and the public response to this process. A documentary analysis was conducted to map consultation methods used in an urban area of England where plans to consolidate hospital services on fewer sites were under discussion. In-depth interviews (n=20) were conducted with parents, older people, and patient representatives. The analysis combined inductive and deductive approaches, informed by risk communication theories. The commissioners provided a large volume of information about the changes, alongside a programme of public events. However, the complexity of the process, together with what members of the public perceived to be the commissioners' dismissal of their concerns, led the community to question their motivation. This was compounded by a widespread perception that the proposals were financially driven. Government policy emphasises the importance of clinical leadership and 'evidence' in public consultation. However, an engagement process based on this approach fuelled hostility to the proposals. Policymakers should not assume communities can be persuaded to accommodate service change which may result in reduced access to care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Exchanging environmental information and decision making: developing the local Pilot Environmental Virtual Observatory with stakeholder communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, E.; Beven, K.; Brewer, P.; M, Haygarth, P.; Macklin, M.; Marshall, K.; Quinn, P.; Stutter, M.; Thomas, N.; Wilkinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Public participation in the development of flood risk management and river basin management plans are explicit components of both the Water Framework and Floods Directives. At the local level, involving communities in land and water management has been found to (i) aid better environmental decision making, (ii) enhance social, economic and environmental benefits, and (iii) increase a sense of ownership. Facilitating the access and exchange of information on the local environment is an important part of this new approach to the land and water management process, which also includes local community stakeholders in decisions about the design and content of the information provided. As part of the Natural Environment Research Council's pilot Environment Virtual Observatory (EVO), the Local Level group are engaging with local community stakeholders in three different catchments in the UK (the rivers Eden, Tarland and Dyfi) to start the process of developing prototype visualisation tools to address the specific land and water management issues identified in each area. Through this local collaboration, we will provide novel visualisation tools through which to communicate complex catchment science outcomes and bring together different sources of environmental data in ways that better meet end-user needs as well as facilitate a far broader participatory approach in environmental decision making. The Local Landscape Visualisation Tools are being evolved iteratively during the project to reflect the needs, interests and capabilities of a wide range of stakeholders. The tools will use the latest concepts and technologies to communicate with and provide opportunities for the provision and exchange of information between the public, government agencies and scientists. This local toolkit will reside within a wider EVO platform that will include national datasets, models and state of the art cloud computer systems. As such, local stakeholder groups are assisting the EVO

  8. Reducing Drinking Among Junior Enlisted Air Force Members in Five Communities: Early Findings of the EUDL Program's Influence on Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F.; Szoc, Ronald Z.; Thomas, Randall K.; Cambridge, Milton H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18–25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Method: Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. Results: The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. Conclusions: The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities. PMID:20409431

  9. Reducing drinking among junior enlisted Air Force members in five communities: early findings of the EUDL program's influence on self-reported drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F; Szoc, Ronald Z; Thomas, Randall K; Cambridge, Milton H

    2010-05-01

    In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18-25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities.

  10. Rhetoric to action: a study of stakeholder perceptions of aging well in two local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Jo-Anne; Lui, Chi-Wai; Bartlett, Helen; Warburton, Jeni; Cuthill, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study of local perceptions of policy goals and action in relation to aging reports 31 stakeholder interviews within 2 Australian communities exploring (a) the meaning of aging well; and (b) preferred policy actions to achieve positive aging outcomes. Findings suggest that community perceptions of aging well are broadly consistent with the goals of national and international policy frameworks in focusing on 3 dimensions--health, social engagement, and security. Further, participants believe that achievement of positive aging outcomes requires a mix of self-help, community action, and government intervention--particularly government support and encouragement for aging well initiatives.

  11. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  12. An Applied Using Local Wisdom to Making Ironware for Community Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chalor Yaekkhoksung; Songkoon Chantachon; Prasopsuk Ritthidet

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Arts and craft were important for economics and society of northeastern people in Thailand: For all that, local wisdom to make ironware lack interest from society. This research aimed to an applied using local wisdom to make ironware for community economic development. Approach: Research method was a qualitative research which studied populations who lived in 5 provinces: Khai village, Chaiyaphum; Pai village, Buriram province; Muang Wan village, Khonkaen province; Phon vil...

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Pétionville, Haiti, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, N; Dely, P; Katz, M A; Schaad, N D; Dismer, A; Moran, D; Laraque, F; Wallace, R M

    2017-06-01

    Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. The majority of respondents (85%) knew that dogs were the primary reservoir for rabies, yet only 1% were aware that bats and mongooses could transmit rabies. Animal bites were recognized as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 77% of the population and 76% were aware that the disease could be prevented by vaccination. Of 172 persons reporting a bite, only 37% sought medical treatment. The annual bite incidence rate in respondents was 0·9%. Only 31% of bite victims reported that they started the rabies vaccination series. Only 38% of respondents reported that their dog had been vaccinated against rabies. The majority of medical professionals recognized that dogs were the main reservoir for rabies (98%), but only 28% reported bats and 14% reported mongooses as posing a risk for rabies infection. Bites were reported as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 73% of respondents; exposure to saliva was reported by 20%. Thirty-four percent of medical professionals reported they would wash a bite wound with soap and water and 2·8% specifically mentioned rabies vaccination as a component of post-bite treatment. The majority of healthcare professionals recommended some form of rabies assessment for biting animals; 68·9% recommended a 14-day observation period, 60·4% recommended a veterinary consultation, and 13·2% recommended checking the vaccination status of the animal. Fewer than 15% of healthcare professionals had ever received training on rabies prevention and 77% did not know where to go to procure rabies vaccine for

  14. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...... of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong....

  15. Community financing of local ivermectin distribution in Nigeria: potential payment and cost-recovery outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwujekwe, O E; Shu, E N; Okonkwo, P O

    2000-04-01

    The preferred payment mechanism in a community financing scheme for local ivermectin distribution was elicited from randomly selected household heads from three communities in Nigeria using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires. The majority of the respondents in the three communities were prepared to pay for local ivermectin distribution. Additionally, the average amounts the respondents were prepared to pay per person treated ($0.28, $0.30 and $0.38 in Nike, Achi and Toro, respectively) were all more than the $0.20 ceiling recommended by the partners of the African Programme on Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Thus, the cost-recovery outlook is bright in these communities. However, the preferred payment modality varied. Fee-for-service was the predominant payment modality in the Achi and Nike communities, while the Toro community preferred pre-payment. This study demonstrates that many communities have different payment preferences for endemic disease control efforts. This knowledge will help in developing acceptable and sustainable schemes. The imposition of unacceptable payment mechanisms will lead to an unwillingness to pay.

  16. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.

  17. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.

  18. Local government energy action in the UK: from service delivery to community leadership. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael; Flanagan, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?

  19. Social Work and local community development in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Seller, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical-conceptual and methodological bases that allow promotion of sustainable and autonomous changes in the complex relational universe in twenty-first century Spain. It takes as its starting point the methodological and participative processes linked to social work with communities, focused on a local strategic development model that is comprehensive and centered on community empowerment. It presents the results of research aiming to characterise communities’ practices locally. This is linked to Spain´s communities social work presented in the form of typologies. The analysis of the communities´ practices permits identification of the ideal necessary characteristics that the experiences of community action must have in terms of good practices to promote local coexistence through citizen participation.El artículo presenta las bases teórico-conceptuales y metodológicas que permiten impulsar cambios sostenibles y autónomos en el complejo universo relacional en España en el siglo XXI a partir de procesos metodológicos y participativos vinculados con un trabajo social con comunidades centrado en el modelo de desarrollo local estratégico, integral y centrado en el empowerment comunitario. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación orientada a caracterizar las prácticas comunitarias en el ámbito local vinculadas con el trabajo social con comunidades en España y que son presentados a modo de tipologías. El análisis de las prácticas comunitarias permite identificar las características idóneas que deben tener las experiencias de acción comunitaria en su consideración de buenas prácticas en el fomento de la convivencia local a través de la participación ciudadana.

  20. Extent and patterns of community collaboration in local health departments: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher John W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local public health departments (LHDs in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active partnering are ongoing, and there are numerous examples of LHD collaboration with a specific organization for a specific purpose or program. However, no existing research has attempted to characterize collaboration, for the defined purpose of setting community health status priorities, between a defined population of local officials and a defined group of alternative partnering organizations. The specific aims of this study were to 1 determine the range of collaborative involvement exhibited by a study population of local public health officials, and, 2 characterize the patterns of the selection of organizations/individuals involved with LHDs in the process of setting community health status priorities. Methods Local health department officials in North Carolina (n = 53 responded to an exploratory survey about their levels of involvement with eight types of possible collaborator organizations and individuals. Descriptive statistics and the stochastic clustering technique of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM were used to characterize their collaboration. Results Local health officials vary extensively in their level of collaboration with external collaborators. While the range of total involvement varies, the patterns of involvement for this specific function are relatively uniform. That is, regardless of the total level of involvement (low, medium or high, officials maintain similar hierarchical preference rankings with Community Advisory Boards and Local Boards of Health most involved and Experts and Elected Officials least involved. Conclusion The extent and patterns of collaboration among LHDs with other community stakeholders for a specific function can be described and ultimately related to outcome measures of LHD performance.

  1. Genetic localization of Cd63, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, reveals two distinct loci in the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, B.; Eicher, E.M.; Peters, L.L. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)

    1996-07-15

    The membrane protein CD63, a molecular marker for early stages of melanoma progression, has been associated with platelet storage pool deficiency disorders (SPD). CD63 localizes to the membranes of platelets, lysosomes, and melanosomes, all of which are affected in a specific subgroup of SPD. The cDNA encoding CD63 detects two closely related sequences that map to different regions of the mouse genome. One locus maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 10 in a region that shares linkage homology with the human chromosome encoding human CD63. The second locus maps to mouse Chr 18 in a region that bears no known human CD63-related genes. No SPD has been localized to these regions of either the mouse or the human chromosomes. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The Link Between Leader-Member Exchange, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Case Study on Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidah Mohamad Ibrahim; Aziz Amin; Munir Salleh

    2014-01-01

    Being the lowest level of government after Federal and State governments, local governments are considered as the managers of urban environment due to their multifarious services functions which drives the economic growth and social development of a particular district. The heterogeneous services provided are constantly being reviewed and appraised by the public where statistics from Public Complaint Bureau showed worrying numbers with high number of complaints being recorded for four consecu...

  3. Mouse RC/BTB2, a Member of the RCC1 Superfamily, Localizes to Spermatid Acrosomal Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuening; Nagarkatti-Gude, David R.; Hess, Rex A.; Henderson, Scott C.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-01-01

    Mouse RC/BTB2 is an unstudied protein of the RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation) superfamily. Because of the significant remodeling of chromatin that occurs during spermiogenesis, we characterized the expression and localization of mouse RC/BTB2 in the testis and male germ cells. The Rc/btb2 gene yields two major transcripts: 2.3 kb Rc/btb2-s, present in most somatic tissues examined; and 2.5 kb Rc/btb2-t, which contains a unique non-translated exon in its 5′-UTR that is only detected in the testis. During the first wave of spermatogenesis, Rc/btb2-t mRNA is expressed from day 8 after birth, reaching highest levels of expression at day 30 after birth. The full-length protein contains three RCC1 domains in the N-terminus, and a BTB domain in the C-terminus. In the testis, the protein is detectable from day 12, but is progressively up-regulated to day 30 and day 42 after birth. In spermatids, some of the protein co-localizes with acrosomal markers sp56 and peanut lectin, indicating that it is an acrosomal protein. A GFP-tagged RCC1 domain is present throughout the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells. However, both GFP-tagged, full-length RC/BTB2 and a GFP-tagged BTB domain localize to vesicles in close proximity to the nuclear membrane, suggesting that the BTB domain might play a role in mediating full-length RC/BTB2 localization. Since RCC1 domains associate with Ran, a small GTPase that regulates molecular trafficking, it is possible that RC/BTB2 plays a role in transporting proteins during acrosome formation. PMID:22768142

  4. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the member states of the European Community for air, deposition, water, milk, 1975-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976

  5. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  6. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  7. Community Hospitals Indianapolis creates breast cancer awareness. The hospital joins a partnership with local ABC affiliate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreria, J

    1999-01-01

    Community Hospitals Indianapolis raises the public's awareness of the importance of breast self-examination and mammography as the best tools for early detection of breast cancer. The health system has designed a program called Buddy Check 6 to partner with a local television station.

  8. Understanding and Resolving Conflict Between Local Communities and Conservation Authorities in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourcq, De K.; Thomas, E.; Arts, B.; Vranckx, A.; Léon-sicard, T.; Damme, Van P.

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts between indigenous and local communities, on the one hand, and national protected area administrations on the other are pervasive. A better understanding of these park-people conflicts would assist in suitable policy changes to constructively address them while concurrently pursuing

  9. Mutually Beneficial Service Learning: Language Teacher Candidates in a Local Community Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a project designed to provide mutually beneficial solutions to challenges faced by world language teacher candidates, their preparation program, and a local community center. The project provided opportunities for teacher candidates enrolled in a world language (WL) teacher education course to complete clinical experiences…

  10. Local responses to global technological change – Contrasting restructuring practices in two rural communities in Austria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Lang, R..; Harms, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial

  11. Cosmopolitans or Locals: Who Will Lead the Next Generation of Community Colleges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melanie Oakes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of cosmopolitan and local latent social roles on different professional occupations and organizational behavior has been studied since Gouldner's seminal study was published in 1957. This study was conducted to understand the relationship between the latent social role of the public community college chief academic officer and his…

  12. Evaluating School-Community Participation in Developing a Local Sustainability Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, international and national statements are calling for the development of local sustainability scenarios within partnerships between schools and their communities. The present study addresses the question of reciprocity in such partnerships, by comparing the sustainability agendas underlying schools' educational programs to the…

  13. Assessing the Importance of Woodland Landscape Locations for Both Local Communities and Conservation in Gorongosa and Muanza Districts, Sofala Province, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with two communities living in, and on the edge of, Gorongosa National Park (GNP, Mozambique, we researched the importance of different landscape units to these communities and used the information to develop a management plan for GNP. We conceived the importance of a landscape to local people as a ratio of the benefits they derive from it and the costs of accessing or using those benefits. To test this expectation, we developed Bayesian belief models, for which the parameters were the relative preference weightings derived from community members (the relative preferences for benefits and relative expectations of costs. We then collected field data to confront the models for each of the two sites. In a parallel process, we conducted a vegetation survey to generate a map of the vegetation types, as well as an index of biodiversity importance for each vegetation type of the two 20-km2 sites. For each site, we simplified and converted the benefit:cost model into a local community importance surface, or map, and then overlaid a conservation importance surface on it in order to identify locations that were of high importance to both conservation groups and the local community. Such areas would require careful management attention. This paper discusses the implications of the research for the planning of GNP, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  14. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  15. Local Stakeholder Perception on Community Participation in Marine Protected Area Management: A Q-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Jamual Fawaeed, P. S.; Daim, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Local stakeholder involvement in Marine Protected Area (MPA) management can bring to a successful MPA. Generally, participatory research in marine protected area management is exploring the relationship between marine protected area management approach adopted by the management agencies and the level of participation of local stakeholder whom reside within the marine protected areas. However, the scenario of local community participation in MPA management in Malaysia seems discouraging and does not align with the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020. In order to achieve the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020, this paper attempts to explore the methodology on participatory research towards the local stakeholder of Pulau Perhentian Marine Park (PPMP), Terengganu, Malaysia. A Q-methodology is used to investigate the perspective of local stakeholder who represents different stances on the issues, by having participants rank and sort a series of statements by comply quantitative and qualitative method in collecting the data. A structured questionnaire will be employed across this study by means of face-to-face interview. In total, 210 respondents from Kampung Pasir Hantu are randomly selected. Meanwhile, a workshop with the agency (Department of Marine Park) had been held to discuss about the issues faces on behalf of management that manage the PPMP. Using the Q-method, researcher acknowledged wise viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders’ perception and opinion about community participation with highlights the current level of community participation in MPA. Thus, this paper describes the phases involved in this study, methodology and analysis used in making a conclusion .

