WorldWideScience

Sample records for local cold-pack application

  1. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  2. The influence of cold pack on labour pain relief and birth outcomes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Ganji, Zhila

    2014-09-01

    (1) To evaluate the influence of local cold on severity of labour pain and (2) to identify the effect of local cold on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fear of labour pain results in an increase in pain and duration of labour, maternal discontent and demand for caesarean section. Regarding maternal and foetal complications of analgesic medications, the attention to application of nonpharmacological methods including cold therapy is increased. Randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four pregnant women, at initiation of active phase of labour, were allocated randomly to cold therapy and control groups (n = 64). Null parity, term pregnancy, presence of single foetus, cephalic presentation and completing informed consent were considered as inclusion criteria. Administration of analgesic and anaesthesia, foetal distress, skin lesions in regions of cold therapy and high-risk pregnancy provided exclusion criteria. Cold pack was applied over abdomen and back, for 10 minutes every 30 minutes during first phase of labour. Additionally, cold pack was placed over perineum, for 5 minutes every 15 minutes during second phase. Pain severity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale. The two groups were not significantly different considering demographic data, gestational age, foetal weight, rupture of membranes and primary severity of pain. Degree of pain was lower in cold therapy group during all parts of active phase and second stage. Duration of all phases was shorter in cold therapy group in all phases. Foetal heart rate, perineal laceration, type of birth, application of oxytocin and APGAR score were not significantly different between two groups. Labour pain is probably reduced based on gate theory using cold. Pain control by cold maybe improves labour progression without affecting mother and foetus adversely. Local cold therapy could be included in labour pain management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cheese food with fruits, vegetables or meats is “Cold-pack cheese food with ___”, the blank being filled...

  4. Local randomness: Examples and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Honghao; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-03-01

    When two players achieve a superclassical score at a nonlocal game, their outputs must contain intrinsic randomness. This fact has many useful implications for quantum cryptography. Recently it has been observed [C. Miller and Y. Shi, Quantum Inf. Computat. 17, 0595 (2017)] that such scores also imply the existence of local randomness—that is, randomness known to one player but not to the other. This has potential implications for cryptographic tasks between two cooperating but mistrustful players. In the current paper we bring this notion toward practical realization, by offering near-optimal bounds on local randomness for the CHSH game, and also proving the security of a cryptographic application of local randomness (single-bit certified deletion).

  5. Applications of locally orderless images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van B.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent work, J. J. Koenderink and A. J. Van Doorn considered a family of three intertwined scale-spaces coined the locally orderless image (LOI) (1999, J. Comput. Vision, 31 (2/3), 159–168). The LOI represents the image, observed at inner scale ó, as a local histogram with bin-width â, at each

  6. Generalized locally Toeplitz sequences theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Based on their research experience, the authors propose a reference textbook in two volumes on the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz sequences and their applications. This first volume focuses on the univariate version of the theory and the related applications in the unidimensional setting, while the second volume, which addresses the multivariate case, is mainly devoted to concrete PDE applications. This book systematically develops the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz (GLT) sequences and presents some of its main applications, with a particular focus on the numerical discretization of differential equations (DEs). It is the first book to address the relatively new field of GLT sequences, which occur in numerous scientific applications and are especially dominant in the context of DE discretizations. Written for applied mathematicians, engineers, physicists, and scientists who (perhaps unknowingly) encounter GLT sequences in their research, it is also of interest to those working in the fields of...

  7. Stochastic local search foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hoos, Holger H; Stutzle, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms are among the most prominent and successful techniques for solving computationally difficult problems in many areas of computer science and operations research, including propositional satisfiability, constraint satisfaction, routing, and scheduling. SLS algorithms have also become increasingly popular for solving challenging combinatorial problems in many application areas, such as e-commerce and bioinformatics. Hoos and Stützle offer the first systematic and unified treatment of SLS algorithms. In this groundbreaking new book, they examine the general concepts and specific instances of SLS algorithms and carefully consider their development, analysis and application. The discussion focuses on the most successful SLS methods and explores their underlying principles, properties, and features. This book gives hands-on experience with some of the most widely used search techniques, and provides readers with the necessary understanding and skills to use this powerful too...

  8. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  9. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  10. Application of GRID to Foreign Atom Localization in Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, A; Wesch, W; Weber, B; Börner, H G; Jentschel, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) spectroscopy to the localization of foreign atoms in single crystals is demonstrated on erbium in YAP. By the investigation of the Doppler broadened secondary γ line for two crystalline directions, the Er was determined to be localized on the Y site. Conditions for the nuclear parameters of the impurity atoms used for the application of GRID spectroscopy are discussed.

  11. Localization in Wireless Networks Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanford, Jessica Feng; Slijepcevic, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    In a computational tour-de-force, this volume wipes away a host of problems related to location discovery in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. WASNs have recognized potential in many applications that are location-dependent, yet are heavily constrained by factors such as cost and energy consumption. Their “ad-hoc” nature, with direct rather than mediated connections between a network of wireless devices, adds another layer of difficulty.   Basing this work entirely on data-driven, coordinated algorithms, the authors' aim is to present location discovery techniques that are highly accurate—and which fit user criteria. The research deploys nonparametric statistical methods and relies on the concept of joint probability to construct error (including location error) models and environmental field models. It also addresses system issues such as the broadcast and scheduling of the beacon. Reporting an impressive accuracy gain of almost 17 percent, and organized in a clear, sequential manner, this book represe...

  12. Non-local quantal Noether identities and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional for a system with a singular high-order Lagrangian, the quantal canonical Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such system have been derived. For a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian, the quantal Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in configuration space have also been derived. it has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantal Noether identities may be converted to the conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantal conservation laws is significantly different from the first quantal Noether theorem. The applications to the non-Abelian CS theories with higher-order derivatives are given. The conserved quantities at the quantum level for some local and non-local transformation are found respectively

  13. Synthesis of industrial applications of local approach to fracture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eripret, C.

    1993-03-01

    This report gathers different applications of local approach to fracture models to various industrial configurations, such as nuclear pressure vessel steel, cast duplex stainless steels, or primary circuit welds such as bimetallic welds. As soon as models are developed on the basis of microstructural observations, damage mechanisms analyses, and fracture process, the local approach to fracture proves to solve problems where classical fracture mechanics concepts fail. Therefore, local approach appears to be a powerful tool, which completes the standard fracture criteria used in nuclear industry by exhibiting where and why those classical concepts become unvalid. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs., 25 refs

  14. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  15. Two new eigenvalue localization sets for tensors and theirs applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianxing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Qi (J. Symbolic Comput., 2005, 40, 1302-1324 and Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl., 2014, 21, 39-50. As an application, a weaker checkable sufficient condition for the positive (semi-definiteness of an even-order real symmetric tensor is obtained. Meanwhile, an S-type E-eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than that presented by Wang et al. (Discrete Cont. Dyn.-B, 2017, 22(1, 187-198. As an application, an S-type upper bound for the Z-spectral radius of weakly symmetric nonnegative tensors is obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  16. Application of modeling to local chemistry in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchon, C.; Millett, P.J.; Ollar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Localized corrosion of the SG tubes and other components is due to the presence of an aggressive environment in local crevices and occluded regions. In crevices and on vertical and horizontal tube surfaces, corrosion products and particulate matter can accumulate in the form of porous deposits. The SG water contains impurities at extremely low levels (ppb). Low levels of non-volatile impurities, however, can be efficiently concentrated in crevices and sludge piles by a thermal hydraulic mechanism. The temperature gradient across the SG tube coupled with local flow starvation, produces local boiling in the sludge and crevices. Since mass transfer processes are inhibited in these geometries, the residual liquid becomes enriched in many of the species present in the SG water. The resulting concentrated solutions have been shown to be aggressive and can corrode the SG materials. This corrosion may occur under various conditions which result in different types of attack such as pitting, stress corrosion cracking, wastage and denting. A major goal of EPRI's research program has been the development of models of the concentration process and the resulting chemistry. An improved understanding should eventually allow utilities to reduce or eliminate the corrosion by the appropriate manipulation of the steam generator water chemistry and or crevice conditions. The application of these models to experimental data obtained for prototypical SG tube support crevices is described in this paper. The models adequately describe the key features of the experimental data allowing extrapolations to be made to plant conditions. (author)

  17. AIRPORT NOISE CHARGES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES: APPLICATION TO REGIONAL AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MANTECCHINI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  18. Application of local area network technology in an engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, A.D.; Sokolowski, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of local area network technology in an engineering environment. Mobil Research and Development Corporation Engineering, Dallas, texas has installed a local area network (LAN) linking over 85 microcomputers. This network, which has been in existence for more than three years, provides common access by all engineers to quality output devices such as laser printers and multi-color pen plotters; IBM mainframe connections; electronic mail and file transfer; and common engineering program. The network has been expanded via a wide area ethernet network to link the Dallas location with a functionally equivalent LAN of over 400 microcomputers in Princeton, N.J. Additionally, engineers on assignment at remote areas in Europe, U.S., Africa and project task forces have dial-in access to the network via telephone lines

  19. An eigenvalue localization set for tensors and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Li et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015 and Huang et al. (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:254, 2016. As an application of this set, new bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of M $\\mathcal{M}$ -tensors are established and proved to be sharper than some known results. Compared with the results obtained by Huang et al., the advantage of our results is that, without considering the selection of nonempty proper subsets S of N = { 1 , 2 , … , n } $N=\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ , we can obtain a tighter eigenvalue localization set for tensors and sharper bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of M $\\mathcal{M}$ -tensors. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  20. An eigenvalue localization set for tensors and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Sang, Caili

    2017-01-01

    A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Li et al . (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015) and Huang et al . (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:254, 2016). As an application of this set, new bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of [Formula: see text]-tensors are established and proved to be sharper than some known results. Compared with the results obtained by Huang et al ., the advantage of our results is that, without considering the selection of nonempty proper subsets S of [Formula: see text], we can obtain a tighter eigenvalue localization set for tensors and sharper bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of [Formula: see text]-tensors. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  1. Application of local vacuum slide sealing electron beam welding procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shozo; Takano, Genta; Minami, Masaharu; Enami, Koji; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuri, Shuhei

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam welding process is efficient and is superior in workmanship and its application to the welding of large plate structures is eagerly awaited. However, since electron beam welding is generally performed with the object of welding entirely put in a vacuum chamber, high welding cost becomes a problem. In response to this demand, two kinds of local vacuum slide sealing type electron beam welding machines have been developed. These welding machines are designed to perform welding with only the neighborhood of the weld line put in vacuum, one of which is for longitudinal joints and the other for circumferential joints. The welding machine for circumferential joints has been put to practical use for the welding of nucear fusion reactor vacuum vessels (outside diameter 3.5 m, inside diameter 1.7 m), showing that it is applicable to the welding of large structures. (author)

  2. Perspectives of local diclofenacol 1% liniment application in joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Balabanova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy and safety diclofenacol 1% liniment application in comparison with diclo- ran plus. Material and methods. An open controlled 2-weeks trial of diclofenacol 1% liniment on 30 pts with active joint syndrome (group 1 compared with dicloran plus 1% gel on 20 pts (group II. Pts age ranged from 16 to 79 years, mean disease duration was 8,2 1,5 years. Most pts had II activity degree. Results. Diclofenacol 1% liniment applications decreased pain at rest and at movement and circle of aim joints. In pts with RA effect was more prominent. Dicloran plus provided equivalent results. Local effect of diclofenacol appeared in average after 31,5 min. (from 10 to 73 min and lasted during 118,3 min (from 50 to 240 min.. Diclofenacol allowed to decrease dose of oral NSAIDs in 43,3% of pts and dicloran - in 40% of pts. Diclofenacol safety was good without local and systemic adverse events. Conclusion. Diclofenacol 1% liniment manufactured by Hiperion S.A. (Rumania can be recommended for wide administration in treatment of joint diseases particularly in pts with concomitant gastrointestinal diseases and hypertension.

  3. Local application of zoledronate for maximum anchorage during space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adam J A J; Campbell, Phillip M; Hinton, Robert; Naidu, Aparna; Buschang, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Orthodontists have used various compliance-dependent physical means such as headgears and intraoral appliances to prevent anchorage loss. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1 local application of the bisphosphonate zoledronate could be used to prevent anchorage loss during extraction space closure in rats. Thirty rats had their maxillary left first molars extracted and their maxillary left second molars protracted into the extraction space with a 10-g nickel-titanium closing coil for 21 days. Fifteen control rats received a local injection of phosphate-buffered saline solution, and 15 experimental rats received 16 μg of the bisphosphonate zoledronate. Bisphosphonate was also delivered directly into the extraction site and left undisturbed for 5 minutes. Cephalograms and incremental thickness gauges were used to measure tooth movements. Tissues were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology. The control group demonstrated significant (P <0.05) tooth movements throughout the 21-day period. They showed significantly greater tooth movements than the experimental group beginning in the second week. The experimental group showed no significant tooth movement after the first week. The microcomputed tomography and histologic observations showed significant bone loss in the extraction sites and around the second molars of the controls. In contrast, the experimental group had bone preservation and bone fill. There was no evidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis in any sample. A single small, locally applied dose of zoledronate provided maximum anchorage and prevented significant bone loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. LOCAL APPLICATION OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pshenitsyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study – assessment of the efficacy of local application of tranexamic acid in TKA and the choice of the optimal dosage. Materials and methods. 48 patients were included in open-prospective study and were randomized to one of four groups. In the first group tranexamic acid was used as intravenous bolus at the beginning of the operation at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Additionally, after the installation of the prosthetic components, the surgeon performed periarticular infiltration of soft tissue by tranexamic acid solution at a dose of 15 mg/kg. In the second group of patients tranexamic acid was used as 500 mg intravenous bolus before surgery, and 500 mg locally after installation of the prosthesis components. In the third group of patients received tranexamic acid once at the beginning of the operation at a dose of 15 mg/kg iv bolus. In the fourth group tranexam was used after surgery once at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Results. In the first group of patients were achieved statistically significant, 5-6 times, reduction of blood loss on drainage in comparison with other groups, where the volume of postoperative blood loss was not significantly different between groups. Also in the first group recorded the smallest decrease in hemoglobin at the 5th postoperative day compared to the third and fourth groups. Complications associated with the use of tranexamic acid were not revealed. Conclusion. The method of periarticular infiltration by tranexamic acid in combination with its intravenous use in knee joint replacement is an effective and safe method for reduction of post-operative blood loss.

  5. Application of Local Knowledge in Land Degradation Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objective of the study was to find out local approaches used in assessing land degradation by ... Organizations and local authorities) in the locality has resulted in poor planning and implementation of land degradation intervention measures. ... malnutrition, poverty and migratory movements and lead to crises, conflicts.

  6. Node localization algorithm of wireless sensor networks for large electrical equipment monitoring application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Node localization technology is an important technology for the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. An improved 3D node localization algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on a Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) node localization algorithm for large electrical equipment monito...

  7. An ultrasonic phased array applicator for deep localized hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Foster, S.G.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an ultrasonic phased array applicator presents a major advantage over the fixed beam ultrasonic applicators which are typically used for clinical hyperthermia. Such an applicator allows focal region placement in the three dimensional treatment field by electronic steering instead of mechanical movement of the transducer assembly. The design of an array is discussed theoretically, considering that the constraints on grating lobes and power output for hyperthermic applications are quite different from those for imaging. The effects of various design parameters are discussed. Experimental results are presented for several arrays for frequencies under 1 Mhz

  8. Multivariate Local Polynomial Regression with Application to Shenzhen Component Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Su

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to characterize and predict stock index series in Shenzhen stock market using the concepts of multivariate local polynomial regression. Based on nonlinearity and chaos of the stock index time series, multivariate local polynomial prediction methods and univariate local polynomial prediction method, all of which use the concept of phase space reconstruction according to Takens' Theorem, are considered. To fit the stock index series, the single series changes into bivariate series. To evaluate the results, the multivariate predictor for bivariate time series based on multivariate local polynomial model is compared with univariate predictor with the same Shenzhen stock index data. The numerical results obtained by Shenzhen component index show that the prediction mean squared error of the multivariate predictor is much smaller than the univariate one and is much better than the existed three methods. Even if the last half of the training data are used in the multivariate predictor, the prediction mean squared error is smaller than the univariate predictor. Multivariate local polynomial prediction model for nonsingle time series is a useful tool for stock market price prediction.

  9. Performance and applications of the ORNL local electrode atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The commercial introduction in 2003 of the local electrode atom probe (LEAP) developed by Imago Scientific Instruments has made dramatic, orders of magnitude improvements in the data acquisition rate and the size of the analyzed volume compared to previous types of three-dimensional atom probes and other scanning atom probes. This state-of-the-art instrument may be used for the analysis of traditional needle-shaped specimens and specimens fabricated from 'flat' specimens with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The advantage of this local electrode configuration is that significantly lower (∼50 %) standing and pulse voltages are required to produce the field strength required to field evaporate ions from the specimen. New high speed (200 kHz) pulse generators coupled with crossed delay line detectors and faster timing systems also enable significantly faster (up to 300 times) data acquisition rates to be achieved. This new design also permits a significantly larger field of view to be analyzed and results in data sets containing up to 10 8 atoms. In the local electrode atom probe, a ∼10-50 μm diameter aperture is typically positioned approximately one aperture diameter in front of the specimen. In order to accurately align the specimen to the aperture in the funnel-shaped electrode, the specimen is mounted on a three axis nanopositioning stage. An approximate alignment is performed while viewing the relative positions of the specimen and the local electrode with a pair of low magnification video cameras and then a pair of higher magnification video cameras attached to long range microscopes. The final alignment is performed with the use of the field evaporated ions from the specimen. A discussion on the alignment of the specimen with the local electrode, the effects of the fields on the specimen, and the effects of aperture size on aperture lifetime will be presented. The performance of the ORNL local electrode atom probe will be described. The

  10. Applicability of the local field concept for the electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, D.; Sjoelander, A.; Swierkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The static exchange-correlation hole surrounding an electron in an electron gas at metallic densities has been a highly successful and useful concept. The properties of the static exchange-correlation hole can be accurately reflected by the construction of a static local field. This field surrounds each electron and modifies it interaction with the other electrons in the system. An important limitation of the local field concept is that it does not handle the time-dependent relaxation of the surrounding electron cloud in a particularly transparent way. At metallic densities this is if no consequence since relaxation effects are only small corrections anyway, but at lower densities and in two-dimensional systems they become increasingly important. Approaches which attempt to address these problems are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  11. Detecting phase synchronization by localized maps: Application to neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, T.; Baptista, M. S.; Kurths, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach which enables to state about the existence of phase synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators without having to measure the phase. This is done by observing the oscillators at special times, and analyzing whether this set of points is localized. In particular, we show that this approach is fruitful to analyze the onset of phase synchronization in chaotic attractors whose phases are not well defined, as well as, in networks of non-identical spiking/bursting neurons ...

  12. Perspectives of local diclofenacol 1% liniment application in joint diseases

    OpenAIRE

    R M Balabanova; О Н Egorova; Т П Grishaeva; Н Е Lopatina; Г М Tarasova; A O Pchelintseva; Т П Fedina

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess efficacy and safety diclofenacol 1% liniment application in comparison with diclo- ran plus. Material and methods. An open controlled 2-weeks trial of diclofenacol 1% liniment on 30 pts with active joint syndrome (group 1) compared with dicloran plus 1% gel on 20 pts (group II). Pts age ranged from 16 to 79 years, mean disease duration was 8,2 1,5 years. Most pts had II activity degree. Results. Diclofenacol 1% liniment applications decreased pain at rest and at movement ...

  13. Exponential local discriminant embedding and its application to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi; Bosaghzadeh, Alireza

    2013-06-01

    Local discriminant embedding (LDE) has been recently proposed to overcome some limitations of the global linear discriminant analysis method. In the case of a small training data set, however, LDE cannot directly be applied to high-dimensional data. This case is the so-called small-sample-size (SSS) problem. The classical solution to this problem was applying dimensionality reduction on the raw data (e.g., using principal component analysis). In this paper, we introduce a novel discriminant technique called "exponential LDE" (ELDE). The proposed ELDE can be seen as an extension of LDE framework in two directions. First, the proposed framework overcomes the SSS problem without discarding the discriminant information that was contained in the null space of the locality preserving scatter matrices associated with LDE. Second, the proposed ELDE is equivalent to transforming original data into a new space by distance diffusion mapping (similar to kernel-based nonlinear mapping), and then, LDE is applied in such a new space. As a result of diffusion mapping, the margin between samples belonging to different classes is enlarged, which is helpful in improving classification accuracy. The experiments are conducted on five public face databases: Yale, Extended Yale, PF01, Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE), and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET). The results show that the performances of the proposed ELDE are better than those of LDE and many state-of-the-art discriminant analysis techniques.

  14. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  15. Plasma-based localized defect for switchable coupling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, Stefan; Gabard, Benjamin; Sokoloff, Jerome; Bolioli, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper experimental measurements in order to validate the concept of switchable electromagnetic band gap filters based on plasma capillaries in the microwave regime. The plasma tube is embedded inside the structure to create a bistable (plasma on or off) punctual defect. We first investigate two kinds of discharge tubes: Ar-Hg and pure Ne, which we then use to experimentally achieve plasma-based reconfigurable applications, namely, a two-port coupler and a two-port demultiplexer.

  16. Applicability of Mixolab test with local wheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vazquez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several types of equipment have been used to predict dough behaviour during breadmaking. The complexity of requirements means that no device is able to predict all the properties, and therefore, new tests are released continuously. The Chopin Mixolab mixes the dough at different temperatures, allowing the study of dough mixing properties, weakening, gelatinization, gel stability and retrogradation in one test. The objective of this work was to study the suitability of the Mixolab to predict rheological properties and breadmaking quality of local wheats. Flour was obtained from 29 wheat samples  from different genotypes and environments. The correlation of results from traditional analyses  (test weight, protein content, sedimentation volume, wet gluten, Falling Number, Alveograph and Farinograph  with Mixolab parameters was studied. The properties of two different bread types were compared with all these parameters. Stability and water absorption values from the Farinograph were highly correlated with the respective Mixolab parameters. It was concluded that wheat samples could be sorted by mixing properties in similar order independently of which method was used. Beyond that, gluten strength estimators obtained from these three rheological methods and the sedimentation volume test were highly correlated. Whilst the correlation of Mixolab parameters with pan loaf volume was not as high as traditional ones, Mixolab developing time, stability and C5 were the best correlated with the most important hearth bread characteristics. Studies performed by other researchers, using wheats from diverse origins, found different results. The need for empirical rheology evaluation with local wheat samples was proved.

  17. The characterization of weighted local hardy spaces on domains and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng-geng; Yang, Xiao-ming

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we give the four equivalent characterizations for the weighted local hardy spaces on Lipschitz domains. Also, we give their application for the harmonic function defined in bounded Lipschitz domains.

  18. Application of Local Fractional Series Expansion Method to Solve Klein-Gordon Equations on Cantor Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the local fractional series expansion method to solve the Klein-Gordon equations on Cantor sets within the local fractional derivatives. The analytical solutions within the nondifferential terms are discussed. The obtained results show the simplicity and efficiency of the present technique with application to the problems of the liner differential equations on Cantor sets.

  19. Integrating information systems : linking global business goals to local database applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to design modern information systems that offer an integrated access to the data and knowledge that is available in local applications. By integrating the local data management activities into one transparent information distribution process, modern organizations

  20. 3D Interest Point Detection using Local Surface Characteristics with Application in Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    2014-01-01

    . The proposed Difference-of-Normals (DoN) 3D IP detector operates on the surface mesh, and evaluates the surface structure (curvature) locally (per vertex) in the mesh data. We present an exam- ple of application in action recognition from a sequence of 3-dimensional geometrical data, where local 3D motion de...

  1. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  2. High Resolution Robust GPS-free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks and its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed

    2011-12-12

    In this thesis we investigate the problem of robustness and scalability w.r.t. estimating the position of randomly deployed motes/nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) without the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. We propose a few applications of range independent localization algorithms that allow the sensors to actively determine their location with high resolution without increasing the complexity of the hardware or any additional device setup. In our first application we try to present a localized and centralized cooperative spectrum sensing using RF sensor networks. This scheme collaboratively sense the spectrum and localize the whole network efficiently and with less difficulty. In second application we try to focus on how efficiently we can localize the nodes, to detect underwater threats, without the use of beacons. In third application we try to focus on 3-Dimensional localization for LTE systems. Our performance evaluation shows that these schemes lead to a significant improvement in localization accuracy compared to the state-of-art range independent localization schemes, without requiring GPS support.

  3. Comprehensive and consistent interpretation of local fault experiments and application to hypothetical local overpower accident in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies on local fault (LF) accidents in fast breeder reactors have been performed in many countries because LFs have been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents. Comprehensive and consistent interpretations of in-pile and out-of-pile experiments related to LF were arrived at in this study based on state-of-the-art review and data analysis techniques. Safety margins for a hypothetical local overpower accident, which was evaluated as a LF accident in the licensing document of the construction permit for a prototype fast breeder reactor called Monju, were also studied. Based on comprehensive interpretations of the latest experimental database, including those performed after the permission of Monju construction, it was clarified that the evaluation of the hypothetical local overpower accident in the Monju licensing was sufficiently conservative. Furthermore, it incorporated adequate safety margins in terms of failure thresholds of the fuel pin, molten fuel ejection, fuel sweep-out behavior after molten fuel ejection, and pin-to-pin failure propagation. Moreover, these comprehensive interpretations are valid and applicable to the safety evaluation of LF accidents of other fast breeder reactors with various fuel and core designs. (author)

  4. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4.

  5. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J

    2008-01-01

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4

  6. Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release using a modified application technique of local anesthesia: safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khayat Jehad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthesia is widely used for open carpal tunnel release. However, injection of local anesthesia as described by Altissimi and Mancini (1988 can interfere with endoscopic carpal tunnel release, by increasing the bulk of synovial layers and consequently result in worsening of the view. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy using modified technique for application of local anesthesia. Methods 33 patients suffering from gradual increasing symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were also asked to evaluate the pain associated with injection as well as tourniquet during surgery using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum pain. Results One patient required additionally local anesthesia because of mild pain in the hand. The tourniquet was inflated for 13.00 (2.8 min. The pain score related to injection was 2.5 (0.8 and to tourniquet was 3.6 (0.9. Inflation of the tourniquet was well tolerated by all patients. Postoperative neurological sensory and motor deficits related to surgery and local blocks were not occurred. Conclusion Endoscopic release of the carpal tunnel syndrome in local anesthesia is effective, well tolerated and safe. This kind of application of local anesthesia did not reduce visibility.

  7. Construction of local boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem using micro-local analysis: application to optical waveguide problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucq, Helene; Bekkey, Chokri; Djellouli, Rabia

    2004-01-01

    We present a general procedure based on the pseudo-differential calculus for deriving artificial boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem that characterizes the propagation of guided modes in optical waveguides. This new approach allows the construction of local conditions that (a) are independent of the frequency regime, (b) preserve the sparsity pattern of the finite element discretization, and (c) are applicable to arbitrarily shaped convex artificial boundaries. The last feature has the potential for reducing the size of the computational domain. Numerical results are presented to highlight the potential of conditions of order 1/2 and 1, for improving significantly the computational efficiency of finite element methods for the solution of optical waveguide problems

  8. Distributed collaborative processing in wireless sensor networks with application to target localization and beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Béjar Haro, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of wireless sensor networks and the variety of envisioned applications associated with them has motivated the development of distributed algorithms for collaborative processing over networked systems. One of the applications that has attracted the attention of the researchers is that of target localization where the nodes of the network try to estimate the position of an unknown target that lies within its coverage area. Particularly challenging is the problem of es...

  9. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given.

  10. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim

    2018-04-10

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic information. In many applications, location-based services are the main service, and localization accuracy is the main problem. VANETs also require accurate vehicle location information in real time. To fulfill this requirement, a number of algorithms have been proposed; however, the location accuracy required for public safety applications in VANETs has not been achieved. In this paper, an improved subspace algorithm is proposed for time of arrival (TOA) measurements in VANETs localization. The proposed method gives a closed-form solution and it is robust for large measurement noise, as it is based on the eigen form of a scalar product and dimensionality. Furthermore, we developed the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to evaluate the performance of the proposed 3D VANETs localization method. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the CRLB and other localization algorithms available in the literature through numerous simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed 3D VANETs localization method is better than the literature methods especially for fewer anchors at road side units and large noise variance.

  11. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  12. Concentration gradient along the scala tympani after local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea after local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected, and histologic studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex after local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. A recently developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along the scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples that were taken after up to 3 hours of local application to the round window niche. Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of the scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4,000 times greater concentration at the base compared with the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients.

  13. Concentration gradient along scala tympani following the local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K.; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M.; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea following local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected and histological studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex following local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. Methods A recently-developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used, in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples which were taken following up to three hours of local application to the round window niche. Results Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4000 times greater concentration at the base compared to the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. Conclusions The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients. PMID:17603318

  14. Accurate localization of intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from 3D CT imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerma, F.A.; Williamson, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To present an accurate method to identify the positions and orientations of intracavitary (ICT) brachytherapy applicators imaged in 3D CT scans, in support of Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations, enabling accurate dose modeling in the presence of applicator shielding and interapplicator attenuation. Materials and methods: The method consists of finding the transformation that maximizes the coincidence between the known 3D shapes of each applicator component (colpostats and tandem) with the volume defined by contours of the corresponding surface on each CT slice. We use this technique to localize Fletcher-Suit CT-compatible applicators for three cervix cancer patients using post-implant CT examinations (3 mm slice thickness and separation). Dose distributions in 1-to-1 registration with the underlying CT anatomy are derived from 3D Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations incorporating each applicator's internal geometry (source encapsulation, high-density shields, and applicator body) oriented in relation to the dose matrix according to the measured localization transformations. The precision and accuracy of our localization method are assessed using CT scans, in which the positions and orientations of dense rods and spheres (in a precision-machined phantom) were measured at various orientations relative to the gantry. Results: Using this method, we register 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations directly onto post insertion patient CT studies. Using CT studies of a precisely machined phantom, the absolute accuracy of the method was found to be ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.3 mm in the axial direction while its precision was ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.2 mm axially. Conclusion: We have developed a novel, and accurate technique to localize intracavitary brachytherapy applicators in 3D CT imaging studies, which supports 3D dose planning involving detailed 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations, modeling source positions, shielding and interapplicator shielding

  15. Application of local computer networks in nuclear-physical experiments and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The bases of construction, comparative performance and potentialities of local computer networks with respect to their application in physical experiments are considered. The principle of operation of local networks is shown on the basis of the Ethernet network and the results of analysis of their operating performance are given. The examples of operating local networks in the area of nuclear-physics research and nuclear technology are presented as follows: networks of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, California University and Los Alamos National Laboratory, network realization according to the DECnet and Fast-bus programs, home network configurations of the USSR Academy of Sciences and JINR Neutron Physical Laboratory etc. It is shown that local networks allows significantly raise productivity in the sphere of data processing

  16. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a research project aiming at developing an architecture supporting local mobility within hospitals. The architecture is based on fieldwork and design workshops within a large Danish hospital and it has been implemented and evaluated after a pilot phase. Our...... fieldwork has emphasised the differences between remote mobility, where users travel over long distances, and local mobility, where users walk around within a fixed set of buildings and/or places. Based on our field studies and our design work, we conclude that local mobility puts up three requirements...... for computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  17. An Application-Level QoS Control Method Based on Local Bandwidth Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service (QoS is an important performance indicator for Web applications and bandwidth is a key factor affecting QoS. Current methods use network protocols or ports to schedule bandwidth, which require tedious manual configurations or modifications of the underlying network. Some applications use dynamic ports and the traditional port-based bandwidth control methods cannot deal with them. A new QoS control method based on local bandwidth scheduling is proposed, which can schedule bandwidth at application level in a user-transparent way and it does not require tedious manual configurations. Experimental results indicate that the new method can effectively improve the QoS for applications, and it can be easily integrated into current Web applications without the need to modify the underlying network.

  18. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  19. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... the probes were processed for histological examination. RESULTS: Large intra- and inter-group differences in the relative recovery were found between all locations. Absolute values of metabolites showed no significant changes during the study period. The lactate in blood was 25-30% of the intra-tissue values...

  20. Signal-to-noise based local decorrelation compensation for speckle interferometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molimard, Jerome; Cordero, Raul; Vautrin, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Speckle-based interferometric techniques allow assessing the whole-field deformation induced on a specimen due to the application of load. These high sensitivity optical techniques yield fringe images generated by subtracting speckle patterns captured while the specimen undergoes deformation. The quality of the fringes, and in turn the accuracy of the deformation measurements, strongly depends on the speckle correlation. Specimen rigid body motion leads to speckle decorrelation that, in general, cannot be effectively counteracted by applying a global translation to the involved speckle patterns. In this paper, we propose a recorrelation procedure based on the application of locally evaluated translations. The proposed procedure implies dividing the field into several regions, applying a local translation, and calculating, in every region, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the latter is a correlation indicator (the noise increases with the decorrelation) we argue that the proper translation is that which maximizes the locally evaluated SNR. The search of the proper local translations is, of course, an interactive process that can be facilitated by using a SNR optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed recorrelation procedure was tested on two examples. First, the SNR optimization algorithm was applied to fringe images obtained by subtracting simulated speckle patterns. Next, it was applied to fringe images obtained by using a shearography optical setup from a specimen subjected to mechanical deformation. Our results show that the proposed SNR optimization method can significantly improve the reliability of measurements performed by using speckle-based techniques

  1. Study of Train-Side Passive Magnetic Measurements with Applications to Train Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heirich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive magnetic sensors measure the magnetic field density in three axes and are often integrated on a single chip. These low-cost sensors are widely used in car navigation as well as in battery powered navigation equipment such as smartphones as part of an electronic compass. We focus on a train localization application with multiple, exclusively onboard sensors and a track map. This approach is considered as a base technology for future railway applications such as collision avoidance systems or autonomous train driving. In this paper, we address the following question: how beneficial are passive magnetic measurements for train localization? We present and analyze measurements of two different magnetometers recorded on a regional train at regular passenger service. We show promising correlations of the measurements with the track positions and the traveled switch way. The processed data reveals that the railway environment has repeatable, location-dependent magnetic signatures. This is considered as a novel approach to train localization, as the use of these magnetic signals at first view is not obvious. The proposed methods based on passive magnetic measurements show a high potential to be integrated in new and existing train localization approaches.

  2. Localization in fluids: A comparison of competing theories and their application to positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.N.; Fan, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses two central issues in our understanding of self-trapping, or localization, of a light particle (e.g., electron, positron, or positronium atom) in a fluid. The first concerns the relationship between the mean-field calculations of localized states carried out from the mid-1950s until the present, and the direct calculation of light-particle (LP) properties from the adiabatic model. The second concerns the universality of the ring polymer representation of the LP, which has proved to be extremely useful for computing the properties of localized electrons. We first demonstrate that the mean-field theories of localization, which are derived from density functionals, can be obtained from the adiabatic model by employing a Gutzwiller type of approximation. We then study the application of the adiabatic model, via the polymer representation, to the annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in a fluid. Expressions for the decay rate and its variance are derived in terms of the two- and three-point distribution functions for the polymer sites and positions of the atomic nuclei. The momentum distribution of the localized LP is shown to be proportional to the Fourier transform of the distribution function for the displacement between the ends of a broken polymer

  3. On the local applications of antibiotics and antibiotic-based agents in endodontics and dental traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Z; Abbott, P V

    2009-07-01

    Antibiotics are a valuable adjunctive to the armamentarium available to health professionals for the management of bacterial infections. During endodontic treatment and when managing trauma to the teeth, antibiotics may be applied systemically (orally and/or parenterally) or locally (i.e. intra-dentally via irrigants and medicaments). Due to the potential risk of adverse effects following systemic application, and the ineffectiveness of systemic antibiotics in necrotic pulpless teeth and the periradicular tissues, the local application of antibiotics may be a more effective mode for delivery in endodontics. The aim of this article was to review the history, rationale and applications of antibiotic-containing irrigants and medicaments in endodontics and dental traumatology. The search was performed from 1981 to 2008 and was limited to English-language papers. The keywords searched on Medline were 'Antibiotics AND endodontics', 'Antibiotics AND root canal irrigation', 'Antibiotics AND intra-canal medicament', 'Antibiotics AND Dental trauma' and 'Antibiotics AND root resorption'. The reference section of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information. It seems that local routes of antibiotic administration are a more effective mode than systemic applications. Various antibiotics have been tested in numerous studies and each has some advantages. Tetracyclines are a group of bacteriostatic antibiotics with antibacterial substantivity for up to 12 weeks. They are typically used in conjunction with corticosteroids and these combinations have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-resorptive properties, all of which help to reduce the periapical inflammatory reaction including clastic-cell mediated resorption. Tetracyclines have also been used as part of irrigating solutions but the substantivity is only for 4 weeks. Clindamycin and a combination of three antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline) have also been

  4. Local application of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel to endometriosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhito; Murakami, Koichi; Shozu, Makio; Nakama, Tsuyoshi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Masaki

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a drug delivery system composed of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid for local application to endometriosis. Prospective, randomized study. Academic research unit of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel (DZ-HA gel) was injected into the rat endometriosis model. Size and histological changes in experimental endometriosis, the concentration of danazol in the cyst wall and plasma, and estrous cycles were examined. Histologically, DZ-HA gel-treated cysts displayed marked atrophy of the endometrial epithelium. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased numbers of proliferative cells were noted with 10 mg/mL DZ-HA gel. Size of treated cysts decreased to approximately 60% at 9 weeks after injection. The estrous cycles were not disturbed during DZ-HA gel treatment. Local injection of DZ-HA gel achieved endometrial atrophy of an experimental model of endometriosis without disturbing the sexual cycle. These results suggest that local application of DZ using this drug delivery system may prove useful for treating endometriosis.

  5. [Local application of bFGF and sucralfate during continuous tissue expansion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-lan; Guo, Shu-zhong; Lu, Kai-hua; Han, Yan; Lei, Yong-hong; Song, Bao-qiang; Pan, Yong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of local application of bFGF and sucralfate during continuous tissue expansion (CTE). CTE combined with local administration of bFGF and sucralfate was used in twelve patients with scar and nasal tip defects. Twenty three expanders were placed in the subcutaneous pockets through intralesion short incisions. Continuous expansion began at 1-3 days after expander implantation. The histomorphological changes and epidermal cell proliferation were observed. The clinical results were investigated. The average inflation time was 8.9 days. The average interval of the two operations was 13.5 days. The average hospitalization was 28.4 days. The average immediate stretch-back rate of the expanded skin was 25.7%. The clinical results were satisfactory without any complications. Histological examinations showed that the epidermal, granular and spinous layer became thicker. The basal cells increased significantly. The dermis thinned slightly and the collagen fibers became thicker. The elastic fiber regenerated significantly. Fibroblast and capillary density increased obviously. The immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the proliferation of epidemic basal cells was significant postoperatively. Local application of exogenous bFGF and sucralfate during CTE was feasible in patients. It could accelerate tissue expansion and improve the quality of expanded skin flap.

  6. Application of urban neighborhoods in understanding of local level electricity consumption patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Aggregated national or regional level electricity consumption data fail to capture the spatial variation in consumption, a function of location, climate, topography, and local economics. Spatial monitoring of electricity usage patterns helps to understand derivers of location specific consumption behavior and develop models to cater to the consumer needs, plan efficiency measures, identify settled areas lacking access, and allows for future planning through assessing requirements. Developed countries have started to deploy sensor systems such as smart meters to gather information on local level consumption patterns, but such infrastructure is virtually nonexistent in developing nations, resulting in serious dearth of reliable data for planners and policy makers. Remote sensing of artificial nighttime lights from human settlements have proven useful to study electricity consumptions from global to regional scales, however, local level studies remain scarce. Using the differences in spatial characteristics among different urban neighborhoods such as industrial, commercial and residential, observable through very high resolution day time satellite images (lights observations, which we use as a proxy for electricity consumption in the absence of ground level consumption data. The overall trends observed through this analysis provides useful explanations helping in understanding of broad electricity consumption patterns in urban areas lacking ground level observations. This study thus highlights possible application of remote sensing data driven methods in providing novel insights into local level socio-economic patterns that were hitherto undetected due to lack of ground data.

  7. A Low Cost Sensors Approach for Accurate Vehicle Localization and Autonomous Driving Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivacqua, Rafael; Vassallo, Raquel; Martins, Felipe

    2017-10-16

    Autonomous driving in public roads requires precise localization within the range of few centimeters. Even the best current precise localization system based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can not always reach this level of precision, especially in an urban environment, where the signal is disturbed by surrounding buildings and artifacts. Laser range finder and stereo vision have been successfully used for obstacle detection, mapping and localization to solve the autonomous driving problem. Unfortunately, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDARs) are very expensive sensors and stereo vision requires powerful dedicated hardware to process the cameras information. In this context, this article presents a low-cost architecture of sensors and data fusion algorithm capable of autonomous driving in narrow two-way roads. Our approach exploits a combination of a short-range visual lane marking detector and a dead reckoning system to build a long and precise perception of the lane markings in the vehicle's backwards. This information is used to localize the vehicle in a map, that also contains the reference trajectory for autonomous driving. Experimental results show the successful application of the proposed system on a real autonomous driving situation.