  16. Perceptions of Local Communities on the Economic Impacts of Tourism Development in Langkawi, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Norjanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Langkawi Island is a popular tourist destination in Malaysia, which development started in the 1990s. To date, it is among the ten islands most visited by local and foreign tourists. The development of Langkawi Island has influenced the economic structure of local community, of which, envisaged as a symbol to help the community especially in the changing economic environment due to its ability to generate income, employment and raise living standards. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the local community’s involvement and perceptions on changes in employment pattern and incomes stimulated by the tourism development in Langkawi. This study conducted a self-administered household survey and had successfully retrieved 398 respondents. From the findings, results showed that local community experienced employment opportunities which in return contributed to an increase in household income. It is therefore, notable investment on tourism development should be of interests to the government as this helps in ensuring the local community’s economic benefits.

  17. Formation of a Community of Practice in the Watershed Scale, with Integrated Local Environmental Knowledge

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    Kenji Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rural communities around the world face formidable problems such as resource depletion, environmental degradation and economic decline. While the term ‘community’ is often used without clear definition or context, it can be viewed as a group of people emerging through social interaction. Through a series of collaborative action toward a shared goal, a community of practice can be formed. This paper proposes a hypothetical framework of integrated local environmental knowledge (ILEK, and applies it to analyze the processes of collaborative actions in the case of the Nishibetsu Watershed in Hokkaido, Japan. The case study identified several phases of actions, all initiated by a group of local residents on a grassroots and voluntary basis. These local resident-initiated collaborative actions had a particular confluence of elements to facilitate gradual strengthening of formal and informal institutions in the watershed scale beyond jurisdictional boundaries, making this a worthy case to study. The local residents used diverse types of knowledge, including livelihood-based technologies and skills of working as a group and with local governments, for establishing and strengthening various institutions for collaborative actions, with such knowledge being used in the manner of tools in a box of bricolage for community formation.

  18. Chemical similarity and local community assembly in the species rich tropical genus Piper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage. Here we tested the hypothesis that plant chemical diversity can affect local community composition in the hyper-diverse genus Piper at a lowland wet forest location in Costa Rica. We first characterized the chemical composition of 27 of the most locally abundant species of Piper. We then tested whether species with different chemical compositions were more likely to coexist. Finally, we assessed the degree to which Piper phylogenetic relationships are related to differences in secondary chemical composition and community assembly. We found that, on average, co-occurring species were more likely to differ in chemical composition than expected by chance. Contrary to expectations, there was no phylogenetic signal for overall secondary chemical composition. In addition we found that species in local communities were, on average, more phylogenetically closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that functional traits other than those measured here also influence local assembly. We propose that selection by herbivores for divergent chemistries between closely related species facilitates the coexistence of a high diversity of congeneric taxa via apparent competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. The effect of the PROSPER partnership model on cultivating local stakeholder knowledge of evidence-based programs: a five-year longitudinal study of 28 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve R

    2012-02-01

    A substantial challenge in improving public health is how to facilitate the local adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). To do so, an important step is to build local stakeholders' knowledge and decision-making skills regarding the adoption and implementation of EBIs. One EBI delivery system, called PROSPER (PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience), has effectively mobilized community prevention efforts, implemented prevention programming with quality, and consequently decreased youth substance abuse. While these results are encouraging, another objective is to increase local stakeholder knowledge of best practices for adoption, implementation and evaluation of EBIs. Using a mixed methods approach, we assessed local stakeholder knowledge of these best practices over 5 years, in 28 intervention and control communities. Results indicated that the PROSPER partnership model led to significant increases in expert knowledge regarding the selection, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. Findings illustrate the limited programming knowledge possessed by members of local prevention efforts, the difficulty of complete knowledge transfer, and highlight one method for cultivating that knowledge.

  20. A complicated answer to a simple question: Are believers and members of minority religions, churches and religious communities in postdayton BiH discriminated?

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    Nagradić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work treats the real social position of minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches in postdayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. In other words, the author researches real social, political, legislative, mass-media-communicational, economic status and a status of so called small religious communities and churches in other spheres of existence like education, culture, public health etc., and seeks to answer to, from rhetorical point of view, simple question: are minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches, as defined and treated by the Law on Freedom of Religion and Legal Position of Churches and Religious Communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, discriminated or not. In the focus of the author's analyses are equally institutional sphere or so called minority religious communities as such, but also and individuals, believers and followers of those institutionalized and formalized religious-denominational- ecclesial subjects having been named religious communities and churches. The results of the author's empirical-theoretical researches can be condensed into nuanced and complex answer whose content leads to conclusion that minority religions, churches and their members in several spheres of life are, after all, in inferior position, in spite of declarative equality of all religions, denominations, religious communities and churches. The author supports such conclusion with numerous and plausible arguments.

  1. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hügler, Michael; Ward, David M; Bryant, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi . However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat microorganisms have genes for

  2. Prioritizing Approaches to Engage Community Members and Build Trust in Biobanks: A Survey of Attitudes and Opinions of Adults within Outpatient Practices at the University of Maryland

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    Casey Lynnette Overby

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achieving high participation of communities representative of all sub-populations is needed in order to ensure broad applicability of biobank study findings. This study aimed to understand potentially mutable attitudes and opinions commonly correlated with biobank participation in order to inform approaches to promote participation in biobanks. Methods: Adults from two University of Maryland (UMD Faculty Physicians, Inc. outpatient practices were invited to watch a video and complete a survey about a new biobank initiative. We used: Chi-square to assess the relationship between willingness to join the biobank and participant characteristics, other potentially mutable attitudes and opinions, and trust in the UMD. We also used t-test to assess the relationship with trust in medical research. We also prioritize proposed actions to improve attitudes and opinions about joining biobanks according to perceived responsiveness. Results: 169 participants completed the study, 51% of whom indicated a willingness to join the biobank. Willingness to join the biobank was not associated with age, gender, race, or education but was associated with respondent comfort sharing samples and clinical information, concerns related to confidentiality, potential for misuse of information, trust in UMD, and perceived health benefit. In ranked order, potential actions we surveyed that might alleviate some of these concerns include: increase chances to learn more about the biobank, increase opportunities to be updated, striving to put community concerns first, including involving community members as leaders of biobank research, and involving community members in decision making. Conclusions: This study identified several attitudes and opinions that influence decisions to join a biobank, including many concerns that could potentially be addressed by engaging community members. We also demonstrate our method of prioritizing ways to improve attitudes and opinions

  3. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. II. Metabolic Functions of Abundant Community Members Predicted from Metagenomic Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Thiel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs. In this study, we analyzed the orange-colored undermat portion of the community of Mushroom Spring mats in a genome-centric approach and discuss the metabolic potentials of the major members. Metagenome binning recovered partial genomes of all abundant community members, ranging in completeness from ~28 to 96%, and allowed affiliation of function with taxonomic identity even for representatives of novel and Candidate phyla. Less complete metagenomic bins correlated with high microdiversity. The undermat portion of the community was found to be a mixture of phototrophic and chemotrophic organisms, which use bicarbonate as well as organic carbon sources derived from different cell components and fermentation products. The presence of rhodopsin genes in many taxa strengthens the hypothesis that light energy is of major importance. Evidence for the usage of all four bacterial carbon fixation pathways was found in the metagenome. Nitrogen fixation appears to be limited to Synechococcus spp. in the upper mat layer and Thermodesulfovibrio sp. in the undermat, and nitrate/nitrite metabolism was limited. A closed sulfur cycle is indicated by biological sulfate reduction combined with the presence of genes for sulfide oxidation mainly in phototrophs. Finally, a variety of undermat

  4. Study of community leaders in a nuclear host community: local issues, expectations and support and opposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, B.H.

    1977-08-01

    A study of community leaders was undertaken in Hartsville, Tennessee, site of the TVA Hartsville Nuclear Power Plant currently under construction. Leaders were found to be extremely supportive of the plant and of TVA's efforts to mitigate impacts expected to result from construction. Like their citizen counterparts, leaders expect economic benefits and some growth-related disruption to occur as a result of the plant, while environmental impacts are seen as extremely unlikely to occur. Plant-related issues, such as housing availability and traffic congestion, dominate leaders' thinking about current issues. These issues are expected to continue to be important in the future, and new issues dealing with growth and planning, employment and taxation are expected to arise

  5. Compositional divergence and convergence in local communities and spatially structured landscapes.

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    Tancredi Caruso

    Full Text Available Community structure depends on both deterministic and stochastic processes. However, patterns of community dissimilarity (e.g. difference in species composition are difficult to interpret in terms of the relative roles of these processes. Local communities can be more dissimilar (divergence than, less dissimilar (convergence than, or as dissimilar as a hypothetical control based on either null or neutral models. However, several mechanisms may result in the same pattern, or act concurrently to generate a pattern, and much research has recently been focusing on unravelling these mechanisms and their relative contributions. Using a simulation approach, we addressed the effect of a complex but realistic spatial structure in the distribution of the niche axis and we analysed patterns of species co-occurrence and beta diversity as measured by dissimilarity indices (e.g. Jaccard index using either expectations under a null model or neutral dynamics (i.e., based on switching off the niche effect. The strength of niche processes, dispersal, and environmental noise strongly interacted so that niche-driven dynamics may result in local communities that either diverge or converge depending on the combination of these factors. Thus, a fundamental result is that, in real systems, interacting processes of community assembly can be disentangled only by measuring traits such as niche breadth and dispersal. The ability to detect the signal of the niche was also dependent on the spatial resolution of the sampling strategy, which must account for the multiple scale spatial patterns in the niche axis. Notably, some of the patterns we observed correspond to patterns of community dissimilarities previously observed in the field and suggest mechanistic explanations for them or the data required to solve them. Our framework offers a synthesis of the patterns of community dissimilarity produced by the interaction of deterministic and stochastic determinants of community

  6. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  7. Regulatory and Non-regulatory Responses to Hydraulic Fracturing in Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phartiyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The practice of extracting oil and gas from tight rock formations using advances in technology, such as hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, has expanded exponentially in states and localities across the country. As the scientific data collection and analysis catches up on the many potential impacts of this unconventional oil and gas development, communities are turning to their local officials to make decisions on whether and how fracking should proceed. While most regulatory authority on the issue rests with the state agencies, local officials have experimented with a wide range of regulatory, non-regulatory, and fiscal tools to manage the impacts of fracking. These impacts can occur on the local air, water, seismicity, soil, roads, schools, and affect residents, on-site workers, emergency and social services. Local officials' approaches are often influenced by their prior experience with minerals extraction in their localities. The speaker will present examples of the kinds of information sources, tools and approaches communities across the country are using, from noise barriers to setback requirements to information sharing in order to be able to balance the promise and perils of oil and gas development in their jurisdictions.

  8. Inquiry in interaction: How local adaptations of curricula shape classroom communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Noel; Goldberg, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we seek a better understanding of how individuals and their daily interactions shape and reshape social structures that constitute a classroom community. Moreover, we provide insight into how discourse and classroom interactions shape the nature of a learning community, as well as which aspects of the classroom culture may be consequential for learning. The participants in this study include two teachers who are implementing a new environmental science program, Global Learning through Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and interacting with 54 children in an urban middle school. Both qualitative and quantitative data are analyzed and presented. To gain a better understanding of the inquiry teaching within classroom communities, we compare and contrast the discourse and interactions of the two teachers during three parallel environmental science lessons. The focus of our analysis includes (1) how the community identifies the object or goal of its activity; and (2) how the rights, rules, and roles for members are established and inhabited in interaction. Quantitative analyses of student pre- and posttests suggest greater learning for students in one classroom over the other, providing support for the influence of the classroom community and interactional choices of the teacher on student learning. Implications of the findings from this study are discussed in the context of curricular design, professional development, and educational reform. ? 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 41: 905-935, 2004.

  9. Local knowledge: Empirical Fact to Develop Community Based Disaster Risk Management Concept for Community Resilience at Mangkang Kulon Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiarsa, A. B.; Sariffuddin, S.

    2018-02-01

    Local knowledge in disaster management should not be neglected in developing community resilience. The circular relation between humans and their living habitat and community social relation have developed the local knowledge namely specialized knowledge, shared knowledge, and common knowledge. Its correlation with community-based disaster management has become an important discussion specially to answer can local knowledge underlie community-based disaster risk reduction concept development? To answer this question, this research used mix-method. Interview and crosstab method for 73 respondents with 90% trust rate were used to determine the correlation between local knowledge and community characteristics. This research found out that shared knowledge dominated community local knowledge (77%). While common knowledge and specialized knowledge were sequentially 8% and 15%. The high score of shared value (77%) indicated that local knowledge was occurred in household level and not yet indicated in community level. Shared knowledge was found in 3 phases of the resilient community in dealing with disaster, namely mitigation, emergency response, and recovery phase. This research, therefore, has opened a new scientific discussion on the self-help concept in community-help concept in CBDRM concept development in Indonesia.

  10. Network approach for local and community governance of energy: The case of Oxfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Hamilton, Jo; White, Vicki; Hogan, Bernie

    2013-01-01

    One of the many barriers to the incorporation of local and community actors in emerging energy governance structures and policy delivery mechanisms is the lack of thorough understanding of how they work in practice, and how best to support and develop effective local energy governance. Taking a meso-level perspective and a network approach to governance, this paper sheds some new light on this issue, by focusing on the relation, channels of communication and interactions between low carbon community groups (LCCGs) and other actors. Based on data gathered from LCCGs in Oxfordshire, UK, via network survey and interviews the research maps the relations in terms of the exchanges of information and financial support, and presents a relation-based structure of local energy governance. Analysis reveals the intensity of energy related information exchanges that is taking place at the county level and highlights the centrality of intermediary organization in facilitating information flow. The analysis also identifies actors that are not very dominant in their amount of exchanges, but fill ‘weak-tie’ functions between otherwise disconnected LCCGs or other actors in the network. As an analytical tool the analysis could be useful for various state and non-state actors that want to better understand and support – financially and otherwise – actors that enable energy related local action. - Highlights: • We used social network analysis to examine local and community governance of energy. • We examined information and financial support flow within the network. • Analysis highlights central and peripheral actors in the local governance structure. • The findings highlight the central role intermediary organizations have in local governance structures

  11. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

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    Michael Stajura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  12. Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  13. Facing Immigration Fears: A Constructive Local Approach to Day Labor, Community, and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lazo de la Vega

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most visible and vulnerable manifestations of the presence of Latino immigrants in “new destination” communities across the United States, day laborers have become a locus of conflict  over the past fifteen years for local policy makers, advocacy organizations, and neighborhood residents. Communities have dealt with day labor in drastically different ways. Some have passed harsh anti-immigrant ordinances, hoping that a hostile environment will encourage immigrants to leave. Restrictionist state and local legislation, however, has proven costly to enforce, has been challenged in court, and has hindered immigrant integration. Other communities have gone against the restrictionist tide. This paper argues that organized day labor centers, such as the El Sol Resource Center in Jupiter, Florida address many of the fundamental fears that polarize local policymaking and the national immigration reform debate. In Jupiter, El Sol has not only eliminated a controversial open-air labor market by bringing the process into a formal and organized structure, it has also provided access to English and civics classes, preventive health screenings and legal services in cases of wage theft. Furthermore, through El Sol the Town of Jupiter has opened a two-way process of immigrant integration. Jupiter’s day laborers are no longer “hiding in the shadows”, but rather are engaging in active citizenship and working with native-born community volunteers to run the center.

  14. The Economic and Touristic Regeneration of Local Communities through the Long Tail of Events

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    Mario Calabrese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate, in the light of new technologies, the importance of the “long tail” of events for the development of local communities from the economic and tourism standpoint. From the management perspective, an event represents a relevant touristic driver, especially when oriented to small communities. The methodology used, albeit referring to the positive method, incorporates the concept of Chris Anderson’s “long tail” and recent conceptualizations of the Viable Systems Approach. Thus, it refers to literature review method and theory development. Findings of this study emphasize a new perspective of creating value for the development of local communities, based on the evolution of the concept of event (from the mass event to the mass of events. The existing literature on the subject has generally deepened the organizational implications arising from the standardization of events rather than those of customization. Therefore, referring to the originality and value of the present research, it considers the pure customization, which provides even a custom design of the event, a decisive factor for the economic and touristic development of local communities. The study presents also practical implications related with the possibility, thanks to new technologies, to convey to the user/citizen an event that is differentiated and personalized.

  15. The supranational integration and its affection to the law reserve of the member states of the Andean Community. An analysis from the normative hierarchy of its Constitutions

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    José Francisco CHALCO SALGADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The processes of supranational integration have developed a series of legal and political constructions. In them the determination of States are always in a permanent weakening of its constituent elements. The Andean Community is the process of integration of the Latin American countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. In this process of supranational integration political power has new particularisms that must be analyzed and provided solutions so that these do not obstruct the processes of regional integration. Indeed, in supranational processes, the issue of constitutional guarantees regarding the democratic legitimacy of the incorporation of the State into a supranational community organization is under discussion; The rights, freedoms and guarantees of citizens as limits to the public power of integration; And infringement of the guarantee of reservation of law as soon as there is an introduction of Community legislation in the domestic legal order of the Member States of the supranational organization and at the same time the development of thematic by the supranational legislation whose regulation could be reserved exclusively to the legislator of the member country. Thus, this article raises the need to question and find solutions in terms of normative hierarchy and the introduction of derived legislation produced in the supranational community organization to the national legal order of a State as one of the constitutional problems of integration.

  16. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Chalmers, Natalia I; Barb, Jennifer J; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J; Munson, Peter J; Fine, Daniel H; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  17. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Moutsopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis. Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  18. Community Forestry as Perceived by Local People Around Cross River National Park, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The prior identification of local people's preferences for conservation-development projects will help gear nature-conservation strategies toward the needs of different groups of local people. This will help policy-makers in designing a more acceptable and effective conservation strategy. This article reports a study of local perceptions of a community forestry project that aims to help improve the design as well as local acceptance of the project. The data originated from personal interviews conducted in communities around Okwangwo Division of the Cross River National Park in southeast Nigeria and were analysed using ordered logit and binary logit models. The results showed that >50% of the respondents were satisfied with the community forestry project. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by education, age, gender, and willingness to contribute money to tourism as well as the contributions of cocoa, banana, and afang ( Gnetum africanum) to the respondents' income. The results from this study have important implications for nature conservation in Nigeria and potentially other conservation contexts across the developing world.

  19. Feedback on the Fsc community visits to the local partnerships in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.; Ruiz Lopez, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence community visits took place during the first afternoon and second day of the Belgium Workshop event. Open to all workshop participants, they were not technically oriented, i.e. they did not include visits to the nuclear installations that exist today in the municipalities of Dessel, Mol, and Fleurus-Farciennes. Instead, the visits offered an opportunity for mutual learning through first-hand interactions between Belgian stakeholders and international delegates. Personal, direct contact between local people and FSC delegates was favoured, so as to learn about their perspective and experience of the partnership methodology and approach (both positive and negative). These encounters were organised in public meeting halls serving the communities. FSC delegates also briefly toured the localities by road and by canal. For each local partnership, FSC delegates heard very interesting and detailed presentations in several voices. After forthright question-and-answer discussions, participants had a chance to sample local specialties. An FSC delegate was chosen for each community visit to act as rapporteur in order to collect and briefly report impressions during the first session of the formal workshop. Notes from those reports are presented below. (authors)

  20. Effect of local cultural context on the success of community-based conservation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry A; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Thirgood, Simon J; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2010-08-01

    Conservation interventions require evaluation to understand what factors predict success or failure. To date, there has been little systematic investigation of the effect of social and cultural context on conservation success, although a large body of literature argues it is important. We investigated whether local cultural context, particularly local institutions and the efforts of interventions to engage with this culture significantly influence conservation outcomes. We also tested the effects of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration. We systematically reviewed the literature on community-based conservation and identified 68 interventions suitable for inclusion. We used a protocol to extract and code information and evaluated a range of measures of outcome success (attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic). We also examined the association of each predictor with each outcome measure and the structure of predictor covariance. Local institutional context influenced intervention outcomes, and interventions that engaged with local institutions were more likely to succeed. Nevertheless, there was limited support for the role of community participation, conservation education, benefit provision, and market integration on intervention success. We recommend that conservation interventions seek to understand the societies they work with and tailor their activities accordingly. Systematic reviews are a valuable approach for assessing conservation evidence, although sensitive to the continuing lack of high-quality reporting on conservation interventions.

  1. Understanding local community's values, worldviews and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Maya I; Metzger, Marc J

    2017-01-15

    Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey. The survey revealed that residents of the GSABR greatly value wildlife and beauty of nature, and that the majority of the respondents showed concern for the environment from an ecocentric worldview. Results also revealed that the most influential tested socio-demographic characteristic affecting people's relationship to their environment is their professional affiliation. Tourism and recreation were seen as major benefits of the recent biosphere designation. Results did highlight contrasting benefits from the designation for different stakeholder groups, which could potentially lead to tensions and should be considered in the reserve management. Given the community's supportive world views and perceptions, greater participation in the biosphere's management in likely to be welcomed and should be used to avoid or mediate any conflicts. The mixed-method survey developed for this study, proved successful in eliciting these themes in the GSABR. We recommend other biosphere reserves replicate this research, to gain better understanding of local communities and increase their support and participation in reserve management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of European Community for air-deposition-water 1973-1974, milk 1972-1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk

  3. Leading by example: a local health department-community collaboration to incorporate physical activity into organizational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Lewis, Lavonna B; Sloane, David C; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Diamant, Allison L; Nascimento, Lori M; McCarthy, William J

    2004-01-01

    A multisectoral model promoting sociocultural environmental change to increase physical activity levels among African Americans in Los Angeles County, California, was developed and implemented. This model represents a true collaboration between a local health department and a community lead agency. Community organizations serving targeted areas of the county participated in one or more interventions incorporating physical activity into routine organizational practice, which centered around modeling the behaviors promoted ("walking the talk"). In the current study, level of organizational support for physical activity integration was assessed, as reflected in the extent of organizational commitment associated with each intervention. Individual-level data, characterizing the sociodemography, health status, and health behaviors of organization staff, members, and clients, are presented to document the average risk burden in the targeted population. Nearly half of the more than 200 participating organizations actively embraced incorporating physical activity into their regular work routines, with more than 25 percent committed at the highest level of involvement. Broad capacity and support for organizational integration of physical activity was demonstrated, with the observed level of commitment varying by organization type. Similar to the successful evolution of tobacco control, some of the responsibility ("cost") for physical activity adoption and maintenance can and should be shifted from the individual to organizational entities, such as workplaces.

  4. Integrating fuel reduction management with local bioenergy operations and businesses: A community responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Kenneth; Van Demark, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In approximately 20,000 US wildfire 'at-risk' communities, private citizen awareness and involvement is essential for the effective integration of sustainable fuel reduction programs with the establishment of local biomass/woody materials businesses and bioenergy facilities. The factors that influence local community bioenergy and wood products economic development are mostly social, political, and financial not biological, ecological, or technological. It is the private sector that is the driving force for creating and influencing sustainable forest resources and broadening access to public lands. The many years of no-wood harvesting policies in the United States have caused excessive overgrowth and eliminated local forest products markets. Now with the severe overgrowth, drought and beetle-infested conditions in many Southwestern forests, actions are necessary to reduce fire hazards, improve public safety, and promote forest health. It is the local communities that must take an active role in creating bioenergy facilities and wood products markets to use these fuel reduction supplies. A case in point is Prescott, Arizona, which is enclosed in the south and west by the Bradshaw Mountains and Sierra Prieta range. In 1990, under companion resolution of the Mayor of the City of Prescott and the Yavapai County Supervisors, the Prescott Area Wildland/Urban Interface Commission (PAWUIC) was formed to address the continuing growth of urban population into the wildland areas surrounding the Prescott basin. This organization of private volunteers and cooperating government agencies has the objectives to provide community fire safety education, wildland/urban fire hazard removal, and to promote the local markets for materials harvested from the wildland areas. (author)

  5. Effects of a community scorecard on improving the local health system in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: qualitative evidence using the most significant change technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Labrecque, Guillaume; Batonon, Isatou; Salsi, Viviana; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade of conflict has weakened the health system in the Democratic Republic of Congo and decreased its ability to respond to the needs of the population. Community scorecards have been conceived as a way to increase accountability and responsiveness of service providers, but there is limited evidence of their effects, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. This paper describes the implementation of community scorecards within a community-driven reconstruction project in two provinces of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between June 2012 and November 2013, 45 stories of change in the health system were collected from village development committee, health committee, community members (20 men and 18 women) and healthcare providers (n = 7) in 25 sites using the Most Significant Change technique. Stories were analyzed qualitatively for content related to the types and mechanisms of change observed. The most salient changes were related to increased transparency and community participation in health facility management, and improved quality of care. Quality of care included increased access to services, improved patient-provider relationships, improved performance of service providers, and improved maintenance of physical infrastructure. Changes occurred through many different mechanisms including provider actions in response to information, pressure from community representatives, or supervisors; and joint action and improved collaboration by health facility committees and providers. Although it is often assumed that confrontation is a primary mechanism for citizens to change state-provided services, this study demonstrates that healthcare providers may also be motivated to change through other means. Positive experiences of community scorecards can provide a structured space for interface between community members and the health system, allowing users to voice their opinions and preferences and bridge information gaps for both

  6. Upscaling ecotourism in Kisumu city and its environs: Local community perspective Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Odhiambo HAYOMBE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenya’s quest to be among the top ten long-haul tourist destinations globally require strategic focus as envisaged in Kenya’s Vision 2030. Ecotourism is emerging as an alternative development path that can enhance environmental conservation, promote preservation of cultural heritage as well as provide an alternative source of sustainable livelihood. Alternative livelihood in ecotourism provides a sustainable development path for Kisumu City and its environs. However, sustainability in ecotourism transformation is a concern; that is how to motivate the local community to participate in this venture? This study discerns these significant sustainability factors as perceived by the local community. The objective of the study was to discern the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. And the research questions: What is the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation? This research design used both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative research design focused on site specific analysis of ecotourism sites of Dunga (Kisumu, Miyandhe (Bondo and Seka (Kendu Bay. The quantitative research entailed data collection administered through questionnaire in eco-tourism outlets represented by 10 Beach Management Units (BMU selected through purposive sampling. Principal Component Analysis was used to discern the significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. A total of 28 items converted into variables were subjected against 326 respondents in the PCA analysis. The results indicated a total of seven (7 significant sustainability factors: First factor was willingness to participate in ecotourism ventures; second Factor was upscale ecotourism initiatives in the neighborhood; third factor was women and youth empowerment; fourth factor was youth and women employment in the neighborhood; fifth Factor: Natural Artifact

  7. Local community participatory learning with a nature interpretation system: A case study in Ban Pong, Sansai district, Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raktida Siri

    2017-05-01

    The research employed multiple research methods consisting of surveys, focus group discussion, and participatory observation. Samples used in the study were members of the Agro-tourism Club of Ban Pong community, Ban Pong, Papai sub-district, Sansai district, Chiang Mai province. The community members undertook learning through a four-step participatory learning process; (1 analyzing problems, (2 planning, exploring, and voting, (3 implementation, and (4 evaluation. The results showed that the community members had gained knowledge about tourism interpretation and showed a positive attitude toward the development of tourism interpretation. Moreover, at the end of the study, they had actually developed an interpretative nature trail that was derived from the real needs of their community.

  8. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  9. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  10. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  11. 2017 National Park visitor spending effects : Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne; Cornachione, Egan

    2018-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2017, the National Park System received an estimated 331 million recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated \\$18.2 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 306 thousand jobs, \\$11.9 billion in labor income, \\$20.3 billion in value added, and \\$35.8 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.5 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with \\$3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  12. Local Medicaid home- and community-based services spending and nursing home admissions of younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.

  13. Estimating rates of local species extinction, colonization and turnover in animal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Boulinier, T.; Hines, J.E.; Pollock, K.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Species richness has been identified as a useful state variable for conservation and management purposes. Changes in richness over time provide a basis for predicting and evaluating community responses to management, to natural disturbance, and to changes in factors such as community composition (e.g., the removal of a keystone species). Probabilistic capture-recapture models have been used recently to estimate species richness from species count and presence-absence data. These models do not require the common assumption that all species are detected in sampling efforts. We extend this approach to the development of estimators useful for studying the vital rates responsible for changes in animal communities over time; rates of local species extinction, turnover, and colonization. Our approach to estimation is based on capture-recapture models for closed animal populations that permit heterogeneity in detection probabilities among the different species in the sampled community. We have developed a computer program, COMDYN, to compute many of these estimators and associated bootstrap variances. Analyses using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) suggested that the estimators performed reasonably well. We recommend estimators based on probabilistic modeling for future work on community responses to management efforts as well as on basic questions about community dynamics.