  8. Local Control of Audio Environment: A Review of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kuutti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a local audio environment is to have sound playback locally restricted such that, ideally, adjacent regions of an indoor or outdoor space could exhibit their own individual audio content without interfering with each other. This would enable people to listen to their content of choice without disturbing others next to them, yet, without any headphones to block conversation. In practice, perfect sound containment in free air cannot be attained, but a local audio environment can still be satisfactorily approximated using directional speakers. Directional speakers may be based on regular audible frequencies or they may employ modulated ultrasound. Planar, parabolic, and array form factors are commonly used. The directivity of a speaker improves as its surface area and sound frequency increases, making these the main design factors for directional audio systems. Even directional speakers radiate some sound outside the main beam, and sound can also reflect from objects. Therefore, directional speaker systems perform best when there is enough ambient noise to mask the leaking sound. Possible areas of application for local audio include information and advertisement audio feed in commercial facilities, guiding and narration in museums and exhibitions, office space personalization, control room messaging, rehabilitation environments, and entertainment audio systems.

  9. Simulation of delamination crack growth in composite laminates: application of local and non-local interface damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)

  10. Synthesis methods of gold nanoparticles for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR sensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuri Nurul Diyanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have been known as an excellent characteristic for Local Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR sensors due to their sensitive spectral response to the local environment of the nanoparticle surface and ease of monitoring the light signal due to their strong scattering or absorption. Prior the technologies, GNPs based LSPR has been commercialized and have become a central tool for characterizing and quantifying in various field. In this review, we presented a brief introduction on the history of surface plasmon, the theory behind the surface plasmon resonance (SPR and the principles of LSPR. We also reported on the synthetization as well of the properties of the GNPs and the applications in current LSPR sensors.

  11. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Morsche Hennie G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  12. Implementation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support Application to Augment Local Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian M; Ford, Diana C; Ince, Dilek; Ernst, Erika J; Livorsi, Daniel J; Heintz, Brett H; Masse, Vincent; Brownlee, Michael J; Ford, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Medical applications for mobile devices allow clinicians to leverage microbiological data and standardized guidelines to treat patients with infectious diseases. We report the implementation of a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) application to augment local antimicrobial stewardship. We detail the implementation of our mobile CDS application over 20 months. Application utilization data were collected and evaluated using descriptive statistics to quantify the impact of our implementation. Project initiation focused on engaging key stakeholders, developing a business case, and selecting a mobile platform. The preimplementation phase included content development, creation of a pathway for content approval within the hospital committee structure, engaging clinical leaders, and formatting the first version of the guide. Implementation involved a media campaign, staff education, and integration within the electronic medical record and hospital mobile devices. The postimplementation phase required ongoing quality improvement, revision of outdated content, and repeated staff education. The evaluation phase included a guide utilization analysis, reporting to hospital leadership, and sustainability and innovation planning. The mobile application was downloaded 3056 times and accessed 9259 times during the study period. The companion web viewer was accessed 8214 times. Successful implementation of a customizable mobile CDS tool enabled our team to expand beyond microbiological data to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship, broadening our influence on antimicrobial prescribing and incorporating utilization data to inspire new quality and safety initiatives. Further studies are needed to assess the impact on antimicrobial utilization, infection control measures, and patient care outcomes.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  14. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  15. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......-free sound signal of the target talker at the HAS via the wireless connection. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which we call MLSSL, to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the target signal given access to the target signal content. Compared with other "informed...

  16. A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.

  17. Accelerometer-based on-body sensor localization for health and medical monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdatpour, Alireza; Amini, Navid; Xu, Wenyao; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to recognize the position of sensors on the human body. Automatic on-body device localization ensures correctness and accuracy of measurements in health and medical monitoring systems. In addition, it provides opportunities to improve the performance and usability of ubiquitous devices. Our technique uses accelerometers to capture motion data to estimate the location of the device on the user’s body, using mixed supervised and unsupervised time series analysis methods. We have evaluated our technique with extensive experiments on 25 subjects. On average, our technique achieves 89% accuracy in estimating the location of devices on the body. In order to study the feasibility of classification of left limbs from right limbs (e.g., left arm vs. right arm), we performed analysis, based of which no meaningful classification was observed. Personalized ultraviolet monitoring and wireless transmission power control comprise two immediate applications of our on-body device localization approach. Such applications, along with their corresponding feasibility studies, are discussed. PMID:22347840

  18. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  19. Application of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin A in Cosmetic Patients with Congenital Drooping Mouth Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Lv, Wei; Hou, Ying; Cao, Qian; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at the depressor anguli oris in patients with congenital drooping mouth corner. From September 2013 to March 2015, 36 cosmetic patients received local injections of botulinum toxin A at the depressor anguli oris, with 1-3 injection sites in the moving region of the depressor anguli oris on each side. At each injection site, 2-4 U of BTX-A was injected, and the total dose for any unilateral treatment did not exceed 8 U. The change in the degree of drooping of the mouth corner before and after the injection was analyzed using statistical methods. The clinical efficacy, preservation time, and adverse reactions were observed. The degree of drooping of the mouth corners of the cosmetic patients before the treatment was compared with that at 1 month after using a paired t test, and the difference was statistically significant, with P injection. The local injection of BTX-A at the depressor anguli oris can effectively lift a drooping mouth corner, thereby improving the depressed, stern, and aged appearance of the face. The performance of this treatment is simple, safe, and easy to perform in clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  20. The NOAA Local Climate Analysis Tool - An Application in Support of a Weather Ready Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Citizens across the U.S., including decision makers from the local to the national level, have a multitude of questions about climate, such as the current state and how that state fits into the historical context, and more importantly, how climate will impact them, especially with regard to linkages to extreme weather events. Developing answers to these types of questions for locations has typically required extensive work to gather data, conduct analyses, and generate relevant explanations and graphics. Too frequently providers don't have ready access to or knowledge of reliable, trusted data sets, nor sound, scientifically accepted analysis techniques such that they can provide a rapid response to queries they receive. In order to support National Weather Service (NWS) local office forecasters with information they need to deliver timely responses to climate-related questions from their customers, we have developed the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT). LCAT uses the principles of artificial intelligence to respond to queries, in particular, through use of machine technology that responds intelligently to input from users. A user translates customer questions into primary variables and issues and LCAT pulls the most relevant data and analysis techniques to provide information back to the user, who in turn responds to their customer. Most responses take on the order of 10 seconds, which includes providing statistics, graphical displays of information, translations for users, metadata, and a summary of the user request to LCAT. Applications in Phase I of LCAT, which is targeted for the NWS field offices, include Climate Change Impacts, Climate Variability Impacts, Drought Analysis and Impacts, Water Resources Applications, Attribution of Extreme Events, and analysis techniques such as time series analysis, trend analysis, compositing, and correlation and regression techniques. Data accessed by LCAT are homogenized historical COOP and Climate Prediction Center

  1. Local File Disclosure Vulnerability: A Case Study of Public-Sector Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Imran; Maruf Hassan, Md; Bhuyian, Touhid

    2018-01-01

    Almost all public-sector organisations in Bangladesh now offer online services through web applications, along with the existing channels, in their endeavour to realise the dream of a ‘Digital Bangladesh’. Nations across the world have joined the online environment thanks to training and awareness initiatives by their government. File sharing and downloading activities using web applications have now become very common, not only ensuring the easy distribution of different types of files and documents but also enormously reducing the time and effort of users. Although the online services that are being used frequently have made users’ life easier, it has increased the risk of exploitation of local file disclosure (LFD) vulnerability in the web applications of different public-sector organisations due to unsecure design and careless coding. This paper analyses the root cause of LFD vulnerability, its exploitation techniques, and its impact on 129 public-sector websites in Bangladesh by examining the use of manual black box testing approach.

  2. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  3. Local Geostatistical Models and Big Data in Hydrological and Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2015-04-01

    The advent of the big data era creates new opportunities for environmental and ecological modelling but also presents significant challenges. The availability of remote sensing images and low-cost wireless sensor networks implies that spatiotemporal environmental data to cover larger spatial domains at higher spatial and temporal resolution for longer time windows. Handling such voluminous data presents several technical and scientific challenges. In particular, the geostatistical methods used to process spatiotemporal data need to overcome the dimensionality curse associated with the need to store and invert large covariance matrices. There are various mathematical approaches for addressing the dimensionality problem, including change of basis, dimensionality reduction, hierarchical schemes, and local approximations. We present a Stochastic Local Interaction (SLI) model that can be used to model local correlations in spatial data. SLI is a random field model suitable for data on discrete supports (i.e., regular lattices or irregular sampling grids). The degree of localization is determined by means of kernel functions and appropriate bandwidths. The strength of the correlations is determined by means of coefficients. In the "plain vanilla" version the parameter set involves scale and rigidity coefficients as well as a characteristic length. The latter determines in connection with the rigidity coefficient the correlation length of the random field. The SLI model is based on statistical field theory and extends previous research on Spartan spatial random fields [2,3] from continuum spaces to explicitly discrete supports. The SLI kernel functions employ adaptive bandwidths learned from the sampling spatial distribution [1]. The SLI precision matrix is expressed explicitly in terms of the model parameter and the kernel function. Hence, covariance matrix inversion is not necessary for parameter inference that is based on leave-one-out cross validation. This property

  4. Local respiratory motion correction for PET/CT imaging: Application to lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr; Fernandez, P. [INCIA, UMR 5287, University of Bordeaux, Talence F-33400, France and Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29609 (France)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom) and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid

  5. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  6. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  7. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  8. Sensor Network-Based Localization for Continuous Tracking Applications: Implementation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Davoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in systems able to provide users with immersive services (e.g., domotics, context-aware applications, and immersive distance learning tools has encouraged the development of cheap and effective platforms aimed at tracking objects and people within a certain space. In this context, wireless sensor networks (WSNs can play a very important role, since specialized sensors can be fruitfully exploited in order to generate/receive signals by means of which the WSN can derive the position of nodes joined to the objects to be tracked. The paper presents an original localization platform that exploits a single-hop WSN, based on a Microchip MCU and a Cypress RF device, to track its moving nodes. Specifically, the nodes of the network are divided into three sets: the first set consists of anchor nodes that, according to the commands from the sink (the central node of the WSN, generate ultrasonic pulses. These pulses are received by the second set of (moving nodes, which estimate the pulse time trip and communicate it to the sink. Finally, the last set is constituted by general purpose nodes that collect any kind of data from the surrounding field. The sink gathers all the data, computes the position of moving nodes, and transfers information to external users on the Internet. The algorithms adopted to manage the network and to localize moving nodes are discussed. A working prototype based upon the hardware platform, software, and protocol described in this paper has been deployed and tested, and some results are shown. Simulation results of the localization system are presented to show system scalability.

  9. Localized Energy-Based Normalization of Medical Images: Application to Chest Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, R H H M; Maduskar, P; Hogeweg, L; Melendez, J; Sánchez, C I; van Ginneken, B

    2015-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis systems for medical images often lack the capability to successfully process images from multiple sources. Normalization of such images prior to further analysis is a possible solution to this limitation. This work presents a general method to normalize medical images and thoroughly investigates its effectiveness for chest radiography (CXR). The method starts with an energy decomposition of the image in different bands. Next, each band's localized energy is scaled to a reference value and the image is reconstructed. We investigate iterative and local application of this technique. The normalization is applied iteratively to the lung fields on six datasets from different sources, each comprising 50 normal CXRs and 50 abnormal CXRs. The method is evaluated in three supervised computer-aided detection tasks related to CXR analysis and compared to two reference normalization methods. In the first task, automatic lung segmentation, the average Jaccard overlap significantly increased from 0.72±0.30 and 0.87±0.11 for both reference methods to with normalization. The second experiment was aimed at segmentation of the clavicles. The reference methods had an average Jaccard index of 0.57±0.26 and 0.53±0.26; with normalization this significantly increased to . The third experiment was detection of tuberculosis related abnormalities in the lung fields. The average area under the Receiver Operating Curve increased significantly from 0.72±0.14 and 0.79±0.06 using the reference methods to with normalization. We conclude that the normalization can be successfully applied in chest radiography and makes supervised systems more generally applicable to data from different sources.

  10. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  11. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  12. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Giuseppe; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β -cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia) is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine) at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate). Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i) the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii) using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  13. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tringali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β-cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate. Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  14. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gilliland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment.

  15. The Local Maximum Clustering Method and Its Application in Microarray Gene Expression Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yidong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsupervised data clustering method, called the local maximum clustering (LMC method, is proposed for identifying clusters in experiment data sets based on research interest. A magnitude property is defined according to research purposes, and data sets are clustered around each local maximum of the magnitude property. By properly defining a magnitude property, this method can overcome many difficulties in microarray data clustering such as reduced projection in similarities, noises, and arbitrary gene distribution. To critically evaluate the performance of this clustering method in comparison with other methods, we designed three model data sets with known cluster distributions and applied the LMC method as well as the hierarchic clustering method, the -mean clustering method, and the self-organized map method to these model data sets. The results show that the LMC method produces the most accurate clustering results. As an example of application, we applied the method to cluster the leukemia samples reported in the microarray study of Golub et al. (1999.

  16. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.

  17. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  18. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  19. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  20. Monitoring Local Changes in Granite Rock Under Biaxial Test: A Spatiotemporal Imaging Application With Diffuse Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fan; Ren, Yaqiong; Zhou, Yongsheng; Larose, Eric; Baillet, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse acoustic or seismic waves are highly sensitive to detect changes of mechanical properties in heterogeneous geological materials. In particular, thanks to acoustoelasticity, we can quantify stress changes by tracking acoustic or seismic relative velocity changes in the material at test. In this paper, we report on a small-scale laboratory application of an innovative time-lapse tomography technique named Locadiff to image spatiotemporal mechanical changes on a granite sample under biaxial loading, using diffuse waves at ultrasonic frequencies (300 kHz to 900 kHz). We demonstrate the ability of the method to image reversible stress evolution and deformation process, together with the development of reversible and irreversible localized microdamage in the specimen at an early stage. Using full-field infrared thermography, we visualize stress-induced temperature changes and validate stress images obtained from diffuse ultrasound. We demonstrate that the inversion with a good resolution can be achieved with only a limited number of receivers distributed around a single source, all located at the free surface of the specimen. This small-scale experiment is a proof of concept for frictional earthquake-like failure (e.g., stick-slip) research at laboratory scale as well as large-scale seismic applications, potentially including active fault monitoring.

  1. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches. The Role of Local Referenda. Deliverable D16a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtechova, Hana (Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic))

    2009-10-15

    , the only solution to a problem remains an open discussion on the basis of which all stakeholders reach a compromise. - Local referenda may be easily manipulated and certain interest groups may 'abuse' them - The outcome of a referendum is a picture of public opinion at a specific moment, but the moods and opinions of the public are likely to change, whereas the result of the referendum remains. - Representatives of local self-government or other organizations responsible for solution of the particular issue would be disturbed in their work; the citizens would unreasonably prolong the decision-making process. Naturally, it is not only important whether the citizens are politically active through the use of the institute of local referendum or other instrument of direct democracy, but also what impact these instruments have on politicians, local representatives and formation of policy at the local and state level as such. If public involvement is to work, it needs to be a two-way process. Not only do citizens need to let their voice be heard at various forms of consideration (deliberation) and discussions or through referenda and other citizens' initiatives, but also political representatives (people in power) have to take those views in some way into consideration in their decision-making. More consistent application of the principle of subsidiarity embedded in the primary law of the European Communities/European Union would facilitate the development of direct democracy, at least in European context. This principle stipulates that regulations should be adopted at the level closest to the citizens, i.e. at the lowest level of public administration where these are implemented. Unfortunately, the EC/EU itself faces considerable problems with application of this principle since the desire of non-elected European officials to influence the life of citizens in the EU is more than obvious. An illustrative example is the effort to harmonize tax legislation in

  2. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches. The Role of Local Referenda. Deliverable D16a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2009-10-01

    , the only solution to a problem remains an open discussion on the basis of which all stakeholders reach a compromise. - Local referenda may be easily manipulated and certain interest groups may 'abuse' them - The outcome of a referendum is a picture of public opinion at a specific moment, but the moods and opinions of the public are likely to change, whereas the result of the referendum remains. - Representatives of local self-government or other organizations responsible for solution of the particular issue would be disturbed in their work; the citizens would unreasonably prolong the decision-making process. Naturally, it is not only important whether the citizens are politically active through the use of the institute of local referendum or other instrument of direct democracy, but also what impact these instruments have on politicians, local representatives and formation of policy at the local and state level as such. If public involvement is to work, it needs to be a two-way process. Not only do citizens need to let their voice be heard at various forms of consideration (deliberation) and discussions or through referenda and other citizens' initiatives, but also political representatives (people in power) have to take those views in some way into consideration in their decision-making. More consistent application of the principle of subsidiarity embedded in the primary law of the European Communities/European Union would facilitate the development of direct democracy, at least in European context. This principle stipulates that regulations should be adopted at the level closest to the citizens, i.e. at the lowest level of public administration where these are implemented. Unfortunately, the EC/EU itself faces considerable problems with application of this principle since the desire of non-elected European officials to influence the life of citizens in the EU is more than obvious. An illustrative example is the effort to harmonize tax legislation in the EU countries

  3. Application of wMelPop Wolbachia Strain to Crash Local Populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Ritchie

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis (wMel strain has been successfully established in several populations of Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. The virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop is known to cause several pathological impacts (increased egg mortality, life shortening, etc. reducing overall fitness in the mosquito Ae. aegypti. Increased egg mortality could substantially reduce egg banks in areas with a lengthy monsoonal dry season, and be employed to eliminate local populations. We tested this application under semi-field cage conditions. First, we determined that wMelPop infection significantly reduced the survival of desiccation-resistant eggs of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti, with shade and temperature having a significant impact; nearly all wMelPop-infected eggs failed to hatch after 6 and 10 weeks in summer and winter conditions, respectively. In laboratory selection experiments we found that egg desiccation resistance can be increased by selection, and that this effect of wMelPop infection is due to the nuclear background of the host rather than Wolbachia. We then conducted an invasion of wMelPop within a semi-field cage using sustained weekly releases of wMelPop infected mosquitoes, with fixation achieved after 9 weeks. The egg populations wMelPop infected and an uninfected control were then subjected to a simulated prolonged monsoonal dry season (2.5 months before flooding to induce hatching. The wMelPop infected eggs suffered significantly greater mortality than the controls, with only 0.67% and 4.35% of respective infected and uninfected eggs held in 99% shade hatching after 80 days. These studies suggest that wMelPop could be used to locally eliminate populations of Ae. aegypti that are exposed to prolonged dry conditions, particularly if combined with vector control.

  4. 3.7. Technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals. The following composite materials obtained from local raw materials were considered: mineral (cement, lime), inorganic (phosphates, sodium silicate), organic (phenol formaldehyde, epoxide, urea-formaldehyde, carbamide, acryl, organosilicon, furfural aniline). It was concluded that from technical and economical points of view the most effective materials were: mineral composite materials, crude shale oils and ligno sulphonates.

  5. A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique and its application to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique for the measurements of the local surface electric potential is presented. A voltage compensation circuit based on this potentiometry technique is developed and employed to maintain a desired tunneling voltage independent of the bias current flow through the film. The application of this potentiometry technique to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect is outlined and some experimental results are reported.

  6. Theoretical analysis of the local field potential in deep brain stimulation applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Lempka

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a common therapy for treating movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural activity of various subcortical structures in human patients. Local field potential (LFP recordings are often performed with either intraoperative microelectrodes or DBS leads and reflect oscillatory activity within nuclei of the basal ganglia. These LFP recordings have numerous clinical implications and might someday be used to optimize DBS outcomes in closed-loop systems. However, the origin of the recorded LFP is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to theoretically analyze LFP recordings within the context of clinical DBS applications. This goal was achieved with a detailed recording model of beta oscillations (∼20 Hz in the subthalamic nucleus. The recording model consisted of finite element models of intraoperative microelectrodes and DBS macroelectrodes implanted in the brain along with multi-compartment cable models of STN projection neurons. Model analysis permitted systematic investigation into a number of variables that can affect the composition of the recorded LFP (e.g. electrode size, electrode impedance, recording configuration, and filtering effects of the brain, electrode-electrolyte interface, and recording electronics. The results of the study suggest that the spatial reach of the LFP can extend several millimeters. Model analysis also showed that variables such as electrode geometry and recording configuration can have a significant effect on LFP amplitude and spatial reach, while the effects of other variables, such as electrode impedance, are often negligible. The results of this study provide insight into the origin of the LFP and identify variables that need to be considered when analyzing LFP recordings in clinical DBS applications.

  7. A demodulating approach based on local mean decomposition and its applications in mechanical fault diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia; Chen, Xuefeng; Cao, Hongrui; Cai, Gaigai; Zi, Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    Since machinery fault vibration signals are usually multicomponent modulation signals, how to decompose complex signals into a set of mono-components whose instantaneous frequency (IF) has physical sense has become a key issue. Local mean decomposition (LMD) is a new kind of time–frequency analysis approach which can decompose a signal adaptively into a set of product function (PF) components. In this paper, a modulation feature extraction method-based LMD is proposed. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. The computed IF and IA are displayed together in the form of time–frequency representation (TFR). Modulation features can be extracted from the spectrum analysis of the IA and IF. In order to make the IF have physical meaning, the phase-unwrapping algorithm and IF processing method of extrema are presented in detail along with a simulation FM signal example. Besides, the dependence of the LMD method on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also investigated by analyzing synthetic signals which are added with Gaussian noise. As a result, the recommended critical SNRs for PF decomposition and IF extraction are given according to the practical application. Successful fault diagnosis on a rolling bearing and gear of locomotive bogies shows that LMD has better identification capacity for modulation signal processing and is very suitable for failure detection in rotating machinery

  8. An innovative application of time-domain spectroscopy on localized surface plasmon resonance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Chang, Ying-Feng; Wang, Huai-Yi; Lin, Yu-Xen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Su, Li-Chen

    2017-03-01

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is often used to study the surface profiles and properties of thin films because the strength of the technique lies in its ability to provide fast and high resolution measurements. An innovative attempt is made in this paper to apply WLSI as a time-domain spectroscopic system for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. A WLSI-based spectrometer is constructed with a breadboard of WLSI in combination with a spectral centroid algorithm for noise reduction and performance improvement. Experimentally, the WLSI-based spectrometer exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10-3 refractive index units (RIU), which is better than that obtained with a conventional UV-Vis spectrometer, by resolving the LSPR peak shift. Finally, the bio-applicability of the proposed spectrometer was investigated using the rs242557 tau gene, an Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease biomarker. The LOD was calculated as 15 pM. These results demonstrate that the proposed WLSI-based spectrometer could become a sensitive time-domain spectroscopic biosensing platform.

  9. Surgical model-view-controller simulation software framework for local and collaborative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Anderson; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Halic, Tansel; Arikatla, Venkata Sreekanth; Lu, Zhonghua; De, Suvranu

    2011-07-01

    Surgical simulations require haptic interactions and collaboration in a shared virtual environment. A software framework for decoupled surgical simulation based on a multi-controller and multi-viewer model-view-controller (MVC) pattern was developed and tested. A software framework for multimodal virtual environments was designed, supporting both visual interactions and haptic feedback while providing developers with an integration tool for heterogeneous architectures maintaining high performance, simplicity of implementation, and straightforward extension. The framework uses decoupled simulation with updates of over 1,000 Hz for haptics and accommodates networked simulation with delays of over 1,000 ms without performance penalty. The simulation software framework was implemented and was used to support the design of virtual reality-based surgery simulation systems. The framework supports the high level of complexity of such applications and the fast response required for interaction with haptics. The efficacy of the framework was tested by implementation of a minimally invasive surgery simulator. A decoupled simulation approach can be implemented as a framework to handle simultaneous processes of the system at the various frame rates each process requires. The framework was successfully used to develop collaborative virtual environments (VEs) involving geographically distributed users connected through a network, with the results comparable to VEs for local users.

  10. Local Antibiotic Delivery Systems: Current and Future Applications for Diabetic Foot Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Faris, Alan Robert; Sharaf, Hamed; Faris, Barzo; Rees, Sharon; Bowling, Frank L

    2018-03-01

    Foot infections are common among diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and/or peripheral arterial disease, and it can be the pivotal event leading to a minor or major amputation of the lower extremity. Treatment of diabetic foot infections, especially deep-seated ones, remains challenging, in part because impaired blood perfusion and the presence of biofilms can impair the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics. The local application of antibiotics is an emerging field in the treatment of diabetic foot infections, with demonstrable advantages. These include delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics in the affected area, limited systemic absorption, and thus negligible side effects. Biodegradable vehicles, such as calcium sulfate beads, are the prototypical system, providing a good elution profile and the ability to be impregnated with a variety of antibiotics. These have largely superseded the nonbiodegradable vehicles, but the strongest evidence available is for calcium bead implantation for osteomyelitis management. Natural polymers, such as collagen sponge, are an emerging class of delivery systems, although thus far, data on diabetic foot infections are limited. There is recent interest in the novel antimicrobial peptide pexiganan in the form of cream, which is active against most of the microorganisms isolated in diabetic foot infections. These are promising developments, but randomized trials are required to ascertain the efficacy of these systems and to define the indications for their use. Currently, the role of topical antibiotic agents in treating diabetic foot infections is limited and outside of routine practice.

  11. Local Application of Growth Hormone to Enhance Osseointegration in Osteoporotic Bones: A Morphometric and Densitometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Monge, Elena; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Clemente, Celia; Tresguerres, Jesús Af

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local application of growth hormone on osseointegration of dental implants inserted in osteoporotic bones. Twenty female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Ten were ovariectomized and fed a low-calcium diet for 6 weeks, and the others remained intact. A titanium implant was inserted into each tibia, in both groups. In half of the rabbits, 2 IU of growth hormone was placed into the ostectomy prior to the implant insertion. Two weeks after implant surgery, all animals were sacrificed. Tibiae were dissected from soft tissues, and included in methacrylate to be studied under light microscopy. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by morphometric and densitometric analysis, respectively. Multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical evaluation. P growth hormone was able to increase the BIC in the ovariectomized group, with statistically significant differences with respect to the control group (P growth hormone at the moment of titanium implant insertion in rabbit tibiae significantly enhanced the BIC around titanium implants 15 days after the implantation in this experimental osteoporotic animal model, without affecting the BMD.

  12. Development of an instantaneous local fuel-concentration measurement probe: an engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Boutar, Z.; Lemoyne, L.

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a new tool which can deliver instantaneous local measurements of fuel concentration in an engine cylinder with a high temporal resolution, particularly during compression strokes. Fuel concentration is represented by means of equivalence fuel-air ratio, i.e. the real engine mass ratio of fuel to air divided by the same ratio in ideal stoichiometry conditions. Controlling the mixture configuration for any strategy in a spark ignition engine and for auto-ignition combustion has a dominant effect on the subsequent processes of ignition, flame propagation and auto-ignition combustion progression, pollutant formation under lean or even stoichiometric operating conditions. It is extremely difficult, under a transient operation, to control the equivalence air/fuel ratio precisely at a required value and at the right time. This requires the development of a highly accurate equivalence air/fuel ratio control system and a tool to measure using crank angle (CA) resolution. Although non-intrusive laser techniques have considerable advantages, they are most of the time inappropriate due to their optical inaccessibility or the complex experimental set-up involved. Therefore, as a response to the demand for a relatively simple fuel-concentration measurement system a probe is presented that replaces a spark plug and allows the engine to run completely normally. The probe is based on hot-wire like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation at the wire surface. The development, characteristics and calibration of the probe are presented followed by applications to in-cylinder engine measurements.

  13. The Recreation Applications in Local Administrations: The Sample of Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KOÇYİĞİT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The population increase in the big cities, the crowd and urbanization phenomenon’s cause changes in expectations of people as well. Anyone who lives in the big city and feels the atmosphere of metropolis culture, are desiring to have a healthier and greene r city atmosphere alongside with their increasing demands from technological developments, and ease in the transportation to increase in the living standards. They want to live with much amusement with joyful activities and healthier, through the shopping malls constructed at the city centers, movie houses and amusement centers and also playgrounds, walking trials and runways, parks and green fields for people to relax. People want to reach such centers and recreational fields not with long time, hour long voyages but immediately. They desire it to be close to his house, workplace. He wants to stop by a park, a recreational ground, picnic area even for a short time, to fish, blow off the daily steam, refresh, and relax. People want the recreational grounds t o be close to their houses, nursery, and school of their children. While the social activity grounds continues to increase in Konya, now big recreational grounds, parks, green grounds are being formed that can offer all those means to citizens. In this con text the aim of the working is, to examine the recreational applications made by Konya Metropolitan Municipality, by researching the facilities and application methods related with the recreation, to form the infrastructure of a study that can be model for the recreational applications in other Metropolis. In the study, the current recreational grounds constructed by the Konya Metropolitan Municipality have been examined and potential of the recreation areas has been investigated. The data of the research h ave been acquired through the context analysis method applied to observation and data. According to the findings of the research, the recreation areas constructed by Konya

  14. Quantification of non-coding RNA target localization diversity and its application in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lixin; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2018-04-01

    Subcellular localization is pivotal for RNAs and proteins to implement biological functions. The localization diversity of protein interactions has been studied as a crucial feature of proteins, considering that the protein-protein interactions take place in various subcellular locations. Nevertheless, the localization diversity of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) target proteins has not been systematically studied, especially its characteristics in cancers. In this study, we provide a new algorithm, non-coding RNA target localization coefficient (ncTALENT), to quantify the target localization diversity of ncRNAs based on the ncRNA-protein interaction and protein subcellular localization data. ncTALENT can be used to calculate the target localization coefficient of ncRNAs and measure how diversely their targets are distributed among the subcellular locations in various scenarios. We focus our study on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and our observations reveal that the target localization diversity is a primary characteristic of lncRNAs in different biotypes. Moreover, we found that lncRNAs in multiple cancers, differentially expressed cancer lncRNAs, and lncRNAs with multiple cancer target proteins are prone to have high target localization diversity. Furthermore, the analysis of gastric cancer helps us to obtain a better understanding that the target localization diversity of lncRNAs is an important feature closely related to clinical prognosis. Overall, we systematically studied the target localization diversity of the lncRNAs and uncovered its association with cancer.

  15. Localized whole eye radiotherapy for retinoblastoma using a 125I applicator, 'claws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, Clare; Sealy, Rossall; Hering, Egbert; Korrubel, Jan; Hill, John; Barron, Adrian; Knowles, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To treat children with retinoblastoma, who require whole eye radiotherapy, with a specially designed 125 I applicator that irradiates the eye while sparing the surrounding tissues. Methods and Materials: Under general anesthesia, a pericorneal ring is attached to the 4 extraocular muscles, and 4 appendages, each loaded with 125 I seeds, are inserted beneath the conjunctiva in-between each pair of muscles and attached anteriorly to the ring. Twenty-nine eyes were treated. Eighteen received a median dose of 28 Gy during 91 hours and 11 received 40 Gy during 122 hours, when the relative biologic effectiveness was taken as 1 instead of 1.5. Six had received prior chemotherapy. Results: Twenty-four eyes were followed up for 2-157 months (median 29). Although 22 eyes responded, local control was achieved in 13 patients, 3 of whom required additional treatment for new tumors; a further 3 required additional treatment for tumor recurrence as well as new tumors. One of these eyes was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma. All 6 Group I-III eyes and 6 of 18 Group V eyes were retained for 2-157 months (median 39), with good vision in 10 eyes. Three developed cataracts 7, 8, and 12 years later, 1 of which has been removed. Conclusions: This is a new way of irradiating the whole eye with a minimal dose to the surrounding tissues. The treatment time is only 5 days. It is effective in Groups I-III, but only 33% of Group V eyes retained vision. No late cosmetic defects occurred

  16. Cutaneous and renal vasodilatory response to local pressure application: A comparative study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begey, Anne-Laure; Liu, Kiao Ling; Lo, Ming; Josset-Lamaugarny, Audrey; Picard, Nicolas; Gauthier, Catherine; Fromy, Berengere; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique; Dubourg, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    We have reported a novel relationship involving mechanical stimulation and vasodilation in rodent and human skin, referred to as pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). It is unknown whether this mechanism exists in kidney and reflects the microcirculation in deep organs. Therefore, we compared the skin and kidney PIV to determine whether their changes were similar. In anesthetized mice fed a normal salt-diet, laser Doppler flux (LDF) signals were measured when an increase in local pressure was applied to the surface of the head skin with the rate of 2.2Pa/s (1mmHg/min) and to the left kidney with a rate of 4.4Pa/s (2mmHg/min). The mechanism underlying renal PIV was also investigated. The skin and kidney PIV were also compared during salt load (4% NaCl diet). The kidney had higher baseline LDF and vascular conductance compared to those of the skin. Pressure application increased the LDF in the kidney as well as in the skin with a comparable maximal magnitude (about 25% from baseline value), despite different kinetics of PIV evolution. As we previously reported in the skin, the kidney PIV response was mediated by the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels, the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the participation of prostaglandins and nitric oxide. In the absence of hypertension, high salt intake abolished the cutaneous PIV response and markedly impaired the renal one. PIV response in the mouse kidney results from a neuro-vascular interaction. Despite some differences between the skin and the kidney PIV, the similarities in their response and signaling mechanisms suggest that the cutaneous microcirculation could reflect, in part, the microcirculation of the renal cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of 1D Array FBG Configuration for Impact Localization on Composite Wing under Simulated Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Nakamura et al., implemented a FBG/ PZT hybrid sensor system for impact monitoring of aircraft composite structure [9]. FBG sensor was shown to be...is the coefficient of thermal expansion,  is the thermal-optic coefficient , T is the temperature,  is the strain value, and ep is the photo...localization algorithm is used to localize the impact points. In the correlation based impact localization algorithm, the correlation coefficient between the

  18. Being connected to the local community through a Festival mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Wirth, Richard; Hanrahan, Benjamin; Chen, Jiawei; Lee, Sooyeon; Carroll, John M.

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report our investigation into how using and interacting with a local festival mobile app enhanced users’ festival experiences and connected them to other local users and their community. We explored the relationship between users’ perceived basic affordances of mobile technology, perceived opportunities of the festival app, and three elements that sustain the local community — attachment, engagement, and social support networks. Based on the usage logs of 348 active users, as well as survey responses from 80 users, we present a mobile-mediated local community framework and found that engagement is a key mediator of mobile experiences and facets of community.

  19. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... reviewed by the HCA before referral to the AAG/A. The referral will include all pertinent data on which the... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this subpart...

  20. Changes in blood flow by local hypothermia and its application to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Higano, Shuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Humihiko

    1984-01-01

    Protective effects of local hypothermia on radiation dermatitis and mucositis were shown. It was considered that the main factor influencing radioprotection was decrease of local blood flow. Our examinations showed that blood flow of the skin and oral mucosa decreased while that of the tumors did not so change. Adequate results were obtained in the combined treatment of radiation and chemotherapy. (author)

  1. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune, however, is a legal question requiring advice and assistance of the agency-designated counsel. (b) When it... from State and local taxation that may be available. If appropriate, the contracting officer shall...

  2. The effects of local insulin application to lumbar spinal fusions in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, John D; Yalamanchili, Praveen; Munoz, William; Uko, Linda; Chaudhary, Saad B; Lin, Sheldon S; Vives, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The rates of pseudoarthrosis after a single-level spinal fusion have been reported up to 35%, and the agents that increase the rate of fusion have an important role in decreasing pseudoarthrosis after spinal fusion. Previous studies have analyzed the effects of local insulin application to an autograft in a rat segmental defect model. Defects treated with a time-released insulin implant had significantly more new bone formation and greater quality of bone compared with controls based on histology and histomorphometry. A time-released insulin implant may have similar effects when applied in a lumbar spinal fusion model. This study analyzes the effects of a local time-released insulin implant applied to the fusion bed in a rat posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion model. Our hypothesis was twofold: first, a time-released insulin implant applied to the autograft bed in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion will increase the rate of successful fusion and second, will alter the local environment of the fusion site by increasing the levels of local growth factors. Animal model (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved) using 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty skeletally mature Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 500 g each underwent posterolateral intertransverse lumbar fusions with iliac crest autograft from L4 to L5 using a Wiltse-type approach. After exposure of the transverse processes and high-speed burr decortication, a Linplant (Linshin Canada, Inc., ON, Canada) consisting of 95% microrecrystalized palmitic acid and 5% bovine insulin (experimental group) or a sham implant consisting of only palmitic acid (control group) was implanted on the fusion bed with iliac crest autograft. As per the manufacturer, the Linplant has a release rate of 2 U/day for a minimum of 40 days. The transverse processes and autograft beds of 10 animals from the experimental and 10 from the control group were harvested at Day 4 and analyzed for growth factors. The

  3. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michot, J.

    2010-01-01

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  4. Composable local memory organisation for streaming applications on embedded MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrose, J.; Molnos, A.; Nelson, A.; Cotofana, S.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Juurlink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Processor Systems on a Chip (MPSoCs) are suitable platforms for the implementation of complex embedded applications. An MPSoC is composable if the functional and temporal behaviour of each application is independent of the absence or presence of other applications. Composability is required

  5. Mechanics of localized slippage in tactile sensing and application to soft sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Anh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Localized slippage occurs during any relative sliding of soft contacts, ranging from human fingertips to robotic fingertips. Although this phenomenon is dominant for a very short time prior to gross slippage, localized slippage is a crucial factor for any to-be-developed soft sensing system to respond to slippage before it occurs. The content of this book addresses all aspects of localized slippage, including modeling and simulating it, as well as applying it to the construction of novel sensors with slip tactile perception.

  6. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis presents an integrated auditory system for a humanoid robot, currently under development, that will, among other things, learn to localize normal, everyday sounds in a realistic environment...

  7. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    Localizing sounds with different frequency and time domain characteristics in a dynamic listening environment is a challenging task that has not been explored in the field of robotics as much as other perceptual tasks...

  8. Application in localization of the material used for CRDM seismic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingtian; He Peifeng; Mu Dianpeng

    2011-01-01

    CRDM seismic support stand in the top of reactor vessel head, and belong to LS equipment. Now all of the manufacture of CRDM seismic support are in China, so the materials localization of CRDM seismic support is quite vital. Comparing with chemical requirements, mechanical properties and hardness between foreign and domestic equipment material, the paper bring forward the base material and welding material. At last, mechanical analysis is adopted, and the result indicates the material localization meet the design requirements. (authors)

  9. Beyond Gisin's Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chunfeng; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Żukowski, Marek; Kwek, L C

    2015-06-25

    We demonstrate here that for a given mixed multi-qubit state if there are at least two observers for whom mutual Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is possible, i.e. each observer is able to steer the other qubits into two different pure states by spontaneous collapses due to von Neumann type measurements on his/her qubit, then nonexistence of local realistic models is fully equivalent to quantum entanglement (this is not so without this condition). This result leads to an enhanced version of Gisin's theorem (originally: all pure entangled states violate local realism). Local realism is violated by all mixed states with the above steering property. The new class of states allows one e.g. to perform three party secret sharing with just pairs of entangled qubits, instead of three qubit entanglements (which are currently available with low fidelity). This significantly increases the feasibility of having high performance versions of such protocols. Finally, we discuss some possible applications.

  10. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  11. Application of Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) to evidence localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu, Nicoleta; Alexis, Joël; Lacroix, Loïc; Abrudeanu, Marioara; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  12. Study of the localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy. Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) application

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu , Nicoleta; Lacroix , Loïc; Alexis , Joël; Abrudeanu , Marioara; Petit , Jacques-Alain

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  13. Application of Matrix Pencil Algorithm to Mobile Robot Localization Using Hybrid DOA/TOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Trinh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization plays an important role in robotics for the tasks of monitoring, tracking and controlling a robot. Much effort has been made to address robot localization problems in recent years. However, despite many proposed solutions and thorough consideration, in terms of developing a low-cost and fast processing method for multiple-source signals, the robot localization problem is still a challenge. In this paper, we propose a solution for robot localization with regards to these concerns. In order to locate the position of a robot, both the coordinate and the orientation of a robot are necessary. We develop a localization method using the Matrix Pencil (MP algorithm for hybrid detection of direction of arrival (DOA and time of arrival (TOA. TOA of the signal is estimated for computing the distance between the mobile robot and a base station (BS. Based on the distance and the estimated DOA, we can estimate the mobile robot's position. The characteristics of the algorithm are examined through analysing simulated experiments and the results demonstrate the advantages of our method over previous works in dealing with the above challenges. The method is constructed based on the low-cost infrastructure of radio frequency devices; the DOA/TOA estimation is performed with just single value decomposition for fast processing. Finally, the MP algorithm combined with tracking using a Kalman filter allows our proposed method to locate the positions of multiple source signals.

  14. Adaptive local surface refinement based on LR NURBS and its application to contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Christopher; Sauer, Roger A.