  14. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities......, as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  15. Empowering Local Communities through Tourism Entrepreneurship: The Case of Micro Tourism Entrepreneurs in Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Aleff Omar Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector has a huge effect in developing countries by providing immense economic opportunities to the local community. Entrepreneurship has been identified as essential actors for creating job opportunities, generating income, increasing standard of living and generally growing the economy. Using the random sampling approach, the questionnaires were distributed to the tourism entrepreneurs in the tourism attraction area in Langkawi Island. During the survey period, only a total of 263 entrepreneurs completed the questionnaires. The objective of this study is to explore the economic empowerment of the tourism entrepreneurship in contributing to income level, creating job opportunities and increasing standard of living. The findings of the study clearly show that the tourism entrepreneur activities contribute positively to income level, jobs, opportunities and standard of living of the local community.

  16. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente; Aarrestad, Per

    2013-01-01

    -change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community...... data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We...... temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0...

  17. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  18. Making time for storytelling; the challenges of community building and activism in a rural locale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Copeland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uneven projection of voices from or within a community can be addressed, in part, by methods such as digital storytelling in a technology and media-savvy society. Whilst the use of digital storytelling to facilitate constructive dialogue has proved successful for those who participate, instilling a sense of motivation to become involved at the outset can pose a challenge. Members of different types of community groups, whether geo-physical or practice-based, will not necessarily be drawn to involvement in social action through group workshops without prior personal engagement. This paper considers which other participatory media techniques can be employed to encourage involvement in community digital storytelling workshops to inspire activism, and examines barriers to participation, with emphasis on the necessity of mandate, for project success. To help answer these issues, one particular workshop in a case study in North Yorkshire, UK will be used to identify the importance of place and incorporation of methods when undertaking community digital storytelling.

  19. Waste dumps in local communities in developing countries and hidden danger to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetor, Gloria O

    2016-07-01

    The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation fuelled by a fast-growing population has led to the generation of a huge amount of waste in most communities in developing countries. The hidden disorders and health dangers in waste dumps are often ignored. The waste generated in local communities is usually of a mixed type consisting of domestic waste and waste from small-scale industrial activities. Among these wastes are toxic metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), halogenated organic compounds, plastics, remnants of paints that are themselves mixtures of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons and petroleum product-contaminated devices. Therefore, there is the urgent need to create an awareness of the harmful health effect of toxic wastes in developing countries, especially Nigeria. This is a review aimed at creating awareness on the hidden dangers of waste dumps to health in local communities in developing countries. Many publications in standard outlets use the following keywords: cancer, chemical toxicity, modern environmental health hazards, waste management and waste speciation in PubMed, ISI, Toxbase environmental digest, related base journals, and some standard textbooks, as well as the observation of the researcher between 1959 and 2014. Studies revealed the preponderance of toxic chemicals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg in dump sites that have the risk of entering food chain and groundwater supplies, and these can give rise to endemic malnutrition and may also increase susceptibility to mutagenic substances, thereby increasing the incidence of cancer in developing countries. Industrialisation and urbanisation have brought about a change in the waste that is generated in contemporary communities in developing countries. Therefore, there is the need to embrace speciation and sound management of waste, probably including bioremediation. The populations in the local communities need regulatory agencies who are health educators as positive change

  20. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.

  1. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  2. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  3. Proceedings of the 7. world wind energy conference 2008 : community power : energy autonomy for local economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This international conference profiled the topic of community power within the dynamic renewable energy sector. The objective was to promote international technology transfer and bring a new perspective to community development, economic growth and environmental awareness in the context of climate change. It was attended by academics and industry representatives from 20 countries who focused on leading edge research on the topic of innovative technology in the rapidly growing renewable power market. The topics of discussion addressed issues such as ownership of renewable energy projects by local communities, including farmers, landowners, cooperatives, Aboriginal groups, municipalities, utilities and educational institutions. Presentations focused on policy development, financial mechanisms, ownership models, technology advancements, grid interconnection issues, governance and capacity building. The conference featured more than 100 presentations, of which 65 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Neoliberal governance, sustainable development and local communities in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tennberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently high hopes in the Barents Region for economic growth, higher employment and improved well-being, encouraged by developments in the energy industry, tourism and mining. The article discusses these prospects from the perspective of local communities in five locations in the region, which spans the northernmost counties of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Northwest Russia. The communities studied are remote, relatively small, multicultural, and dependent on natural resources. The salient dynamic illuminated in the research is how ideas of sustainability and neoliberal governance meet in community development. While the two governmentalities often conflict, they sometimes also complement one another, posing a paradox that raises concerns over the social aspect of sustainable development in particular. The article is based on international, multidisciplinary research drawing on interviews as well as statistical and documentary analysis.

  5. Making it local: Beacon Communities use health information technology to optimize care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Amy; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Kanger, Chatrian R; Lobach, David F; McWilliams, Lee; Polello, Jennifer M; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Tulikangas, Megan C; Turske, Scott A

    2014-06-01

    Care management aims to provide cost-effective, coordinated, non-duplicative care to improve care quality, population health, and reduce costs. The 17 communities receiving funding from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology through the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program are leaders in building and strengthening their health information technology (health IT) infrastructure to provide more effective and efficient care management. This article profiles 6 Beacon Communities' health IT-enabled care management programs, highlighting the influence of local context on program strategy and design, and describing challenges, lessons learned, and policy implications for care delivery and payment reform. The unique needs (eg, disease burden, demographics), community partnerships, and existing resources and infrastructure all exerted significant influence on the overall priorities and design of each community's care management program. Though each Beacon Community needed to engage in a similar set of care management tasks--including patient identification, stratification, and prioritization; intervention; patient engagement; and evaluation--the contextual factors helped shape the specific strategies and tools used to carry out these tasks and achieve their objectives. Although providers across the country are striving to deliver standardized, high-quality care, the diverse contexts in which this care is delivered significantly influence the priorities, strategies, and design of community-based care management interventions. Gaps and challenges in implementing effective community-based care management programs include: optimizing allocation of care management services; lack of available technology tailored to care management needs; lack of standards and interoperability; integrating care management into care settings; evaluating impact; and funding and sustainability.

  6. Everyday Information Needs and Information Seeking Habits in the Countryside: a Study of a Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The research attempts to provide an insight into the information world of the Slovenian countryside. It presents the first results of an exploratory study of information needs, information seeking habits and types of information sources.Methodology/approach: Brenda Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology was used as the theoretical basis for this research. 25 open structured interviews with inhabitants of a local community were conducted based on purposive sampling. Interview recordings were transcribed, summarised and analysed using the qualitative content analysis approach.Results: The analysis results in recognizing the types of gaps in the context of an individual, economic activities and in the context of a local community. Gap categories are described with regard to questions or problems and the ways of solving them. There are 20 categories describing gaps in the context of an individual, 17 categories which present economic activities – and 6 categories which pertain to a local community. Findings about information needs and the ways of seeking information stress the key role of information sources in farming and prevalence of interpersonal exchange of information and experts' opinion in the context of individual problem solving.Research limitation: The generalisation of results is not possible due to the sample size.Originality/practical implications: The findings contribute to understanding of information needs and ways of information seeking in the Slovenian countryside.

  7. Rural School In The Context Of Community-Led Local Development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudečková H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1 What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2 In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD, violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.

  8. Local environment rather than past climate determines community composition of mountain stream macroinvertebrates across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrria, Cesc; Bonada, Núria; Vellend, Mark; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Alba-Tercedor, Javier; Sainz-Cantero, Carmen Elisa; Garrido, Josefina; Acosta, Raul; El Alami, Majida; Barquín, Jose; Derka, Tomáš; Álvarez-Cabria, Mario; Sáinz-Bariain, Marta; Filipe, Ana F; Vogler, Alfried P

    2017-11-01

    Community assembly is determined by a combination of historical events and contemporary processes that are difficult to disentangle, but eco-evolutionary mechanisms may be uncovered by the joint analysis of species and genetic diversity across multiple sites. Mountain streams across Europe harbour highly diverse macroinvertebrate communities whose composition and turnover (replacement of taxa) among sites and regions remain poorly known. We studied whole-community biodiversity within and among six mountain regions along a latitudinal transect from Morocco to Scandinavia at three levels of taxonomic hierarchy: genus, species and haplotypes. Using DNA barcoding of four insect families (>3100 individuals, 118 species) across 62 streams, we found that measures of local and regional diversity and intraregional turnover generally declined slightly towards northern latitudes. However, at all hierarchical levels we found complete (haplotype) or high (species, genus) turnover among regions (and even among sites within regions), which counters the expectations of Pleistocene postglacial northward expansion from southern refugia. Species distributions were mostly correlated with environmental conditions, suggesting a strong role of lineage- or species-specific traits in determining local and latitudinal community composition, lineage diversification and phylogenetic community structure (e.g., loss of Coleoptera, but not Ephemeroptera, at northern sites). High intraspecific genetic structure within regions, even in northernmost sites, reflects species-specific dispersal and demographic histories and indicates postglacial migration from geographically scattered refugia, rather than from only southern areas. Overall, patterns were not strongly concordant across hierarchical levels, but consistent with the overriding influence of environmental factors determining community composition at the species and genus levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Service utilization in community health centers in China: a comparison analysis with local hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being an important part of China's Urban Health Care Reform System, Community Health Centers (CHCs have been established throughout the entire country and are presently undergoing substantial reconstruction. However, the services being delivered by the CHCs are far from reaching their performance targets. In order to assess the role of the CHCs, we examined their performance in six cities located in regions of South-East China. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the utilization and the efficiency of community health resources that are able to provide basic medical and public health services. Methods The study was approved by Peking University Health Science Center Institutional Reviewing Board (NO: IRB00001052-T1. Data were collected from all the local health bureaux and processed using SPSS software. Methods of analysis mainly included: descriptive analysis, paired T-test and one-way ANOVA. Results The six main functions of the CHCs were not fully exploited and the surveys that were collected on their efficiency and utilization of resources indicate that they have a low level of performance and lack the trust of local communities. Furthermore, the CHCs seriously lack funding support and operate under difficult circumstances, and residents have less positive attitudes towards them. Conclusion The community health service must be adjusted according to the requirements of urban medical and health reform, taking into account communities' health needs. More research is required on the living standards and health needs of residents living within the CHC's range, taking into consideration the users' needs in expanding the newly implemented service, and at the same time revising the old service system so as to make the development of CHCs realistic and capable of providing a better service to patients. Several suggestions are put forward for an attainable scheme for developing a community health service.

  10. Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Lei, Zhang; Xinqiao, Zhang; Xianyan, Wang; Yadong, Huang; Kaiya, Zhou; Hart, Tom; Ding, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to

  11. Local GIS: development and assessment of the geoportal for local governments and local communities. Case study of a small town in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medolińska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous applications of GIS, administration and public services count among the main fields of application. They are both the users and the owners of the largest amount of spatial data. Portals for higher authorities have been the subject of extensive discussions, but the development and possible use of GIS systems in the form of geoportals at local levels still seems to have been insufficiently discussed. This article presents the process of designing and developing a portal for the lowest authorities - local authorities and the local community. A small town in Poland, Sokółka, was assumed as the study area. The concept development was preceded by, among others: recognition of the needs of an administrative unit in conducting spatial policy; establishment of the objectives, functionalities and assumptions of the designed GIS; a SWOT analysis of the designed geoportal; and an analysis of data resources. Pilot implementation was completed with an evaluation of the geoportal encompassing various groups of potential users.

  12. Integrating Cultural Heritage into Contemporary Life. The Perspective of Local Communities: The Case of Arcadia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to highlight the importance of integrating cultural heritage into contemporary life as a means to contribute to the economic and tourism development of a historical area and as an asset to local development. The study focuses on the cultural goods of Arcadia in central Peloponnese, Greece, an area of great history and rich architectural heritage, which gives a distinct cultural identity to the region. The overall objective of the current research is to describe how the different kinds of cultural benefits, derived by tourism, are perceived by the local community. A questionnaire based survey, conducted in Arcadia during the period 2012-2014, demonstrates that the locals strongly support the promotion of the architectural richness of the region in order to become an attraction for visitors, contributing both to the improvement of the quality of life, as well as the economic and tourism development of the area. The survey results confirm that cultural tourism is seen as an opportunity to contribute to the economic and cultural sustainability of the area and the local community. The implementation of a linear regression model shows that education is the key factor influencing the residents’ view regarding the promotion of cultural tourism in the region.

  13. Local Community Versus Globalization Tendencies: Case Study of Czech Villages in Romanian Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šantrůčková Markéta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research question is the relationship between the local community and globalization tendencies and transformation or maintenance of local traditions. The research area is a specific locality of a Czech village in Romanian Banat. The local community has evolved in a relative isolation. Agriculture was the most important activity despite the fact that a mining factory was opened there. Agriculture was and in many features still is traditional, self-supplying, and hard-work. The life-style has always been environmentally friendly as it has been without modern technologies. Nevertheless, modernization exploded dramatically in these villages after 1989, when the communist policies collapsed along with Romania's isolation. People from the Czech Republic have rediscovered Romanian Banat and a rather busy (agro tourism has developed there. The Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports development projects for making living conditions in the village better. Simultaneously, strong migration from Banat to the Czech Republic has started. People find living conditions in the Czech Republic easier and leave hard work, poverty and unemployment. It brings huge land cover changes because people who remain cannot use all arable land, which is thus abandoned and left for the natural process. One of the distinct manifestations of globalization tendencies is the build-up of wind power plants.

  14. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  15. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  16. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  17. COASTAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN KELURAHAN SUKOLILO, BULAK, BASED ON LOCAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Kusuma Wardhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelurahan Sukolilo, Bulak Settlement is an area of fishermen settlement with great potential of resources such as fish and sea cucumber. Kelurahan Sukolilo also well known as Prominent Kampung in fish processed products. Despite having a great potential in marine resources, most of the fishermen still live in a low environmental and economic condition. Theres hould be effective environmental management in coastal area so the fiherman vulnerability can be reduced through a criteria of developing coastal area that is able to accomodate the fisherman economic activities. The researcher will apply community based development in developing coastal area criteria.. In this case community-based development approach needs to be developed in the management of coastal areas, especially for the improvement of the environmental quality. This is because the coastal characteristic and resources are very complex and diverse, so in the coastal area management should involve the local community directly. Community based management shows the importance of community participation in development planning and implementation. This research was in form of qualitative research, data sources obtained by primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through observations, visual documentations and interview with the fishermen and fish processors. Secondary data were obtained from literature and theory. Research results showed that  level of community participation that need to be done in the development process using active participatory. Active participatory should be done through partnership and delegated power level to accomodate fishermen and fish processors activities and support sustainable environment. Co-working space for inhabitants is needed  to accomodate community activities related to water and odor and drying process and to create area to socialize

  18. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  19. Advocacy for Quality School Health Education: The Role of Public Health Educators as Professionals and Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David A.; Priest, Hannah M.; Mitchell, Qshequilla P.