    2017-12-01

    A novel adaptive local surface refinement technique based on Locally Refined Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (LR NURBS) is presented. LR NURBS can model complex geometries exactly and are the rational extension of LR B-splines. The local representation of the parameter space overcomes the drawback of non-existent local refinement in standard NURBS-based isogeometric analysis. For a convenient embedding into general finite element codes, the Bézier extraction operator for LR NURBS is formulated. An automatic remeshing technique is presented that allows adaptive local refinement and coarsening of LR NURBS. In this work, LR NURBS are applied to contact computations of 3D solids and membranes. For solids, LR NURBS-enriched finite elements are used to discretize the contact surfaces with LR NURBS finite elements, while the rest of the body is discretized by linear Lagrange finite elements. For membranes, the entire surface is discretized by LR NURBS. Various numerical examples are shown, and they demonstrate the benefit of using LR NURBS: Compared to uniform refinement, LR NURBS can achieve high accuracy at lower computational cost.

  15. Improved Application of Local Models to Steel Corrosion in Lead-Bismuth Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Li Ning

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion of steels exposed to flowing liquid metals is influenced by local and global conditions of flow systems. The present study improves the previous local models when applied to closed loops by incorporating some global condition effects. In particular the bulk corrosion product concentration is calculated based on balancing the dissolution and precipitation in the entire closed loop. Mass transfer expressions developed in aqueous medium and an analytical expression are tested in the liquid-metal environments. The improved model is applied to a pure lead loop and produces results closer to the experimental data than the previous local models do. The model is also applied to a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) test loop. Systematic studies illustrate the effects of the flow rate, the oxygen concentration in LBE, and the temperature profile on the corrosion rate

  16. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor node is connected to the internet for remote monitoring and has the capability of localization. The paper presents the design of antenna-on-package as well as details of the communication and localization system. Fabrication challenges unique to 3D printing and integration of electronics on 3D printed circuit board are also discussed. Finally, the paper presents measurement results of antenna radiation pattern, return loss, localization accuracy and accuracy of sensing parameters.

  17. Localized saddle-point search and application to temperature-accelerated dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Callahan, Nathan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-07

    We present a method for speeding up temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) simulations by carrying out a localized saddle-point (LSAD) search. In this method, instead of using the entire system to determine the energy barriers of activated processes, the calculation is localized by only including a small chunk of atoms around the atoms directly involved in the transition. Using this method, we have obtained N-independent scaling for the computational cost of the saddle-point search as a function of system size N. The error arising from localization is analyzed using a variety of model systems, including a variety of activated processes on Ag(100) and Cu(100) surfaces, as well as multiatom moves in Cu radiation damage and metal heteroepitaxial growth. Our results show significantly improved performance of TAD with the LSAD method, for the case of Ag/Ag(100) annealing and Cu/Cu(100) growth, while maintaining a negligibly small error in energy barriers.

  18. Localization of leaks in underground pipes with the application of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupa, A.; Morawiec, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method of leaks localization on gas pipe-lines during resistance and tightness tests was elaborated. The leaks were localized using tracer technique. Sodium 24 was used as a tracer for short sections of the pipe-line (up to 30 km). Only 1 m 3 of water with a tracer was introduced into the pipe-line. A measuring probe was also put into pipe-line. All leaks were detected and the method appeared useful. For the longer sections of the pipe-line iodine 131 ought to be used. (A.S.)

  19. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  20. Application of Local Fourier Transform to Mathematical Simulation of Synchronous Machines with Valve Excitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.

  1. Application of local singularity in prospecting potential oil/gas Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to characterize the property of multifractal distribution patterns of geochemical indexes to delineate potential areas for oil/gas exploration using the advanced GeoDAS GIS technology. Geochemical data of four oil/gas indexes, consisting of acid-extracted methane (SC1, ethane (SC2, propane (SC3, and secondary carbonate (ΔC, from 9637 soil samples amassed within a large area of 11.2×104 km2 in the Songpan-Aba district, Sichuan Province, southwestern China, were analyzed. By eliminating the interference of geochemical oil/gas data with the method of media-modification and Kriging, the prospecting area defined by the local singularity model is better identified and the results show that the subareas with higher singularity exponents for the four oil/gas indexes are potential targets for oil/gas exploration. These areas in the shape of rings or half-rings are spatially associated with the location of the known producing drilling well in this area. The spatial relationship between the anomalies delineated by oil/gas geochemical data and distribution patterns of local singularity exponents is confirmed by using the stable isotope of δ13C.

  2. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is an agent of the Government, the matter shall be referred to the agency head for review. The referral... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by States...

  3. Localization of the eigenvalues of linear integral equations with applications to linear ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, J. M.; Kranzler, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equivalence of a considered integral equation form with an infinite system of linear equations is proved, and the localization of the eigenvalues of the infinite system is expressed. Error estimates are derived, and the problems of finding upper bounds and lower bounds for the eigenvalues are solved simultaneously.

  4. A novel local learning based approach with application to breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new local learning based approach and apply it for the well-studied problem of breast cancer diagnosis using BIRADS-based mammographic features. To learn from our clinical dataset the latent relationship between these features and the breast biopsy result, our method first dynamically partitions the whole sample population into multiple sub-population groups through stochastically searching the sample population clustering space. Each encountered clustering scheme in our online searching process is then used to create a certain sample population partition plan. For every resultant sub-population group identified according to a partition plan, our method then trains a dedicated local learner to capture the underlying data relationship. In our study, we adopt the linear logistic regression model as our local learning method's base learner. Such a choice is made both due to the well-understood linear nature of the problem, which is compellingly revealed by a rich body of prior studies, and the computational efficiency of linear logistic regression--the latter feature allows our local learning method to more effectively perform its search in the sample population clustering space. Using a database of 850 biopsy-proven cases, we compared the performance of our method with a large collection of publicly available state-of-the-art machine learning methods and successfully demonstrated its performance advantage with statistical significance.

  5. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions

  6. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim; Saeed, Nasir; Haq, Mian Imtiaz Ul; Cho, Sunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic

  7. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  8. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  9. Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these \\'shaped like\\' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.

  10. Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Zhang, Jiayu; Achten, Eric; Serrai, Hacene

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these 'shaped like' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.

  11. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  12. Computational modeling of local hemodynamics phenomena: methods, tools and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzini, R.; Rizzo, G.; Vergara, C.; Veneziani, A.; Morbiducci, U.; Montevecchi, F.M.; Redaelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local hemodynamics plays a key role in the onset of vessel wall pathophysiology, with peculiar blood flow structures (i.e. spatial velocity profiles, vortices, re-circulating zones, helical patterns and so on) characterizing the behavior of specific vascular districts. Thanks to the evolving technologies on computer sciences, mathematical modeling and hardware performances, the study of local hemodynamics can today afford also the use of a virtual environment to perform hypothesis testing, product development, protocol design and methods validation that just a couple of decades ago would have not been thinkable. Computational fluid dynamics (Cfd) appears to be more than a complementary partner to in vitro modeling and a possible substitute to animal models, furnishing a privileged environment for cheap fast and reproducible data generation.

  13. Characterization of Quantum Correlations with Local Dimension Constraints and Its Device-Independent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navascués

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future progress of semi-device-independent quantum information science depends crucially on our ability to bound the strength of the nonlocal correlations achievable with finite-dimensional quantum resources. In this work, we characterize quantum nonlocality under local dimension constraints via a complete hierarchy of semidefinite programming relaxations. In the bipartite case, we find that the first level of the hierarchy returns nontrivial bounds in all cases considered, allowing us to study nonlocality scenarios with four measurement settings on one side and twelve on the other in a normal desktop. In the tripartite case, we apply the hierarchy to derive a Bell-type inequality that can only be violated when each of the three parties has local dimension greater than 2, hence certifying three-dimensional tripartite entanglement in a device-independent way. Finally, we show how the new method can be trivially modified to detect nonseparable measurements in two-qubit scenarios.

  14. A Relative-Localization Algorithm Using Incomplete Pairwise Distance Measurements for Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Y. Foo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of localizing underwater assets involves the relative localization of each unit using only pairwise distance measurements, usually obtained from time-of-arrival or time-delay-of-arrival measurements. In the fluctuating underwater environment, a complete set of pair-wise distance measurements can often be difficult to acquire, thus hindering a straightforward closed-form solution in deriving the assets' relative coordinates. An iterative multidimensional scaling approach is presented based upon a weighted-majorization algorithm that tolerates missing or inaccurate distance measurements. Substantial modifications are proposed to optimize the algorithm, while the effects of refractive propagation paths are considered. A parametric study of the algorithm based upon simulation results is shown. An acoustic field-trial was then carried out, presenting field measurements to highlight the practical implementation of this algorithm.

  15. Detrended cross-correlation coefficient: Application to predict apoptosis protein subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Apoptosis, or programed cell death, plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of an organism. Obtaining information on subcellular location of apoptosis proteins is very helpful for understanding the apoptosis mechanism. The prediction of subcellular localization of an apoptosis protein is still a challenging task, and existing methods mainly based on protein primary sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based method by using detrended cross-correlation (DCCA) coefficient of non-overlapping windows. Then a 190-dimensional (190D) feature vector is constructed on two widely used datasets: CL317 and ZD98, and support vector machine is adopted as classifier. To evaluate the proposed method, objective and rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on the two datasets. The results show that our approach offers a novel and reliable PSSM-based tool for prediction of apoptosis protein subcellular localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applications of the Local Algebras of Vector Fields to the Modelling of Physical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Bayak, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the local algebras of linear vector fields that can be used in the mathematical modelling of physical space by building the dynamical flows of vector fields on eight-dimensional cylindrical or toroidal manifolds. It is shown that the topological features of the vector fields obey the Dirac equation when moving freely within the surface of a pseudo-sphere in the eight-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.

  17. Indoor Localization of a Quadrotor Based on WSN: A Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Rullan-Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time localization algorithm is presented in this paper. The algorithm presented here uses an extended Kalman filter and is based on Time Difference Of Arrivals (TDOA measurements of radio signal. The position and velocity of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are successfully estimated in closed-loop in real-time, both in hover and path following flights. Relatively small position errors obtained from the experiments prove the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  18. A Potential Reduction Method for Canonical Duality, with an Application to the Sensor Network Localization Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    We propose to solve large instances of the non-convex optimization problems reformulated with canonical duality theory. To this aim we propose an interior point potential reduction algorithm based on the solution of the primal-dual total complementarity (Lagrange) function. We establish the global convergence result for the algorithm under mild assumptions and demonstrate the method on instances of the Sensor Network Localization problem. Our numerical results are promising and show the possi...

  19. On the applicability of local approaches for the determination of the failure behavior of ductile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Eisele, U.; Seidenfuss, M.

    1992-01-01

    The strength and deformation behavior of specimens and components is, on one hand, influenced by the local state of stress and strain and, on the other hand by the chemical composition and the microstructure of the material used. Using two different steels it was investigated in how far it is possible to predict the failure behavior of specimens and components qualitatively and quantitatively by means of local approaches. For this purpose two methods differing considerably from the basic idea were chosen. For the description of the failure behavior so-called damage models were used. These damage models try to describe numerically the process developing microscopically and finally leading to fracture by means of continuum mechanical approaches in order to calculate the macroscopical failure behavior. The results show that for ductile materials the damage models allow a very accurate calculation of smooth and notched specimens and components. The efforts presently required for the calculation are however still very high. Analyses using fracture mechanics approaches (J-Integral) in combination with the local stress states (multiaxiality) were performed to describe the failure behavior. With this approach it was tried to calculate crack initiation and maximum load of precracked specimens and components. The fracture mechanics methods are to be preferred for cracked components if an engineering estimation of crack initiation and maximum load is required only, since the calculational efforts of the fracture mechanics methods are much lower than those of the damage models

  20. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2016-08-06

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  1. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are −0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions. (paper)

  2. Application of Learning Methods to Local Electric Field Distributions in Defected Dielectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kim; Jones, Dumont

    2014-03-01

    Local electric fields reflect the structural and dielectric fluctuations in a semiconductor, and affect the material performance both for electron transport and carrier lifetime properties. In this paper, we use the LOCALF methodology with periodic boundary conditions to examine the local electric field distributions and its perturbations for II-VI (CdTe, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te) semiconductors, containing Te inclusions and small fluctuations in the local dielectric susceptibility. With inclusion of the induced-field term, the electric field distribution shows enhancements and diminishments compared to the macroscopic applied field, reflecting the microstructure characteristics of the dielectric. Learning methods are applied to these distributions to assess the spatial extent of the perturbation, and determine an electric field defined defect size as compared to its physical dimension. Critical concentrations of defects are assessed in terms of defect formation energies. This work was supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-08-X-00872-e. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.

  3. Applicability and Effectiveness of Closed Reduction of Nasal Fractures under Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilela, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A significant portion of patients treated in emergency departments have nasal fracture. It is important that the otolaryngologist know how to treat such damage. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of nasal fracture reduction under local anesthesia and tolerance to the procedure. Methods Twenty-four patients treated in the emergency department with closed reduction under local anesthesia were prospectively followed. Epidemiologic information and data regarding pain and complications during the management were noted. The degree of satisfaction was researched by visual analog scale. Results The majority of patients were male (75%, and the most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident. We found a significant association between time to reduction and referred pain during the procedure. In patients in whom the procedure was delayed (over 3 days, there was less pain, and those who bled during the procedure had a shorter average time to reduction than the group of patients who did not bleed. Most patients were very satisfied, with more than 95% of these willing to undergo the same process again, if necessary. Conclusions The closed approach in the clinic under local anesthesia was effective and safe in restoration of the nose.

  4. Application of noise analysis for the study of core local instability at Forsmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Ritsuo

    1997-10-01

    Core local instability was recently experienced at Forsmark 1 BWR. The event has been studied by applying noise analysis to data collected in January 1997 for the stability test. The result indicated that there was a region in the left corner of the core which was subject to instability due to neutronic and thermal-hydraulic coupling. The result of the noise analysis suggested two types of disturbance source, one in the vicinity of the detector string LPRM10 having resonant oscillation at 0.5 Hz and another relatively wide band noise in the neighbourhood of LPRM18. Three hypotheses have been examined as the possible cause, operational factor, abnormal fuel assembly, and wide band low frequency disturbance. Although the real cause has not been made clear from the noise analysis, it is likely that the operational factor played an important role as the cause. Further investigations are expected to be performed in the future. In order to detect the local instability it is important to have a stability monitor with a capability of monitoring a sufficient number of LPRMs so as to cover the whole core. This is important since local instability is a type of anomaly which should not occur during reactor operation

  5. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-07-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are -0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions.

  6. Applications of X-ray fluorescence holography to determine local lattice distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We summarized topics of X-ray fluorescence holography focused on the local lattice distortions. • We found details of behaviors of nearest neighbor atoms around dopants. • We found the average distributions of the atoms at the individual sites in mixed crystals. • Distorted and undistorted sires sometimes coexist in a same mixed crystal. - Abstract: X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for investigating atomic order up to the medium ranges, and can provide 3D atomic images around specific elements within a radius of nm order. In addition to these characteristics, XFH is sensitive to positional fluctuations of atoms, and therefore it is useful for characterizing the local lattice distortions around specific elements. We have applied XFH to dopants and mixed crystals. We found interesting features in local lattice distortions, such as the displacements of first-neighbor atoms around dopants, far-sighted views of the atomistic fluctuations in mixed crystals, and the coexistence of distorted/undistorted sites in the same material

  7. A local environment approach for deep-level defects in semiconductors: Application to the vacancy in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongliang; Lindefelt, U.

    1987-04-01

    A local environment approach for calculation of the electronic structure of localized defects in semiconductors is described. The method starts out from a description of localized orbitals or tight-binding model for semiconductors and is based on the recursion method of Haydock. A repeated symmetrical supercell containing 686 atoms plus defects is formed, both the translational and point-group symmetry of the crystal are fully exploited. In this paper, we report an application of this approach to an undistorted isolated vacancy by using a self-consistent Hamiltonian. A bound state of T 2 symmetry at 0.87 eV above the valence-band edge and a number of band resonances within the valence-band were extracted using Lanczos algorithm and a continued-fraction representation of the local density of states. It was found that the T 2 symmetry gap state is mainly p-like and most of the wavefunction for one of the A 1 symmetry resonances is concentrated on the vacant site and another concentrated on the first neighbors of the vacancy. From the small shifts of the band edges of silicon with a vacancy, we can conclude that the supercell is big enough and the interaction between the defects of different supercells is negligible. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs

  8. Local morphologic scale: application to segmenting tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer TMAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Chandran, Sharat; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the concept and associated methodological framework for a novel locally adaptive scale notion called local morphological scale (LMS). Broadly speaking, the LMS at every spatial location is defined as the set of spatial locations, with associated morphological descriptors, which characterize the local structure or heterogeneity for the location under consideration. More specifically, the LMS is obtained as the union of all pixels in the polygon obtained by linking the final location of trajectories of particles emanating from the location under consideration, where the path traveled by originating particles is a function of the local gradients and heterogeneity that they encounter along the way. As these particles proceed on their trajectory away from the location under consideration, the velocity of each particle (i.e. do the particles stop, slow down, or simply continue around the object) is modeled using a physics based system. At some time point the particle velocity goes to zero (potentially on account of encountering (a) repeated obstructions, (b) an insurmountable image gradient, or (c) timing out) and comes to a halt. By using a Monte-Carlo sampling technique, LMS is efficiently determined through parallelized computations. LMS is different from previous local scale related formulations in that it is (a) not a locally connected sets of pixels satisfying some pre-defined intensity homogeneity criterion (generalized-scale), nor is it (b) constrained by any prior shape criterion (ball-scale, tensor-scale). Shape descriptors quantifying the morphology of the particle paths are used to define a tensor LMS signature associated with every spatial image location. These features include the number of object collisions per particle, average velocity of a particle, and the length of the individual particle paths. These features can be used in conjunction with a supervised classifier to correctly differentiate between two different object

  9. Generalized non-Local Resistance Expression and its Application in F/N/F Spintronic Structure with Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei

    We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.

  10. Objective local weather types with applications on urban air pollution and on mortality with chronicle illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Janos; Ivady, Anett; Fulop, Andrea; Makra, László

    2010-05-01

    Synoptic climatology i.e. classification of the endless variability of the everyday weather states according to the pressure configuration and frontal systems relative to the point, or region of interest has long history in meteorology. Its logical alternative, i.e. classification of weather according to the observed local weather elements was less popular until the recent times when the numerical weather forecasts became able to outline not only the synoptic situation, but the near-surface meteorological variables, as well. Nowadays the computer-based statistical facilities are able to operate with matrices of multivariate diurnal samples, as well. The paper presents an attempt to define a set of local weather types using point-wise series at five rural stations, Szombathely, Pécs, Budapest, Szeged és Debrecen in the 1961-1990 reference period. Ten local variables are used, i.e. the diurnal mean temperature, the diurnal temperature range; the cloudiness, the sunshine duration, the water vapour pressure, the precipitation in a logarithmic scale, also differing trace (below 0.1 mm) and no precipitation, the relative humidity and wind speed, including the more extremity indicators of the two latter parameters, i.e. number of hours with over 80 % relative humidity and over 15 m/s wind gusts. Factor analysis of these ten variables was performed leading to 5 fairly independent variables retained for cluster analysis to obtain the local weather types. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to classify the 840-930 days within each month of the 30 years period. Furthers neighbour approach was preferred based on Euclidean metrics to establish optimum number of types. The 12 months and the 5 stations exhibited slightly different results but the optimum number of the types was always between 4 and 12 which is a quite reasonable number from practical considerations. According to a further reasonable compromise, the common number of the types not too bad in either

  11. Application of a three-microneedle device for the delivery of local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayoko Ishikawa,1 Hidekazu Fukamizu,1 Tetsuya Takiguchi,1 Yusuke Ohta,1 Yoshiki Tokura2 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: We investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed device for the delivery of local anesthetics in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis and hyperhidrosis. We developed a device with three fine, stainless steel needles fabricated with a bevel angle facing outside (“three-microneedle device” [TMD] to release a drug broadly and homogeneously into tissue in the horizontal plane. Use of this device could reduce the risk of complications when transcutaneous injections are undertaken.Patients and methods: Sixteen Japanese patients were enrolled. The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area needed to elicit anesthesia when using a TMD was compared with that the volume required when using a conventional 27-gauge needle. The visual analog scale (VAS score of needlestick pain and injection-associated pain was also compared.Results: The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area to elicit anesthesia using the TMD was significantly lower than that the volume required when using the conventional 27-gauge needle. The VAS score of needlestick pain for the TMD was significantly lower than that the VAS score for the 27-gauge needle.Conclusion: These data suggest that the TMD could be useful for the delivery of local anesthetics in terms of clinical efficacy and avoidance of adverse effects. Keywords: three-microneedle device, transcutaneous drug delivery, local anesthesia, lidocaine, pain

  12. Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), with application to hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.; Clark, M. P.; Weerts, A. H.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid local-global sensitivity analysis method termed the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), which is used here to identify important and unimportant parameters and evaluate how model parameter importance changes as parameter values change. DELSA uses derivative-based "local" methods to obtain the distribution of parameter sensitivity across the parameter space, which promotes consideration of sensitivity analysis results in the context of simulated dynamics. This work presents DELSA, discusses how it relates to existing methods, and uses two hydrologic test cases to compare its performance with the popular global, variance-based Sobol' method. The first test case is a simple nonlinear reservoir model with two parameters. The second test case involves five alternative "bucket-style" hydrologic models with up to 14 parameters applied to a medium-sized catchment (200 km2) in the Belgian Ardennes. Results show that in both examples, Sobol' and DELSA identify similar important and unimportant parameters, with DELSA enabling more detailed insight at much lower computational cost. For example, in the real-world problem the time delay in runoff is the most important parameter in all models, but DELSA shows that for about 20% of parameter sets it is not important at all and alternative mechanisms and parameters dominate. Moreover, the time delay was identified as important in regions producing poor model fits, whereas other parameters were identified as more important in regions of the parameter space producing better model fits. The ability to understand how parameter importance varies through parameter space is critical to inform decisions about, for example, additional data collection and model development. The ability to perform such analyses with modest computational requirements provides exciting opportunities to evaluate complicated models as well as many alternative models.

  13. Computational applications of the thermodynamic local potential: The case of pattern forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.Z.

    1986-09-01

    Using the thermodynamic local potential Φ a single variational principle may be formulated for a broad class of pattern formation phenomena (this class contains patterns which are: macroscopic, possess steady states, are degenerate at least with respect to one parameter, approach the steady state via fluctuations in the coarsely grained (macroscopic) phase space and so have no memory of the initial conditions). When a steady state is reached Φ assumes its minimum value with respect to distribution function and a maximum with respect to the actually assumed values of free parameters. (author)

  14. Application of empirical mode decomposition with local linear quantile regression in financial time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Abobaker M; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Altaher, Alsaidi M

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly forecasts the daily closing price of stock markets. We propose a two-stage technique that combines the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with nonparametric methods of local linear quantile (LLQ). We use the proposed technique, EMD-LLQ, to forecast two stock index time series. Detailed experiments are implemented for the proposed method, in which EMD-LPQ, EMD, and Holt-Winter methods are compared. The proposed EMD-LPQ model is determined to be superior to the EMD and Holt-Winter methods in predicting the stock closing prices.

  15. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus (∼10 -6 N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability

  16. The results of local radiation application at organ-reserving treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Ponomar'ov, Yi.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the given study is the clinical morphological investigation of the breast cancer pre-operation radiotherapy effectiveness by the proposed method, and its influence to the apoptosis. The clinical morphological investigation has been carried out in 28 breast cancer patients, the treatment of which has been began with the pre-operation radiation therapy course by the dose large fractionating method on the breast gland with the local tumor radiation, inguinal lymph glands with the next execution of the organ-preserving operation. We can draw a conclusion, that this very method is effective, as it devitalizes the tumors, and gives the enough high indicator of survival

  17. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  18. Diffusion in the presence of a local attracting factor: Theory and interdisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veermäe, Hardi; Patriarca, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In many complex diffusion processes the drift of random walkers is not caused by an external force, as in the case of Brownian motion, but by local variations of fitness perceived by the random walkers. In this paper, a simple but general framework is presented that describes such a type of random motion and may be of relevance in different problems, such as opinion dynamics, cultural spreading, and animal movement. To this aim, we study the problem of a random walker in d dimensions moving in the presence of a local heterogeneous attracting factor expressed in terms of an assigned position-dependent "attractiveness function." At variance with standard Brownian motion, the attractiveness function introduced here regulates both the advection and diffusion of the random walker, thus providing testable predictions for a specific form of fluctuation-relations. We discuss the relation between the drift-diffusion equation based on the attractiveness function and that describing standard Brownian motion, and we provide some explicit examples illustrating its relevance in different fields, such as animal movement, chemotactic diffusion, and social dynamics.

  19. Construction of an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer and the applications in geomagnetic observation and ferromagnetic target localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Liu, Z.; Ge, J.; Bai, B.; Zhang, C.

    2017-10-01

    The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.

  20. INDOOR LOCALIZATION USING WI-FI BASED FINGERPRINTING AND TRILATERATION TECHIQUES FOR LBS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen wide spread adoption of outdoor positioning services, mainly GPS, being incorporated into everyday devices such as smartphones and tablets. While outdoor positioning has been well received by the public, its indoor counterpart has been mostly limited to private use due to its higher costs and complexity for setting up the proper environment. The objective of this research is to provide an affordable mean for indoor localization using wireless local area network (WLAN Wi-Fi technology. We combined two different Wi-Fi approaches to locate a user. The first method involves the use of matching the pre-recorded received signal strength (RSS from nearby access points (AP, to the data transmitted from the user on the fly. This is commonly known as "fingerprint matching". The second approach is a distance-based trilateration approach using three known AP coordinates detected on the user's device to derive the position. The combination of the two steps enhances the accuracy of the user position in an indoor environment allowing location-based services (LBS such as mobile augmented reality (MAR to be deployed more effectively in the indoor environment. The mapping of the RSS map can also prove useful to IT planning personnel for covering locations with no Wi-Fi coverage (ie. dead spots. The experiments presented in this research helps provide a foundation for the integration of indoor with outdoor positioning to create a seamless transition experience for users.

  1. Surface temperature and evapotranspiration: application of local scale methods to regional scales using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, B.; Courault, D.; Guerif, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperatures have proven useful for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) rates and crop water use because of their direct relationship with sensible and latent energy exchange processes. Procedures for using the thermal infrared (IR) obtained with hand-held radiometers deployed at ground level are now well established and even routine for many agricultural research and management purposes. The availability of IR from meteorological satellites at scales from 1 km (NOAA-AVHRR) to 5 km (METEOSAT) permits extension of local, ground-based approaches to larger scale crop monitoring programs. Regional observations of surface minus air temperature (i.e., the stress degree day) and remote estimates of daily ET were derived from satellite data over sites in France, the Sahel, and North Africa and summarized here. Results confirm that similar approaches can be applied at local and regional scales despite differences in pixel size and heterogeneity. This article analyzes methods for obtaining these data and outlines the potential utility of satellite data for operational use at the regional scale. (author)

  2. Indoor Localization Using Wi-Fi Based Fingerprinting and Trilateration Techiques for Lbs Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.

    2012-06-01

    The past few years have seen wide spread adoption of outdoor positioning services, mainly GPS, being incorporated into everyday devices such as smartphones and tablets. While outdoor positioning has been well received by the public, its indoor counterpart has been mostly limited to private use due to its higher costs and complexity for setting up the proper environment. The objective of this research is to provide an affordable mean for indoor localization using wireless local area network (WLAN) Wi-Fi technology. We combined two different Wi-Fi approaches to locate a user. The first method involves the use of matching the pre-recorded received signal strength (RSS) from nearby access points (AP), to the data transmitted from the user on the fly. This is commonly known as "fingerprint matching". The second approach is a distance-based trilateration approach using three known AP coordinates detected on the user's device to derive the position. The combination of the two steps enhances the accuracy of the user position in an indoor environment allowing location-based services (LBS) such as mobile augmented reality (MAR) to be deployed more effectively in the indoor environment. The mapping of the RSS map can also prove useful to IT planning personnel for covering locations with no Wi-Fi coverage (ie. dead spots). The experiments presented in this research helps provide a foundation for the integration of indoor with outdoor positioning to create a seamless transition experience for users.

  3. Localized-itinerant magnetism: a simple model with applications to intermetallic of heavy rare-earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke Perlingueiro, P.J. von.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated various magnetic quantities of a system consisting of conduction electrons coupled to localized spins. In obtaining the magnetic state equations (which relate the ionic and electronic magnetisations to temperature and the model parameters) we have adopted the molecular field approximation. This simple model is of interest to the magnetism of the heavy rare earth intermettallics. For these systems the localized spin is that of the 4f shell; it is described by the parameters g (the Lande's factor) and J (the total angular momentum of the 4f electrons in the ground state). We derive an analytical linear relation between the critical temperature and The Gennes Factors J(J+1)(g-1) which is experimentally observed for RAl 2 . A fitting between the experimental points and the theoretical prediction gives for the exchange parameter the value J o = 48.6 meV. We have also performed a parametric study of the model, using a rectangular energy density of states. The results are shown on tables and diagrams. (author) [pt

  4. Construction of an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer and the applications in geomagnetic observation and ferromagnetic target localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Ge, J.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z.; Bai, B.

    2017-01-01

    The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.

  5. Relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation theory and applications to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.Z.

    1984-01-01

    A time-dependent linear-response theory appropriate to the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA) to quantum electrodynamics (QED) is developed. The resulting theory, the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation (RTDLDA) is specialized to the treatment of electric excitations in closed-shell atoms. This formalism is applied to the calculation of atomic photoionization parameters in the dipole approximation. The static-field limit of the RTDLDA is applied to the calculation of dipole polarizabilities. Extensive numerical calculations of the photoionization parameters for the rare gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and for mercury from the RTDLDA are presented and compared in detail with the results of other theories, in particular the relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and with experimental measurements. The predictions of the RTDLDA are comparable with the RRPA calculations made to date. This is remarkable in that the RTDLDA entails appreciably less computational effort. Finally, the dipole polarizabilities predicted by the static-field RTDLDA are compared with other determinations of these quantities. In view of its simplicity, the static-field RTDLDA demonstrates itself to be one of the most powerful theories available for the calculation of dipole polarizabilities

  6. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    for the first time. The rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport was also visualized using high-speed SPORT with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause. To improve the localization precision of the SPT technique with DIC microscopy, a precise three-dimensional (3D) localization method of spherical gold nanoparticle probes using model-based correlation coefficient mapping was introduced. To accomplish this, a stack of sample images at different z-positions are acquired, and a 3D intensity profile of the probe serving as the model is used to map out the positions of nanoparticles in the sample. By using this model-based correlation imaging method, precise localization can be achieved in imaging techniques with complicated point spread functions (PSF) such as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The 3D superlocalization method was applied to tracking gold nanospheres during live endocytosis events. Finally, a novel dual-modality imaging technique has been developed to super-localize a single gold nanorod while providing its orientation and rotational information. The super-localization of the gold nanorod can be accomplished by curve fitting the modified bright-field images generated by one of the two beams laterally shifted by the first Nomarski prism in a DIC microscope. The orientation and rotational information is derived from the DIC images of gold nanorods. The new imaging setup has been applied to study the

  7. Downscaling global precipitation for local applications - a case for the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; van Verseveld, Willem; Schellekens, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU FP7 project eartH2Observe a global Water Resources Re-analysis (WRR) is being developed. This re-analysis consists of meteorological and hydrological water balance variables with global coverage, spanning the period 1979-2014 at 0.25 degrees resolution (Schellekens et al., 2016). The dataset can be of special interest in regions with limited in-situ data availability, yet for local scale analysis particularly in mountainous regions, a resolution of 0.25 degrees may be too coarse and downscaling the data to a higher resolution may be required. A downscaling toolbox has been made that includes spatial downscaling of precipitation based on the global WorldClim dataset that is available at 1 km resolution as a monthly climatology (Hijmans et al., 2005). The input of the down-scaling tool are either the global eartH2Observe WRR1 and WRR2 datasets based on the WFDEI correction methodology (Weedon et al., 2014) or the global Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) dataset (Beck et al., 2016). Here we present a validation of the datasets over the Rhine catchment by means of a distributed hydrological model (wflow, Schellekens et al., 2014) using a number of precipitation scenarios. (1) We start by running the model using the local reference dataset derived by spatial interpolation of gauge observations. Furthermore we use (2) the MSWEP dataset at the native 0.25-degree resolution followed by (3) MSWEP downscaled with the WorldClim dataset and final (4) MSWEP downscaled with the local reference dataset. The validation will be based on comparison of the modeled river discharges as well as rainfall statistics. We expect that down-scaling the MSWEP dataset with the WorldClim data to higher resolution will increase its performance. To test the performance of the down-scaling routine we have added a run with MSWEP data down-scaled with the local dataset and compare this with the run based on the local dataset itself. - Beck, H. E. et al., 2016. MSWEP

  8. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    for the first time. The rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport was also visualized using high-speed SPORT with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause. To improve the localization precision of the SPT technique with DIC microscopy, a precise three-dimensional (3D) localization method of spherical gold nanoparticle probes using model-based correlation coefficient mapping was introduced. To accomplish this, a stack of sample images at different z-positions are acquired, and a 3D intensity profile of the probe serving as the model is used to map out the positions of nanoparticles in the sample. By using this model-based correlation imaging method, precise localization can be achieved in imaging techniques with complicated point spread functions (PSF) such as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The 3D superlocalization method was applied to tracking gold nanospheres during live endocytosis events. Finally, a novel dual-modality imaging technique has been developed to super-localize a single gold nanorod while providing its orientation and rotational information. The super-localization of the gold nanorod can be accomplished by curve fitting the modified bright-field images generated by one of the two beams laterally shifted by the first Nomarski prism in a DIC microscope. The orientation and rotational information is derived from the DIC images of gold nanorods. The new imaging setup has been applied to study

  9. Supervised Kernel Optimized Locality Preserving Projection with Its Application to Face Recognition and Palm Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kernel Locality Preserving Projection (KLPP algorithm can effectively preserve the neighborhood structure of the database using the kernel trick. We have known that supervised KLPP (SKLPP can preserve within-class geometric structures by using label information. However, the conventional SKLPP algorithm endures the kernel selection which has significant impact on the performances of SKLPP. In order to overcome this limitation, a method named supervised kernel optimized LPP (SKOLPP is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the class separability in kernel learning. The proposed method maps the data from the original space to a higher dimensional kernel space using a data-dependent kernel. The adaptive parameters of the data-dependent kernel are automatically calculated through optimizing an objective function. Consequently, the nonlinear features extracted by SKOLPP have larger discriminative ability compared with SKLPP and are more adaptive to the input data. Experimental results on ORL, Yale, AR, and Palmprint databases showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Distributed embedded controller development with petri nets application to globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Filipe de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a model-based development approach for globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous distributed embedded controllers.  This approach uses Petri nets as modeling formalism to create platform and network independent models supporting the use of design automation tools.  To support this development approach, the Petri nets class in use is extended with time-domains and asynchronous-channels. The authors’ approach uses models not only providing a better understanding of the distributed controller and improving the communication among the stakeholders, but also to be ready to support the entire lifecycle, including the simulation, the verification (using model-checking tools), the implementation (relying on automatic code generators), and the deployment of the distributed controller into specific platforms. Uses a graphical and intuitive modeling formalism supported by design automation tools; Enables verification, ensuring that the distributed controller was correctly specified; Provides flex...

  11. Locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks: theory and application to scene segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DeLiang; Terman, David

    1995-01-01

    A novel class of locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks (LEGION) is proposed and investigated analytically and by computer simulation. The model of each oscillator corresponds to a standard relaxation oscillator with two time scales. The network exhibits a mechanism of selective gating, whereby an oscillator jumping up to its active phase rapidly recruits the oscillators stimulated by the same pattern, while preventing other oscillators from jumping up. We show analytically that with the selective gating mechanism the network rapidly achieves both synchronization within blocks of oscillators that are stimulated by connected regions and desynchronization between different blocks. Computer simulations demonstrate LEGION's promising ability for segmenting multiple input patterns in real time. This model lays a physical foundation for the oscillatory correlation theory of feature binding, and may provide an effective computational framework for scene segmentation and figure/ground segregation.

  12. LOCAL APPLICATION OF RECOMBINANT INTERFERON-ALFA2 FOR TREATMENT OF RECURRENT RESPIRATORY PAPILLOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plouzhnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP is the most frequently occurring tumour of the upper airways associated with a human papilloma virus (HPV. The aim of this study was to reveal some features of systemic and local immunity in RRP, to investigate clinical and immunological efficiency of local treatment with recombinant interferon-α (rIFNα, and to determine clinical and laboratory indications to it’s administration. The study included forty-one patients with confirmed RRP. Their examination included histological examination of papillomas, detection of HPV DNA in papilloma tissues using PCR technique, phenotyping of circulating lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD25+, HLA-DR+ by means of flow cytometry. The levels of IFNγ, TNFα, GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 in laryngeal secretions were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay. In all cases, we revealed an initially decreased functional activity of Т-lymphocytes, as well as low contents of Т-killer and NK-cells. In laryngeal secretions, increased values of Th1-type-specific cytokines (IFNγ and TNFα were found. Besides that, high levels of local IL-4 were detected thus being typical to alternative Th2-type response. Single inhalations 1000 000 ME of «Interal» or «Roferon» preparations were administered daily (a total of 10-15 millions ME per therapeutic course. Thirteen patients received the treatment after surgery, as an adjuvant therapy, and eleven patients underwent monotherapy. Complete tumor regression of tumors following this monotherapy was observed in 45,5% of the patients, whereas partial regression was registered in 45%. The effect was mostly expressed in frequently recurring juvenile papillomatosis with aggressive course and histological pattern of actively proliferating papilloma. In the patients with complete tumor regression, high initial levels of TNFα and IL-4/IFNг ratios were revealed initially in laryngeal secretions. When rIFNб was

  13. The Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application for Noise Removal in Localized Corrosion Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses the problem of induced external electrical noise as well as its removal from the electrical potential obtained from Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET in the pitting corrosion process of aluminum alloy A96061 in 3.5% NaCl. An accessible and efficient solution of this problem is presented with the use of virtual instrumentation (VI, embedded systems, and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. The DWT is a computational algorithm for digital processing that allows obtaining electrical noise with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR superior to those obtained with Lock-In Amplifier equipment. The results show that DWT and the threshold method are efficient and powerful alternatives to carry out electrical measurements of potential signals from localized corrosion processes measured by SVET.

  14. The core pipeline equipment localization process and application prospects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the economic efficiency of gas pipelines, core equipment such as compressor sets and large-diameter valves must be localized. For this purpose, in alliance with other related enterprises, PetroChina Company Limited established an equipment localization R&D system and a new product testing system and successfully developed a 20 MW class motor-driven compressor set, a 30 MW-class gas turbine-driven compressor unit, and a high-pressure and large-diameter welded ball valve. First, the motor-driven compressor R&D focuses on three main units. The developed frequency-control device structure is a cascaded multilevel with a capacity of 25 MVA. The developed anti-explosion dynamo with a motor speed of 4800 rpm can produce a power of 22 MW. The developed compressor is PCL800 with features of a high efficiency and a wide flow-operating point-adjustment range. Second, there are two steps of the R&D of a GT-driven compressor unit (product A + product B: auxiliary supporting systems and control systems are developed for the imported GT25000 gas turbine, together with China-made compressors, to constitute product A; simultaneously, the R&D of product B of a gas turbine is carried out, which would replace the imported one. Third, aiming to solve the problems of sealing and welding, we developed the high-pressure and large-diameter all-welded ball valves in full replace of the same kind of imported products with three different sizes: NPS40 Class 600, NPS48 Class 600, and NPS48 Class 900.

  15. Localization of Hsp27 in the Rat Submandibular Gland Following the Application of Various Surgical Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobe, Kenichi; Kawabe, Yoshihiro; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Araki, Hisao; Amano, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Salivary glands repair and regenerate following various types of injuries and surgical procedures. However, the tissue responses induced in the contralateral glands have yet to be elucidated in detail. Hsp27, a member of the heat-shock protein (Hsp) family, is strongly expressed in physiological environments, particularly during development. Hsp27 was previously shown to play a role in the regulation of acinar cell proliferation and differentiation in the rat submandibular gland. The present study performed the following surgical treatments on the right submandibular glands of adult rats: 1) duct ligation followed by unligation after one week; 2) partial sialoadenectomy; and 3) total sialoadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry for Hsp27 and Ki67 was performed in the experimental and normal contralateral glands, and localization was histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The results obtained revealed the localization of Hsp27 to the intercalated duct in the submandibular glands of non-treated rats. The expression of Hsp27 was strongly induced in both the uninjured contralateral control glands as well as treated glands of experimental rats regardless of the surgical procedure performed. The number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells increased rapidly following surgery, and subsequently returned to the same level as that in non-treated rats after 4 weeks. However, no marked changes were observed in the number of Ki67-immunopositive proliferating cells. Therefore, the change in the number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells may have contributed to compensatory hypertrophy. The results of the present study indicate that the expression of Hsp27 in the intercalated duct in the submandibular gland may play a role in the differentiation of acinar cells

  16. Application of magnetic source imaging in localizing the epileptic foci in patients with grey matter heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jilin; Wu Jie; Jia Xiuchuan; Li Sumin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of magnetic source imaging (MSI) in localizing the epileptic foci of patients with histologically proved grey matter heterotopia (GMH) and seizure. Methods: MSI examinations were performed on 8 patients with GMH and seizure. The location of the epileptic foci defined by MSI was compared with the results of the ECoG. After imaging examinations, all patients received operation with 13-48 months follow up to observe the effectiveness of the operation. Results: Among the 8 patients, 1 had hippocampal sclerosis, 2 had focal cortical dysplasia of type Ⅰ B and 1 had focal cortical dysplasia of type Ⅱ B. MRI showed normal findings in 2 cases, subcortical heterotopia in 4 cases, and nodular heterotopia in 2 cases with one having schizencephaly. The epileptic foci defined by MSI were at right temporal lobe in 2 cases, left frontal lobe in 2 cases, biparietal lobe in 1 case, left parietal lobe in 1 case, left temporal lobe in 1 case, and left frontal-parietal lobe in 1 case. The epileptic foci defined by MSI were completely overlaid with area of GMH in 4 cases, closely behind the area of GMH in case, and partly overlaid with area of CMH in 1 cases with size larger than that of the latter. One patient showed two epileptic foci with one located within the area of GMH and the other one 2 centimeters anterior to the area of GMH. One case's epileptic focus located 2 centimeters posteolateral to the area of GMH. The locations of the epileptic foci defined by MSI showed no difference with those defined by ECoG in all patients. According to Engel classification of treatment effect of epilepsy, 6 patients achieved Engle class Ⅰ ( seizure free after operation), and 2 patients Engel class Ⅳ (no changes in the frequency of occurrence of seizures before and after operation). Conclusion: MSI can noninvasively and precisely localize the epileptic foci before operation in patients with GMH and seizure. (authors)

  17. Clinical application of synthesized brain surface imaging for preoperative simulation of brain biopsy under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Imai, Fumihiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Takeshita, Gen; Kanno, Tetsuo; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is the technique which permits the direct visualization of brain surface structures, including cortical sulci, guri, subcortical lesions as well as skin markings for craniotomy. A synthesized brain surface image is a technique that combines MR angiography (MRA) with SAS, and it proposed by us for detecting cerebral superficial veins with these surface structures on the same image. The purpose of this report is to present the result of applying the synthesized brain surface image to the preoperative simulation of biopsy under local anesthesia in 2 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. The parameters for SAS were TR/TE=50/40 msec, flip angle=60deg by the fast T 2 technique using refocused FID in steady-state (STERF technique). SAS images were processed by gray scale reversal. The MRA data were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight (TOF) sequence after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Before imaging, the water-filled plastic tubes were placed on the patients scalp as markings for craniotomy. Their positions were planned by the neurosurgeons. On SAS, the markings for burr-hole appeared located above the tumors. However on the synthesized brain surface images, the positions of burr-hole were considered to be inadequate, since superficial cerebral vein and sinus were also visualized in the area of the markings. From these results, the positions of burr-hole were reset to avoid the venous structures, and so as to include the lesions in operations. The biopsies were performed successfully and safely because the venous structure could be excluded from the operative field. By this technique it was easy to confirm the relationships among lesions, skin markings and venous structures. The technique described appears to be a useful method for preoperative simulation of biopsies for multiple metastatic brain tumors under local anesthesia. (author)

  18. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  19. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  20. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating

  1. Airborne DoA estimation of gunshot acoustic signals using drones with application to sniper localization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rigel P.; Ramos, António L. L.; Apolinário, José A.

    2017-05-01

    Shooter localization systems have been subject of a growing attention lately owing to its wide span of possible applications, e.g., civil protection, law enforcement, and support to soldiers in missions where snipers might pose a serious threat. These devices are based on the processing of electromagnetic or acoustic signatures associated with the firing of a gun. This work is concerned with the latter, where the shooter's position can be obtained based on the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DoA) of the acoustic components of a gunshot signal (muzzle blast and shock wave). A major limitation of current commercially available acoustic sniper localization systems is the impossibility of finding the shooter's position when one of these acoustic signatures is not detected. This is very likely to occur in real-life situations, especially when the microphones are not in the field of view of the shockwave or when the presence of obstacles like buildings can prevent a direct-path to sensors. This work addresses the problem of DoA estimation of the muzzle blast using a planar array of sensors deployed in a drone. Results supported by actual gunshot data from a realistic setup are very promising and pave the way for the development of enhanced sniper localization systems featuring two main advantages over stationary ones: (1) wider surveillance area; and (2) increased likelihood of a direct-path detection of at least one of the gunshot signals, thereby adding robustness and reliability to the system.

  2. [Local ice application in therapy of kinetic limb ataxia. Clinical assessment of positive treatment effects in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H; Schwecht, M; Pöllmann, W; Parag, D; Erasmus, L P; König, N

    1998-12-01

    Upper limb ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). There are some clinically tested therapeutic strategies, especially with regard to cerebellar tremor. But most of the methods used for treatment of limb ataxia in physiotherapy and occupational therapy are not systematically evaluated, e.g. the effect of local ice applications, as reported by MS patients and therapists, respectively. We investigated 21 MS patients before and in several steps 1 up to 45 min after cooling the most affected forearm. We used a series of 6 tests, including parts of neurological status and activities of daily living as well. At each step skin temperature and nerve conduction velocity were recorded. All tests were documented by video for later offline analysis. Standardized evaluation was done by the investigators and separately by an independent second team, both of them using numeric scales for quality of performance. After local cooling all patients showed a positive effect, especially a reduction of intentional tremor. In most cases this effect lasted 45 min, in some patients even longer. We presume that a decrease in the proprioceptive afferent inflow-induced by cooling-may be the probable cause of this reduction of cerebellar tremor. Patients can use ice applications as a method of treating themselves when a short-time reduction of intention tremor is required, e.g. for typing, signing or self-catheterization.

  3. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  4. Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomden, Christel N.; Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging—guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS clinical ) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC study ). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1–6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4–35%) and 7% (range, 2–14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC study and the IC/IS clinical were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy α/β10 and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy α/β10 , respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy α/β10 for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic

  5. An 802.11 n wireless local area network transmission scheme for wireless telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C F; Hung, S I; Chiang, I H

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, an 802.11 n transmission scheme is proposed for wireless telemedicine applications. IEEE 802.11n standards, a power assignment strategy, space-time block coding (STBC), and an object composition Petri net (OCPN) model are adopted. With the proposed wireless system, G.729 audio bit streams, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000) clinical images, and Moving Picture Experts Group 4 (MPEG-4) video bit streams achieve a transmission bit error rate (BER) of 10-7, 10-4, and 103 simultaneously. The proposed system meets the requirements prescribed for wireless telemedicine applications. An essential feature of this proposed transmission scheme is that clinical information that requires a high quality of service (QoS) is transmitted at a high power transmission rate with significant error protection. For maximizing resource utilization and minimizing the total transmission power, STBC and adaptive modulation techniques are used in the proposed 802.11 n wireless telemedicine system. Further, low power, direct mapping (DM), low-error protection scheme, and high-level modulation are adopted for messages that can tolerate a high BER. With the proposed transmission scheme, the required reliability of communication can be achieved. Our simulation results have shown that the proposed 802.11 n transmission scheme can be used for developing effective wireless telemedicine systems.

  6. Application of Ultrasound to Selectively Localize Nanodroplets for Targeted Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dayton

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-coated perfluorocarbon nanodroplets are submicrometer-diameter liquid-filled droplets with proposed applications in molecularly targeted therapeutics and ultrasound (US imaging. Ultrasonic molecular imaging is unique in that the optimal application of these agents depends not only on the surface chemistry, but also on the applied US field, which can increase receptor-ligand binding and membrane fusion. Theory and experiments are combined to demonstrate the displacement of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the direction of US propagation, where a traveling US wave with a peak pressure on the order of megapascals and frequency in the megahertz range produces a particle translational velocity that is proportional to acoustic intensity and increases with increasing center frequency. Within a vessel with a diameter on the order of hundreds of micrometers or larger, particle velocity on the order of hundreds of micrometers per second is produced and the dominant mechanism for droplet displacement is shown to be bulk fluid streaming. A model for radiation force displacement of particles is developed and demonstrates that effective particle displacement should be feasible in the microvasculature. In a flowing system, acoustic manipulation of targeted droplets increases droplet retention. Additionally, we demonstrate the feasibility of US-enhanced particle internalization and therapeutic delivery.

  7. Radiation distribution through serpentine concrete using local materials and its application as a reactor biological shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansouh, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New serpentine concrete was made and examined as a reactor biological shield. ► Ilmenite–limonite concrete is a better reactor biological shield. ► New serpentine concrete is a better reactor fast neutrons shield than ordinary and hematite–serpentine concretes. ► Serpentine concrete has lower properties as a reactor total gamma rays shields. - Abstract: In the present work attempt has been made to estimate the shielding parameters of the new serpentine concrete (density = 2.4 g/cm 3 ) using local materials on the shielding parameters for two types of heat resistant concretes, namely hematite–serpentine (density = 2.5 g/cm 3 ) and ilmenite–limonite (density = 2.9 g/cm 3 ). Shielding parameters for ordinary concrete (density = 2.3 g/cm 3 ) were also discussed. These parameters were determined experimentally for serpentine concrete and compared with previously published values for other concretes, which had also been obtained using local materials. The leakage spectra of reactor fast neutrons and total gamma photon beams from cylindrical samples of these concrete shields were also investigated using a collimated beam from ET-RR-1 reactor. A neutron–gamma spectrometer was used in order to obtain pulse height spectra of reactor fast neutrons and the total gamma rays leakage through the investigated concrete samples. These spectra were utilized to obtain the energy spectra required in these investigations. Removal cross section Σ R (E n ) and linear attenuation coefficient μ(E g ) for reactor fast neutrons and total gamma rays and their relative coefficients were evaluated and presented. Measured results were compared with those previously measured for other concretes. The results show that ilmenite–limonite concrete is a better reactor biological shield than the other three concretes. Serpentine concrete under investigation is a better reactor fast neutrons shield than ordinary and hematite–serpentine concretes. Serpentine concrete

  8. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  9. Successful treatment of a recurrent Aspergillus niger otomycosis with local application of voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappe, M; Vrignaud, S; de Gentile, L; Legrand, G; Lagarce, F; Le Govic, Y

    2018-04-16

    Fungal otitis (otomycosis) is a common infection encountered by otolaryngologists. Nevertheless, its management can be challenging because of its high recurrence rate and of the limited therapeutic options. A 45-year-old woman suffered from recurrent otomycosis. The ineffectiveness of successive antibiotic cures and repeated topical treatments with nystatin and then with econazole cream led to perform microbiological analyses. Culture of ear swab grew Aspergillus niger. The use of a 1% voriconazole sterile solution previously validated for treatment of eye infections was considered after ensuring the absence of known ototoxic effects of the antifungal and of the excipients. The patient was advised to apply locally this voriconazole solution daily for 14 days (3 drops, 3-4 times a day). Full recovery was obtained at the end of the treatment, and no relevant side effects were noticed. More than one year after completion of therapy, there was no recurrence. Our observation shows that voriconazole 1% solution is an interesting option for treating otomycosis which failed to respond to usual therapeutic options. Further prospective studies are now warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges in developing health promoting schools' project: application of global traits in local realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Behrouz; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Kousha, Ahmad; Jannati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of student health and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health programs in developing countries. This study examined possible barriers to and challenges of such programs from the executive perspective in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. This qualitative study used the content analysis approach to recognize barriers to and challenges of health promoting school program from the executive perspective. Fourteen experts were selected in the areas of children and adolescents and school health, physical education and school headmasters. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Five themes were extracted as major barriers and challenges: 1. Intraand inter-sectorial collaboration; 2. Policy and rule formulation; 3. Infrastructure and capacity; 4. Human resources; 5. Community involvement. The localized version of the current health promoting school program had major faults. If this program is considered to be a healthcare system priority, it should be revised to set effective policies for implementation and to sustain school health programs based on the capacities and objectives of each country.

  11. Local BRST cohomology in the antifield formalism. Pt. 2. Application to Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, G.; Henneaux, M.

    1995-01-01

    Yang-Mills models with compact gauge group coupled to matter fields are considered. The general tools developed in a companion paper are applied to compute the local cohomology of the BRST differential s modulo the exterior spacetime derivative d for all values of the ghost number, in the space of polynomials in the fields, the ghosts, the antifields (=sources for the BRST variations) and their derivatives. New solutions to the consistency conditions sa+db=0 depending non-trivially on the antifields are exhibited. For a semi-simple gauge group, however, these new solutions arise only at ghost number two or higher. Thus at ghost number zero or one, the inclusion of the antifields does not bring in new solutions to the consistency condition sa+db=0 besides the already known ones. The analysis does not use power counting and is purely cohomological. It can be easily extended to more general actions containing higher derivatives of the curvature or Chern-Simons terms. (orig.)

  12. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Aptula, Aynur O

    2007-07-01

    The goal of eliminating animal testing in the predictive identification of chemicals with the intrinsic ability to cause skin sensitization is an important target, the attainment of which has recently been brought into even sharper relief by the EU Cosmetics Directive and the requirements of the REACH legislation. Development of alternative methods requires that the chemicals used to evaluate and validate novel approaches comprise not only confirmed skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers but also substances that span the full chemical mechanistic spectrum associated with skin sensitization. To this end, a recently published database of more than 200 chemicals tested in the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been examined in relation to various chemical reaction mechanistic domains known to be associated with sensitization. It is demonstrated here that the dataset does cover the main reaction mechanistic domains. In addition, it is shown that assignment to a reaction mechanistic domain is a critical first step in a strategic approach to understanding, ultimately on a quantitative basis, how chemical properties influence the potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed.

  14. Challenges in Developing Health Promoting Schools’ Project: Application of Global Traits in Local Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Fathi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of student health and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health programs in developing countries. This study examined possible barriers to and challenges of such programs from the executive perspective in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study used the content analysis approach to recognize barriers to and challenges of health promoting school program from the executive perspective. Fourteen experts were selected in the areas of children and adolescents and school health, physical education and school headmasters. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: Five themes were extracted as major barriers and challenges: 1. Intraand inter-sectorial collaboration; 2. Policy and rule formulation; 3. Infrastructure and capacity; 4. Human resources; 5. Community involvement. Conclusion: The localized version of the current health promoting school program had major faults. If this program is considered to be a healthcare system priority, it should be revised to set effective policies for implementation and to sustain school health programs based on the capacities and objectives of each country.

  15. Manufacturing process for cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized imprints and device for application of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This invention involves a process for manufacturing permeable cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized relief such as annular, spiral or simple coiled or double crossed coils or even stipple imprints on their internal face. It is known that one of the techniques for the separation of the mixture of gases with close molecular masses is gaseous diffusion. According to this technique, the gas mixture is circulated under pressure inside tubes constituted by a microporous wall. These tubes, according to a known technique, are constituted by a macroporous ceramic tube, generally called a support, covered on the inside with a microporous layer deposited on this interior wall. The unit constituted by the tube itself or the ''support'' and the microporous layer makes it possible to adapt the total porosity of the covered tube or ''barrier'' in order to obtain an optimal coefficient of gas separation. This technique is used specifically for separation of two gases corresponding to various isotopes of the same simple body. 6 figs

  16. Local BRST cohomology in the antifield formalism. Pt. 2. Application to Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, G.; Henneaux, M.; Brandt, F.

    1994-01-01

    Yang-Mills models with compact gauge group coupled to matter fields are considered. The general tools developed in a companion paper are applied to compute the local cohomology of the BRST differential s modulo the exterior spacetime derivative d for all values of the ghost number, in the space of polynomials in the fields, the ghosts, the antifields (= sources for the BRST variations) and their derivatives. New solutions to the consistency conditions sa+db = 0 depending non trivially on the antifields are exhibited. For a semi-simple gauge group, however, these new solutions arise only at ghost number two or higher. Thus at ghost number zero or one, the inclusion of the antifields does not bring in new solutions to the consistency condition sa+db 0 besides the already known ones. The analysis does not use power counting and is purely cohomological. It can be easily extended to more general actions containing higher derivatives of the curvature, or Chern-Simons terms. (orig.)

  17. Anti-aging pharmacology in cutaneous wound healing: effects of metformin, resveratrol, and rapamycin by local application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Sui, Bing-Dong; Liu, Nu; Lv, Ya-Jie; Zheng, Chen-Xi; Lu, Yong-Bo; Huang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Chen, Ji; Pang, Dan-Lin; Fei, Dong-Dong; Xuan, Kun; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries and are particularly hard to heal in aging. Caloric restriction (CR) is well documented to extend longevity; pharmacologically, profound rejuvenative effects of CR mimetics have been uncovered, especially metformin (MET), resveratrol (RSV), and rapamycin (RAPA). However, locally applied impacts and functional differences of these agents on wound healing remain to be established. Here, we discovered that chronic topical administration of MET and RSV, but not RAPA, accelerated wound healing with improved epidermis, hair follicles, and collagen deposition in young rodents, and MET exerted more profound effects. Furthermore, locally applied MET and RSV improved vascularization of the wound beds, which were attributed to stimulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, the key mediator of wound healing. Notably, in aged skin, AMPK pathway was inhibited, correlated with impaired vasculature and reduced healing ability. As therapeutic approaches, local treatments of MET and RSV prevented age-related AMPK suppression and angiogenic inhibition in wound beds. Moreover, in aged rats, rejuvenative effects of topically applied MET and RSV on cell viability of wound beds were confirmed, of which MET showed more prominent anti-aging effects. We further verified that only MET promoted wound healing and cutaneous integrity in aged skin. These findings clarified differential effects of CR-based anti-aging pharmacology in wound healing, identified critical angiogenic and rejuvenative mechanisms through AMPK pathway in both young and aged skin, and unraveled chronic local application of MET as the optimal and promising regenerative agent in treating cutaneous wound defects. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of a new dual localization-affinity purification tag reveals novel aspects of protein kinase biology in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Colin P; Hashmi, Shahr B; Osmani, Aysha H; Osmani, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi occupy critical environmental niches and have numerous beneficial industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. As regulators of essentially all biological processes protein kinases have been intensively studied but how they regulate the often unique biology of filamentous fungi is not completely understood. Significant understanding of filamentous fungal biology has come from the study of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans using a combination of molecular genetics, biochemistry, cell biology and genomic approaches. Here we describe dual localization-affinity purification (DLAP) tags enabling endogenous N or C-terminal protein tagging for localization and biochemical studies in A. nidulans. To establish DLAP tag utility we endogenously tagged 17 protein kinases for analysis by live cell imaging and affinity purification. Proteomic analysis of purifications by mass spectrometry confirmed association of the CotA and NimXCdk1 kinases with known binding partners and verified a predicted interaction of the SldABub1/R1 spindle assembly checkpoint kinase with SldBBub3. We demonstrate that the single TOR kinase of A. nidulans locates to vacuoles and vesicles, suggesting that the function of endomembranes as major TOR cellular hubs is conserved in filamentous fungi. Comparative analysis revealed 7 kinases with mitotic specific locations including An-Cdc7 which unexpectedly located to mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs), the first such localization described for this family of DNA replication kinases. We show that the SepH septation kinase locates to SPBs specifically in the basal region of apical cells in a biphasic manner during mitosis and again during septation. This results in gradients of SepH between G1 SPBs which shift along hyphae as each septum forms. We propose that SepH regulates the septation initiation network (SIN) specifically at SPBs in the basal region of G1 cells and that localized gradients

  19. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Hamilton, T.F.; Simpson, A.E.; Freitas, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137 Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137 Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137 Cs of 8.5 years (http://marshallislands.llnl.gov). (author)

  20. Deformation analysis of the repeated positional surveys in the undermined localities using web applications and WMS map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Talich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The XML web application for on-line calculations of deformation analysis from the repeated positional surveys using Internet service and data is described. Parameters of deformation field (strain tensors, total dilatations are determined in a grid network covering the zone of interest. Displacement vectors from repeated measurements at given points of a geodetic network represent the imput data of calculation. The calculation is based on application of the theory of continuum mechanics and its fundamental prerequisite is homogeneity of the researched territory.The application currently utilizes the Web Map Services - WMS for the graphic presentation of calculated results as GIS. This service for example enables on-line thematic map composition as defined by the user in the window of Internet explorer based on data given by servers of WMS service. Thus the user does not need to own any geographic data to create his/her GIS.Furthermore there are also given application examples of the repeated geodetic surveys used in the field at localities in the forefront of ČSA giant quarry at Komořany and in the undermined territory in Ostrava region. The examples show the independence of calculated values of tensors from rotation and translation of the coordinate systems in practise. This fact gives the evidence that the deformation analysis is more objective dynamic indicator in the researched area and not only the calculus and representation of point displacement vectors. After registration this application is at all interested persons disposal to on-line calculations via the Internet.

  1. Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Using Interferometric Observables with RF Localization Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Jeroen L.

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) specifically same-beam interferometry (SBI), and dual-satellite geolocation are two fields of research not previously connected. This is due to the different application of each field, SBI is used for relative interplanetary navigation of two satellites while dual-satellite geolocation is used to locate the source of a radio frequency (RF) signal. In this dissertation however, we leverage both fields to create a novel method for multi-satellite orbit determination (OD) using time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurements. The measurements are double differenced between the satellites and the stations, in so doing, many of the common errors are canceled which can significantly improve measurement precision. Provided with this novel OD technique, the observability is first analyzed to determine the benefits and limitations of this method. In all but a few scenarios the measurements successfully reduce the covariance when examining the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Reduced observability is encountered with geostationary satellites as their motion with respect to the stations is limited, especially when only one baseline is used. However, when using satellite pairs with greater relative motion with respect to the stations, even satellites that are close to, but not exactly in a geostationary orbit can be estimated accurately. We find that in a strong majority of cases the OD technique provides lower uncertainties and solutions far more accurate than using conventional OD observables such as range and range-rate while also not being affected by common errors and biases. We specifically examine GEO-GEO, GEO-MEO, and GEO-LEO dual-satellite estimation cases. The work is further extended by developing a relative navigation scenario where the chief satellite is assumed to have perfect knowledge, or some small amount of uncertainty considered but not estimated, while estimating the deputy

  2. Fostering the local production and application of industrial radiotracers in developing countries - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Haji-Saeid, S.; Jin, Joon-Ha; Ramamoorthy, Natesan; )

    2006-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques provide fast and accurate information for solving various process problems in industrial plants. The IAEA is playing an important role in supporting the development and transfer of radiotracer techniques to developing countries. The IAEA has implemented 5 coordinated research projects (CRP), including two on-going projects, in the field of radiotracer and sealed source applications in industry. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for wear/corrosion measurement, residence time: distribution (RTD) study, validation of computed fluid dynamics data, industrial process tomography and inter-well connectivity study. A number of technical cooperation projects have been executed to strengthen the capability of radiotracer groups in developing Member States and to create awareness in the industries about the technical and economical benefits of radiotracer technology. The IAEA's regional projects have strongly impacted the transfer and adoption of the techniques. The status of radiotracer use in developing countries reveals that the lack of timely availability of radiotracers as one of the major problems. Development of some radionuclide generators is a possible solution. Cooperation among the international radiotracer communities is necessary to enhance the availability and use of radiotracers in developing countries. (author)

  3. Correlation Processing Of Local Seismic Data: Applications for Autonomous Sensor Deployments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, D A

    2010-11-16

    Excavation and operation of an underground facility is likely to produce an extensive suite of seismic signals observable at the surface for perhaps several km. Probably a large fraction of such signals will be correlated, so the design of a monitoring framework should include consideration of a correlation processing capability. Correlation detectors have been shown to be significantly more sensitive than beam-forming power detectors. Although correlation detectors have a limited detection footprint, they can be generalized into multi-rank subspace detectors which are sensitive over a much larger range of source mechanisms and positions. Production of subspace detectors can be automated, so their use in an autonomous framework may be contemplated. Waveform correlation also can be used to produce very high precision phase picks which may be jointly inverted to simultaneously relocate groups of events. The relative precision of the resulting hypocenters is sufficient to visualize structural detail at a scale of less than a few tens of meters. Three possible correlation processor systems are presented. All use a subspace signal detection framework. The simplest system uses a single-component sensor and is capable of detection and classification of signals. The most complicated system uses many sensors deployed around the facility, and is capable of detection, classification, and high-precision source location. Data from a deep underground mine are presented to demonstrate the applicability of correlation processing to monitoring an underground facility. Although the source region covers an area of about 600m by 580m, all but two of the events form clusters at a threshold of 0.7. All the events could have been detected and classified by the subspace detection framework, and high-precision picks can be computed for all cluster members.

  4. Formability of paperboard during deep-drawing with local steam application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Wilken; Stein, Philipp; Dörsam, Sven; Groche, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The use of paperboard can significantly improve the environmental compatibility of everyday products such as packages. Nevertheless, most packages are currently made of plastics, since the three-dimensional shaping of paperboard is possible only to a limited extent. In order to increase the forming possibilities, deep drawing of cardboard has been intensively investigated for more than a decade. An improvement with regard to increased forming limits has been achieved by heating of the tool parts, which leads to a softening of paperboard constituents such as lignin. A further approach is the moistening of the samples, whereby the hydrogen bonds between the fibers are weakened and as a result an increase of the formability. It is expected that a combination of both parameter approaches will result in a significant increase in the forming capacity and in the shape accuracy. For this reason, a new tool concept is introduced within the scope of this work which makes it possible to moisten samples during the deep drawing process by means of steam supply. The conducted investigations show that spring-back in the preferred fiber direction can be reduced by 38 %. Orthogonal to the preferred fiber direction a reduction of spring back of up to 79 % is determined, which corresponds to a perfect shape. Moreover, it was determined that the steam duration and the initial moisture content have an influence on the final shape. In addition to the increased dimensional accuracy, an optimized wrinkle compression compared to conventional deep drawing is found. According to the results, it can be summarized that a steam application in the deep drawing of paperboard significantly improves the part quality.

  5. Operational data products to support phenological research and applications at local to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Phenological data from a variety of platforms - across a range of spatial and temporal scales - are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Observational and modeled phenological data, especially when integrated with associated biophysical data (e.g., climate, land-use/land-cover, hydrology) has great potential to provide multi-faceted information critical to decision support systems, vulnerability and risk assessments, change detection applications, and early-warning and forecasting systems for natural and modified ecosystems. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on understanding the drivers and feedback effects of phenological variation in changing environments. The Network maintains a centralized database of over 10M ground-based observations of plants and animals for 1954-present, and leverages these data to produce operational data products for use by a variety of audiences, including researchers and resource managers. This presentation highlights our operational data products, including the tools, maps, and services that facilitate discovery, accessibility and usability of integrated phenological information. We describe (1) the data download tool, a customizable GUI that provides geospatially referenced raw, bounded or summarized organismal and climatological data and associated metadata (including calendars, time-series curves, and XY graphs), (2) the visualization tool, which provides opportunities to explore, visualize and export or download both organismal and modeled (gridded) products at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km) for the period 1980 to 6 days into the future, and (3) web services that enable custom query and download of map, feature and cover services in a variety of standard formats. These operational products facilitate scaling of integrated

  6. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    strict relation was found among the productions carried out by W. cibaria strains. This study proved the suitability of the selected strains of L. citreum and W. cibaria for industrial-scale level applications in sourdough bread production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of an empirical model in CFD simulations to predict the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Scharler, Robert; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2015-01-01

    To gain reliable data for the development of an empirical model for the prediction of the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers, online corrosion probe measurements have been carried out. The measurements have been performed in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Within the test runs the flue gas temperature at the corrosion probe has been varied between 625 °C and 880 °C, while the steel temperature has been varied between 450 °C and 550 °C to simulate typical current and future live steam temperatures of biomass fired steam boilers. To investigate the dependence on the flue gas velocity, variations from 2 m·s −1 to 8 m·s −1 have been considered. The empirical model developed fits the measured data sufficiently well. Therefore, the model has been applied within a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of flue gas flow and heat transfer to estimate the local corrosion potential of a wood chips fired 38 MW steam boiler. Additionally to the actual state analysis two further simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of enhanced steam temperatures and a change of the flow direction of the final superheater tube bundle from parallel to counter-flow on the local corrosion potential. - Highlights: • Online corrosion probe measurements in a fixed bed/drop tube reactor. • Development of an empirical corrosion model. • Application of the model in a CFD simulation of flow and heat transfer. • Variation of boundary conditions and their effects on the corrosion potential

  8. Prevention of vocal fold scarring by local application of basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat vocal fold injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Tateya, Ichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring, which causes severe hoarseness, is intractable. The optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not been established; therefore, prevention of scarring is important. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for prevention of postsurgical vocal fold scarring. Prospective animal experiments with controls. The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were injured unilaterally or bilaterally after local application of a 10 μL solution of bFGF. Larynges ware harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination 2 months postoperation and for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis 1 week postoperation. Histological examination showed significantly increased hyaluronic acid and decreased deposition of dense collagen in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. Immunohistochemical examination showed significantly decreased collagen type III deposition in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. qRT-PCR revealed that hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), Has3, and hepatocyte growth factor were upregulated in bFGF-treated groups compared with sham-treated group. The current results suggest that local application of bFGF at the time of injury has the potential to prevent vocal fold scarring. Preventive injection of bFGF could be applied at the time of phonomicrosurgery to avoid postoperative scar formation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:E67-E74, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Significance of the pseudo capsule on MRI of renal neoplasms and its potential application for local staging: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine S.R.; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Lindner, Veronique; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in showing a pseudocapsule for local staging of renal tumors, and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Materials And Methods. Eighty tumors (73 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs] and seven oncocytomas)were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. MRI findings were assessed with a special focus on perinephric fat and pseudocapsule. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. Results. At pathology, a pseudocapsule was recognized in 79 cases. Twenty- three RCC were staged pT3a (21 clear cell; two papillary). MR images exhibited a pseudocapsule in 90% of cases as a hypointense rim surrounding the tumor on T2-weighted images. MRI findings concerning isolated analysis of the pseudocapsule for differentiating stage T1/T2 from T3a were densitivity: 86%, 50%; specificity: 95%, 92%; positive predictive value: 95%, 33%; negative predictive value: 88%, 92%; and accuracy: 93%, 89%, for clear cell and papillary types, respectively. For stage T3a, with both abnormalities of the pseudocapsule and perirenal fat, Results were, for overall RCC sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 95%; positive predictive value: 91%; negative predictive value: 91%; and accuracy: 91%. Conclusion. The identification of the pseudocapsule offers an additional value for local staging by MRI. The presence of an intact pseudocapsule is a sign of lack of perinephric fat invasion. It is more likely to predict that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (author)

  10. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are amphiphilic

  11. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  12. Experimental study of effectiveness of local application of electroneurostimulation, cortexin and methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsymbaliuk V.I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tasks were to investigate the effect of topical electroneurostimulation, cortexin and methy¬lprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury in electrophysiological experiments on laboratory rats. The animals un¬derwent half transection of the spinal cord in the lower-thoracic area to simulate Brown-Sequard’s syndrome. Drugs were administered subdurally once daily in the dose of 0.03 mg for cortexin and 0.7 mg for methylprednisolone during 72 hours. Electrophysiological studies were carried out using standard electrophysiological apparatus. Reliable changes of bioelectric indicators in neuromuscular complex during topical application of electrical stimulation, as well as in administered methylprednisolone, failed to be found. However, local application of cortexin in terms of traumatic spinal cord injury due the antioxidant and neurotrophic effect results in improvement of bioelectrical indicators; this is manifested in reliable (p<0.05 increase of amplitude of the background electromyogram impulses at rest by 33% and increase of spontaneous oscillations frequency by 29.82%.

  13. Changes in haematological indices following local application of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein after tenotomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pecin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is the most important cytokine in the inflammation cascade activation in all tissues and is present in acute and chronic phases of inflammation. By blocking IL-1 binding to target cells, numerous inflammation processes are prevented. The use of autologous conditioned serum rich with IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra is a novel treatment method of tendon inflammation in domestic animals and humans. Injections of autologous conditioned serum (ACS have demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety in animal models and humans in the treatment of osteoarthritis, disc prolapse and muscles and tendons injuries with low side effect. Neutropaenia, reduced white blood cell count, and infections or local irritations are described as side effects of IL-1 antagonist use in humans. Therefore, a study of blood changes in rabbits after local administration of IL-1Ra in the Achilles tendon tissue after iatrogenic inflammation was conducted. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein was used to prevent and reduce tendon inflammation after longitudinal tenotomy. The study was done on 26 white Californian rabbits, divided into two equal groups consisting of 13 animals each; the experimental interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (irap group, and the control group. In the irap group, autologous serum rich with IL-1Ra was used (Orthokine®vet irap, Alfa-Arthro, Croatia. Differences between two groups were considered significant as changes in the blood for certain blood elements at P < 0.01. The P value was P = 0.0153 for the white blood cells, P = 0.00153 for neutrophils, P = 0.00017 and for platelets. In the control group, an increased platelet count was noticed in 70% of blood samples and a decreased neutrophil count was found in all of the irap group samples at the end of the study in comparison to the initial blood count prior to application.

  14. Tourniquet application after local forearm warming to improve venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation in young and middle-aged adults: A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Yuki; Tomita, Kohei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Inoue, Tomoko

    2017-07-01

    Local forearm warming before tourniquet application is often used to promote venodilation for peripheral intravenous cannulation; however, few studies have compared the effect of tourniquet application with and without local warming on vein size. To evaluate the effectiveness of tourniquet application after local forearm warming with that of tourniquet application alone in young and middle-aged adults. A single-blind, prospective, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. A national university in Japan. Seventy-two volunteers aged 20-64 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: tourniquet application for 30s after forearm application of a heat pack warmed to 40°C±2°C for 15min (active warming group; n=36) or tourniquet application for 30s after applying a non-warmed heat pack for 15min (passive warming group; n=36). The primary outcomes were vein cross-sectional area on the forearm, measured after the intervention by blinded research assistants using ultrasound. Secondary outcomes were shortest diameter, and longest diameter of vein on the forearm, forearm skin temperature, body temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. All outcomes were assessed at the same site before and immediately after the intervention, once per participant. Vein cross-sectional area, shortest vein diameter, and longest vein diameter were significantly increased in the active warming group compared with the passive warming group (p application after local warming was superior to tourniquet application alone in increasing vein cross-sectional, shortest diameter, and longest diameter (between-group differences of 2.2mm 2 , 0.5mm, and 0.5mm, respectively), and in raising skin temperature (between-group difference: 5.2°C). However, there were no significant differences in body temperature, pulse, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There were no adverse events associated with either intervention. Tourniquet

  15. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  16. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  17. Application of the local-to-global approach to the study of infilled frame structures under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, D.

    2000-01-01

    The seismic performance of civil engineering structures may be estimated by using two levels of modelling. At the local level, each constituent has its own constitutive law and geometric finite element support. The main phenomena such as the cracking and the crushing of concrete and masonry could be reproduced by using the continuous damage or plasticity theories. However the cost of the computations does not allow extensive or dynamic studies and thus the global level - where the constitutive laws based on empirical rules reproduce the behaviour of the structural elements - represents the unique strategy for the analysis of complete civil engineering structures under seismic loading. The present paper aims at presenting the application of these two modelling levels in order to assess the seismic performance of masonry infilled R/C frame structures. The one-bay masonry infilled frames tested at Lisbon under cyclic loading and the four-storey building tested at ELSA have been used for the validation of the modelling approach. (orig.)

  18. Local application of SCH 39166 reversibly and dose-dependently decreases acetylcholine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-11-03

    The effect of local application by reverse dialysis of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride (SCH 39166) on acetylcholine release was studied in awake, freely moving rats implanted with concentric microdialysis probes in the dorsal striatum. In these experiments, the reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, neostigmine, was added to the perfusion solution at two different concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1 microM. SCH 39166 (1, 5 and 10 microM), in the presence of 0.01 microM neostigmine, reversibly decreased striatal acetylcholine release (1 microM SCH 39166 by 8+/-4%; 5 microM SCH 39166 by 24+/-5%; 10 microM SCH 39166 by 27+/-7%, from basal). Similarly, SCH 39166, applied in the presence of a higher neostigmine concentration (0.1 microM), decreased striatal acetylcholine release by 14+/-4% at 1 microM, by 28+/-8% at 5 microM and by 30+/-5% at 10 microM, in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the existence of a facilitatory tone of dopamine on striatal acetylcholine transmission mediated by dopamine D(1) receptors located on striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  19. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  20. A thermal technique for local ultrasound intensity measurement: part 2. Application to exposimetry on a medical diagnostic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, V

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic output measurements on medical ultrasound equipment are usually performed using radiation force balances to determine the output power and using hydrophones to determine pressure and intensity parameters. The local temporal-average ultrasound intensity can be measured alternatively by thermal sensors. The technique was described and prototype sensors were characterized in a preceding paper. Here, the application of such a thermal intensity sensor to the output beam characterization of a typical medical diagnostic device is described. Two transducers, a 7.5 MHz linear array and a 3.5 MHz convex array were investigated in different operating modes. For comparison, hydrophone measurements were also performed. If the spatial averaging effect is taken into account, good agreement is found between both measurement methods. The maximum deviations of the spatial-peak temporal-average intensities I SPTA obtained with the thermal sensor from the corresponding hydrophone-based results were below 12%. The simple thermal technique offers advantages for intensity measurements especially in the case of scanning and combined modes of the diagnostic device, where the synchronization between hydrophone measurements and the complex pulse emission pattern can be difficult

  1. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3 on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fruit quality, 50 mg/l GA3 treatment increased the juice content, K+, TSS, total sugar and sugar acid ratio of wax apple fruits. In addition, higher vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, carotene content, PAL and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between the peel colour and TSS content and between the PAL activity and anthocyanin formation in the GA3-treated fruit. It was concluded that rubbing with 50 mg/L GA3 at inflorescence developing point of phloem once a week from the tiny inflorescence bud until the flower opening resulted in better yield and quality of wax apple fruits and could be an effective technique to safe the environment from excessive spray.

  2. Local gradient Gabor pattern (LGGP) with applications in face recognition, cross-spectral matching, and soft biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cunjian; Ross, Arun

    2013-05-01

    Researchers in face recognition have been using Gabor filters for image representation due to their robustness to complex variations in expression and illumination. Numerous methods have been proposed to model the output of filter responses by employing either local or global descriptors. In this work, we propose a novel but simple approach for encoding Gradient information on Gabor-transformed images to represent the face, which can be used for identity, gender and ethnicity assessment. Extensive experiments on the standard face benchmark FERET (Visible versus Visible), as well as the heterogeneous face dataset HFB (Near-infrared versus Visible), suggest that the matching performance due to the proposed descriptor is comparable against state-of-the-art descriptor-based approaches in face recognition applications. Furthermore, the same feature set is used in the framework of a Collaborative Representation Classification (CRC) scheme for deducing soft biometric traits such as gender and ethnicity from face images in the AR, Morph and CAS-PEAL databases.

  3. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Clinical effectiveness of local application of beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with eosinophil infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Sachio; Takeda, Kazumasa; Nishi, Yasuyuki; Ishino, Takashi; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with eosinophil infiltration is characterized by unrestrained proliferation of eosinophils that form clusters in the mucus where they release toxic granules. The mechanisms by which eosinophilic inflammation damages the epithelium and contributes to recurrent acute exacerbations in the disease have not been fully elucidated. Local or systematic administration of glucocorticoids is considered to be potent treatment strategy to prevent relapse of nasal poyposis. In the present study, we assessed whether topical instillation of beclomethasone dipropionate dry powder onto the paranasal sinus improved the post-operative nasal symptoms and radiological sinus scores in patients with CRS after appropriate surgical intervention. Eighteen CRS patients with eosinophil infiltration who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were recruited. The patients were treated with 800 μg beclomethasone every two weeks using an application device at least for 2 months. We found an improvement in the endoscopic appearance scores in 91.4% of patients who received beclomethasone. The result was better than that obtained from the previous study treated with conventional post-operative therapy (71.7%). Significant decreases in the averaged CT scores for the paranasal sinuses were noted from 5.62 to 1.93 after treatment. We consider that topical use of beclomethasone dry powder is effective for the post-surgical treatment of CRS with eosinophil infiltration through the control of the inflammatory process that persists in the nasal cavity. (author)

  5. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  6. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    superpositions of atomic states with surface states appearing close to the atomic excitation energies and interior states being blue shifted by up to ≈2 eV. The dynamics resulting from excitation of He_7 were subsequently explored using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). These simulations were performed with classical adiabatic dynamics coupled to a new state-following algorithm on CIS potential energy surfaces. Most clusters were found to completely dissociate and resulted in a single excited atomic state (90%), however, some trajectories formed bound, He*2 (3%), and a few yielded excited trimers (<0.5%). Comparisons were made with available experimental information on much larger clusters. Various applications of this state following algorithm are also presented. In addition to AIMD, these include excited-state geometry optimization and minimal energy path finding via the growing string method. When using state following we demonstrate that more physical results can be obtained with AIMD calculations. Also, the optimized geometries of three excited states of cytosine, two of which were not found without state following, and the minimal energy path between the lowest two singlet excited states of protonated formaldimine are offered as example applications. Finally, to address large clusters, a local variation of CIS was developed. This method exploits the properties of absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs) to limit the total number of excitations to scaling only linearly with cluster size, which results in formal scaling with the third power of the system size. The derivation of the equations and design of the algorithm are discussed in detail, and computational timings as well as a pilot application to the size dependence of the helium cluster spectrum are presented.