    2015-01-01

    Advocacy at the local school or school district level has received emphasis as a strategy for improving school health education. The involvement of health educators in advocacy for school health education has been described as "imperative" at all levels of school-based policy. Allensworth's 2010 Society for Public Health Education…

  20. Local community knowledge and participation for animal diversity conservation in SSWP IV Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Oktafitria, Dwi; Wirawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Zainul; Alfarisy, M. Ulya; Azis, Abdul; Argiyanti, Sherly Eka; Fadilah, Via Nur

    2017-06-01

    Key to animal biodiversity conservation are the local communities that live in and around these sites as their livelihoods depend on the natural resources these sites provide. SSWP (Sub Satuan Wilayah Pembangunan) IV Sidoarjo covers Krian, Balongbendo, Tarik, Prambon, and Wonoayu subdistrict with the main function as technical agricultural, industrial zones supported by the low density of settlement activity. Development in this region which tend not balanced between technical agricultural and industrial activities, it is necessary to study in depth so that rapid industrial development can still pay attention to the environment because there is a trend change in agricultural land use and settlements for industrial activities. Take a look at the projections of potential future threats and potential huge biodiversity in SSWP IV is necessary to do a program with a strategic approach to community support efforts to efficiently manage potential biodiversity. As well as the development and diversification of food security program in the region is an abundant source of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo and knowing how the knowledge and participation of local communities on biodiversity of animals in the region. The study was conducted in August-September 2016 through direct field surveys for collecting animal biodiversity primary data. It also conducted a structured interview to determine how much knowledge and participation of local communities towards the conservation of biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo. The results of field studies obtained 28 Aves species, 48 species of Insect, 14 species of Pisces, 4 species of Reptiles, 6 species of Mammals. It was known that there were a bird species with protected status in accordance with UU No. 5 1990 and least concern status in accordance with IUCN. While the results of the interview obtained 63% of 19 respondents did not know about the definition of

  1. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  2. Use of real-time qPCR to quantify members of the unculturable heterotrophic bacterial community in a deep sea marine sponge, Vetulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, M; Peterson, C L; Ledger, A; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E; Winegar, R; McCarthy, P J; Lopez, J V

    2008-04-01

    In this report, real-time quantitative PCR (TaqMan qPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) 16S-like rRNA molecule, a universal phylogenetic marker, was used to quantify the relative abundance of individual bacterial members of a diverse, yet mostly unculturable, microbial community from a marine sponge. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial communities derived from Caribbean Lithistid sponges have shown a wide diversity of microbes that included at least six major subdivisions; however, very little overlap was observed between the culturable and unculturable microbial communities. Based on sequence data of three culture-independent Lithistid-derived representative bacteria, we designed probe/primer sets for TaqMan qPCR to quantitatively characterize selected microbial residents in a Lithistid sponge, Vetulina, metagenome. TaqMan assays included specificity testing, DNA limit of detection analysis, and quantification of specific microbial rRNA sequences such as Nitrospira-like microbes and Actinobacteria up to 172 million copies per microgram per Lithistid sponge metagenome. By contrast, qPCR amplification with probes designed for common previously cultured sponge-associated bacteria in the genera Rheinheimera and Marinomonas and a representative of the CFB group resulted in only minimal detection of the Rheiheimera in total DNA extracted from the sponge. These data verify that a large portion of the microbial community within Lithistid sponges may consist of currently unculturable microorganisms.

  3. Sustainable local development in citizen and community spheres. Implications for the governance of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Carreón Guillén

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic, political, citizen, and community spheres, whether global or local, are regulated by systems of governance, which create public interest agendas including tariffs for public services derived from the use of natural resources. In this regard, this paper presents the agreements and disagreements between entrepreneurial, municipal, citizen, and community organizations to establish local development scenarios in reference to the global market. This discussion will create a series of representations that symbolize the dissonance between prosperity and austerity in order to contrast lifestyles oriented towards globalization and livelihoods aimed at sustainability. In this context, different identities have emerged from the alliances between civil and business organizations, in which development is not necessarily a priority; however, such vicissitudes provide central themes for the discussion of economic models.  This paper is important because it envisages a governance scheme that permits including natural resources in the civil, political, and business agenda.  In other words, governance regulates the intrusion of transnational corporations in communities and the inclusion of SMEs in the international market.

  4. Community energy and emissions planning : a guide for BC local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    British Columbia (BC) local governments are becoming more interested in completing an energy and greenhouse gas emissions plan for their community as awareness of climate change grows and energy prices escalate. The purpose of this guide was to support local government elected officials and staff in undertaking an energy and emissions planning process. This guide described the purpose and content of a community energy and emissions plan, its benefits, and how to go about creating one. Specifically, the guide provided practical tips, examples from BC communities, and links to more detailed information. Topics that were presented in the guide included engagement; inventories; target-setting; action plan; implementation and monitoring; and funding and resources. It was concluded that the key to long-term success is to maintain good communication with council/board, staff and the public. The document emphasized that it is important to make sure that people know the work being undertaken, and the results achieved, so that momentum is not lost. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, L R; Stewart, S M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, R; Hellyer, P W

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate's coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee's immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution). Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than traditional 4-year

  6. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of undergraduate credits earned from community colleges or online compared to traditional 4-year institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Kogan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA as a predictive value of later academic success, there has been little attention paid to how and where an applicant acquires his/her undergraduate coursework. Quality of academic program is an important component of applicant files, and it is suggested that the source of a candidate’s coursework might influence admissions committee decisions, perhaps even outside of the committee’s immediate awareness. Options for undergraduate education include taking classes at a traditional four-year institution, a community college, or online. This study provides an overview of the current state of online courses and community colleges in the US as a foundation to explore the views of veterinary admissions committee members pertaining to coursework completed at traditional residential 4-year schools or at community colleges and whether they are delivered on campus or online (at either type of institution. Survey participants reported a pattern of preference for traditional four-year residential coursework compared to online or community college courses. These results are interesting given the exponential growth of students taking online courses and data showing community colleges are providing a successful gateway to obtaining a four-year degree. This also points to the need for admission committees to discuss potential biases since the information about type of school and/or course may not be consistently available for all applicants. Finally, at a time when admitting a diverse class of students is a goal of many programs, it is of special concern that there are potential biases against courses taken online or from community colleges - venues that tend to draw a more diverse population than

  7. Residential Tourism and Multiple Mobilities: Local Citizenship and Community Fragmentation in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Noorloos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Current patterns of “move-in move-out” hypermobility are perfectly exemplified by residential tourism: the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy property. The mobility of residential tourists does not stand alone, but has broader chain effects: it converts local destinations into transnational spaces, leading to a highly differentiated and segmented population landscape. In this article, residential tourism’s implications in terms of local society in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, are examined, starting from the idea that these implications should be viewed as complex and traveling in time and space. Mobile groups, such as residential tourists, can have an important local participation and involvement (independently of national citizenship, although recent flows of migrants settle more into compatriot social networks. The fact that various migrant populations continually travel back and forth and do not envision a future in the area may restrict their opportunities and willingness for local involvement. Transnational involvement in itself is not a problem and can be successfully combined with high local involvement; however, the great level of fragmentation, mobility, temporariness and absenteeism in Guanacaste circumscribes successful community organizing. Still, the social system has not completely dissolved.

  8. Ecological drift and local exposures drive enteric bacterial community differences within species of Galápagos iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W; Hong, Pei-Ying; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-04-01

    Diet strongly influences the intestinal microbial communities through species sorting. Alternatively, these communicates may differ because of chance variation in local microbial exposures or species losses among allopatric host populations (i.e. ecological drift). We investigated how these forces shape enteric communities of Galápagos marine and land iguanas. Geographically proximate populations shared more similar communities within a host ecotype, suggesting a role for ecological drift during host colonization of the islands. Additionally, evidence of taxa sharing between proximate heterospecific host populations suggests that contemporary local exposures also influence the gut community assembly. While selective forces such as host-bacterial interactions or dietary differences are dominant drivers of intestinal community differences among hosts, historical and contemporary processes of ecological drift may lead to differences in bacterial composition within a host species. Whether such differences in community structure translate into geographic variation in benefits derived from these intimate microbial communities remains to be explored. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Describing the continuum of collaboration among local health departments with hospitals around the community health assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristin D; Mohr, Lisa Buettner; Beatty, Kate E; Ciecior, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals and local health departments (LHDs) are under policy requirements from the Affordable Care Act and accreditation standards through the Public Health Accreditation Board. Tax exempt hospitals must perform a community health needs assessment (CHNA), similar to the community health assessment (CHA) required for LHDs. These efforts have led to a renewed interest in hospitals and LHDs working together to achieve common goals. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of levels of joint action leading toward collaboration between LHDs and hospitals and describe collaboration around CHAs. Local health departments were selected on the basis of reporting collaboration (n = 26) or unsure about collaboration (n = 29) with local hospitals. Local health departments were surveyed regarding their relationship with local hospitals. For LHDs currently collaborating with a hospital, a collaboration continuum scale was calculated. Appropriate nonparametric tests, chi-squares, and Spearman's rank correlations were conducted to determine differences between groups. A total of 44 LHDs responded to the survey (80.0%). Currently collaborating LHDs were more likely to be interested in accreditation and to refer to their CHA 5 or more times a year compared to the unsure LHDs. In the analysis, a collaboration continuum was created and is positively correlated with aspects of the CHA and CHA process. This study is the first attempt to quantify the level of collaboration between LHDs and hospitals around CHAs. Better understanding of the levels of joint action required may assist LHDs in making informed decisions regarding deployment of resources on the path to accreditation.

  10. Centre and/or periphery? On the cognitive and social construal of identity in a local community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    -cultural setting, mass media, and politics (the island as periphery). Interestingly, the latter discourse could also be connected to local practices in which the new role of the island was being enacted and entrenched by the informants in their local environment. The data show that cognitive models can be subject......Centre and/or periphery? On the cognitive and social construal of identity in a local community Danish Directional Adverbs (DDA) (for instance op ‘up', ned ‘down', ud ‘out', ind ‘in') are very frequently used deictically to profile a specific conceptualisation of and relation to places, persons...... communicative and social spheres or deictic centres within the wider language community: individual, local, and supra-local (Hovmark 2007). Local communities can develop and conventionalise specific conceptualisations ("world views"), thus supporting recent findings that (dia)lectal variation is important...

  11. Mutual emergency assistance in the event of accident during transport of radioactive materials within the member states of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study consist of a compilation of information on the relevant emergency response plans that are at present in existence in the ten countries of the European Community. Consideration is given to the development of proposals for facilitating co-operation between the emergency services in different countries, particularly with regard to accidents that might occur near national boundaries or in countries in which all the necessary resources might not be available. The particular items of interest covered in this study are: compilation of information on existing organizational emergency response arrangements within each Member State relating to accidents in the transport of radioactive materials by all modes, including road, rail, inland waterways, air and compilation of information on existing arrangements for receiving or providing assistance from or to other Member States. Identification of any avoidable incompatibilities on an international scale. Recommendations for improving the existing arrangements and for encouraging the development of adequate systems of mutual emergency notification, liaison and assistance as required by the circumstances, recommendations should be compatible with the broader framework of emergency response for all types of accidents developed within Member States and envisaged in the IAEA system for mutual emergency assistance

  12. Local Environmental Factors Drive Divergent Grassland Soil Bacterial Communities in the Western Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-11-01

    Mountain ecosystems are characterized by a diverse range of climatic and topographic conditions over short distances and are known to shelter a high biodiversity. Despite important progress, still little is known on bacterial diversity in mountain areas. Here, we investigated soil bacterial biogeography at more than 100 sampling sites randomly stratified across a 700-km 2 area with 2,200-m elevation gradient in the western Swiss Alps. Bacterial grassland communities were highly diverse, with 12,741 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across 100 sites and an average of 2,918 OTUs per site. Bacterial community structure was correlated with local climatic, topographic, and soil physicochemical parameters with high statistical significance. We found pH (correlated with % CaO and % mineral carbon), hydrogen index (correlated with bulk gravimetric water content), and annual average number of frost days during the growing season to be among the groups of the most important environmental drivers of bacterial community structure. In contrast, bacterial community structure was only weakly stratified as a function of elevation. Contrasting patterns were discovered for individual bacterial taxa. Acidobacteria responded both positively and negatively to pH extremes. Various families within the Bacteroidetes responded to available phosphorus levels. Different verrucomicrobial groups responded to electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, water content, and mineral carbon contents. Alpine grassland bacterial communities are thus highly diverse, which is likely due to the large variety of different environmental conditions. These results shed new light on the biodiversity of mountain ecosystems, which were already identified as potentially fragile to anthropogenic influences and climate change. This article addresses the question of how microbial communities in alpine regions are dependent on local climatic and soil physicochemical variables. We benefit from a unique 700

  13. Measurement of exhaled breath carbon monoxide in clinical practice: A study of levels in Central Pennsylvania community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica M; Veldheer, Susan; Hammett, Erin; Foulds, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eBCO) reading is a useful tool for nurse practitioners to evaluate smoking status and other exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) to identify risk for cancer and chronic disease. This study aimed to measure one community's eBCO and identify potential environmental factors that may affect eBCO among nonsmokers. Data collected by convenience sampling at community health events included self-reported tobacco use and potential CO exposure. Means and frequency calculations describe the sample, two-sided t-tests determine differences in continuous variables, and chi-square tests determine differences in frequencies of CO levels between nontobacco users exposed to additional CO from their environment and nontobacco users who were not. As expected, smokers have significantly higher mean eBCO than nonsmokers (20.1 ppm vs. 4.4 ppm, p 6 ppm), although there were no environmental factors that explained a higher eBCO. Measuring eBCO provides an opportunity for the nurse practitioner to engage in a conversation about the impact of smoking and other environmental factors that contribute to eBCO and health. Keeping record of patients' smoking status and eBCO in their medical record is a valuable measure of the nurse practitioner's delivery of this care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. The contribution is based on an inventory of the applied national practices, the existing specifications, regulations, and guidelines applied in the design, the manufacture, and the safety assessment of structures, systems, and components to withstand potential earthquake consequences in the countries of the European Communities. In a comparison of these national specifications and guidelines the common points of agreement are identified and the divergences discussed with reference to the US practice. Special attention is given to the divergencies for definition and determination of the reference eathquakes. In European countries the definitions of the reference earthquakes are largely analogous to definitions in the US Federal Regulations but expressed in a different way. For European countries, threshold values are proposed to guarantee safety for nuclear power plants. (Auth.)

  15. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  16. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of the Acetothermia (OP1, was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (OD1 that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, including Microgenomates (OP11, Atribacteria (OP9, candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, and Marinimicrobia (SAR406. The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes.