  7. The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Semra; Akyuz, Aygul; Tunay, Servet

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy. A randomised clinical trial design. The sample consisted of patients (n = 96) who were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis. During the application stage, patients were designated to the hot and cold application groups and administered hot and cold application twice a day for 3 weeks together with standard osteoarthritis treatment. The control group only used standard osteoarthritis treatment. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, a Pain Scale, the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and a Patient Satisfaction Evaluation Form. Outcome measures included pain intensity, functional status and quality of life. We found decreased primary measurement pain scores and improved functional status scores and quality of life scores after the application programme compared to the pre-application stage in both the hot and cold application groups. Once the application was completed, the pain scores, functional status scores and quality-of-life scores on the second measurements were found to be still statistically lower than the pre-application scores but higher than the first measurement ([p  .05). It was found that both hot and cold application resulted in a mild improvement in pain, functional status and quality of life, but this improvement was not sufficient to create a significant difference between the groups. This study contributes to the literature on hot and cold application methods as self-management strategies for patients with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 John Wiley

  8. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  9. Applicability of direct agglutination test (DAT) at a rural health setting in Bangladesh and feasibility of local antigen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, M S; al Masum, A; al Karim, E; Semiáo-Santos, S; Rahman, K M; Ar-Rashid, H; el Harith, A

    1993-01-01

    As part of a large-scale sero-epidemiological survey on visceral leishmaniasis (VL) carried out in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh, applicability of DAT was assessed at the level of a rural health setting in Trishal (upazila) subdistrict. Despite the relatively less optimal conditions encountered, 5854 inhabitants from 7 villages appendant to Trishal were assessed for VL. The demographic distribution for sero-positivity obtained at the rural setting was comparable to that found by DAT as executed at the central laboratory (IEDC&R, Dhaka) on 9619 inhabitants from the same upazila. The overall sero-prevalence rate was 4.4% compared to 3.7% obtained in the population assessed at the central laboratory. In either study, similar VL prevalence rates of 2.1% were obtained in the male populations. Irrespective of sex, younger population ( or = 90 years (1.4% and 1.8%). Local production of DAT antigen employing an authochtonus L. donovani isolate was attempted at the central laboratory (IEDC&R) in Dhaka. By comparison with the reference antigen, titres obtained in all 33 VL sera tested were equally higher (1:6400- > or =: 51200) than in 35 out of 38 negative controls (< or = 1:400-1:1600). A comparable level of reactivity was also obtained in 53 VL and 52 negative control sera using a well characterized L. donovani strain (MHOM/IN/80/D88) from India. However, unlike the reference strain, titres obtained in 7 endemic controls were significantly higher with the authochtonous and homologous antigen (1:3200 - 1:6400) than with the reference (1:100 - 1:1600). The results signify the advantage of employing indigenous L. donovani isolates to further improve DAT sensitivity for detection of early and sub-clinical VL.

  10. 3D micro-particle image modeling and its application in measurement resolution investigation for visual sensing based axial localization in an optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolai; Bi, Shusheng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2017-01-01

    Visual sensing based three dimensional (3D) particle localization in an optical microscope is important for both fundamental studies and practical applications. Compared with the lateral ( X and Y ) localization, it is more challenging to achieve a high resolution measurement of axial particle location. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of different factors on axial measurement resolution through an analytical approach. Analytical models were developed to simulate 3D particle imaging in an optical microscope. A radius vector projection method was applied to convert the simulated particle images into radius vectors. With the obtained radius vectors, a term of axial changing rate was proposed to evaluate the measurement resolution of axial particle localization. Experiments were also conducted for comparison with that obtained through simulation. Moreover, with the proposed method, the effects of particle size on measurement resolution were discussed. The results show that the method provides an efficient approach to investigate the resolution of axial particle localization. (paper)

  11. Modelling of local steam condensation on walls in presence of noncondensable gases. Application to a local calculation in reactor containment using the multidimensional geyser code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L.V.; Caroli, C.; Cornet, P.; Coulon, N.; Magnaud, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The frame of this paper is the study of severe accidents of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The need for containment modelling, and in particular for hydrogen risk study, was reinforced in France after 1990, with the requirement of taking into account severe accidents in design of future plants. This new need of assessing the transient local hydrogen concentration incited us to develop the multidimensional code GEYSER for containment analysis. This code, developed by the Department of Mechanics and Technology of the French Atomic Energy Commission, is presented here with a detailed example of calculation. We describe the mixture, whose constituents are noncondensable gases (air or air and hydrogen) and water vapor liquid, by a compressible homogeneous diphasic model. The wall condensation is based on the Chilton-Colburn formulation and heat mass transfer analogy. We present a transient two-dimensional axisymmetric calculation of a simplified accidental sequence during one hour. The calculation in the large volume of a reactor containment consists of an injection of vapor, first important then moderate, followed by an injection of hydrogen. (authors). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—for services excess of the local agency's standard work day or work weekPC2: Experts and consultants... unit of local government. OS Other Contractual Services OS1: Contracts for technical or scientific analysis—for tasks requiring specialized hazardous sustance response expertiseOS2: Decontamination services...

  13. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    automatic method to localize radio-opaque applicators of arbitrary shape from measured 2D x-ray projections. The results demonstrate ∼1 mm accuracy while compared against the measured applicator projections. No lateral film is needed. By localizing the applicator internal structure as well as radioactive sources, the effect of intra-applicator and interapplicator attenuation can be included in the resultant dose calculations. Further validation tests using clinically acquired tandem and colpostats images will be performed for the accurate and robust applicator/sources localization in ICB patients.

  14. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    , fast, and completely automatic method to localize radio-opaque applicators of arbitrary shape from measured 2D x-ray projections. The results demonstrate {approx}1 mm accuracy while compared against the measured applicator projections. No lateral film is needed. By localizing the applicator internal structure as well as radioactive sources, the effect of intra-applicator and interapplicator attenuation can be included in the resultant dose calculations. Further validation tests using clinically acquired tandem and colpostats images will be performed for the accurate and robust applicator/sources localization in ICB patients.

  15. Localizing intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from cone-beam CT x-ray projections via a novel iterative forward projection matching algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J; Todor, Dorin A; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2011-02-01

    localize radio-opaque applicators of arbitrary shape from measured 2D x-ray projections. The results demonstrate approximately 1 mm accuracy while compared against the measured applicator projections. No lateral film is needed. By localizing the applicator internal structure as well as radioactive sources, the effect of intra-applicator and interapplicator attenuation can be included in the resultant dose calculations. Further validation tests using clinically acquired tandem and colpostats images will be performed for the accurate and robust applicator/sources localization in ICB patients.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules: is it Necessary to Use Local Anesthesia for the Application of One Needle Puncture?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Rho, Myung Ho; Kim, Ki Nam

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the difference in the degree of patient pain for an ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (USFNAB) of a thyroid nodule with one needle puncture with and without local anesthesia. A total of 50 patients participated in the study. We examined prospective patients who would undergo US-FNABs of two thyroid nodules (larger than 10 mm maximum diameter), which were located in separate thyroid lobes. For one of these thyroid nodules, US-FNAB was performed following the administration of local anesthesia; for the other nodule, no anesthesia was administered. The application of anesthesia was alternatively administered between patients (either prior to the first US-FNAB procedure or prior to the second procedure). For all patients, the degree of pain during and after each US-guided FNAB was evaluated according to a 4-category verbal rating scale (VRS), an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean maximum diameters of thyroid nodules examined by US-FNAB with the use of local anesthesia and with no local anesthesia were 13.6 mm and 13.0 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in nodule size (p > 0.05) between two groups. For the VRS, there were 27 patients with a higher pain score when local anesthesia was used and four patients with a higher pain score when no local anesthesia was administered. Nineteen patients had equivalent pain score for both treatments. This finding was statistically significant (p < 0.001). For the NRS, there were 33 patients with a higher pain score when local anesthesia was used and 10 patients with a higher pain score when no local anesthesia was administered. Seven patients had an equivalent pain score for each treatment. This finding was statistically significant (p < 0.001). For the VAS, there were 35 patients with a higher pain score when local anesthesia was used and 11 patients with a higher pain score where no local anesthesia was

  17. Fabrication of amorphous silicon nanoribbons by atomic force microscope tip-induced local oxidation for thin film device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L; Rogel, R; Demami, F

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of induced local oxidation of amorphous silicon by atomic force microscopy. The resulting local oxide is used as a mask for the elaboration of a thin film silicon resistor. A thin amorphous silicon layer deposited on a glass substrate is locally oxidized following narrow continuous lines. The corresponding oxide line is then used as a mask during plasma etching of the amorphous layer leading to the formation of a nanoribbon. Such an amorphous silicon nanoribbon is used for the fabrication of the resistor

  18. Fusion of cooperative localization data with dynamic object information using data communication for preventative vehicle safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeden, H.; Schwarz, D.; Rasshofer, R. H.; Biebl, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cooperative sensors allow for reliable detection, classification and localization of objects in the vehicle's surroundings - even without a line-of-sight contact to the object. The sensor principle is based on a communication signal between the vehicle and a transponder attached to the object of interest - a pedestrian, for example. Thereby, localization information is gathered by measuring the round-trip time-of-flight (RTOF) and evaluating the angle-of-arrival (AOA) of the incident signal. After that, tracking algorithms are used to recover the kinematic state of the object providing a basis for situation assessment. This paper investigates possibilities and benefits of extending this principle by the communication of information from inertial sensors which are locally attached to the transponder. Furthermore, this paper presents a robust approach for fusing the localization data with dynamic object information using the Dempster-Shafer theory. The approach is evaluated by performing real-world experiments for the analysis of pedestrian accidents.

  19. Monitoring the Fiscal Health of Taiwan's Local Government: Application of the 10-Point Scale of Fiscal Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Hong Ho; Chiung-Ju Huang

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a monitoring indicators system that predicts whether a local government in Taiwan is heading for fiscal distress and identifies a suitable fiscal policy that would allow the local government to achieve fiscal balance in the long run. This system is relevant to stockholders’ interest, simple for national audit bodies to use, and provides an early warning of fiscal distress that allows preventative action to be taken.

  20. Texture Retrieval from VHR Optical Remote Sensed Images Using the Local Extrema Descriptor with Application to Vineyard Parcel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tan Pham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we develop a novel method for the detection of vineyard parcels in agricultural landscapes based on very high resolution (VHR optical remote sensing images. Our objective is to perform texture-based image retrieval and supervised classification algorithms. To do that, the local textural and structural features inside each image are taken into account to measure its similarity to other images. In fact, VHR images usually involve a variety of local textures and structures that may verify a weak stationarity hypothesis. Hence, an approach only based on characteristic points, not on all pixels of the image, is supposed to be relevant. This work proposes to construct the local extrema-based descriptor (LED by using the local maximum and local minimum pixels extracted from the image. The LED descriptor is formed based on the radiometric, geometric and gradient features from these local extrema. We first exploit the proposed LED descriptor for the retrieval task to evaluate its performance on texture discrimination. Then, it is embedded into a supervised classification framework to detect vine parcels using VHR satellite images. Experiments performed on VHR panchromatic PLEIADES image data prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, an enhancement of about 7% in retrieval rate is achieved. For the detection task, about 90% of vineyards are correctly detected.

  1. THE APPLICATION OF KENDURI SKO LOCAL CULTURE AS LEARNING RESOURCES TO INCREASE HISTORY AWARENESS OF STUDENTS (CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH IN CLASS SOCIAL X, PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL 2 KERINCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvetri Salvetri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to overcome the lack of students’ history awareness through the application of local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource. The research was conducted in class X IS 3 SMA Negeri 2 Kerinci. The method used is Classroom Action Research. The results showed that: (1 teachers have implemented learning in accordance with the design of learning; (2 learning history using local culture of Kenduri Sko as a learning resource has succeeded in increasing the awareness of learners' history that is knowledge and understanding of learners about cultural change, interest in history study, pride of local culture; (3 constraints faced by partner teachers is to measure the attitudes and behaviors of learners.

  2. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  3. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications

  4. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers cedex (France)

    2004-09-07

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications.

  5. Framework for near-field-communication-based geo-localization and personalization for Android-based smartphones--application in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Philipp; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Various applications using near field communication (NFC) have been developed for the medical sector. As a method of short-range wireless contact-driven data transfer, NFC is a useful tool in medicine. It can be used to transfer data such as blood pressure, control adherence to medication, or transmit in vivo data. The first proposed general framework uses NFC as a mechanism for indoor geo-localization in hospitals. NFC geo-localization is economical compared to classical concepts using indoor GPS or WLAN triangulation, and the granularity of location retrieval can be defined at a tag level. Using this framework, we facilitate the development of medical applications that require exact indoor geo-localization. Multi-user Android systems are addressed in the second framework. Using private NFC tags, users are able to carry on their personal settings for enabled applications. This eliminates the need for multiple user accounts on common Android devices, improves usability, and eases technical administration. Based on the prototypes presented here, we show a novel concept of using NFC-enabled Android devices in hospital environments.

  6. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization; Recherche lineaire et fusion de donnees par ajustement de faisceaux; Application a la localisation par vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, J.

    2010-12-09

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  7. Two-Stage Method Based on Local Polynomial Fitting for a Linear Heteroscedastic Regression Model and Its Application in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the extension of local polynomial fitting to the linear heteroscedastic regression model. Firstly, the local polynomial fitting is applied to estimate heteroscedastic function, then the coefficients of regression model are obtained by using generalized least squares method. One noteworthy feature of our approach is that we avoid the testing for heteroscedasticity by improving the traditional two-stage method. Due to nonparametric technique of local polynomial estimation, we do not need to know the heteroscedastic function. Therefore, we can improve the estimation precision, when the heteroscedastic function is unknown. Furthermore, we focus on comparison of parameters and reach an optimal fitting. Besides, we verify the asymptotic normality of parameters based on numerical simulations. Finally, this approach is applied to a case of economics, and it indicates that our method is surely effective in finite-sample situations.

  8. Similarity-transformed perturbation theory on top of truncated local coupled cluster solutions: Theory and applications to intermolecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Richard Julian, E-mail: julianazar2323@berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Your correspondents develop and apply fully nonorthogonal, local-reference perturbation theories describing non-covalent interactions. Our formulations are based on a Löwdin partitioning of the similarity-transformed Hamiltonian into a zeroth-order intramonomer piece (taking local CCSD solutions as its zeroth-order eigenfunction) plus a first-order piece coupling the fragments. If considerations are limited to a single molecule, the proposed intermolecular similarity-transformed perturbation theory represents a frozen-orbital variant of the “(2)”-type theories shown to be competitive with CCSD(T) and of similar cost if all terms are retained. Different restrictions on the zeroth- and first-order amplitudes are explored in the context of large-computation tractability and elucidation of non-local effects in the space of singles and doubles. To accurately approximate CCSD intermolecular interaction energies, a quadratically growing number of variables must be included at zeroth-order.

  9. A novel method for the extraction of local gravity wave parameters from gridded three-dimensional data: description, validation, and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schoon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the local diagnosis of wave properties, we develop, validate, and apply a novel method which is based on the Hilbert transform. It is called Unified Wave Diagnostics (UWaDi. It provides the wave amplitude and three-dimensional wave number at any grid point for gridded three-dimensional data. UWaDi is validated for a synthetic test case comprising two different wave packets. In comparison with other methods, the performance of UWaDi is very good with respect to wave properties and their location. For a first practical application of UWaDi, a minor sudden stratospheric warming on 30 January 2016 is chosen. Specifying the diagnostics for hydrostatic inertia–gravity waves in analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, we detect the local occurrence of gravity waves throughout the middle atmosphere. The local wave characteristics are discussed in terms of vertical propagation using the diagnosed local amplitudes and wave numbers. We also note some hints on local inertia–gravity wave generation by the stratospheric jet from the detection of shallow slow waves in the vicinity of its exit region.

  10. Calculation of wave-functions with frozen orbitals in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. II. Application of the local basis equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G

    2013-04-05

    The application of the local basis equation (Ferenczy and Adams, J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 130, 134108) in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics (QM/QM) methods is investigated. This equation is suitable to derive local basis nonorthogonal orbitals that minimize the energy of the system and it exhibits good convergence properties in a self-consistent field solution. These features make the equation appropriate to be used in mixed QM/MM and QM/QM methods to optimize orbitals in the field of frozen localized orbitals connecting the subsystems. Calculations performed for several properties in divers systems show that the method is robust with various choices of the frozen orbitals and frontier atom properties. With appropriate basis set assignment, it gives results equivalent with those of a related approach [G. G. Ferenczy previous paper in this issue] using the Huzinaga equation. Thus, the local basis equation can be used in mixed QM/MM methods with small size quantum subsystems to calculate properties in good agreement with reference Hartree-Fock-Roothaan results. It is shown that bond charges are not necessary when the local basis equation is applied, although they are required for the self-consistent field solution of the Huzinaga equation based method. Conversely, the deformation of the wave-function near to the boundary is observed without bond charges and this has a significant effect on deprotonation energies but a less pronounced effect when the total charge of the system is conserved. The local basis equation can also be used to define a two layer quantum system with nonorthogonal localized orbitals surrounding the central delocalized quantum subsystem. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Both systemic and local application of Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF is neuroprotective after retinal ganglion cell axotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Gunnar PH

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hematopoietic Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF plays a crucial role in controlling the number of neutrophil progenitor cells. Its function is mediated via the G-CSF receptor, which was recently found to be expressed also in the central nervous system. In addition, G-CSF provided neuroprotection in models of neuronal cell death. Here we used the retinal ganglion cell (RGC axotomy model to compare effects of local and systemic application of neuroprotective molecules. Results We found that the G-CSF receptor is robustly expressed by RGCs in vivo and in vitro. We thus evaluated G-CSF as a neuroprotectant for RGCs and found a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of G-CSF on axotomized RGCs when given subcutaneously. As stem stell mobilization had previously been discussed as a possible contributor to the neuroprotective effects of G-CSF, we compared the local treatment of RGCs by injection of G-CSF into the vitreous body with systemic delivery by subcutaneous application. Both routes of application reduced retinal ganglion cell death to a comparable extent. Moreover, G-CSF enhanced the survival of immunopurified RGCs in vitro. Conclusion We thus show that G-CSF neuroprotection is at least partially independent of potential systemic effects and provide further evidence that the clinically applicable G-CSF could become a treatment option for both neurodegenerative diseases and glaucoma.

  12. Dirichlet Process Gaussian-mixture model: An application to localizing coalescing binary neutron stars with gravitational-wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozzo, W.; Berry, C. P. L.; Ghosh, A.; Haines, T. S. F.; Singer, L. P.; Vecchio, A.

    2018-06-01

    We reconstruct posterior distributions for the position (sky area and distance) of a simulated set of binary neutron-star gravitational-waves signals observed with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We use a Dirichlet Process Gaussian-mixture model, a fully Bayesian non-parametric method that can be used to estimate probability density functions with a flexible set of assumptions. The ability to reliably reconstruct the source position is important for multimessenger astronomy, as recently demonstrated with GW170817. We show that for detector networks comparable to the early operation of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, typical localization volumes are ˜104-105 Mpc3 corresponding to ˜102-103 potential host galaxies. The localization volume is a strong function of the network signal-to-noise ratio, scaling roughly ∝ϱnet-6. Fractional localizations improve with the addition of further detectors to the network. Our Dirichlet Process Gaussian-mixture model can be adopted for localizing events detected during future gravitational-wave observing runs, and used to facilitate prompt multimessenger follow-up.

  13. Effects of local application of methylprednisolone delivered by the C/GP-hydrogel on the recovery of facial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiuhua; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Wang, Yan; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Local administration of MP delivered by the C/GP-MP-hydrogel can improve the recovery of facial nerve following crush injury. The findings suggested that locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel might be a promising treatment for facial nerve damage. In this study, the aim is to assess the effectiveness of locally administrating methylprednisolone(MP) loaded by chitosan-β-glycerophosphate hydrogel (C/GP-hydrogel) on the regeneration of facial nerve crush injury. After the crush of left facial nerves, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four different groups. Then, four different therapies were used to treat the damaged facial nerves. At the 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) week after injury, the functional recovery of facial nerves and the morphological changes of facial nerves were assessed. The expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein in the facial nucleus were also evaluated. Locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel effectively accelerated the facial functional recovery. In addition, the regenerated facial nerves in the C/GP-MP group were more mature than those in the other groups. The expression of GAP-43 protein was also improved by the MP, especially in the C/GP-MP group.

  14. Non-parametric identification of multivariable systems : a local rational modeling approach with application to a vibration isolation benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhoeve, R.J.; van der Maas, A.; Oomen, T.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Frequency response function (FRF) identification is often used as a basis for control systems design and as a starting point for subsequent parametric system identification. The aim of this paper is to develop a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) local parametric modeling approach for FRF

  15. 47 CFR 20.20 - Conditions applicable to provision of CMRS service by incumbent Local Exchange Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... affiliated incumbent LEC, and use its affiliated incumbent LEC's marketing and other services, subject to paragraphs (a)(3) and (c) of this section. (c) Joint marketing. Joint marketing of local exchange and... and made available for public inspection upon request at the principle place of business of the...

  16. Local lymph node activation in rats after dermal application of the sensitizers 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and trimellitic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Dröge, S.C.M.; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Five rat strains were compared for their performance in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) a promising test system for the identification of the skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals in the mouse. The contact sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and the contact and respiratory sensitizer

  17. Influence of local wind speed and direction on wind power dynamics – Application to offshore very short-term forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Cristobal; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Wind power time series usually show complex dynamics mainly due to non-linearities related to the wind physics and the power transformation process in wind farms. This article provides an approach to the incorporation of observed local variables (wind speed and direction) to model some of these e......Wind power time series usually show complex dynamics mainly due to non-linearities related to the wind physics and the power transformation process in wind farms. This article provides an approach to the incorporation of observed local variables (wind speed and direction) to model some...... on one-step ahead forecasting and a time series resolution of 10 min. It has been found that the local wind direction contributes to model some features of the prevailing winds, such as the impact of the wind direction on the wind variability, whereas the non-linearities related to the power...... transformation process can be introduced by considering the local wind speed. In both cases, conditional parametric models showed a better performance than the one achieved by the regime-switching strategy. The results attained reinforce the idea that each explanatory variable allows the modelling of different...

  18. Towards achieving a reliable leakage detection and localization algorithm for application in water piping networks: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, KB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leakage detection and localization in pipelines has become an important aspect of water management systems. Since monitoring leakage in large-scale water distribution networks (WDNs) is a challenging task, the need to develop a reliable and robust...

  19. CMASA: an accurate algorithm for detecting local protein structural similarity and its application to enzyme catalytic site annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gong-Hua

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid development of structural genomics has resulted in many "unknown function" proteins being deposited in Protein Data Bank (PDB, thus, the functional prediction of these proteins has become a challenge for structural bioinformatics. Several sequence-based and structure-based methods have been developed to predict protein function, but these methods need to be improved further, such as, enhancing the accuracy, sensitivity, and the computational speed. Here, an accurate algorithm, the CMASA (Contact MAtrix based local Structural Alignment algorithm, has been developed to predict unknown functions of proteins based on the local protein structural similarity. This algorithm has been evaluated by building a test set including 164 enzyme families, and also been compared to other methods. Results The evaluation of CMASA shows that the CMASA is highly accurate (0.96, sensitive (0.86, and fast enough to be used in the large-scale functional annotation. Comparing to both sequence-based and global structure-based methods, not only the CMASA can find remote homologous proteins, but also can find the active site convergence. Comparing to other local structure comparison-based methods, the CMASA can obtain the better performance than both FFF (a method using geometry to predict protein function and SPASM (a local structure alignment method; and the CMASA is more sensitive than PINTS and is more accurate than JESS (both are local structure alignment methods. The CMASA was applied to annotate the enzyme catalytic sites of the non-redundant PDB, and at least 166 putative catalytic sites have been suggested, these sites can not be observed by the Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA. Conclusions The CMASA is an accurate algorithm for detecting local protein structural similarity, and it holds several advantages in predicting enzyme active sites. The CMASA can be used in large-scale enzyme active site annotation. The CMASA can be available by the

  20. Application of tumor-node-metastasis staging 2002 version in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: is it predictive of surgical outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Binkui; Yuan, Yunfei; Chen, Guihua; He, Liru; Zhang, Yaqi; Li, Jinqing; Li, Guohui; Lau, Wan Yee

    2010-01-01

    Locally advanced (pT3-4N0M0) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous group of tumors, which consists of four different categories, including HCC with 'multiple tumors more than 5 cm', 'major vascular invasion', 'invasion of adjacent organs', and 'perforation of visceral peritoneum'. The aim of our study was to verify whether the 2002 version of the Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system could predict surgical outcomes in patients with locally advanced HCC. We retrospectively reviewed 298 patients with pT3-4N0M0 HCC who underwent hepatic resection from 1993 to 2000 in an academic tertiary hospital. Overall survival (OS) and cumulative recurrence rate (CRR) of the four categories of locally advanced HCC patients were compared. In multivariate analysis, major vascular invasion was identified as the most significant factor (HR = 3.291, 95% CI 2.362-4.584, P < 0.001) followed by cirrhosis status on OS, and was found to be the only independent factor of CRR (HR = 2.242, 95% CI 1.811-3.358, P < 0.001) in patients with locally advanced HCC. Among the four categories of locally advanced HCC, OS was significantly worse, and CRR was significantly higher in patients with HCC with major vascular invasion (pT3) than with multiple tumors more than 5 cm (pT3); or tumor invasion of adjacent organs (pT4); or perforation of visceral peritoneum (pT4). No significant differences were observed in OS or CRR between the latter three groups of patients. HCC with major vascular invasion, which are classified as pT3 under the current TNM staging, have the worst prognosis when compared with the other categories of pT3-4 disease. There is a need to redefine the T classification and to stratify locally advanced HCC

  1. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Giacomo, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R., E-mail: rosalba.gaudiuso@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Santagata, A. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Potenza, Via S. Loja, Zona Ind., 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Capitelli, F. [Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); De Pascale, O. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  2. Computer simulation of local atomic displacements in alloys. Application to Guinier-Preston zones in Al-Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyobu, J.; Murata, Y.; Morinaga, M.

    1994-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed for the simulation of local atomic displacements in alloys with face-centered-cubic and body-centered-cubic lattices. The combined use of this program with the Gehlen-Cohen program for the simulation of chemical short-range order completely describes atomic fluctuations in alloys. The method has been applied to the structural simulation of Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in an Al-Cu alloy, using the experimental data of Matsubara and Cohen. Characteristic displacements of atoms have been observed around the GP zones and new structural models including local displacements have been proposed for a single-layer zone and several multilayer zones. (orig.)

  3. Evolution of the local structure of ferric gels and polymers during the crystallisation of iron oxides. Application to uranium trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Marie

    1988-01-01

    A first part of this research thesis reports the study of the structure of the main iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides, and of the protocols for the synthesis of ferric gels. The second part reports a topological approach by EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) of the structure of Mn and Fe oxides and oxy-hydroxides. The third part reports the study of the formation of ferric oxides from aqueous solutions by using a polyhedral approach by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the case of hydrolysis and formation of ferric gels, and in the case of haematite formation from ferric gels. The next parts respectively report the study of the local structure of gels synthesised from iron(II), and the study of the local structure of natural ferric gels. Then, the author reports the study of sites of uranium bonding on ferric gels [fr

  4. On the local field method with the account of spatial dispersion. Application to the optical activity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyu, N. S.; Ekhilevsky, S. G.

    1992-07-01

    For the perfect molecular crystals the equations of the local field method (LFM) with the account of spatial dispersion are formulated. They are used to derive the expression for the crystal polarizability tensor. For the first time within the framework of this method the formula for the gyrotropy tensor of an arbitrary optically active molecular crystal is obtained. This formula is analog of well known relationships of Lorentz-Lorenz.

  5. A comparative analysis of ecosystem services valuation approaches for application at the local scale and in data scarce regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pandeya, B.; Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Hannah, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of the ecosystem services concept across the science and policy arenas, the valuation of ecosystem services to guide sustainable development remains challenging, especially at a local scale and in data scarce regions. In this paper, we review and compare major past and current valuation approaches and discuss their key strengths and weaknesses for guiding policy decisions. To deal with the complexity of methods used in different valuation approa...

  6. Anti‐aging pharmacology in cutaneous wound healing: effects of metformin, resveratrol, and rapamycin by local application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Pan; Sui, Bing‐Dong; Liu, Nu; Lv, Ya‐Jie; Zheng, Chen‐Xi; Lu, Yong‐Bo; Huang, Wen‐Tao; Zhou, Cui‐Hong; Chen, Ji; Pang, Dan‐Lin; Fei, Dong‐Dong; Xuan, Kun; Hu, Cheng‐Hu; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries and are particularly hard to heal in aging. Caloric restriction (CR) is well documented to extend longevity; pharmacologically, profound rejuvenative effects of CR mimetics have been uncovered, especially metformin (MET), resveratrol (RSV), and rapamycin (RAPA). However, locally applied impacts and functional differences of these agents on wound healing remain to be established. Here, we discovered that chronic topical ad...

  7. Complete ensemble local mean decomposition with adaptive noise and its application to fault diagnosis for rolling bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Zhiwen; Miao, Qiang; Zhang, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Mode mixing resulting from intermittent signals is an annoying problem associated with the local mean decomposition (LMD) method. Based on noise-assisted approach, ensemble local mean decomposition (ELMD) method alleviates the mode mixing issue of LMD to some degree. However, the product functions (PFs) produced by ELMD often contain considerable residual noise, and thus a relatively large number of ensemble trials are required to eliminate the residual noise. Furthermore, since different realizations of Gaussian white noise are added to the original signal, different trials may generate different number of PFs, making it difficult to take ensemble mean. In this paper, a novel method is proposed called complete ensemble local mean decomposition with adaptive noise (CELMDAN) to solve these two problems. The method adds a particular and adaptive noise at every decomposition stage for each trial. Moreover, a unique residue is obtained after separating each PF, and the obtained residue is used as input for the next stage. Two simulated signals are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of CELMDAN in comparison to ELMD and CEEMDAN. To further demonstrate the efficiency of CELMDAN, the method is applied to diagnose faults for rolling bearings in an experimental case and an engineering case. The diagnosis results indicate that CELMDAN can extract more fault characteristic information with less interference than ELMD.

  8. Coarse-grained models using local-density potentials optimized with the relative entropy: Application to implicit solvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Tanmoy; Shell, M. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up multiscale techniques are frequently used to develop coarse-grained (CG) models for simulations at extended length and time scales but are often limited by a compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The conventional approach to CG nonbonded interactions uses pair potentials which, while computationally efficient, can neglect the inherently multibody contributions of the local environment of a site to its energy, due to degrees of freedom that were coarse-grained out. This effect often causes the CG potential to depend strongly on the overall system density, composition, or other properties, which limits its transferability to states other than the one at which it was parameterized. Here, we propose to incorporate multibody effects into CG potentials through additional nonbonded terms, beyond pair interactions, that depend in a mean-field manner on local densities of different atomic species. This approach is analogous to embedded atom and bond-order models that seek to capture multibody electronic effects in metallic systems. We show that the relative entropy coarse-graining framework offers a systematic route to parameterizing such local density potentials. We then characterize this approach in the development of implicit solvation strategies for interactions between model hydrophobes in an aqueous environment.

  9. A proposal on restart rule of nuclear power plants with piping having local wall thinning subjected to an earthquake. Former part. Aiming at further application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Restart rule of nuclear power plants (NPPs) with piping having local wall thinning subjected to an earthquake was proposed taking account of local wall thinning, seismic effects and restart of NPPs with applicability of 'Guidelines for NPP Response to an Earthquake (EPRI NP-6695)' in Japan. Japan Earthquake Damage Intensity Scale (JEDIS) and Earthquake Ground Motion Level (EGML) were introduced. JEDIS was classified into four scales obtained from damage level of components and structures of NPPs subjected to an earthquake, while EGML was divided into four levels by safe shutdown earthquake ground motion (So), elastic design earthquake ground motion (Sd) and design earthquake ground motion (Ss). Combination of JEDIS and EGML formulated 4 x 4 matrix and determined detailed conditions of restart of NPPs. As a response to an earthquake, operator walk inspections and evaluation of earthquake ground motion were conducted to know the level of JEDIS. JEDIS level requested respective allowable conditions of restart of NPP, which were scale level dependent and consisted of weighted combination of damage inspection (operator walk inspections, focused inspections/tests and expanded inspections), integrity evaluation and repair/replacement. If JEDIS were assigned greater than 3 with expanded inspections, inspection of piping with local wall thinning, its integrity evaluation and repair/replacement if necessary were requested. Inspection and evaluation of piping with local wall thinning was performed based on JSME or ASME codes. Detailed work flow charts were presented. Carbon steel piping and elbow was chosen for evaluation. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  11. Process for making cylindrical ceramic tubes with local impressions and device for the application of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Immediately after these pipes have been formed they are placed on facilities to make them rotate about their axisymmetrical axis parallel to the axis of the pieces of pipe, pressure application means are applied to them in such a manner that the pieces of pipe are enclosed between the rotational gear and the pressure means. The pressure means or the rotational means are fitted with at least one tool for making impressions. Means to bring about a second relative movement between the pipe and tool(s) are applied so that no appreciable slip occurs. Application to the fabrication of pipes for enrichment by gas diffusion [fr

  12. Towards a Synesthesia Laboratory: Real-time Localization and Visualization of a Sound Source for Virtual Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Ahmet; Tepljakov, Aleksei; Astapov, Sergei; Draheim, Dirk; Petlenkov, Eduard; Vassiljeva, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present our findings related to the problem of localization and visualization of a sound source placed in the same room as the listener. The particular effect that we aim to investigate is called synesthesia—the act of experiencing one sense modality as another, e.g., a person may vividly experience flashes of colors when listening to a series of sounds. Towards that end, we apply a series of recently developed methods for detecting sound source in a three-dimensional space ...

  13. Local and global eulerian gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in realistic geometry with applications to the TCV Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, X.

    2010-04-01

    In magnetically confined fusion devices, the energy and particle transport is significantly larger than expected from purely collisional processes. This degraded confinement mostly results from small-scale turbulence and prevents from reaching self-sustained burning plasma conditions in present day experiments. A better understanding of these nonlinear phenomena is therefore of key importance on the way towards controlled fusion. The small-scale microinstabilities and associated turbulence are investigated for Tokamak plasmas by means of numerical simulations in the frame of the gyrokinetic theory. This model describes the evolution of the particle distribution functions in phase space together with self-consistent electromagnetic fields, while neglecting the fast motion associated with the Larmor orbit of particles around the magnetic field lines. In the course of this thesis work, substantial modifications to the existing Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE have been carried out in collaboration with the Max-Planck- Institute f¨ur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The code has been extended from a local approximation, which only considers a reduced volume of a fusion plasma, to a global version which fully includes radial temperature and density profiles as well as radial magnetic equilibrium variations. To this end, the gyrokinetic equations have been formulated for general magnetic geometry, keeping radial variations of equilibrium quantities, and considering field aligned coordinates, suitable for their numerical implementation. The numerical treatment of the radial direction has been modified from a Fourier representation in the local approach to real space in the global code. This has in particular required to adapt the radial derivatives, the field solver, and to implement a real space dealiasing scheme for the treatment of the nonlinearity. A heat source was in addition introduced to allow for steady state global nonlinear simulations. An important part of

  14. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  15. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF LOCATION BASED ADVERTISING MOBILE APPLICATION WITH INDOOR LOCALIZATION AS A PROMOTION MEDIA IN SHOPPING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Ayu Indraswari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periklanan atau advertising sangat erat hubungannya dengan bisnis atau usaha. Dari sisi konsumen tentu sangat membutuhkan informasi mengenai sebuah produk atau jasa agar kebutuhan dapat terpenuhi dengan efektif. Disamping itu, teknologi perangkat bergerak berkembang cukup pesat dan sudah semakin menyatu dengan kehidupan personal manusia, sehingga secara langsung maupun tidak langsung perangkat bergerak yang dibawa oleh seseorang dapat menjadi sebuah pemancar yang memberikan informasi keberadaan mereka. Oleh sebab itu, dikembangkan sebuah sistem advertising yang dapat memberikan informasi promosi, iklan, dan lain-lain secara langsung kepada konsumen sesuai dengan lokasi saat itu. Tujuan dikembangkannya sistem ini adalah untuk memberikan solusi advertising yang tepat sasaran dan memudahkan konsumen untuk mengetahui promosi yang sedang berlaku pada booth yang sedang mereka kunjungi. Sistem didukung oleh konsep Indoor Localization yang memungkinkan untuk menentukkan lokasi pengguna yang berada didalam ruangan atau gedung. Konsep Indoor Localization diimplementasikan dengan melakukan klasifikasi terhadap data sinyal yang didapat pada waktu tertentu dengan metode Binary Tree Support Vector Machine. Dari data-data tersebut dilakukan pelatihan dan prediksi untuk menentukan lokasi. Tingkat akurasi hasil deteksi lokasi menghasilkan persentase benar sebesar 73%.

  16. A low-carbon scenario creation method for a local-scale economy and its application in Kyoto city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomi, Kei; Shimada, Kouji; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    On May 2008, Kyoto city government set up a low-carbon target of a 50% GHG reduction by 2030 compared to the 1990 level. To contribute to these discussions, we developed a local (city-scale) low-carbon scenario creation method. An estimation model was developed to show a quantitative and consistent future snapshot. The model can explicitly treat the uncertainty of future socio-economic situations, which originate from the openness of local economy. The method was applied to Kyoto city, and countermeasures to achieve the low-carbon target were identified. Without countermeasures, emissions would increase 12% from 2000. Among the measures, the reduction potential of energy efficiency improvements to residential and commercial sectors was found to be relatively large (15% and 18% of total reductions, respectively). The reduction potential of the passenger transport sector, in which the city government's policy is especially important, was 17% of the total amount. A sensitivity analysis showed that a 10% increase in exports leads to an 8.5% increase in CO 2 emissions, and a 20% increase in the share of the commuters from outside the city leads to a 3.5% decrease of CO 2 emissions because of the smaller number of residents in the city.

  17. Application of a dynamic-nanoindentation method to analyze the local structure of an Fe-18 at.% Gd cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Baik, Youl [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Dankook University, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of); Moon, Byung M. [Liquid Processing and Casting Technology R and D Group, KITECH, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dong Seong [Nuclear Engineering Department, UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    A dynamic nanoindentation method was applied to study an Fe-18 at.% Gd alloy as a neutron-absorbing material prepared by vacuum arc-melting and cast in a mold. The Fe-18 at.% Gd cast alloy had a microstructure with matrix phases and an Fe-rich primary dendrite of Fe9Gd. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray spectra showed that the Fe-18 at.% Gd cast alloy consisted of 35.84 at.% Fe3Gd, 6.58 at.% Fe5Gd, 16.22 at.% Fe9Gd, 1.87 at.% Fe2Gd, and 39.49 at.% β-Fe17Gd2. The average nanohardness of the primary dendrite phase and the matrix phases were 8.7 GPa and 9.3 GPa, respectively. The fatigue limit of the matrix phase was approximately 37% higher than that of the primary dendrite phase. The dynamic nanoindentation method is useful for identifying local phases and for analyzing local mechanical properties.

  18. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Mario; Freitas, Raul; Crespi, Antonio L.; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, Joao Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: → Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. → Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. → Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.→ Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.→ Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  19. Automatic mesh refinement and local multigrid methods for contact problems: application to the Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. work takes place within the framework of studies on Pellet-Cladding mechanical Interaction (PCI) which occurs in the fuel rods of pressurized water reactor. This manuscript focuses on automatic mesh refinement to simulate more accurately this phenomena while maintaining acceptable computational time and memory space for industrial calculations. An automatic mesh refinement strategy based on the combination of the Local Defect Correction multigrid method (LDC) with the Zienkiewicz and Zhu a posteriori error estimator is proposed. The estimated error is used to detect the zones to be refined, where the local sub-grids of the LDC method are generated. Several stopping criteria are studied to end the refinement process when the solution is accurate enough or when the refinement does not improve the global solution accuracy anymore. Numerical results for elastic 2D test cases with pressure discontinuity show the efficiency of the proposed strategy. The automatic mesh refinement in case of unilateral contact problems is then considered. The strategy previously introduced can be easily adapted to the multi-body refinement by estimating solution error on each body separately. Post-processing is often necessary to ensure the conformity of the refined areas regarding the contact boundaries. A variety of numerical experiments with elastic contact (with or without friction, with or without an initial gap) confirms the efficiency and adaptability of the proposed strategy. (author) [fr

  20. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  1. Myometrial Cystic Formation after Local Methotrexate Application into Cornual Gestational Sac: A Case Report of an Unexpected Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Sema Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy, and diverse therapeutic options exist for the management. Medical treatment despite high initial beta HCG values is not thought to be safe. We reported a 39-year-old woman with an initial beta HCG value of 22000 mIU/mL and diagnosed of a cornual pregnancy. Patient was managed successfully with the administration of combined systemic and ultrasonographically guided local injection of methotrexate into the gestational sac. During followup with serial beta hcg measurements, 27×20 mm cystic area in myometrium has been detected. Beta hcg <1 mIU/mL value was reached three months later, and this cystic area resolved spontaneously. Systemic methotrexate administration combined with ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection into the gestational sac might be considered as the first-line treatment in the management of hemodynamically stable patients having cornual pregnancy even with high beta HCG values and risk of myometrial cystic formation.