  18. SVILUPPO LOCALE E COMMUNITY-UNIVERSITY PARTNERSHIP UNA SPERIMENTAZIONE NELLA VALLE DEL SIMETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Franchina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about the CoPED Summer School (Community Planning and Ecological Design held in Sicily, in the Simeto Valley, in June 2015. The School is one of the steps of the building process of the Simeto River Agreement, which started in 2002 and has been conducted in a community-university partnership framework by Italian action researchers with local representatives. Furthermore, the Simeto Valley has been elected recently as one of the "pilot areas" in the National Strategy for Inner Areas promoted by the De- partment for Economic Development. The main aim of the school has been to determine the projects to be developed in the National Strategy for Inner Areas. The article outlines both the achieved results and the methodological aspects of this experience. It especially highlights the value of service learning as pedagogical method, and the potential of the U. S. engaged university model that could be implemented in the Italian university system.

  19. Re-embedding scientific development in the realities of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Eames, Malcolm; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    As the effects of climate change is becoming increasingly visible scientific and technological development is often seen as a key component in political action towards future sustainability. Historically, however, it is not evident that science and technology per se lead to sustainable solutions....... To address this aspect of the challenge of sustainable development, this paper examines whether new approaches to upstream engagement in science and technology can further knowledge channels between academia and local communities, which can inspire more contextualised modes of knowledge production. Building...... on the insights from critical theory; newer conceptualisations of knowledge production; and the experiences from the Citizen Science for Sustainability action research programme, a number of principles towards more reflexive forms of community based public engagement in science and technology are proposed....

  20. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  1. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  2. A Community-Based Sensory Training Program Leads to Improved Experience at a Local Zoo for Children with Sensory Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing difficulties are common among many special needs children, especially those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The sensory sensitivities often result in interference of daily functioning and can lead to social isolation for both the individual and family unit. A quality improvement (QI project was undertaken within a local zoo to systematically implement a sensory training program targeted at helping special needs individuals with sensory challenges, including those with ASD, Down’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and speech delay. We piloted the program over a 2-year period. The program consisted of staff training, provision of sensory bags and specific social stories, as well as creation of quiet zones. Two hundred family units were surveyed before and after implementation of the sensory training program. In this pilot QI study, families reported increased visitation to the zoo, improved interactions with staff members, and the overall quality of their experience. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that a sensory training program within the community zoo is feasible, impactful, and has the potential to decrease social isolation for special needs individuals and their families.

  3. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites. We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal

  4. Information and training on radiation protection for trade union representatives from the nine Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of its training and information programme on radiation protection, the Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs (Health and Safety Directorate) organized for the third and fourth time (in October 1977 and 1978) seminars on radiation protection on behalf of trade union representatives from the nine Member States; the seminars served in particular as a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences. The present volume reproduces the papers read on those occasions, covering the following topics: the independence of radiaton protection units; training and information in radiation protection; analysis of the main innovations in radiological protection concepts emerging from ICRP Publication No 26; the protection of occasionally exposed workers; the work of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; the concept of optimization; future developments in dosimetry. Although the publication is destined mainly for the participants in the two meetings, the information it contains may also be of use to anyone interested in the problems of radiation protection and the spreading of knowledge in this field

  5. Decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards community and residential care home services: a grounded theory study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Low, Lisa Pau; Lam, Lai Wah; Fan, Kim Pong

    2017-06-05

    Caring and supporting older people with dementia have become a major public health priority. Recent reports have also revealed a diminishing number of family carers to provide dementia care in the future. Carers who are engaged in the caring role are known to bear significant psychological, practical and economic challenges as the disease advances over time. Seemingly, evidence indicates that the burden of care can be relieved by formal services. This study aims to explore decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards the use of community support (CS) and residential care home (RCH) services. A large multi-site constructivist grounded theory in a range of non-government organizations and a private aged home will frame this Hong Kong study. Purposive sampling will begin the recruitment of family members, followed by theoretical sampling. It is estimated that more than 100 family members using CS and RCH services will participate in an interview. The process of successive constant comparative analysis will be undertaken. The final product, a theory, will generate an integrated and comprehensive conceptual understanding which will explain the processes associated with decision-making of family members for dementia sufferers. Deeper understanding of issues including, but not exclusive to, service needs, expectations and hopes among family carers for improving service support to serve dementia sufferers in CS and RCH services will also be revealed. Importantly, this study seeks to illustrate the practical and strategic aspects of the theory and how it may be useful to transfer its applicability to various service settings to better support those who deliver formal and informal care to the dementia population.

  6. Evaluation of natural factors in town planning and strategic programming of development local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lješević Milutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural components are very important aspect of human life and work. The nature is place is place wherever to happened majority of human activity, working vacation and survival, although are some areas is technicality and desecrating to denaturalization. Because of that, it is necessary to study all valid of natural factors, when to programs new contents which are in function of human living, work or holiday. We can find great differences in exploration of some natural factors depending of level in programming of development (general or detail urban planning and strategic programming or local community or projecting. .

  7. Physics education of Japanese national colleges of technology in local community of Hokkaido

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Matsui, Hidenori

    2014-03-01

    The national colleges of technology in Japan, called KOSEN, were established about 50 years ago aiming to educate 15 to 20 years old students to become engineers who were necessary in period of high economic growth of Japan. In present, environment surrounding us has changed. Examples are low birth rate in Japan and the great earthquake in Tohoku area. There are 4 KOSENs in Hokkaido and we jointly make many efforts to contribute to local community in science. We present our efforts in physics education.

  8. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hopfenmüller

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  9. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  10. Partnering Students, Scientists, and the Local Community in a Regionally-focused Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. W.; Lemone, M. A.; Seavey, M. M.; Washburne, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    The GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) involves students and scientists in a worldwide environmental data collection effort. The GLOBE ONE field campaign (www.globe.gov/globeone) represents a model for a focused implementation of GLOBE via a geographically-specific project. The campaign, which occurred in Black Hawk County, Iowa from February 2004 to February 2006, was developed by GLOBE Principal Investigators (PIs), the GLOBE Program Office, and GLOBE Iowa. The central scientific objective was to compare quantitatively the environmental effects of various soil tillage techniques. In addition, student research projects were supported that spanned a variety of Earth science topics. The campaign established a partnership between students and scientists to collect a structured, multidisciplinary data set and also increase GLOBE visibility. The fact that GLOBE ONE occurred in a focused geographic area made it necessary to form a network for local support. This started with choosing an active GLOBE partner, namely the Iowa Academy of Science, who had the ability to oversee the local implementation of such a project. Once this partner was chosen, additional local groups needed to be recruited to support the project. The local network included K-12 schools, the County Conservation Board, the University of Northern Iowa, Hawkeye Community College, and community volunteers. This network collected data via automated instrumentation, first-hand observations, and through special events organized with a focus on a specific measurement. The first major step in supporting student research was a teacher training workshop held in March of 2006 that helped to provide tools for, and increase comfort levels with, promoting scientific inquiry in the classroom. Student-scientists interactions were promoted via scientist visits, video conferences, letters, and email exchanges. The culminating event was a Student Research Symposium held in February 2006 which gave students and scientists a

  11. The emergency first aid responder system model: using community members to assist life-threatening emergencies in violent, developing areas of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jared H; Wallis, Lee A

    2012-08-01

    As many as 90% of all trauma-related deaths occur in developing nations, and this is expected to get worse with modernisation. The current method of creating an emergency care system by modelling after that of a Western nation is too resource-heavy for most developing countries to handle. A cheaper, more community-based model is needed to establish new emergency care systems and to support them to full maturity. A needs assessment was undertaken in Manenberg, a township in Cape Town with high violence and injury rates. Community leaders and successfully established local services were consulted for the design of a first responder care delivery model. The resultant community-based emergency first aid responder (EFAR) system was implemented, and EFARs were tracked over time to determine skill retention and usage. The EFAR system model and training curriculum. Basic EFARs are spread throughout the community with the option of becoming stationed advanced EFARs. All EFARs are overseen by a local organisation and a professional body, and are integrated with the local ambulance response if one exists. On competency examinations, all EFARs tested averaged 28.2% before training, 77.8% after training, 71.3% 4 months after training and 71.0% 6 months after training. EFARs reported using virtually every skill taught them, and further review showed that they had done so adequately. The EFAR system is a low-cost, versatile model that can be used in a developing region both to lay the foundation for an emergency care system or support a new one to maturity.

  12. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  13. Local Cultural Heritage Sites and Spatial Planning for the Bantik Ethnic Community in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egam, P. P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The course of a city’s development has an effect on both spatial and social aspects, and this situation affects ethnic communities. As a result of recent urban developments, the cultural values of a community that are embedded in living arrangements have been disturbed, thus obscuring, or even hiding, the rich cultural heritage therein. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial characteristics of local neighborhoods based on a wealth of cultural heritage objects. This research focuses on the physical cultural heritage of the Bantik settlement in Malalayang. The spatial characteristics of cultural heritage objects are analyzed, based on physical and other characteristics. The results indicate that, although the Bantik ethnic community in Malalayang, Indonesia, has physical cultural heritage sites, it is unable to effectively develop these as significant cultural spaces because of the physical separation of their locations, the declining meaning of these sites to the community, and the lack of support from indigenous organizations. Distance is not the only determinant of the optimization of cultural space. Planning for cultural spaces involves three zones: 1 a promotion zone, 2 a core zone, and 3 a buffer zone. The greatest potential for developing a cultural space is in the vicinity of Minanga Road and the Niopo Stone, with the physical object reinforcement of similar sites. To improve cultural space, it is not enough to only rely on the existence of a physical object, it is necessary to create a close relationship between the object and the community with the support of indigenous organizations.

  14. [The Community Care as a model of social and health integration at the local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    The article develops a hypothesis for improving primary care services through health care solutions that can exceed the models in use (essentially hierarchical and based on tasks) in favor of new relational, multi-sectoral and network approaches that could privilege the integration of social and health services at the regional and district level (Community care). A qualitative methodological approach which analyzes the role of social networks in Community care, some national and international experiences of primary care models and the evaluation of the different role given to primary care both in the hierarchical-pyramidal approach and in the horizontal one (network approach). Some Italian regions are experimenting effective organizational models of care such as Primary Care Teams, Primary Care Units, Regional teams, Departments of Primary Care, Houses of Health ... At international level, it should be mentioned the Chronic Care Model (CCM), recently identified by WHO as a reference model, and adopted by the Tuscany Region (Italy). People-centered health care projects need shared interventions by competent and functional multiprofessional teams: the best outcome for the patient depends on the good interaction between individuals. It's necessary that relationships between members of the group are based on interdependence, integration and consistency to avoid risks of group illusion.

  15. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Some requirements and practices commonly shared in the European Community Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    At the end of the fifties a treaty was signed instituting between six countries of the European Community for Atomic Energy, or in brief, Euratom. This treaty, in addition to the Common Market Treaty and the Coal and Steel one, constitutes the legal frame of the European Community which, at present, comprises 12 Member States. A commission, the so-called Commission of the European Communities (or in brief CEC) has to implement the provisions laid down in the treaties. Qualification, training, licensing and re-training of operating personnel have been the subjects of an in-depth exchange of views and information in the frame of the work conducted by the Commission. The evaluation of the regulations and practices in countries of the EC and some other countries having a large nuclear energy program, has led to the identification of some generally valid concepts. This synthesis, made with the assistance of a consultant, is now published under the form of an EUR report (EUR 10981). The main topics addressed within this report are the following: shift staffing and staffing of the control room, personnel selection, qualifications necessary for recruitment, training and retraining, and licensing/authorization

  16. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  17. Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, María-Consuelo

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than state-managed conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Life satisfaction of people with intellectual disability living in community residences: perceptions of the residents, their parents and staff members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Rabinovitz, S

    2003-02-01

    Within the literature on quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS) has emerged as a key variable by which to measure perceived well-being, which is referred to as subjective QoL. The LS self-reports of 93 residents with intellectual disability (ID) living in community-based residences were compared with reports about their LS completed by their staff and parents. The residents were interviewed on their LS by social workers who did not belong to the staff of the interviewee's residence. The instrument used was the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Staff and parents completed the short version of the LSS. Residents and staff's LS reports were positively correlated. However, significant differences were found between these two groups of informants when the residents were characterized as high functioning, had a low score in challenging behaviour, worked in an integrative employment setting and lived in an apartment. As opposed to staff/resident discrepancies, no differences were found between parents' and residents' LS reports. If residents cannot to be interviewed about their LS, then the parent is the preferred person to respond on behalf of the resident. The current study highlights the importance of including both objective measures (e.g. functional assessment characteristics) and subjective measures (e.g. LS) in order to get a better understanding of the QoL of people with ID.

  19. Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

    2010-01-01

    Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

  20. A Global Approach to School Education and Local Reality: A Case Study of Community Participation in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwana, Kamlesh

    2015-01-01

    In post-Jomtien phase, community participation in school education management has appeared as one of the most prominent features in all educational development programmes at global level. In line with this trend, India has also placed a significant focus on local communities in school management through various programmes such as LokJumbish,…

  1. Building trust in natural resource management within local communities: a case study of the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Jessica E. Leahy; Dorothy H. Anderson; Pamela J. Jakes

    2007-01-01

    Communities neighboring federally protected natural areas regularly weigh the costs and benefits of the administering agency's programs and policies. While most agencies integrate public opinion into decision making, efforts to standardize and formalize public involvement have left many local communities feeling marginalized, spurring acrimony and opposition. A...

  2. The Importance of Biotic vs. Abiotic Drivers of Local Plant Community Composition Along Regional Bioclimatic Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Klanderud

    Full Text Available We assessed if the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors for plant community composition differs along environmental gradients and between functional groups, and asked which implications this may have in a warmer and wetter future. The study location is a unique grid of sites spanning regional-scale temperature and precipitation gradients in boreal and alpine grasslands in southern Norway. Within each site we sampled vegetation and associated biotic and abiotic factors, and combined broad- and fine-scale ordination analyses to assess the relative explanatory power of these factors for species composition. Although the community responses to biotic and abiotic factors did not consistently change as predicted along the bioclimatic gradients, abiotic variables tended to explain a larger proportion of the variation in species composition towards colder sites, whereas biotic variables explained more towards warmer sites, supporting the stress gradient hypothesis. Significant interactions with precipitation suggest that biotic variables explained more towards wetter climates in the sub alpine and boreal sites, but more towards drier climates in the colder alpine. Thus, we predict that biotic interactions may become more important in alpine and boreal grasslands in a warmer future, although more winter precipitation may counteract this trend in oceanic alpine climates. Our results show that both local and regional scales analyses are needed to disentangle the local vegetation-environment relationships and their regional-scale drivers, and biotic interactions and precipitation must be included when predicting future species assemblages.