  2. Does objective cluster analysis serve as a useful precursor to seasonal precipitation prediction at local scale? Application to western Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Moges, Semu; Block, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of seasonal precipitation can provide actionable information to guide management of various sectoral activities. For instance, it is often translated into hydrological forecasts for better water resources management. However, many studies assume homogeneity in precipitation across an entire study region, which may prove ineffective for operational and local-level decisions, particularly for locations with high spatial variability. This study proposes advancing local-level seasonal precipitation predictions by first conditioning on regional-level predictions, as defined through objective cluster analysis, for western Ethiopia. To our knowledge, this is the first study predicting seasonal precipitation at high resolution in this region, where lives and livelihoods are vulnerable to precipitation variability given the high reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited water resources infrastructure. The combination of objective cluster analysis, spatially high-resolution prediction of seasonal precipitation, and a modeling structure spanning statistical and dynamical approaches makes clear advances in prediction skill and resolution, as compared with previous studies. The statistical model improves versus the non-clustered case or dynamical models for a number of specific clusters in northwestern Ethiopia, with clusters having regional average correlation and ranked probability skill score (RPSS) values of up to 0.5 and 33 %, respectively. The general skill (after bias correction) of the two best-performing dynamical models over the entire study region is superior to that of the statistical models, although the dynamical models issue predictions at a lower resolution and the raw predictions require bias correction to guarantee comparable skills.

  3. Influence of localized plasticity on Stress Corrosion Cracking of austenitic stainless steel. Application to IASCC of internals reactor core vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, Sarata

    2012-01-01

    The surface conditions of the 316L screw connecting vessel internals of the primary circuit of PWR (pressurized water reactor) corresponds to a grinding condition. These screws are affected by the IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking). Initiation of cracking depends on the surface condition but also on the external oxidation and interactions of oxide layer with the deformation bands. The first objective of this study is to point the influence of surface condition on the growth kinetic of oxide layer, and the surface reactivity of 304, 316 stainless steel grade exposed to PWR primary water at 340 C. The second objective is to determine influence of strain localization on the SCC of austenitic stainless steels in PWR primary water. Indeed, the microstructure of irradiated 304, 316 grades correspond to a localized deformation in deformation bands free of radiation defects. In order to reproduce that microstructure without conducting irradiations, low cycle fatigue tests at controlled stain amplitude are implemented for the model material of the study (A286 austenitic stainless steel hardened by the precipitation of phase γ'Ni3(Ti, Al)). During the mechanical cycling (after the first hardening cycles), the precipitates are dissolved in slip bands leading to the localization of the deformation. Once the right experimental conditions in low cycle fatigue obtained (for localized microstructure), interactions oxidation / deformation bands are studied by oxidizing pre deformed samples containing deformation bands and non deformed samples. The tensile tests at a slow strain rate of 8 x 10 -8 /s are also carried out on pre deformed samples and undeformed samples. The results showed that surface treatment induces microstructural modifications of the metal just under the oxide layer, leading to slower growth kinetics of the oxide layer. However, surface treatment accelerates development of oxides penetrations in metal under the oxide layer. As example, for

  4. Robust Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering with application to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-12-19

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results.

  5. New numerical approximation of fractional derivative with non-local and non-singular kernel: Application to chaotic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufik, Mekkaoui; Atangana, Abdon

    2017-10-01

    Recently a new concept of fractional differentiation with non-local and non-singular kernel was introduced in order to extend the limitations of the conventional Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives. A new numerical scheme has been developed, in this paper, for the newly established fractional differentiation. We present in general the error analysis. The new numerical scheme was applied to solve linear and non-linear fractional differential equations. We do not need a predictor-corrector to have an efficient algorithm, in this method. The comparison of approximate and exact solutions leaves no doubt believing that, the new numerical scheme is very efficient and converges toward exact solution very rapidly.

  6. Significance of application of the nine parametric coordinate transformation where local state network is not enough reliable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Kornelija T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method for establishing the mathematical basis of surveying and spatial data collection is the method of Global Navigation Satellite Positioning System (GNSS. However, these data relate to the World Geodetic Date WGS84 which is different from the State geodetic network,. As a part of realization the project of determining spatial local reference network Mrkonjić Grad the GNSS observations on 15 trigonometric points whose position is known to the State system of coordinates (x, y, h were made. For the purpose of coordinate transformation between the two system two different transformation models were anlyzed. Beside the most commonly used Helmert seven parameter transformation, afina nine parametric transformation was tested. Comparing the two transformations models, conclusion was made that showes some benefits of using affina nine parameter transformation models in Republic of Serpska.

  7. Does objective cluster analysis serve as a useful precursor to seasonal precipitation prediction at local scale? Application to western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seasonal precipitation can provide actionable information to guide management of various sectoral activities. For instance, it is often translated into hydrological forecasts for better water resources management. However, many studies assume homogeneity in precipitation across an entire study region, which may prove ineffective for operational and local-level decisions, particularly for locations with high spatial variability. This study proposes advancing local-level seasonal precipitation predictions by first conditioning on regional-level predictions, as defined through objective cluster analysis, for western Ethiopia. To our knowledge, this is the first study predicting seasonal precipitation at high resolution in this region, where lives and livelihoods are vulnerable to precipitation variability given the high reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited water resources infrastructure. The combination of objective cluster analysis, spatially high-resolution prediction of seasonal precipitation, and a modeling structure spanning statistical and dynamical approaches makes clear advances in prediction skill and resolution, as compared with previous studies. The statistical model improves versus the non-clustered case or dynamical models for a number of specific clusters in northwestern Ethiopia, with clusters having regional average correlation and ranked probability skill score (RPSS values of up to 0.5 and 33 %, respectively. The general skill (after bias correction of the two best-performing dynamical models over the entire study region is superior to that of the statistical models, although the dynamical models issue predictions at a lower resolution and the raw predictions require bias correction to guarantee comparable skills.

  8. Angular dependant micro-ESR characterization of a locally doped Gd3+:Al2O3 hybrid system for quantum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisby, I. S.; de Graaf, S. E.; Gwilliam, R.; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Meeson, P. J.; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya.; Lindstrom, T.

    Rare-earth doped crystals interfaced with superconducting quantum circuitry are an attractive platform for quantum memory and transducer applications. Here we present a detailed characterization of a locally implanted Gd3+ in Al2O3 system coupled to a superconducting micro-resonator, by performing angular dependent micro-electron-spin-resonance (micro-ESR) measurements at mK temperatures. The device is fabricated using a hard Si3N4 mask to facilitate a local ion-implantation technique for precision control of the dopant location. The technique is found not to degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remains above 105 (1). We find the measured angular dependence of the micro-ESR spectra to be in excellent agreement with the modelled Hamiltonian, supporting the conclusion that the dopant ions are successfully integrated into their relevant lattice sites whilst maintaining crystalline symmetries. Furthermore, we observe clear contributions from individual microwave field components of our micro-resonator, emphasising the need for controllable local implantation. 1 Wisby et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 102601 (2014)

  9. Beyond Gisin’s Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chunfeng; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Żukowski, Marek; Kwek, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate here that for a given mixed multi-qubit state if there are at least two observers for whom mutual Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is possible, i.e. each observer is able to steer the other qubits into two different pure states by spontaneous collapses due to von Neumann type measurements on his/her qubit, then nonexistence of local realistic models is fully equivalent to quantum entanglement (this is not so without this condition). This result leads to an enhanced version of Gisin’s theorem (originally: all pure entangled states violate local realism). Local realism is violated by all mixed states with the above steering property. The new class of states allows one e.g. to perform three party secret sharing with just pairs of entangled qubits, instead of three qubit entanglements (which are currently available with low fidelity). This significantly increases the feasibility of having high performance versions of such protocols. Finally, we discuss some possible applications. PMID:26108704

  10. Application of induced short-term hyperglycemia in comprehensive treatment of locally disseminated cancer of mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letyagin, V.P.; Poddubnyj, I.K.; Sokolova, I.G.; Ermilova, V.D.; Ajtakova, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of the results of treatment of 12 patients with mammary gland cancer receiving preoperative radiation and chemotherapy and in whom short-term hyperglycemia was simultaneously induced. The peculiarities of the said modality and advantages offered by its application are discussed. The cases given the same treatment unaccompanied by hyperglycemia were in control. Since short-term hyperglycemia as a component of comprehensive treatment of mammary gland cancer resulted in a higher effectiveness of the latter, it merits attention and further studies

  11. ELIMINATING CONSERVATISM IN THE PIPING SYSTEM ANALYSIS PROCESS THROUGH APPLICATION OF A SUITE OF LOCALLY APPROPRIATE SEISMIC INPUT MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Anthony L.; Spears, Robert E.; Russell, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Seismic analysis is of great importance in the evaluation of nuclear systems due to the heavy influence such loading has on their designs. Current Department of Energy seismic analysis techniques for a nuclear safety-related piping system typically involve application of a single conservative seismic input applied to the entire system (1). A significant portion of this conservatism comes from the need to address the overlapping uncertainties in the seismic input and in the building response that transmits that input motion to the piping system. The approach presented in this paper addresses these two sources of uncertainty through the application of a suite of 32 input motions whose collective performance addresses the total uncertainty while each individual motion represents a single variation of it. It represents an extension of the soil-structure interaction analysis methodology of SEI/ASCE 43-05 (2) from the structure to individual piping components. Because this approach is computationally intensive, automation and other measures have been developed to make such an analysis efficient. These measures are detailed in this paper

  12. Geometrically Nonlinear Field Fracture Mechanics and Crack Nucleation, Application to Strain Localization Fields in Al-Cu-Li Aerospace Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyapriya Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The displacement discontinuity arising between crack surfaces is assigned to smooth densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation statement for the crack opening displacement provides a framework for disconnection dynamics in the form of transport laws. A similar methodology applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement due to dislocations results in the concurrent involvement of dislocation densities in the analysis. Non-linearity of the geometrical setting is assumed for defining the elastic distortion incompatibility in the presence of both dislocations and disconnections, as well as for their transport. Crack nucleation in the presence of thermally-activated fluctuations of the atomic order is shown to derive from this nonlinearity in elastic brittle materials, without any algorithmic rule or ad hoc material parameter. Digital image correlation techniques applied to the analysis of tensile tests on ductile Al-Cu-Li samples further demonstrate the ability of the disconnection density concept to capture crack nucleation and relate strain localization bands to consistent disconnection fields and to the eventual occurrence of complex and combined crack modes in these alloys.

  13. Application of local exhaust ventilation system and integrated collectors for control of air pollutants in mining company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Farasati, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems and integrated collectors were designed and implemented in a mining company in order to control emitted air pollutant from furnaces. The LEV was designed for capture and transition of air pollutants emitted from furnaces to the integrated collectors. The integrated collectors including four high efficiency Stairmand model cyclones for control of particulate matter, a venturi scrubber for control of the fine particles, SO(2) and a part of H(2)S to follow them, and a packed scrubber for treatment of the residual H(2)S and SO(2) were designed. Pollutants concentration were measured to determine system effectiveness. The results showed that the effectiveness of LEV for reducing workplace pollution is 91.83%, 96.32% and 83.67% for dust, SO(2) and H(2)S, respectively. Average removal efficiency of particles by combination of cyclone and venturi scrubber was 98.72%. Average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were 95.85% and 47.13% for the venturi scrubber and 68.45% and 92.7% for the packed bed scrubber. The average removal efficiency of SO(2) and H(2)S were increased to 99.1% and 95.95% by the combination of venturi and packed bed scrubbers. According to the results, integrated collectors are a good air pollution control option for industries with economic constraints and ancient technologies.

  14. Local and regional estimation of floods in the Timis and Bega hydrographic basins: application of converging QDF model concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mic, Rodica; Gaida, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    A flow-duration-frequency regionalisation is carried out on the Timis and Bega rivers sub-catchments in the west of Romania. This regionalisation concerns 28 sub-catchments having about thirty years of stream flow measurements (daily flow, instantaneous flood peaks and hydrographs). This work about the floods regionalisation is realized in the framework of the European project Riverlife. The regional model will allow defining the hydrographs of project necessary for the hydraulic modelling. This hydraulic project is necessary in order to protect Timisoara - city against the floods. The method uses the hypotheses of the converging QdF model and adapts the index flood method for obtaining a regional dimensionless distribution. For long return periods, this approach uses the GRADEX method, which extrapolates discharge distributions according to the rainfall distributions. The dimensionless regional QdF model needs two local descriptors of target site to be denormed: QIXA10 and Δ: the annual maximum instantaneous flow with a 10% probability to be exceeded (the 10-year peak flood) and a characteristic duration, respectively. For these both variables, the relations obtained by regression are presented, involving morphologic and climatic basin characteristics.(Author)

  15. Application of the entropy generation minimization method to a solar heat exchanger: A pseudo-optimization design process based on the analysis of the local entropy generation maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giangaspero, Giorgio; Sciubba, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the entropy generation minimization method to the pseudo-optimization of the configuration of the heat exchange surfaces in a Solar Rooftile. An initial “standard” commercial configuration is gradually improved by introducing design changes aimed at the reduction of the thermodynamic losses due to heat transfer and fluid friction. Different geometries (pins, fins and others) are analysed with a commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code that also computes the local entropy generation rate. The design improvement process is carried out on the basis of a careful analysis of the local entropy generation maps and the rationale behind each step of the process is discussed in this perspective. The results are compared with other entropy generation minimization techniques available in the recent technical literature. It is found that the geometry with pin-fins has the best performance among the tested ones, and that the optimal pin array shape parameters (pitch and span) can be determined by a critical analysis of the integrated and local entropy maps and of the temperature contours. - Highlights: ► An entropy generation minimization method is applied to a solar heat exchanger. ► The approach is heuristic and leads to a pseudo-optimization process with CFD as main tool. ► The process is based on the evaluation of the local entropy generation maps. ► The geometry with pin-fins in general outperforms all other configurations. ► The entropy maps and temperature contours can be used to determine the optimal pin array design parameters

  16. Application of Gauss's theorem to quantify localized surface emissions from airborne measurements of wind and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Stephen; Faloona, Ian; Mehrotra, Shobhit; Suard, Maxime; Lenschow, Donald H.; Sweeney, Colm; Herndon, Scott; Schwietzke, Stefan; Pétron, Gabrielle; Pifer, Justin; Kort, Eric A.; Schnell, Russell

    2017-09-01

    Airborne estimates of greenhouse gas emissions are becoming more prevalent with the advent of rapid commercial development of trace gas instrumentation featuring increased measurement accuracy, precision, and frequency, and the swelling interest in the verification of current emission inventories. Multiple airborne studies have indicated that emission inventories may underestimate some hydrocarbon emission sources in US oil- and gas-producing basins. Consequently, a proper assessment of the accuracy of these airborne methods is crucial to interpreting the meaning of such discrepancies. We present a new method of sampling surface sources of any trace gas for which fast and precise measurements can be made and apply it to methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide on spatial scales of ˜ 1000 m, where consecutive loops are flown around a targeted source region at multiple altitudes. Using Reynolds decomposition for the scalar concentrations, along with Gauss's theorem, we show that the method accurately accounts for the smaller-scale turbulent dispersion of the local plume, which is often ignored in other average mass balance methods. With the help of large eddy simulations (LES) we further show how the circling radius can be optimized for the micrometeorological conditions encountered during any flight. Furthermore, by sampling controlled releases of methane and ethane on the ground we can ascertain that the accuracy of the method, in appropriate meteorological conditions, is often better than 10 %, with limits of detection below 5 kg h-1 for both methane and ethane. Because of the FAA-mandated minimum flight safe altitude of 150 m, placement of the aircraft is critical to preventing a large portion of the emission plume from flowing underneath the lowest aircraft sampling altitude, which is generally the leading source of uncertainty in these measurements. Finally, we show how the accuracy of the method is strongly dependent on the number of sampling loops and/or time

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LATERAL SPHINCTEROTOMY AND LOCAL APPLICATION OF 2% DILTIAZEM GEL IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ANAL FISSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Chronic fissures have traditionally been treated surgically. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. In this study, we compare topical 2% Diltiazem gel and lateral internal sphincterotomy with respect to symptomatic relief, healing and side effects in the treatment of chronic fissure in ano. METHODS 60 patients with chronic fissure in ano were randomly divided into Diltiazem gel and internal sphincterotomy groups. Patients were followed up at weekly intervals for minimum of eight weeks. Data was recorded accordingly. RESULTS Fissure completely healed in 28(93.33% out of 30 patients treated with 2% Diltiazem gel between 4-8 weeks. Healing was 100% with internal sphincterotomy. The mean duration required for healing of fissure was 4.86 weeks in Diltiazem gel group and 3.66 weeks in internal sphincterotomy group. 61.5% patients were free from pain after treatment with Diltiazem gel whereas in internal sphicterotomy group 66.66% patients had pain relief at the end of 4 weeks. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Comparison between Diltiazem gel application and internal sphincterotomy did not show any significant difference in fissure healing and pain relief. No side effects were seen in Diltiazem gel therapy. Topical Diltiazem should be the initial treatment in chronic fissure in ano. It is better to reserve internal sphincterotomy for patients with relapse or therapeutic failure to prior pharmacological treatment.

  18. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M; Minami, F; Toyoda, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T; Arimochi, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  1. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  2. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  3. Comparison of diclofenac-emulgel local application with oral ibuprofen administration for the treatment of active interphalangeal hand joints osteoarthritis (Heberden and/or Bushar nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zacher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac-emulgel local application in comparison with oral ibuprofen administration for the treatment of active interphalangeal hand joints osteoarthritis (Heberden and/or Bushar nodules. Material and methods. 321 pts were randomized into two groups. Diclofenac-emulgel (active drug and placebo ibuprofen tablets were administered in one of them, placebo diclofenac-emulgel and ibuprofen tablets (active drug — in the other. Diclofenac was administered as 10 cm strip locally 4 times a day and 400 mg of ibuprofen were given 3 times a day. Frequency of improvement was used as the main outcome measure. Improvement was registered if pain on 100 mm visual analog scale decreased at least by 40%. Disease activity, pain at rest, pain at movement, morning stiffness, grip strength and quality of life were used as additional outcome measures. Results. To the end of treatment according to 5% lower equivalency limit local therapy was at least as effective as oral administration of ibuprofen (p=0,007. Administration of both treatment methods provided also comparable improvement of all additional outcome measures. Both treatment methods showed good tolerability but more pts with receiving ibuprofen experienced serious adverse events than those using diclofenac (9 and 4 pts respectively. There was also similar proportion of pts prematurely withdrawn due to side effects (n=21: 5 (3% from them received diclofenac and 16 (10% - ibuprofen. Similar ratio of adverse events attributed to study treatment was revealed. Such events were present in 2 pts using diclofenac and in 13 (8,3% receiving ibuprofen. Most of these events applied to gastrointestinal tract (in 1 pt using diclofenac and in 8 pts receiving ibuprofen. Conclusion. Local treatment of active interphalangeal hand joints osteoarthritis (Heberden and/or Bushar nodules with diclofenac is at least as effective as systemic administration of ibuprofen

  4. Anatomy of a local-scale drought: Application of assimilated remote sensing products, crop model, and statistical methods to an agricultural drought study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Das, Narendra N.; Prakash Khedun, C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Hansen, James W.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. Within the regional scale, there are multiple socio-economic impacts (i.e., agriculture, drinking water supply, and stream health) occurring individually or in combination at local scales, either in clusters or scattered. Even though the application of aggregated drought information at the regional level has been useful in drought management, the latter can be further improved by evaluating the structure and evolution of a drought at the local scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. Quantification of moisture supply in the root zone remains a gray area in research community, this challenge can be partly overcome by incorporating assimilation of soil moisture and leaf area index into crop modeling framework for agricultural drought quantification, as it performs better in simulating crop yield. It was noted that the persistence of subsurface droughts is in general higher than surface droughts, which can potentially improve forecast accuracy. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. Further, agricultural drought should not be treated equal for all crops, and it should be calculated based on the root zone depth rather than a fixed soil layer depth. We envisaged that the results of

  5. Developing a long-term local society design methodology towards a low-carbon economy: An application to Shiga Prefecture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gomi, Kei; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2007-01-01

    To tackle global climate stabilization concretely, we have developed a method formulating long-term scenarios towards a low-carbon economy at local level. As a result of the pioneering application of this method to Shiga Prefecture, we have found the following: (i) it is possible to design scenarios for moving towards a low-carbon economy in which CO 2 emission is lowered by 30-50% from the 1990 level by 2030, while the prefecture's gross production continues to grow by 1.6% annually; (ii) in order to halve the emission by 2030, socio-economic structural changes as well as technological measures are essential; and (iii) innovative measures at the prefectural level, such as land planning, renewable energy promotion and lifestyle change, play an increasingly important role as the target reduction rate gets higher

  6. Local Heat Application for the Treatment of Buruli Ulcer: Results of a Phase II Open Label Single Center Non Comparative Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of heat treatment. We assessed efficacy based on the endpoints 'absence of clinical BU specific features' or 'wound closure' within 6 months ("primary cure"), and 'absence of clinical recurrence within 24 month' ("definite cure"). Of 53 patients 51 (96%) had ulcerative disease. 62% were classified as World Health Organization category II, 19% each as category I and III. The average lesion size was 45 cm(2). Within 6 months after completion of heat treatment 92.4% (49 of 53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.8% to 98.0%) achieved cure of their primary lesion. At 24 months follow-up 83.7% (41 of 49, 95% CI, 70.3% to 92.7%) of patients with primary cure remained free of recurrence. Heat treatment was well tolerated; adverse effects were occasional mild local skin reactions. Local thermotherapy is a highly effective, simple, cheap and safe treatment for M. ulcerans disease. It has in particular potential as home-based remedy for BU suspicious lesions at community level where laboratory confirmation is not available. ISRCT 72102977. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-06

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp(2) carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail.

  8. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L.; Macpherson, Julie V.

    2016-01-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp2 carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail. PMID:26779959

  9. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  10. Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo

    Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR Carlos Eduardo Thompson Alves de Souza cethompsoniii@hotmail.com Archaeologist Member of the European Association of Archaeologists B.A.Archaeology MA.Remote Sensing Abstract The Archaeological Research in Urban Environment with the Air Light Detection and Ranging is problematic for the Overlay Layers mixed with contexts concerning the Interpretation of Archaeological Data. However, in the Underwater Archaeology the results are excellent. This paper considers the application of Remote Sensing and Air Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) as separate things as well as Land Archaeology and the Underwater Archaeology. European Archaeologists know very little about Brazil and the article presents an Overview of Research in Brazil with Remote Sensing in Archaeology and Light Detection and Ranging in Land Archaeology and Underwater Archaeology, because Brazil has Continental Dimensions. Braziliańs Methodology for Location, Analysis and Monitoring of Archaeological Sites is necessarily more Complex and Innovative and therefore can serve as a New Paradigm for other archaeologists involved in the Advanced Management Heritage.

  11. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data. Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara, E-mail: b.kasprzyk-hordern@hud.ac.u [University of Huddersfield, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J. [University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals and recently also illicit drugs have been recognised as emerging environmental contaminants due to their potential environmental impact: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. This manuscript is part one of the two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. An attempt to use wastewater data is made in order to verify patterns of the usage of drugs (in particular illicit) in local communities. The average usage of cocaine in South Wales was estimated at 0.9 g day{sup -1} 1000 people{sup -1}, which equals 1 tonne of this drug used or disposed of to sewage annually in Wales. The calculated usage of amphetamine denoted 2.5 g day{sup -1} 1000 people{sup -1} and is suspected to be an overestimate. Because no analysis of enantiomers of amphetamine was undertaken, no distinction between amphetamine's legal and illicit usage could be made. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  12. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data. Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and recently also illicit drugs have been recognised as emerging environmental contaminants due to their potential environmental impact: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. This manuscript is part one of the two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. An attempt to use wastewater data is made in order to verify patterns of the usage of drugs (in particular illicit) in local communities. The average usage of cocaine in South Wales was estimated at 0.9 g day -1 1000 people -1 , which equals 1 tonne of this drug used or disposed of to sewage annually in Wales. The calculated usage of amphetamine denoted 2.5 g day -1 1000 people -1 and is suspected to be an overestimate. Because no analysis of enantiomers of amphetamine was undertaken, no distinction between amphetamine's legal and illicit usage could be made. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  13. Application of coating and base material living models to evaluate degradation and estimate the mean local operating temperature of two ex-service 1{sup st} stage blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, M. [Proing Italia, Torbole sul Garda, Trento (Italy); Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the collaborative program COST 538 a coating life prediction code was implemented by Proing and ERSE with an inverse problem solution routine able to calculate the local mean operating temperature from the operating conditions and the extension of the coating depleted regions. Moreover base material degradation models were developed by Ansaldo Energia on both equiaxed and single crystal superalloys. This paper describes the application of such methodologies to two ex-service 1st stage gas turbine blades delivered to COST 538 by AEN after operation in two different plants with different operating conditions. The objective of the study was the application and validation of an innovative NDT and the estimate of the mean operating temperature at different positions of the components. The destructive metallographic analysis of the blades let to validate the non destructive frequency scanning eddy current technique (F-SECT). Coating life modelling results are compared with those of the base material degradation models. An interesting correlation was found between the estimated temperatures with the two methods and also with the NDT findings at the most significant component positions. (orig.)

  14. On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Naujack, K W; Misfeld, J; Timm, J

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate using topical application onto the skin of mice. This was performed by comparing the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of an unseparated sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in 3 different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the result shows: (a) The condensate, emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile provokes local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence demonstrates a clear cut dose-response relationship. (b) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than 3 rings accounts for about 84-91% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represents only about 3.5% by wt of the condensate. (c) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.414 mg/g) accounts for 6-7.6% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate, 15 selected PAHs for about 41%. (d) Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (about 83% by wt), no hints for a cocarcinogenic activity were observed.

  15. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  16. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  17. Applicability of WRF-Lake System in Studying Reservoir-Induced Impacts on Local Climate: Case Study of Two Reservoirs with Contrasting Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Zhu, D.; Ni, G.; Sun, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large reservoirs play a key role in regional hydrological cycles as well as in modulating the local climate. The emerging large reservoirs in concomitant with rapid hydropower exploitation in southwestern China warrant better understanding of their impacts on local and regional climates. One of the crucial pathways through which reservoirs impact the climate is lake-atmospheric interaction. Although such interactions have been widely studied with numeric weather prediction (NWP) models, an outstanding limitation across various NWPs resides on the poor thermodynamic representation of lakes. The recent version of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system has been equipped with a one-dimensional lake model to better represent the thermodynamics of large water body and has been shown to enhance the its predication skill in the lake-atmospheric interaction. In this study, we further explore the applicability of the WRF-Lake system in two reservoirs with contrasting characteristics: Miyun Reservoir with an average depth of 30 meters in North China Plain, and Nuozhadu Reservoir with an average depth of 200 meters in the Tibetan Plateau Region. Driven by the high spatiotemporal resolution meteorological forcing data, the WRF-Lake system is used to simulate the water temperature and surface energy budgets of the two reservoirs after the evaluation against temperature observations. The simulated results show the WRF-Lake model can well predict the vertical profile of water temperature in Miyun Reservoir, but underestimates deep water temperature and overestimates surface temperature in the deeper Nuozhadu Reservoir. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicates the poor performance of the WRF-Lake system in Nuozhadu Reservoir could be attributed to the weak vertical mixing in the model, which can be improved by tuning the eddy diffusion coefficient ke . Keywords: reservoir-induced climatic impact; lake-atmospheric interaction; WRF-Lake system; hydropower exploitation

  18. Frame And Blame An Analysis Of How Local Newspaper Framed The Conflict Between Confentional And Technological Application-Based Transportation In Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harwinta Zianur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The title of the research was Frame and Blame An Analysis of How Local Newspapers Framed the Conflict Between Conventional and Technological Application-Based Transportation Service in Medan. Waspada Daily Newspaper as local newspapers more frequently put a human face on the issue while national papers more frequently framed it a moral wrong. The objective of the research was to find out how the newspaper constructs the news about this conflict and how it explains the conflict as part of its social responsibility in its news product. The research used qualitative method with paradigm constructivism which considers the subject Waspada Daily News as the central factor in the communicative activity and social relationsand as the function of control toward social facts which occur in society the conflict between motor pedicab drivers and go-jek riders. Framing analysis is a descriptive textual analysis of media used to find out how news is understood and framed by media. The research used Gamson and Modegliani framing model analysis based on constructivism approach in order to find out the representation of media. The theory of Berger and Luckman Reality Construction was used to explain social reality constructed through the process of externalization objectivity and internalization. The result of the research showed that 1 Waspada Daily Newspaper prioritized the conflict because the conflict was the effect of the lack of income of motor pedicab driver and also because there was no regulation on the transportationoperation of Go-Jek online 2 Waspada Daily News exposed the conflict in the front page in four days consecutively which indicated that there were attention and seriousness of moral evaluations.

  19. Development and application of a Fourier transform based methodology for the identification of instability in boiling water reactors at a local scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walser, Stefan Franz

    2017-04-06

    This thesis addresses the development of an analysis methodology for BWR instability phenomena and aims at the identification of in-core, local thermal-hydraulic processes during a transient. The analysis methodology is designed to apply as input data the simulation results of time domain coupled system codes. For the application described in this thesis, a coupled TRACE/PARCS model representing the Oskarshamn-2 (O2) NPP with a one-to-one core channel representation has been used. The coupled model simulates the O2-1999 feedwater transient; an instability event characterized by an in-phase mode of oscillation with reactor power amplitudes up to 132 %. The analysis methodology is a two-step approach and uses in the first step the fast-fourier transform algorithm applied on normalized core parameters in twodimensional spacial direction of the core. The normalization of the data implies the advantage of directly comparable results in spectral representation. The spectral analysis results show for each data node the oscillation amplitude to its corresponding frequency. In the second step the dominating frequency of each single parameter is determined and the relative phase shift of the dominating components is calculated. The application of the developed methodology on the simulation results of the O2-1999 feedwater transient show that the channel mass flow rates have among all investigated parameters the clearest differences in the local expression of oscillation and are a governing indicator for BWR instability due to the density wave mechanism. The spectral analysis of the core channel in planar direction points out a heterogeneous oscillation behavior of the fuel assemblies mass fl ow rates. A certain pattern of core channels with striking mass flow rate oscillations is prevailing and the pattern shows proportionality to the fuel assemblies relative power ratio. Moreover the mass ow rate oscillations of the peripheral core channels are observed to employ a quasi

  20. Factors affecting initial disability allowance rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs: the role of the demographic and diagnostic composition of applicants and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. In this article, using individual-level data on applications, I estimate the role of three important factors--the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate--in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. I use a random sample of initial determinations from 1993 through 2008 and a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult DI and SSI applicants and for SSI childhood applicants.

  1. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  2. Local application of GM-CSF for treatment of chemoirradiation-induced mucositis in patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck: results of controlled clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichtomann, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: the study was designed to assess prospectively the efficacy of GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) mouthwash solution in the management of chemoirradiation induced oral mucositis for head and neck cancer patients. Methods and materials: thirty-five patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck were evaluated for mucositis during the first cycle of chemoirradiation therapy. GM-CSF 400 μg in 250 cc of water for 1 h of mouth washing was prescribed. Active comparator was a conventional mucositis therapy combination. The procedure started once mucositis grade 1 (using the WHO grading) was detected. Patients, examined twice a week, were evaluated for oral mucositis and oral infections. Assessment of subjective pain was provided using a visual analogue scale. Blood tests were taken weekly. Results: the results of statistical evaluation of mucositis using the WHO-grading showed no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Local application of GM-CSF significantly reduced subjective pain during the second week of chemoirradiation therapy. Statistical analysis of the leucocytes-, platelet count, haemoglobin level and development of oral infections revealed no significant differences between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: in combined chemoirradiation therapy schemes the RTOG/EORTC toxicity scale should be used. In selected cases of mucositis attended with severe pain, GM-CSF should be observed within the therapeutic considerations. Controlled clinical trials with larger patient population are required to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in this indication. (author)

  3. Local deposition of polypyrrole on aluminum by anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrolytic polymerization and its application to the fabrication of micro-actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Kikuchi, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)]. E-mail: kiku@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Ueda, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Iida, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13 W8 Kita-Ku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Polypyrrole was deposited at selected areas on aluminum by anodizing, laser irradiation, and electrolytic polymerization, and the application of the technique for fabricating micro-actuators was attempted. Aluminum specimens covered with porous type anodic oxide films were irradiated with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser to remove the oxide films locally, and then thin Ni layers were deposited at areas where film had been removed. Polypyrrole could be successfully deposited only on the Ni layer by anodic polarization of the specimens in pyrrole monomer solution, and a polypyrrole/Ni bilayer structure could be obtained by dissolution of the aluminum substrate and anodic oxide film in NaOH solutions. The bilayer structure was found to be inactive to doping and dedoping of ions during anodic and cathodic polarization. A three-layer structure, nitrocellulose/Ni/polypyrrole, fabricated by electrolytic polymerization after nitrocellulose coating on a Ni layer detached from the aluminum substrate, showed ion-doping and -dedoping activity, suggesting the possibility of fabricating micro-actuators in this manner.

  4. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  5. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment--forensic applications of environmental data. Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and recently also illicit drugs have been recognised as emerging environmental contaminants due to their potential environmental impact: frequent occurrence, persistence and risk to aquatic life and humans. This manuscript is part one of the two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. An attempt to use wastewater data is made in order to verify patterns of the usage of drugs (in particular illicit) in local communities. The average usage of cocaine in South Wales was estimated at 0.9 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1), which equals 1 tonne of this drug used or disposed of to sewage annually in Wales. The calculated usage of amphetamine denoted 2.5 g day(-1) 1000 people(-1) and is suspected to be an overestimate. Because no analysis of enantiomers of amphetamine was undertaken, no distinction between amphetamine's legal and illicit usage could be made.

  6. Chemical applicability domain of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 4. Quantitative correlation of LLNA potency with human potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie

    2018-07-01

    Prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency by non-animal methods is the target of many active research programmes. Although the aim is to predict sensitisation potential and potency in humans, data from the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) constitute much the largest source of quantitative data on in vivo skin sensitisation. The LLNA has been the preferred in vivo method for identification of skin sensitising chemicals and as such is potentially valuable as a benchmark for assessment of non-animal approaches. However, in common with all predictive test methods, the LLNA is subject to false positives and false negatives with an overall level of accuracy said variously to be approximately 80% or 90%. It is also necessary to consider the extent to which, for true positives, LLNA potency correlates with human potency. In this paper LLNA potency and human potency are compared so as to express quantitatively the correlation between them, and reasons for non-agreement between LLNA and human potency are analysed. This leads to a better definition of the applicability domain of the LLNA, within which LLNA data can be used confidently to predict human potency and as a benchmark to assess the performance of non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  8. Enhanced local bioavailability of single or compound drugs delivery to the inner ear through application of PLGA nanoparticles via round window administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Wen, Xingxing; Wen, Lu; Tirelli, Nicola; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Yue; Su, Huanpeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for carrying single or compound drugs traversing the round window membrane (RWM) was examined after the round window (RW) administration of different NPs to guinea pigs. First, coumarin-6 was incorporated into PLGA NPs as a fluorescent probe to investigate its ability to cross the RWM. Then, PLGA NPs with salvianolic acid B (Sal B), tanshinone IIA (TS IIA), and total panax notoginsenoside (PNS) including notoginsenoside R1 (R1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), and ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) were developed to evaluate whether NPs loaded with compound drugs would pass through the RWM and improve the local bioavailability of these agents. PLGA NPs loaded with single or compound drugs were prepared by the emulsification solvent evaporation method, and their particle size distribution, particle morphology, and encapsulation efficiency were characterized. In vitro release study showed sustained-release profiles of Sal B, TS IIA, and PNS from the NPs. The pharmacokinetic results showed that NPs applied to the RWM significantly improved drug distribution within the inner ear. The AUC0-t of coumarin-6 in the perilymph (PL) following RW administration of NPs was 4.7-fold higher than that of coumarin-6 solution, and the Cmax was 10.9-fold higher. Furthermore, the AUC(0-t) of R1, Rg1, and Rb1 were 4.0-, 3.1-, and 7.1-fold greater, respectively, after the application of NPs compared to the compound solution, and the Cmax were, respectively, 14.4-, 10.0-, and 16.7-fold higher. These findings suggest that PLGA NPs with unique properties at the nanoscale dimensions have a powerful ability to transport single or compound drugs into the PL through the RWM and remarkably enhance the local bioavailability of the encapsulated drugs in the inner ear. The use of PLGA NPs as nanoscale delivery vehicles to carry drugs across the RWM may be a promising strategy for the treatment of inner ear diseases.

  9. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  10. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, B.

    2001-07-01

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  11. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  12. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Prevention of SIV rectal transmission and priming of T cell responses in macaques after local pre-exposure application of tenofovir gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Cranage

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The rectum is particularly vulnerable to HIV transmission having only a single protective layer of columnar epithelium overlying tissue rich in activated lymphoid cells; thus, unprotected anal intercourse in both women and men carries a higher risk of infection than other sexual routes. In the absence of effective prophylactic vaccines, increasing attention is being given to the use of microbicides and preventative antiretroviral (ARV drugs. To prevent mucosal transmission of HIV, a microbicide/ARV should ideally act locally at and near the virus portal of entry. As part of an integrated rectal microbicide development programme, we have evaluated rectal application of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitor tenofovir (PMPA, 9-[(R-2-(phosphonomethoxy propyl] adenine monohydrate, a drug licensed for therapeutic use, for protective efficacy against rectal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV in a well-established and standardised macaque model.A total of 20 purpose-bred Indian rhesus macaques were used to evaluate the protective efficacy of topical tenofovir. Nine animals received 1% tenofovir gel per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge, four macaques received placebo gel, and four macaques remained untreated. In addition, three macaques were given tenofovir gel 2 h after virus challenge. Following intrarectal instillation of 20 median rectal infectious doses (MID50 of a noncloned, virulent stock of SIVmac251/32H, all animals were analysed for virus infection, by virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, quantitative proviral DNA load in PBMC, plasma viral RNA (vRNA load by sensitive quantitative competitive (qc RT-PCR, and presence of SIV-specific serum antibodies by ELISA. We report here a significant protective effect (p = 0.003; Fisher exact probability test wherein eight of nine macaques given tenofovir per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge were protected from infection (n = 6 or had

  14. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  15. Development of ZL400 Mine Cooling Unit Using Semi-Hermetic Screw Compressor and Its Application on Local Air Conditioning in Underground Long-Wall Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxiang; Ji, Jianhu; Zhang, Xijun; Yan, Hongyuan; Dong, Haomin; Liu, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    Aiming at heat injuries occurring in the process of deep coal mining in China, a ZL400 mine-cooling unit employing semi-hermetic screw compressor with a cooling capacity of 400 kW is developed. This paper introduced its operating principle, structural characteristics and technical indexes. By using the self-built testing platform, some parameters for indication of its operation conditions were tested on the ground. The results show that the aforementioned cooling unit is stable in operation: cooling capacity of the unit was 420 kW underground-test conditions, while its COP (coefficient of performance) reached 3.4. To address the issue of heat injuries existing in No. 16305 U-shaped long-wall ventilation face of Jining No. 3 coal mine, a local air conditioning system was developed with ZL400 cooling unit as the system's core. The paper presented an analysis of characteristics of the air current flowing in the air-mixing and cooling mode of ZL400 cooling unit used in air intake way. Through i-d patterns we described the process of the airflow treatment, such as cooling, mixing and heating, etc. The cooling system decreased dry bulb temperature on working face by 3°C on average and 3.8°C at most, while lowered the web bulb temperature by 3.6°C on average and 4.8°C at most. At the same time, it reduced relative humidity by 5% on average and 8.6% at most. The field application of the ZL400 cooling unit had gain certain effects in air conditioning and provided support for the solution of mine heat injuries in China in terms of technology and equipment.