  3. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brat Kristian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  4. How do the Institutes on Teaching and Learning (ITLs) nurture the members of the Physiology Educators Community of Practice (PECOP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E

    2017-09-01

    Do you teach physiology? Do you use best practices when you teach physiology? Have you ever thought about conducting educational research? Do you need collaborators to help with ideas for educational research or to expand your research populations? The American Physiological Society (APS) Teaching Section has developed a biennial Institute on Teaching and Learning (ITL) through the APS Conference Program to address these issues. The first institute was held in June 2014, and the second institute was held in June 2016. A Physiology Education Community of Practice (PECOP) was created to help connect the institute participants and other physiology educators and to share evidence-based teaching in physiology at all education levels. The 2018 APS ITL will be the next meeting to learn best practices, to share ideas with colleagues, and to find collaborators in improving the teaching of physiology for students. The meeting will include workshops modeling best practices, plenary talks about hot new issues in physiology and science education, and poster sessions and informal meals to discuss interests with colleagues. Even if one's primary responsibility is bench research or administration, the training from the institute will improve efficiency and effectiveness when teaching. The two prior ITLs (2014 and 2016) were highly evaluated by educators of both undergraduate and professional students who spent a week together emphasizing improvement in their teaching. This paper reports the outcomes of the 2016 ITL and encourages participation in the upcoming ITL in Madison, WI, June 18-22, 2018. Watch the APS Conference site for more information about the 2018 ITL (http://www.the-aps.org/mm/Conferences/APS-Conferences). Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Measures taken in the member countries of the European Communities for anti-seismic design compared to actual US practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Maurer, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Most countries of the European Communities base their anti-seismic design parameters on specific US earthquake characteristics. There are, however, important discrepancies in the basic data reported on the two continents as well as in their design application. This was one of the topics under discussion within an European working group on methodologies, criteria and standards in nuclear safety. Unlike US practice, in some European countries the maximum earthquake that can be envisaged (corresponding to the Safe Shutdown Earthquake-SEE-in US practice) is defined by adding a margin of safety to the maximum probable earthquake (corresponding to the Operating Basis Earthquake-OBE-in US for which statistical data exist). - Differences exist also in the design parameters to be taken into account in the different European countries especially in the evaluation of the maximum acceleration and on the relationship of the acceleration vs. earthquake intensity. For design purposes, in US as well as in European countries, the assumption is made that seismic waves basically approximate a sustained simple harmonic motion. Under this assumption the Neumann correlation which gives the relationship between the modified Mercalli intensity, the wave period and the ground acceleration is applied. While in the US a whole spectrum of wave periods (from 0.33 to 6.0 sec) -in function of the type of foundation (soil, bed-rock) and the distance of the epicenter- are considered, the European countries base their investigations on shorter wave periods (approximately 0.3 sec). - Mention is made of the existing differences in the relationship of horizontal to vertical acceleration levels. These differences in the evaluation of the earthquake characteristics influence the design to protect the power plants against seismic effects especially as far as stress and strain limits for structures and components within the elastic range and in the excess of yield are concerned

  6. The re-socialisation of migrants in a local community in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Following China's economic reforms in the early 1990s, the wave of internal North-to-South, West-to-East and rural-to-urban migration has still not subsided. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a local community in Shanghai supported migrants from other provinces in China in the process of their re-socialisation. By examining the component parts of re-socialisation (integration, assimilation and culturalisation), this paper analyses how the learning programmes and services provided in Shanghai's Zhabei District played a role in migrants' adaptation to their new community environment. The author conducted interviews with migrants of both rural and urban origin at two migrant clubs, and complemented her respondents' statements with formal and informal background research. Her findings indicate that participation in educational activity is only one aspect of migrants' re-socialisation. She demonstrates how educational activities merge into a larger community context and are mingled simultaneously with other activities which relate to employment, healthcare, setting up a business, etc. She argues that educational activity loses its backbone if the initial entry-level support given to migrants is not followed up with advanced development activities, such as providing migrants with lifelong learning opportunities tailored to their aptitudes and needs, motivating them to engage in learning which can serve as a pathway towards their career goals, and helping them improve their life circumstances.

  7. Motivating conservation: Learning to care for other species in a local ecological community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Michael

    Large-scale, sustainable biodiversity conservation must motivate action by local communities. I united theories and practices in biology and psychology to study the process by which people are motivated to care for other species, and to what extent caring results in helping. Participants (N = 1200), age 8--22, interacted with native fish and aquatic insects in their habitats during 21 field experiences through Lake County, Montana educational institutions. Native fish were chosen because they are familiar to local people, yet different from people in their morphology, biomechanics, and habitat. In Phase I, two activity models for conservation emerged: the Habitat approach linked concepts in ecology, reciprocation, and a moral orientation toward justice, while the Behavior approach linked concepts in behavior, kin selection, and a moral orientation toward caring. These two approaches were compared in Phase II through seven sets of experiences that varied only in point of view: toward the habitat or toward behavior. I found that through sustained contact between people and local fish in their habitats, in the field and in cold-water aquaria, people empathized with fish more than with habitats. They perceived fish states by interpreting their behavior, and created meaning by focusing on fish social interactions with their habitat, with other fish, and with people. They used the information gained from empathy to identify ongoing conservation needs and to design conservation plans. Attention to behavior increased perception of human impacts on fish; perception of relatedness with fish; similarity with the physiology, behavior, minds and lives of fish; desire for non-material benefits in return for helping fish; and cohesion within participant groups. These perceptions varied with age and gender. For example, women and children emphasized values of non-material returns for time invested. This study recommends a behavioral-ecology approach for motivating conservation and

  8. Las Cumbres Observatory Partners With Local Museums In “Experience The Eclipse” Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, Sarah; Seale, Sandy; Rivera, Javier; Skinner, Ron

    2017-10-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) in Goleta, California, together with the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (SBMNH) and the Wolf Museum of Exploration & Innovation (MOXI) put together a community program called “Experience the Eclipse” for the month of August.The greater Santa Barbara community includes over 200,000 people and the city is known for its vibrant cultural life. Events featuring science, physics, and astronomy are very popular. In 2016, Javier Rivera, the Astronomy Program Manager of the SBMNH, and Ron Skinner, the Director of Education at MOXI, met with LCO to discuss planning a month of activities to educate the public about the Great American Eclipse. The vision was to capitalize on the strength of each organization and to share information and events.The events included daily planetarium shows and open houses at the observatory of the SBMNH. All three organizations gave parties at public venues with presentations by astronomers. Together the group purchased 6,000 pairs of eclipse viewer glasses and they shared the responsibility of distributing these to local schools and community groups. A master calendar of the events was published in local press outlets and a document describing the eclipse and safe viewing practices was distributed widely. Preparation of these materials was a joint effort among the three institutions.“Experience the Eclipse” was a great success. The open houses at SBMNH were well attended and all public events sold out very quickly. On August 21, the SBMNH presented a live feed of the eclipse taken from their own observatory.We will present photos and videos from these events, along with data on the attendance and quotes from enthusiastic participants.

  9. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  10. A mixed-method evaluation of the New York State Eat Well Play Hard Community Projects: Building local capacity for sustainable childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kaydian S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Gantner, Leigh A; Holbrook, MaryEllen K; Allsopp, Marie; Whalen, Linda B; Koren-Roth, Amy

    2018-04-01

    This study used a mixed-method, comparative case study approach to assess the level of capacity built for childhood obesity prevention among seven New York State Eat Well Play Hard-Community Projects (EWPH-CP). Data were collected through a self-reported survey in 2007, semi-structured interviews in 2009, and EWPH-CP program documentation throughout the 2006-2010 funding cycle. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used along with an integrative framework for assessing local capacity building to characterize the capacity built by the study coalitions. Four coalitions rated membership characteristics as a challenge at the beginning of the funding cycle. Towards the end of the funding cycle, all seven coalitions reported activities that were initially focused on building their membership (i.e., member capacity) or positive working relationships (i.e. relational capacity), before eventually pursuing support and resources (i.e., organizational capacity) for implementing their chosen community-oriented programmatic goals (i.e., programmatic capacity). Five coalitions reported environmental changes aimed at increasing physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake. Technical assistance provided to coalitions was credited with contributing to the achievement of programmatic goals. These results suggest that the coalitions succeeded in building local capacity for increasing age-appropriate physical activity or fruit and vegetables intake in the target communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Coastline Changes to Local Community's Social-Economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. I.; Rahmat, N. H.

    2016-09-01

    The coastal area is absolutely essential for the purposes of resident, recreation, tourism, fisheries and agriculture as a source of socio-economic development of local community. Some of the activities will affect the coastline changes. Coastline changes may occur due to two main factors include natural factors and also by the factor of human activities in coastal areas. Sea level rise, erosion and sedimentation are among the factors that can contribute to the changes in the coastline naturally, while the reclamation and development in coastal areas are factors of coastline changes due to human activities. Resident area and all activities in coastal areas will provide economic resources to the residents of coastal areas. However, coastline changes occur in the coastal areas will affect socio-economic for local community. A significant effect can be seen through destruction of infrastructure, loss of land, and destroy of crops. Batu Pahat is an area with significant changes of coastline. The changes of coastline from 1985 to 2013 can be determined by using topographical maps in 1985 and satellite images where the changes images are taken in 2011 and 2013 respectively. To identify the changes of risk areas, Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) is used to indicate vulnerability for coastal areas. This change indirectly affects the source of income in their agricultural cash crops such as oil palm and coconut. Their crops destroyed and reduced due to impact of changes in the coastline. Identification of risk coastal areas needs to be done in order for the society and local authorities to be prepared for coastline changes.

  12. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease-a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and Pknowledge, attitude and practice. Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501-1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude towards diabetes. Having college and above educational level (AOR = 0.33, CI = 0.16, 0.7), having good attitude towards diabetes (AOR = 2, CI = 1.3, 3) had good practiced. Considerable limited knowledge

  13. [Local groups as a tool for quality assurance of community health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjell, J; Hjortdahl, P

    2001-05-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of local interprofessional or audit groups as a tool of quality enhancement. Fifty-six doctors, physiotherapists and nurses attended nine local interprofessional groups. The aim was to improve the quality of each professional's practice and to improve communication between the professions. The groups had a total of 62 meetings with each professional attending on average 5.7 meetings. All groups initiated quality enhancement projects. Initially the groups were very active and showed great initiative, but there were few final results. However, many groups reported improved communication and cooperation between the participating professionals. The experience from this project may be summarised as follows: The professionals within one and the same group should have more or less the same background and specialty. We recommend caution with organising interprofessional groups unless their participants work in the same practice. Interprofessional groups should spend adequate time for the members to get to know each other, and they should be guided by an experienced leader.

  14. Swimming upstream: faculty and staff members from urban middle schools in low-income communities describe their experience implementing nutrition and physical activity initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Patel, Aarti; Prokop, Lisa A; Austin, S Bryn

    2006-04-01

    Addressing childhood overweight has become a top priority in the United States. Modification of school policies and practices has been used in an attempt to address the overweight epidemic among children and adolescents. Culturally diverse urban schools in low-income communities attempting to improve nutrition and increase physical activity may face unique challenges in the school environment. A better understanding is needed about school environments and how they may affect the implementation, efficacy, and sustainability of initiatives designed to improve nutrition and physical activity. We carried out a qualitative study in five urban middle schools in low-income communities that had recently implemented Planet Health, a nutrition and physical activity intervention, to assess which aspects of the schools' physical, social, and policy environments were facilitating or impeding the implementation of health promotion initiatives. Thirty-five faculty and staff members participated. We conducted one focus group per school, with an average of seven participants per group. We analyzed focus group transcripts using the thematic analysis technique to identify key concepts, categories, and themes. Teachers and staff members in our study identified many school-related environmental barriers to successful implementation of nutrition and physical activity initiatives in their schools. School personnel recommended that classroom-based nutrition interventions such as Planet Health be coordinated with school food services so that the healthy messages taught in the classroom are reinforced by the availability of healthy, culturally appropriate cafeteria food. They identified household food insufficiency and overly restrictive eligibility criteria of the federally subsidized meal program as critical barriers to healthy nutritional behaviors. They also identified weight-related teasing and bullying and unhealthy weight-control behaviors as challenges to promotion of healthy

  15. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  16. Community based social marketing for implementation of energy saving targets at local level

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    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction policies at local level need to be investigated and new tools for climate change mitigation are necessary seeking to achieve GHG emission targets in Lithuania. Most Lithuanian municipalities have signed Covenant of Mayors and have prepared local energy action plans. However, all these plans include just energy saving measures on supply side and renovation of buildings. Nevertheless, the significant energy savings and GHG emission reductions can be achieved through behavioural changes. The aim of the paper is to apply community based social marketing approach in assessment of achievable energy saving and GHG emission reduction targets set by local energy action plans. The paper presents the results of case study implemented in Kaunas region municipality. The case study was conducted by creating focus groups and applying two scenarios: baseline or doing nothing and climate change mitigation scenario including intervention measures. The results of case study revealed that the total energy consumption reduction target set in Sustainable energy development strategy of Kaunas region county - 11% - can be achieved by combining results of energy consumption reduction in both focus groups. The survey conducted after study finalization revealed that respondents were provided with a lot of additional knowledge during the study and achieved real money savings. The major barriers of energy savings in households are related with the lack of information on energy savings and GHG emission reduction.

  17. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

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    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  18. Using Local Climate Science to Educate "Key Influentials" and their Communities in the San Diego Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Yin, Z.; Schultz, P.; Young, E.

    2012-12-01

    The San Diego Regional Climate Education Partnership has formed an innovative and collaborative team whose mission is to implement a research-based climate science education and communications program to increase knowledge about climate science among highly-influential leaders and their communities and foster informed decision making based on climate science and impacts. The team includes climate scientists, behavioral psychologists, formal and informal educators and communication specialists. The Partnership's strategic plan has three major goals: (1) raise public understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change; (2) identify the most effective educational methods to educate non-traditional audiences (Key Influentials) about the causes and consequences of climate change; and (3) develop and implement a replicable model for regional climate change education. To implement this strategic plan, we have anchored our project on three major pillars: (1) Local climate science (causes, impacts and long-term consequences); (2) theoretical, research-based evaluation framework (TIMSI); and (3) Key! Influentials (KI) as primary audience for messages (working w! ith and through them). During CCEP-I, the Partnership formed and convened an advisory board of Key Influentials, completed interviews with a sample of Key Influentials, conducted a public opinion survey, developed a website (www.sandiego.edu/climate) , compiled inventories on literature of climate science education resources and climate change community groups and local activities, hosted stakeholder forums, and completed the first phase of on an experiment to test the effects of different messengers delivering the same local climate change message via video. Results of 38 KI Interviews provided evidence of local climate knowledge, strong concern about climate change, and deeply held values related to climate change education and regional leadership. The most intriguing result was that while 90% of Key

  19. Community leadership and the challenges of community development in Nigeria: The case of Boki local government area, Cross River State”

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    Udensi, L.O.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the level and extent to which community leaders contribute towards successful community development projects in Boki Local Government Area, Cross River State. A total of 150 community leaders selected through multi-stage sampling technique participated in the study. Frequency counts, percentage, Group Arithmetic Mean and Mean Weight Value were utilized in realizing the objectives of the study. It was observed that leadership positions are not the exclusive preserve of a particular sex, age group, marital status or educational status; rather result indicated that the duration of residence of community leaders is a significant factor in the success of community development projects in the study area. The study concluded that knowledge on the level to which community leaders have participated in community development, and the challenges they face have serious implications for achieving sustainable community development projects. It was recommended among others that for sustainable community development to be achieved in the area, specific and deliberate strategies should be evolved to remedy some of the problems identified. The study suggests that more and dedicated community leaders should be identified and responsibilities aimed at improving the welfare of the people assigned to them.