  16. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Paluso, Dominic; Anderson, Devyn; Swan, Kristin; Yim, Jong Eun; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Chindam, Tirupathi; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Katrak, Vahishta

    2011-04-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  18. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  19. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  20. Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of

  1. Local Application of Gelatin Hydrogel Sheets Impregnated With Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Promotes Tendon-to-Bone Healing After Rotator Cuff Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takuya; Ide, Junji; Arimura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Uehara, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether the local application of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) in hydrogel sheets would promote healing and improve histologic characteristics and biomechanical strength after rotator cuff (RC) repair in rats. To assess the effect of PDGF-BB on tendon-to-bone healing we divided 36 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with bilateral surgery to repair the supraspinatus tendon at its insertion site into 3 groups: group 1 = suture-only group; group 2 = suture and gelatin hydrogel sheets impregnated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); and group 3 = suture and gelatin hydrogel sheets impregnated with PDGF-BB (0.5 μg). Semiquantitative histologic evaluation was carried out 2, 6, and 12 weeks later; cell proliferation was assessed 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and biomechanical testing, including ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and ultimate stress to failure, was performed 12 weeks after the operation. At 2 weeks, the average percentage of PCNA-positive cells at the insertion site was significantly higher in group 3 (40.5% ± 2.4%) than in group 1 (32.1% ± 6.9%; P = .03) and group 2 (31.9% ± 3.7%; P = .02). At 2 and 6 weeks, the histologic scores were similar among the 3 groups. At 12 weeks, the histologic score was significantly higher in group 3 (10.3 ± 0.8) than in group 1 (8.5 ± 0.5; P = .002) or group 2 (8.8 ± 0.8; P = .009), whereas ultimate load to failure, stiffness, and ultimate load to stress (normal control population, 44.73 ± 9.75 N, 27.59 ± 4.32 N/mm, and 21.33 ± 4.65 N/mm(2), respectively) were significantly higher in group 3 (28.28 ± 6.28 N, 11.05 ± 2.37 N/mm, and 7.99 ± 2.13 N/mm(2), respectively) than in group 1 (10.44 ± 1.98 N, 4.74 ± 1.31 N/mm, and 3.28 ± 1.27 N/mm(2), respectively; all P repair in humans. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  3. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectan...

  4. Enhancing Decision Support For Climate Adaptation At Sub-Regional To Local Scales Through Collaborative And Interdisciplinary Global Change Research And Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.

    2012-12-01

    The science needed to inform society's response to global environmental change is increasingly demanded at sub-regional to local scales, placing a greater burden on the science community to respond to a wide variety of information needs. Oftentimes, communication barriers prevent even the basic articulation of information needs between the user and science research communities, and furthermore there is frequently a mismatch between available scientific talent within a sub region and the scientific resources demanded to respond appropriately to user inquiries. As a result, innovative approaches to the delivery of scientific information in response to user interests and needs at sub-regional to local levels is required. Here, the authors highlight lessons of three examples of delivering usable scientific information within a mountain watershed on questions relating to 1) local biomass energy production; 2) stream and forest health; and 3) watershed scale climate impacts assessment. We report that common elements to the success of these efforts include a) building relationships with both a broad range of disciplines within the science community as well as a wide range of stakeholder groups locally, b) collecting and translating existing monitoring data and filling monitoring gaps, c) gathering interdisciplinary teams to help answer difficult local scale questions not previously treated in literature, and d) communicating results through mechanisms such as stakeholder collaboratives, community forums, and innovative education and outreach products. We find that these components help communities at local to sub-regional scales identify vulnerabilities and adapative strategies.

  5. Free convective boundary layers in variable-viscosity fluids by the method of local nonsimilarity: application to plumes in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quareni, F.; Yuen, D.A.; Eby, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects due to departures from local similarity in steady-state boundary layers ascending through a fluid with strongly variable viscosity are examined with the local-nonsimilarity method. Both the absolute temperature and the hydrostatic pressure appear in the argument of an exponential in the viscosity function. The fluid-dynamical system studied here is that which characterizes plume structures in the Earth's mantle. By means of an iterative approach, two successive nonlinear boundary value problems are solved simultaneously and the errors incurred in the locally similar solutions are then assessed from a comparison between the first (locally similar) and the second level of a system of truncated equations. Three different sources of nonsimilarity have been considered: 1) localized radiogenic hearting within the plume, 2) ambient thermal stratification, 3) pressure dependence of mantle rheology. Of particular interest is an appraisal of the degree of accuracy of the locally similar solutions as a function of viscosity contrast within the boundary layer. For the range of viscosity contrast examined, up to 10 8 , the velocity and temperature fields between the first- and second-level solutions differ at most by 20 to 30%, for the rheological parameter values relevant to the Earth's mantle

  6. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  8. Treating 43 cases of Ankle sprain by local bloodletting plus external application of Quyu powder%局部放血疗法加祛瘀散外敷治疗踝关节扭伤43例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昆鹏

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察局部放血疗法加祛瘀散外敷治疗踝关节扭伤的疗效。方法:踝关节扭伤43例,采用局部放血疗法结合祛瘀散外敷法,治疗1次/d。结果:治愈27例,显效16例。总有效率100%。结论:局部放血疗法加祛瘀散外敷治疗踝关节扭伤起效快,疗效好。%  Objectives: To observe the clinical effect on treating ankle sprain with local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder. Methods:43 patients of ankle sprain were treated by local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder, one time a day. Results: 27 patients were cured, 15 cases were significantly effective. The total efficiency was 100%. Conclusion:Local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder in the treatment of ankle sprain fast onset of action efficacy.

  9. Development of a greenhouse gas accounting GIS-based tool to support local policy making—application to an Italian municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asdrubali, F.; Presciutti, A.; Scrucca, F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is the issue of the century and, according to Agenda 21, local actions are essential to impact global mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions (“think globally, act locally”). However, in order to plan and implement effective, sustainable actions, local authorities need detailed information on their GHG emissions and their sources. This paper presents the work that led to the development of a GIS-based tool for local GHG accounting, which provides data for local decision-makers in an innovative manner different from traditional GHG inventories. The original aspects of the study are the geo-referencing of all results and the possibility of calculating all emissions (carbon sources) and removals (carbon sinks) with input data of different accuracy. - Highlights: • We developed a GIS-based tool for local (municipal) GHG accounting. • All emissions (carbon sources) and removals (carbon sinks) are geo-referenced. • The tool can be used with different levels of input data (less or more accurate). • The town of Spoleto (Italy) was chosen to apply and validate both methodologies. • The tool is effective to monitor the energy and environmental policies of the municipality

  10. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  11. Local regulation between formal and informal institutions: analysis by application to the case of the town of Ksar-Hellal (Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram GAALICHE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to detect the relevance degrees of formal and informal institutions at the level of local regulation, as well as their effects on the local companies’ productivity. Indeed, by analyzing the territory of the Ksar-Hellal town, we noted that informal institutions, apprehended by trust and collective punishment, contribute with the formal penal institutions to channel the behavior of Hilalian companies but with less effectiveness. Similarly, the strong contribution of exogenous institutions in boosting productivity compared to that of the endogenous ones states that decision makers should improve the quality of formal regulation and this at the expense of any form of regulation built by values commonly shared by the local community.

  12. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. It is proved that the Yang-Mills equations for the introduced ansatz for supertwistor connection are equivalent to free bach equations, describing the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity. Analogous interpretation of the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity coupled to a vector superfield is proposed. It is proved that any complex conformally right or left flat superspace automatically satisfies the Bach equations

  13. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Kissling, E.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  14. Local and regional minimum 1D models for earthquake location and data quality assessment in complex tectonic regions: application to Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kissling, E. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)

  15. A survey of local cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    Local cohomology is discussed in Wightman field theory and algebraic field theory. Applications are made to superselection structure, solitons, spontaneously broken gauge symmetries and quantum electrodynamics. A simplified picture of the probable relationship between gauge theories and the local 2-cohomology is presented

  16. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2015-04-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a "V" shape during 1910-1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations.

  17. Analysis of local scale tree-atmosphere interaction on pollutant concentration in idealized street canyons and application to a real urban junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Salim, S.M.; Leo, L.S.; Sabatino, Di S.; Chan, A.; Ielpo, P.; Gennaro, de G.; Gromke, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discusses the aerodynamic effects of trees on local scale flow and pollutant concentration in idealized street canyon configurations by means of laboratory experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These analyses are then used as a reference modelling study for the

  18. Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Dzyubachyk

    Full Text Available In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI.

  19. Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Khmelinskii, Artem; Plenge, Esben; Kok, Peter; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Poot, Dirk H J; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Botha, Charl P; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2014-01-01

    In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI.

  20. Application of Remote-Sensing Observations for Detecting Patterns of Localization of Cu-Ni Mineralization of the Norilsk Ore Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovsky, G. A.; Ishmukhametova, V. T.; Shemyakina, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The methods of a complex analysis of materials of space, gravimetric, and magnetometric surveys were developed on the basis of a study of reference fields of the Norilsk ore region (Imangda, etc.) for detection patterns of the localization of Cu-Ni (with PGMs) mineralization in intrusive complexes of the northwestern frame of the Siberian Platform.

  1. Application of a local linearization technique for the solution of a system of stiff differential equations associated with the simulation of a magnetic bearing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, K. S.; Mcdaniel, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A digital local linearization technique was used to solve a system of stiff differential equations which simulate a magnetic bearing assembly. The results prove the technique to be accurate, stable, and efficient when compared to a general purpose variable order Adams method with a stiff option.

  2. The application of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound to measure volume of affected tissue after HIFU treatment for localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J. P.; Aarnink, R. G.; van Leenders, G. J.; Beerlage, H. P.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Adequate monitoring of volume and location of affected tissue might provide helpful information when performing localized ablative therapy for prostate cancer. We hypothesize that the change in blood flow patterns after therapy in comparison to the blood flow pattern prior to therapy

  3. Local homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    2015-01-01

    This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...

  4. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. An ansatz on the form of the supertwistor superconnection is introduced. Because of this restriction on the form of such a superconnection the Yang-Mills equations for the superconnection turn out to be equivalent to the free Bach equations describing the dynamics of simple conformal supergravity. It is shown that the equations of motion of conformal supergravity interacting with a vector superfield admit an analogous interpretation. It is proved that an arbitrary conformally right-flat or left-flat superspace is automatically a solution of the Bach equations

  5. Position Localization with Impulse Ultra Wide Band

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Guoping; Rao, S. V

    2005-01-01

    ...) bias and clock jittering error of TDOA measurement. In our prototype design, we exploit impulse UWB techniques to implement a very low cost localization system that can achieve centimeters localization for indoor applications...

  6. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  7. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  8. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  9. Reduction of Complications of Local Anaesthesia in Dental Healthcare Setups by Application of the Six Sigma Methodology: A Statistical Quality Improvement Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akifuddin, Syed; Khatoon, Farheen

    2015-12-01

    Health care faces challenges due to complications, inefficiencies and other concerns that threaten the safety of patients. The purpose of his study was to identify causes of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia for dental and oral surgical procedures and to reduce the incidence of complications by introduction of six sigma methodology. DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control) process of Six Sigma was taken into consideration to reduce the incidence of complications encountered after administration of local anaesthesia injections for dental and oral surgical procedures using failure mode and effect analysis. Pareto analysis was taken into consideration to analyse the most recurring complications. Paired z-sample test using Minitab Statistical Inference and Fisher's exact test was used to statistically analyse the obtained data. The p-value six sigma improvement methodology in healthcare tends to deliver consistently better results to the patients as well as hospitals and results in better patient compliance as well as satisfaction.

  10. Local study of flow and low Reynolds thermal-hydraulic performance of a corrugated plane duct: application to plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugonnot, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the local study of a flow in a corrugated plane duct by using experimental and numerical approaches on the one hand, and the experimental determination of thermal-hydraulic performance at low Reynolds number of different plate heat exchanger ducts on the other hand. Experimental visualisations of the local flow allowed regime transitions in 2D and 3D geometries to be determined. As far as the 2D duct is concerned, a wave profile optimisation is proposed, and the numerical study performed by using the TRIO software is in good agreement with experimental results. The optimised duct configuration can thus be envisaged for an industrial development. The determination of the friction coefficient and of the global heat exchange coefficient of different corrugated ducts allows plate exchangers to be sized on a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The respective influences of natural convection and of fluid thermal dependency on heat exchange have been studied [fr

  11. Solution of free-boundary problems using finite-element/Newton methods and locally refined grids - Application to analysis of solidification microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiveriotis, K.; Brown, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A new method is presented for the solution of free-boundary problems using Lagrangian finite element approximations defined on locally refined grids. The formulation allows for direct transition from coarse to fine grids without introducing non-conforming basis functions. The calculation of elemental stiffness matrices and residual vectors are unaffected by changes in the refinement level, which are accounted for in the loading of elemental data to the global stiffness matrix and residual vector. This technique for local mesh refinement is combined with recently developed mapping methods and Newton's method to form an efficient algorithm for the solution of free-boundary problems, as demonstrated here by sample calculations of cellular interfacial microstructure during directional solidification of a binary alloy.

  12. Enzyme-labeled Antigen Method: Development and Application of the Novel Approach for Identifying Plasma Cells Locally Producing Disease-specific Antibodies in Inflammatory Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lesions of autoimmune and infectious diseases, plasma cells are frequently observed. Antigens recognized by antibodies produced by the plasma cells mostly remain unclear. A new technique identifying these corresponding antigens may give us a breakthrough for understanding the disease from a pathophysiological viewpoint, simply because the immunocytes are seen within the lesion. We have developed an enzyme-labeled antigen method for microscopic identification of the antigen recognized by specific antibodies locally produced in plasma cells in inflammatory lesions. Firstly, target biotinylated antigens were constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system or through chemical biotinylation. Next, proteins reactive to antibodies in tissue extracts were screened and antibody titers were evaluated by the AlphaScreen method. Finally, with the enzyme-labeled antigen method using the biotinylated antigens as probes, plasma cells producing specific antibodies were microscopically localized in fixed frozen sections. Our novel approach visualized tissue plasma cells that produced 1) autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, 2) antibodies against major antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis or radicular cyst, and 3) antibodies against a carbohydrate antigen, Strep A, of Streptococcus pyogenes in recurrent tonsillitis. Evaluation of local specific antibody responses expectedly contributes to clarifying previously unknown processes in inflammatory disorders

  13. Dimensionality reduction based on distance preservation to local mean for symmetric positive definite matrices and its application in brain-computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Alireza; Shiry Ghidary, Saeed; Sadatnejad, Khadijeh

    2017-06-01

    Objective. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm for the manifold of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices that considers the geometry of SPD matrices and provides a low-dimensional representation of the manifold with high class discrimination in a supervised or unsupervised manner. Approach. The proposed algorithm tries to preserve the local structure of the data by preserving distances to local means (DPLM) and also provides an implicit projection matrix. DPLM is linear in terms of the number of training samples. Main results. We performed several experiments on the multi-class dataset IIa from BCI competition IV and two other datasets from BCI competition III including datasets IIIa and IVa. The results show that our approach as dimensionality reduction technique—leads to superior results in comparison with other competitors in the related literature because of its robustness against outliers and the way it preserves the local geometry of the data. Significance. The experiments confirm that the combination of DPLM with filter geodesic minimum distance to mean as the classifier leads to superior performance compared with the state of the art on brain-computer interface competition IV dataset IIa. Also the statistical analysis shows that our dimensionality reduction method performs significantly better than its competitors.

  14. Therapeutic application of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel in preventing local breast cancer recurrence and improving incision wound healing in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Gong, Changyang; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Helan; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-08-01

    Many drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been investigated for local targeting of malignant disease with the intention of increasing anti-tumor activity and minimizing systemic toxicity. An injectable thermosensitive hydrogel was applied to prevent locoregional recurrence of 4T1 breast cancer in a mouse model. The presented hydrogel, which is based on poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE), flows freely at normal temperature, forms a gel within seconds in situ at body temperature, and eventually releases the drug in a consistent and sustained fashion as it gradually biodegrades. Locoregional recurrence after primary tumor removal was significantly inhibited in mice treated with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PECE hydrogel subcutaneously (9.1%) administered, compared with the blank hydrogel (80.0%), systemic (77.8%) and locally (75.0%) administered PTX, and the control group (100%) (P 0.05), in agreement with histopathological examinations. This novel DDSs represents a promising approach for local adjuvant therapy in malignant disease.

  15. Radioprotective effect of local hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Higano, Shuichi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Fumihiko

    1985-01-01

    We attempted local hypothermia to prevent radiation dermatitis and stomatitis. With regard to parasternal skin reactions postoperatively irradiated breast cancer, dry and moist desquamation, which occasionally occurred with conventional irradiation was not observed in combination with local cooling. As for head and neck tumors, patients who complained of stomatitis decreased with the local cooling, and no one wanted a pause in irradiation before 40 Gy. As local hypothermia is free from danger and does not require special equipment, it was considered to be widely applicable. (author)

  16. PERSPECTIVAS DE APLICACIÓN DEL COMPOSTAJE DE BIORRESIDUOS PROVENIENTES DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MUNICIPALES. UN ENFOQUE DESDE LO GLOBAL A LO LOCAL PERSPECTIVE OF APPLICATION OF BIOWASTE COMPOSTING FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES: AN APPROACH FROM GLOBAL TO LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available De los residuos sólidos municipales (RSM, los biorresiduos son la fracción más alta y de mayor potencial de contaminación; el compostaje permite disminuir el impacto ocasionado por su manejo y contribuye con la sostenibilidad de la producción agrícola. Aspectos como el alto grado de contaminación de la materia prima, el uso de tecnologías inadecuadas, mínimas actividades operativas y de control del proceso, baja calidad del producto y la poca comercialización y mercadeo del mismo, han limitado la implementación del compostaje en mayor escala en países en desarrollo como Colombia. En este artículo se plantea una reflexión sobre las perspectivas de aplicación del compostaje en Colombia y se proponen estrategias como la separación en la fuente y recolección selectiva, el posicionamiento del aprovechamiento de biorresiduos en el marco político y normativo, la investigación aplicada sobre ciencia e ingeniería del compostaje, la capacitación profesional, técnica y operativa, y el establecimiento de alternativas para impulsar el producto.Biowaste represents the highest proportion from municipal solid wastes (MSW and its major pollution potential. Composting allows to reduce the impact of MSW management and contributes to sustainability in agricultural production. In developing countries such as Colombia, aspects such as the high pollution levels in raw materials, the use of inappropriate technologies, the minimum operational and process control activities, the low product quality and the scarce commercialization and marketing have represented limited possibilities for scaling up composting implementation. This paper provides a reflection on application perspectives for biowaste composting in Colombia. Strategies like: 1 source separation and selective collection, 2 inclusion of biowaste recovery within political and legal frameworks, 3 applied research about science and engineering of composting, 4 professional, technical and

  17. CLINICAL APPLICABILITY OF HUMAN IN-VIVO LOCALIZED P-31 MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF BONE AND SOFT-TISSUE TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, HJ; BOEVE, WJ; KAMMAN, RL; MOOYAART, EL

    1994-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of restricted value for the in vivo characterization of tumor types. The applicability of phosphorus-31 (P-31) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the diagnosis of bone and soft tissue tumors is unknown. Methods: A total of 191 consecutive

  18. Analysis of local scale tree-atmosphere interaction on pollutant concentration in idealized street canyons and application to a real urban junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Salim, Salim Mohamed; Leo, Laura Sandra; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Chan, Andrew; Ielpo, Pierina; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Gromke, Christof

    2011-03-01

    This paper first discusses the aerodynamic effects of trees on local scale flow and pollutant concentration in idealized street canyon configurations by means of laboratory experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These analyses are then used as a reference modelling study for the extension a the neighbourhood scale by investigating a real urban junction of a medium size city in southern Italy. A comparison with previous investigations shows that street-level concentrations crucially depend on the wind direction and street canyon aspect ratio W/H (with W and H the width and the height of buildings, respectively) rather than on tree crown porosity and stand density. It is usually assumed in the literature that larger concentrations are associated with perpendicular approaching wind. In this study, we demonstrate that while for tree-free street canyons under inclined wind directions the larger the aspect ratio the lower the street-level concentration, in presence of trees the expected reduction of street-level concentration with aspect ratio is less pronounced. Observations made for the idealized street canyons are re-interpreted in real case scenario focusing on the neighbourhood scale in proximity of a complex urban junction formed by street canyons of similar aspect ratios as those investigated in the laboratory. The aim is to show the combined influence of building morphology and vegetation on flow and dispersion and to assess the effect of vegetation on local concentration levels. To this aim, CFD simulations for two typical winter/spring days show that trees contribute to alter the local flow and act to trap pollutants. This preliminary study indicates that failing to account for the presence of vegetation, as typically practiced in most operational dispersion models, would result in non-negligible errors in the predictions.

  19. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-12-02

    To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance.

  20. Application of nonparametric regression methods to study the relationship between NO2 concentrations and local wind direction and speed at background sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Aoife; Misstear, Bruce; Broderick, Brian

    2011-02-15

    Background concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are not constant but vary temporally and spatially. The current paper presents a powerful tool for the quantification of the effects of wind direction and wind speed on background NO(2) concentrations, particularly in cases where monitoring data are limited. In contrast to previous studies which applied similar methods to sites directly affected by local pollution sources, the current study focuses on background sites with the aim of improving methods for predicting background concentrations adopted in air quality modelling studies. The relationship between measured NO(2) concentration in air at three such sites in Ireland and locally measured wind direction has been quantified using nonparametric regression methods. The major aim was to analyse a method for quantifying the effects of local wind direction on background levels of NO(2) in Ireland. The method was expanded to include wind speed as an added predictor variable. A Gaussian kernel function is used in the analysis and circular statistics employed for the wind direction variable. Wind direction and wind speed were both found to have a statistically significant effect on background levels of NO(2) at all three sites. Frequently environmental impact assessments are based on short term baseline monitoring producing a limited dataset. The presented non-parametric regression methods, in contrast to the frequently used methods such as binning of the data, allow concentrations for missing data pairs to be estimated and distinction between spurious and true peaks in concentrations to be made. The methods were found to provide a realistic estimation of long term concentration variation with wind direction and speed, even for cases where the data set is limited. Accurate identification of the actual variation at each location and causative factors could be made, thus supporting the improved definition of background concentrations for use in air quality modelling

  1. The role of central, regional and local administrations in the application of the Kyoto protocol in the forestry sector in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent UNFCCC COP's and national decisions, Italy shall report the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (art. 3.3 and forest management (art. 3.4 activities. To assess art. 3.3 activities, Italy will define methods to estimate land use changes occurring after 31 December 1989. The paper considers the key-role that central administration shall have, as well as the role of regional and local administrations in order to solve some specific topics regarding data collection and management issues.

  2. Radiographic localization of unerupted maxillary anterior teeth using the vertical tube shift technique: the history and application of the method with some case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    1999-10-01

    The preferred means of radiographic localization is the parallax method introduced by Clark in 1910. He used 2 periapical radiographs and shifted the tube in the horizontal plane. In 1952, Richards appreciated that a vertical tube shift could also be carried out. No major changes then occurred in the technique until Keur, in Australia, in 1986 replaced the periapical radiographs with occlusal radiographs. This modification enables a greater tube movement and therefore a greater shift of the image of the impacted tooth; it also ensures that the whole of the tooth is captured on the radiograph. For the vertical tube shift, Keur introduced the use of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph. In 1987, Southall and Gravely discussed this vertical tube shift combination in the English dental literature, and it is now the preferred combination of radiographs for localizing impacted maxillary anterior teeth. Jacobs introduced this method to the American literature in 1999, but it has yet to gain acceptance in the continental European literature. Jacobs recommended, when using this combination, to routinely increase the vertical angulation for the occlusal radiograph by 10 degrees to achieve a greater image shift. Four case reports are presented in this article. Three have photographs taken at surgical exposure to illustrate how the position of the impacted tooth can be accurately predicted by appropriate interpretation of the radiographs.

  3. Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009: State of the Art and Its Application in a Local Health Unit in Piedmont, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Ginevra; Cagnasso, Daniela; Cassani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the European Union has reinforced the concept of animal welfare throughout the food chain, from breeding to slaughtering. Studies and assessments of economic nature led to the adoption of Regulation EC 1099/2009 and at the end of 2014 this regulation will be applied to all the members involved in the food chain. For this reason several local health units organized different initiatives. The local health unit of Turin no. 4 (ASLTO4) has developed a project aimed to train food business operators (FBO) to fulfill all the criteria developed in this Regulation. This initiative was divided into four steps: i) communication to the companies about the criteria of the new regulation; ii) a training course for official veterinarians; iii) slaughterhouse audits in order to get information about animal welfare; iv) and a training course for the personnel involved in slaughterhouses. The purpose of this paper was to report the results of the audits in order to identify critical points of structural, instrumental and documentary facilities. Then, the results can be compared with similar studies in order to develop common strategies and intervention areas. PMID:27800389

  4. Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009: state of the art and its application in a local health unit in Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Paolucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the European Union has reinforced the concept of animal welfare throughout the food chain, from breeding to slaughtering. Studies and assessments of economic nature led to the adoption of Regulation EC 1099/2009 and at the end of 2014 this regulation will be applied to all the members involved in the food chain. For this reason several local health units organized different initiatives. The local health unit of Turin no. 4 (ASLTO4 has developed a project aimed to train food business operators (FBO to fulfill all the criteria developed in this Regulation. This initiative was divided into four steps: i communication to the companies about the criteria of the new regulation; ii a training course for official veterinarians; iii slaughterhouse audits in order to get information about animal welfare; iv and a training course for the personnel involved in slaughterhouses. The purpose of this paper was to report the results of the audits in order to identify critical points of structural, instrumental and documentary facilities. Then, the results can be compared with similar studies in order to develop common strategies and intervention areas.

  5. Application of local approach to quantitative prediction of degradation in fracture toughness of steels due to pre-straining and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, T.; Tagawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of cleavage fracture toughness for low carbon steels due to pre-straining and irradiation was investigated on the basis of the local fracture criterion approach. Formulation of cleavage fracture toughness through the statistical modelling proposed by BEREMIN has been simplified by the present authors to the expression involving yield stress and cleavage fracture stress of materials. A few percent pre-strain induced by cold rolling deteriorates significantly the cleavage fracture toughness. Ductile-brittle transition temperature is increased to more than 70 C higher by 8% straining in 500 MPa class high strength steel. Quantitative prediction of degradation has been successfully examined through the formulation of the cleavage fracture toughness. Analytical and experimental results indicate that degradation in toughness is caused by the increase of flow stress in pre-strained materials. Quantitative prediction of degradation of toughness due to irradiation has been also examined for the past experiments on the basis of the local fracture criterion approach. Analytical prediction from variance of yield stress by irradiation is well consistent with the experimental results. (orig.)

  6. Importance of adequate local spatiotemporal transmission measures in malaria cohort studies: application to the relation between placental malaria and first malaria infection in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnès; Cottrell, Gilles; Chandre, Fabrice; Cot, Michel; Massougbodji, Achille; Garcia, André

    2013-07-01

    According to several studies, infants whose mothers had a malaria-infected placenta (MIP) at delivery are at increased risk of a first malaria infection. Immune tolerance caused by intrauterine contact with the parasite could explain this phenomenon, but it is also known that infants who are highly exposed to Anopheles mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium are at greater risk of contracting malaria. Consequently, local malaria transmission must be taken into account to demonstrate the immune tolerance hypothesis. From data collected between 2007 and 2010 on 545 infants followed from birth to age 18 months in southern Benin, we compared estimates of the effect of MIP on time to first malaria infection obtained through different Cox models. In these models, MIP was adjusted for either 1) "village-like" time-independent exposure variables or 2) spatiotemporal exposure prediction derived from local climatic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Only the use of exposure prediction improved the model's goodness of fit (Bayesian Information Criterion) and led to clear conclusions regarding the effect of placental infection, whereas the models using the village-like variables were less successful than the univariate model. This demonstrated clearly the benefit of adequately taking transmission into account in cohort studies of malaria.

  7. Emission tunability and local environment in europium-doped OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses for artificial lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Aline M.; Sandrini, Marcelo; Viana, José Renato M.; Baesso, Mauro L.; Bento, Antônio C.; Rohling, Jurandir H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Guyot, Yannick [Laboratoire de Physico–Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, UMR 5620 CNRS 69622 (France); De Ligny, Dominique [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen Nürnberg, Martens str. 5, 91058, Erlangen (Germany); Nunes, Luiz Antônio O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense400, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gandra, Flávio G. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sampaio, Juraci A. [Lab Ciências Físicas, Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense, 28013-602, Campos Dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Sandro M.; Andrade, Luis Humberto C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul-UEMS, Dourados, MS, C. P. 351, CEP 79804-970 (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    The relationship between emission tunability and the local environment of europium ions in OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses was investigated, focusing on the development of devices for artificial lighting. Significant conversion of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} was obtained by means of melting the glasses under a vacuum atmosphere and controlling the silica content, resulting in broad, intense, and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red. Electron spin resonance and X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements enabled correlation of the luminescence behavior of the material with the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} concentration ratio and changes in the surrounding ions' crystal field. The coordinates of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram were calculated from the spectra, and the contour maps showed that the light emitted from Eu{sup 2+} presented broad bands and enhanced color tuning, ranging from reddish-orange to blue. The results showed that these Eu doped glasses can be used for tunable white lighting by combining matrix composition and the adjustment of the pumping wavelength. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass as a new source for white lighting. • Correlation between emission tunability and local environment of europium ions. • Significant reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} by melting the glasses under vacuum atmosphere. • Broad, intense and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red.

  8. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  9. Local fields and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Fesenko, I B

    2002-01-01

    This book offers a modern presentation of local fields whose spectacular development was initiated almost one hundred years ago by K. Hensel. The volume consists of nine chapters divided into four parts: arithmetic properties of local fields, class field theory for various types of local fields and generalizations, explicit formulas for the Hilbert pairing, and Milnor K-groups of fields and of local fields. The first three parts essentially simplify, revise, and update the first edition. This second edition contains about sixty additional pages reflecting several aspects of the developments in local number theory in the last ten years. Exercises point to many other paths for exploration. The book is designed for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in local number theory and its applications in arithmetic algebraic geometry.

  10. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  11. [Application of 3D soft print models of the kidney for treatment of patients with localized cancer of the kidney (a pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaev, Yu G; Sirota, E S; Bezrukov, E A; Fiev, D N; Bukatov, M D; Letunovskii, A V; Byadretdinov, I Sh

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the possibility of using 3D-printing in the management of patients with localized kidney cancer. The study comprised five patients with localized kidney cancer who were treated at the Urology Clinic of the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University from January 2016 to April 2017. Along with the standard examination, the patients underwent multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) to produce patient-specific 3D-printed models of the kidney tumors using 3D modeling and 3D printing. To evaluate the effectiveness of using 3D-printed models, two-stage preoperative planning was conducted, and five surgeons were surveyed using a four-question multiple choice questionnaire. At the first stage, the planning of operations was carried out based on MSCT findings. At the second stage, the surgeons were given patient-specific soft 3D models of the kidney with a tumor for preoperative training. After preoperative training, patients underwent laparoscopic resection of the kidney with a tumor. According to the survey results, each of the participating surgeons at least once changed surgical plan based on data obtained with 3D printed models of the kidney with the tumor. The implementation of preoperative training using 3D printed models of the kidney turned out to be effective. All patients underwent laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon with extensive experience in this type of surgery. The mean operative time was 187 minutes. All operations were performed with main renal artery occlusion. The men warm ischemia time was 19.5 minutes and the mean blood loss was 170 ml. There were no conversions to open surgery and organ-removing operations. There were no postoperative complications or deaths. All surgical margins were negative. Morphological examination showed that four patients had renal cell carcinoma one patient had the oncocytoma. The study demonstrated the promise of using 3D printing for preoperative planning and surgical performance due to a

  12. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  13. Application of the predicted heat strain model in development of localized, threshold-based heat stress management guidelines for the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, Steve; Jia, Yunyan Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Existing heat stress risk management guidelines recommended by international standards are not practical for the construction industry which needs site supervision staff to make instant managerial decisions to mitigate heat risks. The ability of the predicted heat strain (PHS) model [ISO 7933 (2004). Ergonomics of the thermal environment analytical determination and interpretation of heat stress using calculation of the predicted heat strain. Geneva: International Standard Organisation] to predict maximum allowable exposure time (D lim) has now enabled development of localized, action-triggering and threshold-based guidelines for implementation by lay frontline staff on construction sites. This article presents a protocol for development of two heat stress management tools by applying the PHS model to its full potential. One of the tools is developed to facilitate managerial decisions on an optimized work-rest regimen for paced work. The other tool is developed to enable workers' self-regulation during self-paced work.

  14. The influence of local volume forces on surface relaxation of pure metals and alloys: Applications to Ni, Al, Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.J.; Farkas, D.

    1987-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative influence of the interatomic potential, lattice structure and defect symmetry on the calculated and measured distortion for the free surfaces of alloys and pure metals. In particular, the effect of using local ''volume'' dependent interactions is studied, as opposed to simple pair interatomic forces. The dependence of the relaxation on the lattice structure is examined by comparing pure metals with ordered alloys. A Green function method for surface relaxation is presented and used for the above analysis as well as for studying the influence of different surface symmetries. Examples based on computer simulation of Ni, Al and Ni 3 Al for some surface orientations are presented. (author). 33 refs, 4 figs

  15. (Non)local Hamiltonian and symplectic structures, recursions and hierarchies: a new approach and applications to the N = 1 supersymmetric KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, P; Krasil'shchik, I; Verbovetsky, A

    2004-01-01

    Using methods of Kersten et al (2004 J. Geom. Phys. 50 273-302) and Krasil'shchik and Kersten (2000 Symmetries and Recursion Operators for Classical and Supersymmetric Differential Equations (Dordrecht: Kluwer)), we accomplish an extensive study of the N = 1 supersymmetric Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The results include a description of local and nonlocal Hamiltonian and symplectic structures, five hierarchies of symmetries, the corresponding hierarchies of conservation laws, recursion operators for symmetries and generating functions of conservation laws. We stress that the main point of the paper is not just the results on super-KdV equation itself, but merely exposition of the efficiency of the geometrical approach and of the computational algorithms based on it

  16. Modeling global and local dependence in a pair of commodity forward curves with an application to the US natural gas and heating oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a model for the joint evolution of correlated commodity forward curves. Each forward curve is directed by two state variables, namely slope and level, and the model is meant to capture both the local and global dependence structures between slopes and levels. Our framework can be interpreted as an extension of the concept of cointegration to forward curves. The model is applied to a US database of heating oil and natural gas futures prices over the period February 2000-February 2009. We find the long-run slope and level relationships between natural gas and heating oil markets, analyze the lead and lag properties between the two energy commodities, the volatilities and correlations between their daily co-movements and evaluate the robustness of these observations to the turmoil experienced by energy markets since 2003. (author)

  17. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  18. Management of Localized Prostate Cancer by Focal Transurethral Resection of Prostate Cancer: An Application of Radical TUR-PCa to Focal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Morita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We analyzed radical TUR-PCa against localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine out of 209 patients with prostate cancer in one lobe were studied. Patients’ age ranged from 58 to 91 years and preoperative PSA, 0.70 to 17.30 ng/mL. In other 16 additional patients we performed focal TUR-PCa. Patients’ age ranged from 51 to 87 years and preoperative PSA, 1.51 to 25.74 ng/mL. Results. PSA failure in radical TUR-PCa was 5.1% during the mean follow-up period of 58.9 months. The actuarial biochemical non-recurrence rate was 98.2% for pT2a and 90.5% for pT2b. Bladder neck contracture occurred in 28 patients (35.4%. In 209 patients, pathological study revealed prostate cancer of the peripheral zone near the neurovascular bundle bilaterally in 25%, unilaterally in 39% and no cancer bilaterally in 35%, suggesting the possibility of focal TUR-PCa. Postoperative PSA of 16 patients treated by focal TUR-PCa was stable between 0.007 and 0.406 ng/mL at 24.2 months’ follow-up. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. Bladder neck contracture developed in only 1 patient and all 5 patients underwent nerve-preserving TUR-PCa did not show erectile dysfunction. Conclusion. Focal TUR-PCa was considered to be a promising option among focal therapies against localized prostate cancer.

  19. Modified Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale: applications to non-Debye specific heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Ralph V; Davis, Bryce F

    2013-10-01

    Disordered systems show deviations from the standard Debye theory of specific heat at low temperatures. These deviations are often attributed to two-level systems of uncertain origin. We find that a source of excess specific heat comes from correlations between quanta of energy if excitations are localized on an intermediate length scale. We use simulations of a simplified Creutz model for a system of Ising-like spins coupled to a thermal bath of Einstein-like oscillators. One feature of this model is that energy is quantized in both the system and its bath, ensuring conservation of energy at every step. Another feature is that the exact entropies of both the system and its bath are known at every step, so that their temperatures can be determined independently. We find that there is a mismatch in canonical temperature between the system and its bath. In addition to the usual finite-size effects in the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, if excitations in the heat bath are localized on an intermediate length scale, this mismatch is independent of system size up to at least 10(6) particles. We use a model for correlations between quanta of energy to adjust the statistical distributions and yield a thermodynamically consistent temperature. The model includes a chemical potential for units of energy, as is often used for other types of particles that are quantized and conserved. Experimental evidence for this model comes from its ability to characterize the excess specific heat of imperfect crystals at low temperatures.

  20. Management of Localized Prostate Cancer by Focal Transurethral Resection of Prostate Cancer: An Application of Radical TUR-PCa to Focal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masaru; Matsuura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Background. We analyzed radical TUR-PCa against localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine out of 209 patients with prostate cancer in one lobe were studied. Patients' age ranged from 58 to 91 years and preoperative PSA, 0.70 to 17.30 ng/mL. In other 16 additional patients we performed focal TUR-PCa. Patients' age ranged from 51 to 87 years and preoperative PSA, 1.51 to 25.74 ng/mL. Results. PSA failure in radical TUR-PCa was 5.1% during the mean follow-up period of 58.9 months. The actuarial biochemical non-recurrence rate was 98.2% for pT2a and 90.5% for pT2b. Bladder neck contracture occurred in 28 patients (35.4%). In 209 patients, pathological study revealed prostate cancer of the peripheral zone near the neurovascular bundle bilaterally in 25%, unilaterally in 39% and no cancer bilaterally in 35%, suggesting the possibility of focal TUR-PCa. Postoperative PSA of 16 patients treated by focal TUR-PCa was stable between 0.007 and 0.406 ng/mL at 24.2 months' follow-up. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. Bladder neck contracture developed in only 1 patient and all 5 patients underwent nerve-preserving TUR-PCa did not show erectile dysfunction. Conclusion. Focal TUR-PCa was considered to be a promising option among focal therapies against localized prostate cancer.

  1. Clinical application and validation of an iterative forward projection matching algorithm for permanent brachytherapy seed localization from conebeam-CT x-ray projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J.; Todor, Dorin A.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To experimentally validate a new algorithm for reconstructing the 3D positions of implanted brachytherapy seeds from postoperatively acquired 2D conebeam-CT (CBCT) projection images. Methods: The iterative forward projection matching (IFPM) algorithm finds the 3D seed geometry that minimizes the sum of the squared intensity differences between computed projections of an initial estimate of the seed configuration and radiographic projections of the implant. In-house machined phantoms, containing arrays of 12 and 72 seeds, respectively, are used to validate this method. Also, four {sup 103}Pd postimplant patients are scanned using an ACUITY digital simulator. Three to ten x-ray images are selected from the CBCT projection set and processed to create binary seed-only images. To quantify IFPM accuracy, the reconstructed seed positions are forward projected and overlaid on the measured seed images to find the nearest-neighbor distance between measured and computed seed positions for each image pair. Also, the estimated 3D seed coordinates are compared to known seed positions in the phantom and clinically obtained VariSeed planning coordinates for the patient data. Results: For the phantom study, seed localization error is (0.58{+-}0.33) mm. For all four patient cases, the mean registration error is better than 1 mm while compared against the measured seed projections. IFPM converges in 20-28 iterations, with a computation time of about 1.9-2.8 min/iteration on a 1 GHz processor. Conclusions: The IFPM algorithm avoids the need to match corresponding seeds in each projection as required by standard back-projection methods. The authors' results demonstrate {approx}1 mm accuracy in reconstructing the 3D positions of brachytherapy seeds from the measured 2D projections. This algorithm also successfully localizes overlapping clustered and highly migrated seeds in the implant.

  2. Clinical application and validation of an iterative forward projection matching algorithm for permanent brachytherapy seed localization from conebeam-CT x-ray projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Murphy, Martin J; Todor, Dorin A; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2010-09-01

    To experimentally validate a new algorithm for reconstructing the 3D positions of implanted brachytherapy seeds from postoperatively acquired 2D conebeam-CT (CBCT) projection images. The iterative forward projection matching (IFPM) algorithm finds the 3D seed geometry that minimizes the sum of the squared intensity differences between computed projections of an initial estimate of the seed configuration and radiographic projections of the implant. In-house machined phantoms, containing arrays of 12 and 72 seeds, respectively, are used to validate this method. Also, four 103Pd postimplant patients are scanned using an ACUITY digital simulator. Three to ten x-ray images are selected from the CBCT projection set and processed to create binary seed-only images. To quantify IFPM accuracy, the reconstructed seed positions are forward projected and overlaid on the measured seed images to find the nearest-neighbor distance between measured and computed seed positions for each image pair. Also, the estimated 3D seed coordinates are compared to known seed positions in the phantom and clinically obtained VariSeed planning coordinates for the patient data. For the phantom study, seed localization error is (0.58 +/- 0.33) mm. For all four patient cases, the mean registration error is better than 1 mm while compared against the measured seed projections. IFPM converges in 20-28 iterations, with a computation time of about 1.9-2.8 min/ iteration on a 1 GHz processor. The IFPM algorithm avoids the need to match corresponding seeds in each projection as required by standard back-projection methods. The authors' results demonstrate approximately 1 mm accuracy in reconstructing the 3D positions of brachytherapy seeds from the measured 2D projections. This algorithm also successfully localizes overlapping clustered and highly migrated seeds in the implant.