  20. Local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for school-based deworming programme in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, D W; Masaku, J; Mwende, F; Odhiambo, G; Musuva, R; Matey, E; Thuita, I G; Kihara, J H

    2017-01-01

    In Kenya, the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) for soil-transmitted helminthes and schistosomiasis in prioritized areas has been going on since the year 2012. By the year 2013 over 6 million School Age Children (SAC) had been treated. A community sensitization supplement containing key messages and answers to frequently asked questions was developed as a guiding tool. Awareness creation methods used include county sensitization meetings, stakeholder forums, town criers and posters. To assess the local stakeholders' perceptions of community sensitization for programme implementation, a qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted in four-sub-counties of coastal region. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were administered to 40 purposively selected opinion leaders so as to explore their perceptions of awareness creation sources, adequacy of information given, length of period of awareness creation and period between which information is given and drugs are administered. Separate IDIs were administered to pre-school teachers (41), community health extension workers (34) and primary school teachers (38). To elicit more information, 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) categorized by gender and age were conducted among parents of school-age children. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed manually by study themes. The most commonly reported source of information was school pupils. Due to low literacy levels, use of posters was regarded as ineffective and religious institutions, town criers and vernacular radio stations considered more effective. The information given during programme implementation was considered inadequate and use of complementary methods to reach all targeted children including the non-enrolled, and relay adequate information reported as important. Use of school and chief's meetings with health personnel being present was mentioned as a useful method that would allow for interaction with participants indicating that they

  1. Genome-Resolved Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Roles for Candidate Phyla and Other Microbial Community Members in Biogeochemical Transformations in Oil Reservoirs.

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    Hu, Ping; Tom, Lauren; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C; Baker, Brett J; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary L; Banfield, Jillian F

    2016-01-19

    Oil reservoirs are major sites of methane production and carbon turnover, processes with significant impacts on energy resources and global biogeochemical cycles. We applied a cultivation-independent genomic approach to define microbial community membership and predict roles for specific organisms in biogeochemical transformations in Alaska North Slope oil fields. Produced water samples were collected from six locations between 1,128 m (24 to 27°C) and 2,743 m (80 to 83°C) below the surface. Microbial community complexity decreased with increasing temperature, and the potential to degrade hydrocarbon compounds was most prevalent in the lower-temperature reservoirs. Sulfate availability, rather than sulfate reduction potential, seems to be the limiting factor for sulfide production in some of the reservoirs under investigation. Most microorganisms in the intermediate- and higher-temperature samples were related to previously studied methanogenic and nonmethanogenic archaea and thermophilic bacteria, but one candidate phylum bacterium, a member of the Acetothermia (OP1), was present in Kuparuk sample K3. The greatest numbers of candidate phyla were recovered from the mesothermic reservoir samples SB1 and SB2. We reconstructed a nearly complete genome for an organism from the candidate phylum Parcubacteria (OD1) that was abundant in sample SB1. Consistent with prior findings for members of this lineage, the OD1 genome is small, and metabolic predictions support an obligately anaerobic, fermentation-based lifestyle. At moderate abundance in samples SB1 and SB2 were members of bacteria from other candidate phyla, including Microgenomates (OP11), Atribacteria (OP9), candidate phyla TA06 and WS6, and Marinimicrobia (SAR406). The results presented here elucidate potential roles of organisms in oil reservoir biological processes. The activities of microorganisms in oil reservoirs impact petroleum resource quality and the global carbon cycle. We show that bacteria

  2. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug–target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  3. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug-target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  4. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for

  5. The Community Balance and Mobility Scale: A Pilot Study Detecting Impairments in Military Service Members With Comorbid Mild TBI and Psychological Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Marcy M; Williams, Kathy; Kodosky, Paula N; Dretsch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To compare the capacity of the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CB&M) to identify balance and mobility deficits in Service Members (SMs) with mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH) to other commonly used balance assessments. A clinical research institute that provides a 4-week, outpatient, interdisciplinary program for active-duty SMs with mTBI/PH. A nonrandomized, cross-sectional design that compared multiple measures between 2 groups-active duty SMs with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) the dual diagnosis of mTBI/PH. Gait speed, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), and CB&M to assess functional balance among the community-dwelling, TBI population. Across all measures, the mTBI/PH group performed significantly worse (P ≤ .01) with the exception of the FGA. The abilities of all objective measures to distinguish participants with mTBI/PH from healthy controls ranged from fair to excellent (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.66-0.94). However, the CB&M showed the largest group differences in effect size (d = 2.6) and had the highest discriminate ability (AUC = 0.98; sensitivity 100%; specificity 88%). The CB&M appears to have higher sensitivity and specificity than other measures of balance in SMs with mTBI/PH. A higher cut score for the CB&M is needed for this population.

  6. Does Mobile Care ('mCare') Improve Quality of Life and Treatment Satisfaction Among Service Members Rehabilitating in the Community? Results from a 36-Wk, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeanette R; Pavliscsak, Holly H; Cooper, Mabel R; Goldstein, Lois A; Fonda, Stephanie J

    2018-03-01

    Research has shown that mobile phones can help with management of numerous health problems. As an adjunct to care management provided to injured service members rehabilitating in their communities, particularly those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), post-traumatic stress (PTS), and/or behavioral health problems, the Army developed a mobile phone application called "mCare." This study examined whether service members who received mCare had higher well-being, were more satisfied with their care, and viewed mCare as a valuable part of their care management as compared with their counterparts who received standard care management alone, and whether those with mTBI, PTS, and/or behavioral health problems benefited differently from mCare. In-processing service members at four community-based warrior transition units were recruited for participation in a 36-wk, randomized, controlled trial and allocated to receive standard care management plus mCare (n = 95) or standard care management alone (n = 87). Participants in the mCare group received daily questionnaires, tips, and appointment reminders. All participants were asked to complete the General Well-being Schedule (GWS) at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 wk, and the Case Management Quality Questionnaire (CMQQ) at 12, 24, and 36 wk. All participants and care managers were approached to complete interviews about the usability/likeability of mCare or standard care management. The analyses tested for group differences in completion of the intervention, graphed means for the GWS and CMQQ by group/subgroup, and statistically compared the longitudinal trends in these outcomes using mixed models in which group, time, and group*time were included as regression variables. The analyses also tallied interview responses and identified thematic quotes. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center's Institutional Review Board. Estimated rate of change in GWS scores was -2

  7. Translating an early childhood obesity prevention program for local community implementation: a case study of the Melbourne InFANT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laws

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing interest in the field of research translation, there are few published examples of public health interventions that have been effectively scaled up and implemented in the community. This paper provides a case study of the community-wide implementation of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT, an obesity prevention program for parents with infants aged 3–18 months. The study explored key factors influencing the translation of the Program into routine practice and the respective role of policy makers, researchers and implementers. Methods Case studies were conducted of five of the eight prevention areas in Victoria, Australia who implemented the Program. Cases were selected on the basis of having implemented the Program for 6 months or more. Data were collected from January to June 2015 and included 18 individual interviews, one focus group and observation of two meetings. A total of 28 individuals, including research staff (n = 4, policy makers (n = 2 and implementers (n = 22, contributed to the data collected. Thematic analysis was conducted using cross case comparisons and key themes were verified through member checking. Results Key facilitators of implementation included availability of a pre-packaged evidence based program addressing a community need, along with support and training provided by research staff to local implementers. Partnerships between researchers and policy makers facilitated initial program adoption, while local partnerships supported community implementation. Community partnerships were facilitated by local coordinators through alignment of program goals with existing policies and services. Workforce capacity for program delivery and administration was a challenge, largely overcome by embedding the Program into existing roles. Adapting the Program to fit local circumstance was critical for feasible and sustainable delivery, however

  8. PROMOTING NATURA 2000 NETWORK BENEFITS FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES BY PRACTICING ECOTOURISM AND AGROTOURISM

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    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the benefits of the local communities across Natura 2000 sites. Human activities in these areas should take into account the economic, social, cultural, and environmental protection. It examines the most common problems encountered in forests, pastures and hayfields in the area of Natura 2000 sites. There are some examples of good practice exemplified by the activities of farmers living on the radius of Natura 2000 sites in different European countries. Natura 2000 sites are suitable for development of eco-tourism and agro-tourism based on tradition and organic products, which may lead to a brand. Tourism and specifically eco-friendly tourism industries (ecotourism, agrotourism, etc. are encouraging development areas at regional and national Natura 2000 sites as a sustainable opportunity for people and nature.

  9. A qualitative study of clinic and community member perspectives on intervention toolkits: "Unless the toolkit is used it won't help solve the problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda M; Howk, Sonya; Spurlock, Margaret; McGinnis, Paul B; Cohen, Deborah J; Fagnan, Lyle J

    2017-07-18

    Intervention toolkits are common products of grant-funded research in public health and primary care settings. Toolkits are designed to address the knowledge translation gap by speeding implementation and dissemination of research into practice. However, few studies describe characteristics of effective intervention toolkits and their implementation. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore what clinic and community-based users want in intervention toolkits and to identify the factors that support application in practice. In this qualitative descriptive study we conducted focus groups and interviews with a purposive sample of community health coalition members, public health experts, and primary care professionals between November 2010 and January 2012. The transdisciplinary research team used thematic analysis to identify themes and a cross-case comparative analysis to explore variation by participant role and toolkit experience. Ninety six participants representing primary care (n = 54, 56%) and community settings (n = 42, 44%) participated in 18 sessions (13 focus groups, five key informant interviews). Participants ranged from those naïve through expert in toolkit development; many reported limited application of toolkits in actual practice. Participants wanted toolkits targeted at the right audience and demonstrated to be effective. Well organized toolkits, often with a quick start guide, with tools that were easy to tailor and apply were desired. Irrespective of perceived quality, participants experienced with practice change emphasized that leadership, staff buy-in, and facilitative support was essential for intervention toolkits to be translated into changes in clinic or public -health practice. Given the emphasis on toolkits in supporting implementation and dissemination of research and clinical guidelines, studies are warranted to determine when and how toolkits are used. Funders, policy makers, researchers, and leaders in primary care and

  10. A Framework Applied Three Ways: Responsive Methods of Co-Developing and Implementing Community Science Solutions for Local Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, M.; Pandya, R.; Udu-gama, N.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-12-01

    While one-size-fits all may work for most hats, it rarely does for communities. Research products, methods and knowledge may be usable at a local scale, but applying them often presents a challenge due to issues like availability, accessibility, awareness, lack of trust, and time. However, in an environment with diminishing federal investment in issues related climate change, natural hazards, and natural resource use and management, the ability of communities to access and leverage science has never been more urgent. Established, yet responsive frameworks and methods can help scientists and communities work together to identify and address specific challenges and leverage science to make a local impact. Through the launch of over 50 community science projects since 2013, the Thriving Earth Exchange (TEX) has created a living framework consisting of a set of milestones by which teams of scientists and community leaders navigate the challenges of working together. Central to the framework are context, trust, project planning and refinement, relationship management and community impact. We find that careful and respectful partnership management results in trust and an open exchange of information. Community science partnerships grounded in local priorities result in the development and exchange of stronger decision-relevant tools, resources and knowledge. This presentation will explore three methods TEX uses to apply its framework to community science partnerships: cohort-based collaboration, online dialogues, and one-on-one consultation. The choice of method should be responsive to a community's needs and working style. For example, a community may require customized support, desire the input and support of peers, or require consultation with multiple experts before deciding on a course of action. Knowing and applying the method of engagement best suited to achieve the community's objectives will ensure that the science is most effectively translated and applied.

  11. Impacts of extreme events of drought and flood on local communities of Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borma, L. D.; Roballo, S.; Zauner, M.; Nascimento, V. F.

    2013-05-01

    The analysis of drought events of 1997/98, 2005 and 2010 in terms of discharge anomalies in the Amazon region confirmed previous findings, such as: a) the influence of the El Niño in more than one hydrological year; b) the increase of the influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation of 1998, 2005 and 2010 drought events; c) the low levels of discharge observed in the 2010 drought are attributed to the association of discharge anomalies of the northern and southern tributaries of the Amazon river, and d) the 2010 drought lasted around 1 month (August to November) more than the other drought events analized here. The riverine communities located along the river banks of Solimões/Amazonas suit their economic activities to the oscillation of the water level. In general, low water periods favor the access to important sources of food such as fish and livestock, still allowing crop cultivation on fertile agricultural areas of the floodplain. Conversely, periods of drought increases the difficulties of transport and drinking water supply. During the high water, access to the main food supply (described above) are greatly hampered. However, the floods are recognized as an importance process of natural fertilization. Thus, despite the political, social and economic shortcomings, the local community has, since the pre-colonial period, learned to get the best of each season, providing local, regional and national markets with varzea products. During periods of extreme weather, however, the advantages of each season appear to be reduced, and the drawbacks increased. In fact, during flooding extremes, the access to primary sources of food is hampered by a long period of time and families find themselves forced to leave their homes, eventually losing them. Analysis of flow data to the extreme flooding of 2009, indicate a period of about 6 months of positive anomalies discharge (occurring mainly during high water). At the same time, Civil Defense data points to a

  12. Understanding and resolving conflict between local communities and conservation authorities in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobe De Pourcq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between indigenous and local communities, on the one hand, and national protected area administrations on the other are pervasive. A better understanding of these park-people conflicts would assist in suitable policy changes to constructively address them while concurrently pursuing conservation and livelihood goals. We interviewed 601 people living inside or along the borders of fifteen Colombian NPAs to identify five main categories of park-people conflicts. Based on interviews with 128 community leaders and 76 institutional-level respondents -mainly park officers- we discuss the five principal factors underlying the identified conflicts and present a conflict framework relating the dominant sources to the most prominent conflict manifestations. Finally, we detail five strategies toward conflict prevention. While simultaneous interventions at multiple levels would be ideal or preferred, our analysis suggests that the incidence of park-people conflicts in Colombia can be substantially lowered through (i making the environmental legislative body more socially inclusive; and (ii adequately empowering NPA administrations. We expect our findings to be valuable for managing conflict contexts in protected areas in other tropical countries. Further research is necessary to determine the most effective interventions for both conflict resolution and meeting conservation goals.

  13. Role of community based local institution for climate change adaptation in the Teesta riverine area of Bangladesh

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    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adaptation is one of the most crucial issues in developing countries like Bangladesh. The main objective was to understand the linkage of participation with Community Based Adaptation (CBA to climate change. Institutional framework following different types of conceptual theories (collective action, group, game and social learning theory was utilized to analyze the participatory process in local community level Village Disaster Mangement Committee (VDMC that works in collaboration with local government. Field level data w