  3. Local Foods, Local Places Summary Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize community projects done with Local Foods, Local Places assistance, including farmers markets, cooperatives, community gardens, and other food-related enterprises that can boost local economies and drive revitalization.

  4. 高校图书馆不同功能定位下对音乐元素运用的思考%Considerations about the Application of Musical Elements under Different Functional Localizations of University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳艳

    2015-01-01

    在高校图书馆传统功能定位下,音乐元素的融入受到了极大的限制。音乐及阅读心理治疗等新功能的设置,则将音乐元素更广、更深地融入到高校图书馆的工作中,可更好地为高校广大师生的学习生活提供服务。从高校图书馆传统功能定位下音乐元素的融入和高校图书馆新功能定位下音乐元素的融入两个方面,提出了高校图书馆不同功能定位下对音乐元素运用的思考。%ABSTRACT:Under university library’s traditional functional localization, the integration of musical element is greatly limited. And the setting of new functions such as the music, and reading therapy, etc. integrates the musical elements into the work of university library in a broader and deeper way, which can provide better services for the study and life of university’s teachers and students. This paper considers the application of the music elements under university library’s traditional functional localization and under university library’s new functional localization.

  5. Total and Local Quadratic Indices of the Molecular Pseudograph's Atom Adjacency Matrix: Applications to the Prediction of Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovani Marrero Ponce

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel topological approach for obtaining a family of new molecular descriptors is proposed. In this connection, a vector space E (molecular vector space, whose elements are organic molecules, is defined as a “direct sum“ of different ℜi spaces. In this way we can represent molecules having a total of i atoms as elements (vectors of the vector spaces ℜi (i=1, 2, 3,..., n; where n is number of atoms in the molecule. In these spaces the components of the vectors are atomic properties that characterize each kind of atom in particular. The total quadratic indices are based on the calculation of mathematical quadratic forms. These forms are functions of the k-th power of the molecular pseudograph's atom adjacency matrix (M. For simplicity, canonical bases are selected as the quadratic forms' bases. These indices were generalized to “higher analogues“ as number sequences. In addition, this paper also introduces a local approach (local invariant for molecular quadratic indices. This approach is based mainly on the use of a local matrix [Mk(G, FR]. This local matrix is obtained from the k-th power (Mk(G of the atom adjacency matrix M. Mk(G, FR includes the elements of the fragment of interest and those that are connected with it, through paths of length k. Finally, total (and local quadratic indices have been used in QSPR studies of four series of organic compounds. The quantitative models found are significant from a statistical point of view and permit a clear interpretation of the studied properties in terms of the structural features of molecules. External prediction series and cross-validation procedures (leave-one-out and leave-group-out assessed model predictability. The reported method has shown similar results, compared with other topological approaches. The results obtained were the following: a Seven physical properties of 74 normal and branched alkanes (boiling points

  6. An Open Localization and Local Communication Embodied Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Gutiérrez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a localization and local communication system which allows situated agents to communicate locally, obtaining at the same time both the range and the bearing of the emitter without the need of any centralized control or any external reference. The system relies on infrared communications with frequency modulation and is composed of two interconnected modules for data and power measurement. Thanks to the open hardware license under which it is released, the research community can easily replicate the system at a low cost and/or adapt it for applications in sensor networks and in robotics.

  7. Modeling of diffusive plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium with integral constraints: application to mercury-free high pressure discharge lamp mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Suijker, J. L. G.; Peerenboom, K. S. C.; van Dijk, J.

    2017-03-01

    The mercury free lamp model previously discussed in Gnybida et al (2014 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 125201) did not account for self-consistent diffusion and only included two molecular transitions. In this paper we apply, for the first time, a self-consistent diffusion algorithm that features (1) species/mass conservation up to machine accuracy and (2) an arbitrary mix of integral (total mass) and local (cold spot) constraints on the composition. Another advantage of this model is that the total pressure of the gas is calculated self consistently. Therefore, the usage of a predetermined pressure is no longer required. Additionally, the number of association processes has been increased from 2 to 6. The population as a function of interatomic separation determines the spectrum of the emitted continuum radiation. Previously, this population was calculated using the limit of low densities. In this work an expression is used that removes this limitation. The result of these improvements is that the agreement between the simulated and measured spectra has improved considerably.

  8. Measures of Dependence for α-Stable Distributed Processes and Its Application to Diagnostics of Local Damage in Presence of Impulsive Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Żak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local damage detection in rotating machinery is simply searching for cyclic impulsive signal in noisy observation. Such raw signal is mixture of various components with specific properties (deterministic, random, cyclic, impulsive, etc.. The problem appears when the investigated process is based on one of the heavy-tailed distributions. In this case the classical measure can not be considered. Therefore, alternative measures of dependence adequate for such processes should be considered. In this paper we examine the structure of dependence of alpha-stable based systems expressed by means of two measures, namely, codifference and covariation. The reason for using alpha-stable distribution is simple and intuitive: signal of interest is impulsive so its distribution is heavy-tailed. The main goal is to introduce a new technique for estimation of covariation. Due to the complex nature of such vibration signals applying novel methods instead of classical ones is recommended. Classical algorithms usually are based on the assumption that theoretical second moment is finite, which is not true in case of the data acquired on the faulty components. Main advantage of our proposed algorithm is independence from second moment assumption.

  9. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  10. Local order dynamics: its application to the study of atomic mobility, of point defects in crystalline alloys, and of structural relaxation in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanzat, Emmanuel

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of the atomic mobility mechanism and of the atom movement dynamics in the case of crystalline alloys and of amorphous alloys. The first part is based on a previous study performed on an α-Cu 70 -Zn 30 crystalline alloy, and addresses the case of an α-Au 70 -Ni 30 alloy. The specificity of this case relies in the fact that the considered solid solution is metastable and susceptible to de-mixing in the considered temperature range. This case of off-equilibrium crystalline alloy is at the crossroad between steady crystalline alloys and metallic glasses which are studied in the second part. The third part addresses the irradiation of metallic amorphous alloys by fast particles (neutrons or electrons). The author tried to characterise atomic defects induced by irradiation and to compare them with pre-existing ones. He studied how these defects may change atomic mobility, and, more generally, to which extent the impact of energetic particles could modify local order status

  11. Blowing against the wind-An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, Eric; Heiskanen, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined.

  12. Design of a highly selective quenched activity-based probe and its application in dual color imaging studies of cathepsin S activity localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oresic Bender, Kristina; Ofori, Leslie; van der Linden, Wouter A; Mock, Elliot D; Datta, Gopal K; Chowdhury, Somenath; Li, Hao; Segal, Ehud; Sanchez Lopez, Mateo; Ellman, Jonathan A; Figdor, Carl G; Bogyo, Matthew; Verdoes, Martijn

    2015-04-15

    The cysteine cathepsins are a group of 11 proteases whose function was originally believed to be the degradation of endocytosed material with a high degree of redundancy. However, it has become clear that these enzymes are also important regulators of both health and disease. Thus, selective tools that can discriminate between members of this highly related class of enzymes will be critical to further delineate the unique biological functions of individual cathepsins. Here we present the design and synthesis of a near-infrared quenched activity-based probe (qABP) that selectively targets cathepsin S which is highly expressed in immune cells. Importantly, this high degree of selectivity is retained both in vitro and in vivo. In combination with a new green-fluorescent pan-reactive cysteine cathepsin qABP we performed dual color labeling studies in bone marrow-derived immune cells and identified vesicles containing exclusively cathepsin S activity. This observation demonstrates the value of our complementary cathepsin probes and provides evidence for the existence of specific localization of cathepsin S activity in dendritic cells.

  13. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbio, G Di; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z; Kadem, L, E-mail: lcfd@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation. (paper)

  14. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Brie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading

  15. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  16. LOCAL ALGORITHM FOR MONITORING TOTAL SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS IN MICRO-WATERSHEDS USIN DRONES AND REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS. CASE STUDY: TEUSACÁ RIVER, LA CALERA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sáenz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An empirical relationship of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS concentrations and reflectance values obtained with Drones’ aerial photos and processed using remote sensing tools was set up as the main objective of this research. A local mathematic algorithm for the micro-watershed of the Teusacá River at La Calera, Colombia, was developed based on the computing of four component of bands from consumed-grade cameras obtaining from each their corresponding reflectance values from procedures for correcting digital camera imagery and using statistical analysis for study the fit and RMSE of 25 regressions. The assessment was characterized by the comparison of reflectance values and 34 in-situ data measurements concentrations between 1.6 and 33 mg L−1 taken from the superficial layer of the river in two campaigns. A large data set of empirical and referenced algorithm from literature were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the relationship. For estimation of TSS, a higher accuracy was achieved using the Tassan’s algorithm with the BAND X/ BANDX ratio. The correlation coefficient with R2 = X demonstrate the feasibility of use remote sensed data with consumed-grade cameras as an effective tool for a frequent monitoring and controlling of water quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids of watersheds, these being the most vulnerable and less compliance with environmental regulations.

  17. Vibrations in force-and-mass disordered alloys in the average local-information transfer approximation. Application to Al-Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czachor, A.

    1979-01-01

    The configuration-averaged displacement-displacement Green's function, derived in the locator-based approximation accounting for average transfer of information on local coupling and mass, has been applied to study the force-and-mass-disorder induced modifications of phonon dispersion relations in substitutional alloys of cubic structures. In this approach the translational invariance condition is obeyed whereas damping is neglected. The force-disorder was found to lead to additional splitting of phonon curves besides that due to mass-disorder, even in the small impurity-concentration case; at larger concentrations the number of splits (frequency gaps) should be still greater. The use of a quasi-locator in the Green's function derivation allows one to partly reconcile the present results with those of the average t-matrix approximation. The experimentally observed splitting in the [100]T phonon dispersion curve for Al-Ag alloys has been interpreted in terms of the above theory and of a quasi-mass of heavy impurity atoms. (Author)

  18. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.

    2017-06-01

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  19. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  20. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  1. Introduction to localization in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestun, Vasily; Zabzine, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    This is the introductory chapter to this issue. We review the main idea of the localization technique and its brief history both in geometry and in QFT. We discuss localization in diverse dimensions and give an overview of the major applications of the localization calculations for supersymmetric theories. We explain the focus of the present issue. (topical review)

  2. Radiolytic model of Cofrentes NPP using the BWRVIA: analysis of the effectiveness of mitigation in localizations of the vessel with noble metal application on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Zapata, J. D.; Martin-Serrano, C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is one of the principal factors that takes part in IGSCC materials susceptibility. BWR industry has been applying different mitigation techniques against IGSCC: hydrogen injection and noble metals. Mitigation effectiveness is checked by studying chemical parameters: ECP (for hydrogen injection) and Molar Ratio (for noble metal application). There is a software from EPRI called BWRVIA that allows to modelize radiolysis influence in parameters variation and obtain them at different points in the vessel. Recently, this kind of studies have become very relevant within BWR industry because it is the previous step to implement BWRVIP-62-A guidelines in order to get longer inspection intervals at vessel location where mitigation effectiveness is justified, with the cost savings for plants that this means. (Author)

  3. Local application of a gentamicin-loaded thermo-responsive hydrogel allows for fracture healing upon clearance of a high Staphylococcus aureus load in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-JA ter Boo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ntibiotic-loaded biomaterials (ALBs have emerged as a potential useful adjunctive antimicrobial measure for the prevention of infection in open fracture care. A biodegradable thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide grafted hyaluronic acid (HApN hydrogel loaded with gentamicin has recently been shown to prevent implant-related infection in a rabbit osteosynthesis model. The primary aim of this study was to determine the influence of this HApN hydrogel on bone healing at an early stage (4 weeks. A rabbit humeral osteotomy model with plating osteosynthesis was used to compare fracture healing in rabbits receiving the hydrogel as compared with control animals. The secondary aim was to observe fracture healing in groups treated with and without antibiotic-loaded hydrogel in the presence of bacterial contamination. In all groups, outcome measures were mechanical stability and histological score, with additional quantitative bacteriology in the inoculated groups. Application of the HApN hydrogel in non-inoculated rabbits did not significantly influence humeral stiffness or histological scores for fracture healing in comparison to controls. In the inoculated groups, animals receiving the bacterial inoculum without hydrogel were culture-positive at euthanasia and found to display lower humeral stiffness values and higher histopathological scores for bacterial presence in comparison with equivalents receiving the gentamicin-loaded HApN hydrogel, which were also infection-free. In summary, our data showed that HApN was an effective antibiotic carrier that did not affect fracture healing. This data supported its suitability for application in fracture care. Addition of osteopromotive compounds could provide further support for accelerating fracture healing in addition to successful infection prophylaxis.

  4. The application of GBS markers for extending the dense genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the localization of the Rfc1 gene restoring male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Paweł; Hanek, Monika; Tyrka, Mirosław; Stojałowski, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.

  5. Application of the Local Grid Refinement package to an inset model simulating the interactions of lakes, wells, and shallow groundwater, northwestern Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Dunning, C.P.; Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater use from shallow, high-capacity wells is expected to increase across southeastern Wisconsin in the next decade (2010-2020), owing to residential and business growth and the need for shallow water to be blended with deeper water of lesser quality, containing, for example, excessive levels of radium. However, this increased pumping has the potential to affect surface-water features. A previously developed regional groundwater-flow model for southeastern Wisconsin was used as the starting point for a new model to characterize the hydrology of part of northwestern Waukesha County, with a particular focus on the relation between the shallow aquifer and several area lakes. An inset MODFLOW model was embedded in an updated version of the original regional model. Modifications made within the inset model domain include finer grid resolution; representation of Beaver, Pine, and North Lakes by use of the LAK3 package in MODFLOW; and representation of selected stream reaches with the SFR package. Additionally, the inset model is actively linked to the regional model by use of the recently released Local Grid Refinement package for MODFLOW-2005, which allows changes at the regional scale to propagate to the local scale and vice versa. The calibrated inset model was used to simulate the hydrologic system in the Chenequa area under various weather and pumping conditions. The simulated model results for base conditions show that groundwater is the largest inflow component for Beaver Lake (equal to 59 percent of total inflow). For Pine and North Lakes, it is still an important component (equal, respectively, to 16 and 5 percent of total inflow), but for both lakes it is less than the contribution from precipitation and surface water. Severe drought conditions (simulated in a rough way by reducing both precipitation and recharge rates for 5 years to two-thirds of base values) cause correspondingly severe reductions in lake stage and flows. The addition of a test well

  6. Contribution to the study of physico-chemical properties of surfaces modified by laser treatment. Application to the enhancement of localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquentin, W.

    2011-01-01

    Metallic materials are more and more used in severe conditions with particularly strong request for improving their behavior in aggressive environment and especially over long periods. The objective of this PhD work is to estimate the potentiality of a laser surface melting treatment on the improvement of the stainless steel 304L corrosion resistance, surface treatments by laser can be revisited on the basis of a recent change in the laser technology. In the frame of this work, a nano-pulsed laser fiber was chosen: it allows the treated surface to be melted for few microns in depth, followed by an ultra-fast solidification occurring with cooling rates up to 1011 K/s. The combination of these processes leads to the elimination of the surface defects, the formation (trapping) of metastable phases, the segregation of chemical elements and the growth of a new oxide layer which properties are governed by the laser parameters. To correlate these latter to the electrochemical reactivity of the surface, the influence of two laser parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the surface was studied: the laser power and the overlap of the laser impacts. To support this approach, the pitting corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by standard electrochemical tests. For specific laser parameters, the pitting potential of a 304L stainless steel was increased by more than 500 mV corresponding to an important enhancement in localized corrosion resistance in chloride environment. The interdependence of the different phenomena resulting from the laser treatment lead to a quite complex prioritization of their role on the sensibility of the 304L. However, it was demonstrated that the nature of the thermal oxide formed during the laser surface melting and the induced defects are first-order parameters for the initiation of pits. (author) [fr

  7. Local application of 133Xenon for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eintrei, C.; Leszniewski, W.; Carlsson, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that halothane causes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this study the effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in humans were determined in the presence of 70% N 2 O at a combined MAC concentration of 1.5. CBF was determined in 24 patients from the washout of locally applied 133 Xenon with the use of an external scintillation. All 24 patients (control n = 6, halothane n = 6, enflurane n = 6, and isoflurane n = 6) were undergoing neurosurgical procedures. All patients were anesthetized with thiopental, fentanyl, droperidol, and 70% N 2 O in oxygen and paralyzed with pancuronium. The measurements were performed after the dura had been opened and before definitive surgery. The first measurement was done in the absence of any volatile agent, and the wash-out curve was registered for 6 min. The second measurement was done after one of the volatile agents had been added for at least 20 min and had reached a concentration of 0.58% for halothane, 1.14% for enflurane, or 1.0% for isoflurane in the expiratory gases in order to obtain about 1.5 MAC with each volatile anesthetic. The anesthetic concentrations were measured with the Engstroem multigas analyzer EMMA. The physiologic variables changed very little throughout the period of observation. Body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, PaCO 2 , and PaO 2 were stable. Ephedrine was used to maintain a stable arterial pressure. At approximately 1.5 MAC, halothane (plus N 2 O) increased rCBF to nearly three times (166%) the control value, while enflurane induced only a slight increase (35%) in rCBF

  8. Application of 234U/238U isotope ratio data for the study of geochemical problems associated with local water sources from Aguas da Prata (SP, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium-238, uranium-234 and radon content of spring waters of Aguas da Prata (SP) - Platina, Paiol, Villela, Sao Bento, Prata-Radioativa, Prata-Nova, Boi, Vitoria and Prata-Antiga - was found; the activity ratio AR ( 234 U/ 238 U) was applied to the geochemistry of local water sources. The uranium analysis procedure consisted of the following steps: adition of 232 U- 228 Th spike to the samples, coprecipitation with iron, iron extraction with organic solvent, separation on anion-exchange resin, extraction with TTA, deposition on stainless steel disc and determination of uranium content by alpha spectrometry. The uranium-238 content changed from 0,10 to 11,56 ppb (average value = 2,3 ppb). The higher values were observed for the waters circulating through sandstones and the lower through volcanic rocks. The inverse correlation (r sub(s) =-0,76) between pH and uranium-238 content confirmed the contribution of this factor on its solubility. The significative correlation r sub(s) = 0,76 between dissolved oxygen and uranium-238 content also confirmed the higher uranium on the more oxidizing zones. The AR changed from 2,84 to 11,68 (average value = 6). These values defined the regional aquifer systems as mineralized in uranium. The higher AR were observed for the deep groundwaters and the lower for the shallow one. Because the 238 U→ 234 Th decay, the 234 Th ejection to the solution was confirmed as the most important factor responsible for the extreme observed isotopic fractionation. (Author) [pt

  9. Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Stellar Spectroscopy with 1D and Models. I. Methods and Application to Magnesium Abundances in Standard Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Amarsi, Anish M.; Kovalev, Mikhail; Ruchti, Greg; Magic, Zazralt

    2017-09-01

    We determine Mg abundances in six Gaia benchmark stars using theoretical one-dimensional (1D) hydrostatic model atmospheres, as well as temporally and spatially averaged three-dimensional () model atmospheres. The stars cover a range of Teff from 4700 to 6500 K, log g from 1.6 to 4.4 dex, and [Fe/H] from -3.0 dex to solar. Spectrum synthesis calculations are performed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE (NLTE) using the oscillator strengths recently published by Pehlivan Rhodin et al. We find that: (a) Mg abundances determined from the infrared spectra are as accurate as the optical diagnostics, (b) the NLTE effects on Mg I line strengths and abundances in this sample of stars are minor (although for a few Mg I lines the NLTE effects on abundance exceed 0.6 dex in and 0.1 dex in 1D, (c) the solar Mg abundance is 7.56+/- 0.05 dex (total error), in excellent agreement with the Mg abundance measured in CI chondritic meteorites, (d) the 1D NLTE and NLTE approaches can be used with confidence to analyze optical Mg I lines in spectra of dwarfs and sub-giants, but for red giants the Mg I 5711 Å line should be preferred, (e) low-excitation Mg I lines are sensitive to the atmospheric structure; for these lines, LTE calculations with models lead to significant systematic abundance errors. The methods developed in this work will be used to study Mg abundances of a large sample of stars in the next paper in the series.

  10. NeuronDepot: Keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp L Rautenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience today deals with a data deluge derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1 a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2 a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3 an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing – thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  11. NeuronDepot: keeping your colleagues in sync by combining modern cloud storage services, the local file system, and simple web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kumaraswamy, Ajayrama; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Doblander, Christoph; Norouzian, Mohammad R; Kai, Kazuki; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno; Ai, Hiroyuki; Wachtler, Thomas; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience today deals with a "data deluge" derived from the availability of high-throughput sensors of brain structure and brain activity, and increased computational resources for detailed simulations with complex output. We report here (1) a novel approach to data sharing between collaborating scientists that brings together file system tools and cloud technologies, (2) a service implementing this approach, called NeuronDepot, and (3) an example application of the service to a complex use case in the neurosciences. The main drivers for our approach are to facilitate collaborations with a transparent, automated data flow that shields scientists from having to learn new tools or data structuring paradigms. Using NeuronDepot is simple: one-time data assignment from the originator and cloud based syncing-thus making experimental and modeling data available across the collaboration with minimum overhead. Since data sharing is cloud based, our approach opens up the possibility of using new software developments and hardware scalabitliy which are associated with elastic cloud computing. We provide an implementation that relies on existing synchronization services and is usable from all devices via a reactive web interface. We are motivating our solution by solving the practical problems of the GinJang project, a collaboration of three universities across eight time zones with a complex workflow encompassing data from electrophysiological recordings, imaging, morphological reconstructions, and simulations.

  12. Comparison of different models for ground-level atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) prediction with a new model according to local weather data for FSO applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia Bazil Raj, A; Arputha Vijaya Selvi, J; Durairaj, S

    2015-02-01

    a longer range of dynamic meteorological parameters during the different local seasons.

  13. Application of localized 31P MRS saturation transfer at 7 T for measurement of ATP metabolism in the liver: reproducibility and initial clinical application in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Ladislav; Gajdosik, Martin; Chmelik, Marek; Trattnig, Siegfried; Traussnigg, Stefan; Kienbacher, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Wolf, Peter; Krebs, Michael; Bogner, Wolfgang; Krssak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Saturation transfer (ST) phosphorus MR spectroscopy ( 31 P MRS) enables in vivo insight into energy metabolism and thus could identify liver conditions currently diagnosed only by biopsy. This study assesses the reproducibility of the localized 31 P MRS ST in liver at 7 T and tests its potential for noninvasive differentiation of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and steatohepatitis (NASH). After the ethics committee approval, reproducibility of the localized 31 P MRS ST at 7 T and the biological variation of acquired hepato-metabolic parameters were assessed in healthy volunteers. Subsequently, 16 suspected NAFL/NASH patients underwent MRS measurements and diagnostic liver biopsy. The Pi-to-ATP exchange parameters were compared between the groups by a Mann-Whitney U test and related to the liver fat content estimated by a single-voxel proton ( 1 H) MRS, measured at 3 T. The mean exchange rate constant (k) in healthy volunteers was 0.31 ± 0.03 s -1 with a coefficient of variation of 9.0 %. Significantly lower exchange rates (p -1 ) when compared to healthy volunteers, and NAFL patients (k = 0.30 ± 0.05 s -1 ). Significant correlation was found between the k value and the liver fat content (r = 0.824, p 31 P MRS ST technique provides a tool for gaining insight into hepatic ATP metabolism and could contribute to the differentiation of NAFL and NASH. (orig.)

  14. A general technoeconomic and environmental procedure for assessment of small-scale cogeneration scheme installations: Application to a local industry operating in Thrace, Greece, using microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsigiannis, P.A.; Papadopoulos, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper describes a proposed general systematic procedure for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) exploitation (where 'small-scale CHP' refers to CHP installations with electric capacities up to 1 MW). The mentioned systematic procedure is implemented through a developed computer code and may be applied to any such small-scale project in order to assess its suitability based on technoeconomic and environmental considerations. A dynamic database based on small-scale CHP units (available in the world market) and their pertinent technical, economical and environmental features is created and, in conjunction with the developed program, is used for determination of a suitable CHP unit (or system) size and the selection of the associated proper prime mover type for any project of interest. Using well-known economic criteria, the economic analysis is performed, including the sensitivity analysis of the considered project based on the main key system parameters. In terms of the socioeconomic analysis, a carbon tax (CT) scenario is considered, and its effect on the economic behavior of the project is investigated. Last, with respect to environmental considerations, the program calculates, for any such project, the avoided main pollutants and the fuel savings when a CHP system is applied. As a case study, a small textile industry operating in the Eastern Macedonia-Thrace Region of Greece is considered, and its associated (electrical and thermal) data are used as input data to the proposed computer program. In this application, two microturbine units are selected and thoroughly evaluated, and the pertinent simulation results are presented and discussed accordingly

  15. Application of BALB/c mouse in the local lymph node assay:BrdU-ELISA for the prediction of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fenxia; Xing, Caihong; Li, Bin; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Man

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a skin disease characterized by eczema and itching. A considerable proportion of chemicals induce ACD in humans. More than 10,000 substances should be tested for skin sensitization potential under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) regulation. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) has been designated as the first-choice in vivo assay for sensitization testing by REACH. The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is a validated non-radioactive modification to the LLNA. For both the LLNA and the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA, CBA/JN mouse is the preferred mouse strain recommended in the regulatory guidelines. However, the availability of CBA/JN mouse in China is only limited to a few animal suppliers, which makes the mouse difficult to obtain. BALB/c mouse, which is widely commercially available, is considered for alternative use but it can only be used in the assay after it has been evaluated by formal validation study. Thus, a validation study was conducted in our laboratory to determine if BALB/c mouse could also be used in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. Forty-three test substances including 32 LLNA sensitizers and 11 LLNA non-sensitizers, their vehicles and each concentration used were the same as that used in the formal validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using CBA/JN mouse. Female BALB/c mice of 8-10 weeks old were randomly allocated to groups (four mice per group). The test substance (25 μl) or the vehicle alone was applied to the dorsum of both ears daily for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of BrdU (10mg/ml) solution was given on day 5. On day 6, a pair of auricular lymph nodes from each mouse was excised, weighed and stored at -20°C until BrdU-ELISA was conducted. This validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using BALB/c mouse correctly identified 30 of 31 sensitizers and 8 of 11 non-sensitizers. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate

  16. The application of Double-difference technique to improve localization of induced microseismic events at Pyhäsalmi copper mine, Pyhäjärvi, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jouni; Usoltseva, Olga; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Mäki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    Pyhäsalmi mine, an underground copper mine at Pyhäjärvi, Finland, have been known to have induced seismicity due ore excavation for over half of a century. In 2002, the excavation depth increased as mining activity focused to Pyhäsalmi deep ore body, a potato shaped ore concentration that lies roughly from 1000 meter to 1425 meters below the surface. The stress level in the rock was detected to be very high with clear main direction and due to this microseismicity started occurring immediately when the construction of "new mine" section began. Thus a microseismic monitoring system was installed to trace this frequently occurring induced seismicity as seismic observations are one of the quickest ways to map mines state-of-health. The system consist over 25 geophones that are mainly around the excavation site. Since the installation, over 250000 events have been observed. Currently the automated (triggered) and afterwards manually verified seismic events localization routine is applied by absolute location method that minimizes the penalty function of calculated location and origin time to match as good as possibly for corresponding events observed arrivaltimes. However with this method the best location accuracy is around 20 meters at center of the excavation, since it uses homogenous velocity model that have been applied to whole mine but in reality the seismic velocity structure is very complex with tunnels, fill material and ore. For mines seismic alarm purposes this suits well, but for more advanced source analysis this accuracy is not enough. We apply Double-difference technique to relocate microseismic scale events at Pyhäsalmi mine. This iterative least-squares procedure method utilizes pairs of events with common receiver. The basic principle of the technique is that it relates the residual between the observed and the predicted phase traveltime difference for pairs of earthquakes observed at common station to adjustments in the vector that connects

  17. Development and application of a parallel finite volume method for flow simulation on unstructured grids with local refinement; Entwicklung und Anwendung eines parallelen Finite-Volumen-Verfahrens zur Stroemungssimulation auf unstrukturierten Gittern mit lokaler Verfeinerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, V.

    1997-11-01

    A finite vomume method for calculation of steady and unsteady flow on unstructured grids is parallelized by local spatial and time decomposition. In the first case, a parallel variant of the conjugated gradient method with multiple local preconditioning is formulated and analyzed. The method is tested for simple applications (e.g. flow around a cylinder). The second part of the publication describes a direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow around a sphere at a Reynolds number of 5000 (based on flow velocity and sphere diameter). Current and Reynolds-averaged flow fields are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on coordinate-independent representation of the anisotropy ratios of the Reynolds tensor and dissipation tensor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Finite-Volumen-Verfahren fuer die Berechnung stationaerer und instationaerer Stroemungen auf unstrukturierten Netzen wird durch Gebietszerlegung im Raum und Zeit parallelisiert. Fuer die raeumliche Zerlegung wird eine parallele Variante der konjugierten Gradienten Methode mit mehrfacher, lokaler Vorkonditionierung formuliert und analysiert. Anhand einfacher Anwendungsbeispiele (Zylinderumstroemung, deckelgetriebene Nischenstroemung) wird das entwickelte Gesamtverfahren getestet und seine Effizienz bestimmt. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit beschreibt eine direkte numerische Simulation der turbulenten Kugelumstroemung bei einer Reynolds-Zahl von 5 000 (basierend auf Anstroemgeschwindigkeit und Kugeldurchmesser). In der Ergebnisauswertung werden augenblickliche und Reynolds-gemittelte Stroemungsfelder diskutiert und besonderer Wert auf eine koordinatenunabhaengige Darstellung der Anisotropieverhaeltnisse des Reynolds-Tensors und des Dissipationstensors gelegt. (orig.)

  18. Application of localized {sup 31}P MRS saturation transfer at 7 T for measurement of ATP metabolism in the liver: reproducibility and initial clinical application in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, Ladislav [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gajdosik, Martin; Chmelik, Marek; Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Traussnigg, Stefan; Kienbacher, Christian; Trauner, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Vienna (Austria); Wolf, Peter; Krebs, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine III, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-15

    Saturation transfer (ST) phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS) enables in vivo insight into energy metabolism and thus could identify liver conditions currently diagnosed only by biopsy. This study assesses the reproducibility of the localized {sup 31}P MRS ST in liver at 7 T and tests its potential for noninvasive differentiation of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and steatohepatitis (NASH). After the ethics committee approval, reproducibility of the localized {sup 31}P MRS ST at 7 T and the biological variation of acquired hepato-metabolic parameters were assessed in healthy volunteers. Subsequently, 16 suspected NAFL/NASH patients underwent MRS measurements and diagnostic liver biopsy. The Pi-to-ATP exchange parameters were compared between the groups by a Mann-Whitney U test and related to the liver fat content estimated by a single-voxel proton ({sup 1}H) MRS, measured at 3 T. The mean exchange rate constant (k) in healthy volunteers was 0.31 ± 0.03 s{sup -1} with a coefficient of variation of 9.0 %. Significantly lower exchange rates (p < 0.01) were found in NASH patients (k = 0.17 ± 0.04 s{sup -1}) when compared to healthy volunteers, and NAFL patients (k = 0.30 ± 0.05 s{sup -1}). Significant correlation was found between the k value and the liver fat content (r = 0.824, p < 0.01). Our data suggest that the {sup 31}P MRS ST technique provides a tool for gaining insight into hepatic ATP metabolism and could contribute to the differentiation of NAFL and NASH. (orig.)

  19. Radiation risk education program - local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    This article points out the lack of knowledge by the general public and medical profession concerning the true risks of radiation exposure. The author describes an educational program which can be implemented at the local level to overcome this deficiency. The public must understand the enormous extent of benefit derived from radiation applications in our society

  20. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  1. Locality and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than light suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike-separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohn's pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed

  2. Formulações de anestésicos locais de liberação controlada: aplicações terapêuticas Formulaciones de anestésicos locales de liberación controlada: aplicaciones terapéuticas Drug-delivery systems for local anesthetics: therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo

    2003-09-01

    ésicos locales indican una nueva dirección en el desarrollo de formulaciones anestésicas más eficaces y seguras.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many researchers in the last four decades have been devoted to the development of drug-delivery systems. Since its first application in the pharmaceutical industry, many results have been obtained especially in the molecular manipulation of carriers and their interaction with encapsulated drugs. These new carriers have the advantage of bypassing encapsulated drugs restraining physicochemical properties (such as water or membrane solubility, thus improving pharmacodynamics (therapeutic effect potentiation, pharmacokinetics (control of tissue absorption and distribution and toxic effects (lower local and systemic toxicity. Liposomes and cyclodextrins are among the most important carriers which have shown to be quite advantageous in the development of drug-delivery systems for local anesthetics. This study aimed at reviewing the interaction of local anesthetics with liposomes and cyclodextrins, the development of basic and applied research on the field, in addition to therapeutic applicability of these formulations. CONTENTS: Liposomes have the ability to control drug delivery to target tissues, fractionating drug release in its site of action. Cyclodextrins, on the other hand, change intensity and duration of effects due to low systemic drug absorption. Basic and clinical studies have pointed out that the administration of local anesthetics in liposome or cyclodextrin formulations induces slow release of the drugs, prolonging the anesthetic action and decreasing cardiac and nervous systems toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Although studies are still in progress, drug-delivery systems are flagging a new direction for the development of safer and more effective local anesthetic formulations.

  3. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  4. Microcomputer Applications in Local Assessment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Delwyn L.; And Others

    The capabilities and hardware requirements of four microcomputer software packages produced by the Office of Educational Testing, Research and Service at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are described. These programs are: (1) the Scan-Tron Forms Analysis Package Version 2.0, an interface between an IBM-compatible and a Scan-Tron…

  5. Local application of IGFBP5 protein enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration via increasing the migration, cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in an inflammatory niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nannan; Zhang, Fengqiu; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiuli; Lin, Xiao; Yang, Haoqing; Wang, Lijun; Cao, Yangyang; Du, Juan; Fan, Zhipeng

    2017-09-29

    Periodontitis is a widespread infectious disease ultimately resulting in tooth loss. The number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with periodontitis is decreased, and MSC functions are impaired. Rescuing the impaired function of MSCs in periodontitis is the key for treatment, especially in a manner independent of exogenous MSCs. Our previous study found that overexpressed insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) could promote exogenous MSC-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration. Here, we investigate the role of IGFBP5 protein in MSCs and periodontal tissue regeneration independent of exogenous MSCs in an inflammatory niche. TNFα was used to mimic the inflammatory niche. Lentiviral IGFBP5 shRNA was used to silence IGFBP5 and recombinant human IGFBP5 protein (rhIGFBP5) was used to stimulate the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The effects of IGFBP5 on PDLSCs were evaluated using the scratch-simulated wound migration, Transwell chemotaxis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin red staining, Cell Counting Kit-8, Western blot, Real-time PCR, Co-IP and ChIP assays. The swine model of periodontitis was used to investigate the functions of IGFBP5 for periodontal regeneration and its anti-inflammation effect. We discovered that 0.5 ng/ml rhIGFBP5 protein enhanced the migration, chemotaxis, osteo/dentinogenic differentiation and cell proliferation of MSCs under the inflammatory condition. Moreover, 0.5 ng/ml rhIGFBP5 application could rescue the impaired functions of IGFBP5-silenced-MSCs in the inflammatory niche. Furthermore, local injection of rhIGFBP5 could promote periodontal tissue regeneration and relieve the local inflammation in a minipig model of periodontitis. Mechanistically, we found that BCOR negatively regulated the expression of IGFBP5 in MSCs. BCOR formed a protein complex with histone demethylase KDM6B and raised histone K27 methylation in the IGFBP5 promoter. This study

  6. 50 Years of Anderson Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Elihu

    2010-01-01

    In his groundbreaking paper Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices (1958), Philip W. Anderson originated, described and developed the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of the localization of quantum objects due to disorder. Anderson's 1977 Nobel Prize citation featured that paper, which was fundamental for many subsequent developments in condensed matter theory and technical applications. After more than a half century, the subject continues to be of fundamental importance. In particular, in the last 25 years, the phenomenon of localization has proved to be crucial for the

  7. Localization of waves in a fluctuating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.; Souillard, B.

    1984-01-01

    We present the first application of localization theory to plasma physics: Density fluctuations induce exponential localization of longitudinal and transverse electron plasma waves, i.e., the eigenmodes have an amplitude decreasing exponentially for large distances without any dissipative mechanism in the plasma. This introduces a new mechanism for converting a convective instability into an absolute one. Localization should be observable in clear-cut experiments

  8. Continuity of Local Time: An applied perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jorge M.; Waymire, Edward C.; Thomann, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of local time for Brownian motion ranks among the most notable mathematical results in the theory of stochastic processes. This article addresses its implications from the point of view of applications. In particular an extension of previous results on an explicit role of continuity of (natural) local time is obtained for applications to recent classes of problems in physics, biology and finance involving discontinuities in a dispersion coefficient. The main theorem and its corolla...

  9. Localization of inorganic ions in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iren, F. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author has been unable to devise a generally applicable technique of ion localization in cells and tissues. He concludes that ion localization in living organisms remains difficult. From this study, a rough outline of how ions are transported into, through, and out of plant roots is drawn. (Auth.)

  10. Application of organic matter to enhance phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soils using local plant species: a case study on small-scale gold mining locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muddarisna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste containing mercury, and its influence on the growth of maize. Six treatments (three plant species, and two levels of organic matter application were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Maize was grown on soil after phytoremediation for 8 weeks. The results showed that among the three plant species tested, Cyperus kyllingia was the potential candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailing containing mercury because of its ability to accumulate mercury from 32.06 to 73.90 mg / kg of soil in 60 days. Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soil using Cyperus kyllingia using increased maize yield by 126% compared to that the biomass yield of maize grown on soil without phytoremediation. Induce phytoremediation needs to be carried out to accelerate the process of remediation of mercury contaminated soils

  11. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  12. Local food and tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten; Sundbo, Donna; Sundbo, Jon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the question: Why local food networks succeed or fail in collaborating with local tourism actors to create more tourism based on local food? The article focuses on entrepreneurial local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors. Emphasis...... is on the actions and attitude logics of local food networks and tourism actors, and whether their respective logics fit as a factor to explain why or why not development of local food concepts lead to increased local tourism. Six local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors are studied...... by using observation supplemented with other qualitative methods. Analysis of these networks reveals that successful collaboration is characterised by the food networks and tourism actors having at least one logic in common. The fitting logics that lead to success are primarily celebrity and civic logics...

  13. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  14. Dual spaces of local Morrey-type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gogatishvili, A. (Amiran); Mustafayev, R. (Rza)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that associated spaces and dual spaces of the local Morrey-type spaces are so called complementary local Morrey-type spaces. Our method is based on an application of multidimensional reverse Hardy inequalities.

  15. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local... city, county, township, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a...

  16. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate

  17. New model. Local financing for local energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroy, Florent

    2015-01-01

    While evoking the case of the VMH Energies company in the Poitou-Charentes region, and indicating the difference between France and Germany in terms of wind and photovoltaic energy production potential, of number of existing local companies, and of citizen-based funding, this article shows that renewable energies could put the energy production financing in France into question again, with a more important participation of local communities and of their inhabitants. The author describes how the law on energy transition makes this possible, notably with the strengthening of citizen participation. The author evokes some French local experiments and the case of Germany where this participation is already very much developed

  18. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Locally analytic vectors in representations of locally

    CERN Document Server

    Emerton, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this memoir is to provide the foundations for the locally analytic representation theory that is required in three of the author's other papers on this topic. In the course of writing those papers the author found it useful to adopt a particular point of view on locally analytic representation theory: namely, regarding a locally analytic representation as being the inductive limit of its subspaces of analytic vectors (of various "radii of analyticity"). The author uses the analysis of these subspaces as one of the basic tools in his study of such representations. Thus in this memoir he presents a development of locally analytic representation theory built around this point of view. The author has made a deliberate effort to keep the exposition reasonably self-contained and hopes that this will be of some benefit to the reader.

  20. Observation on the Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Detumescence Ointment on Early Local Swollen Ankle Sprains%观察消肿膏外敷对早期踝关节扭伤局部肿胀的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史志良

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of external application of swelling paste on early ankle swelling.Methods A total of 80 patients with local swelling of ankle joint were treated in our hospital,and the patients were randomly divided into groups. Control group of 40 patients with ice treatment. Observation group (40 cases) to detumescence ointment in the treatment of and U type resin bandage for external fixation support,compared two groups of patients with clinical curative effect.ResultsThe total effective rate of the observation group and the control group were 95% and 75%,there were significant differences between the two groups(P<0.05). Conclusion The external application of swelling cream has a better effect on early ankle sprain swelling,ice treatment is better than the traditional treatment.%目的:观察消肿膏外敷对早期踝关节扭伤局部肿胀的治疗效果。方法选取我院收治的早期踝关节扭伤局部肿胀患者共80例,随机分组处理。对照组40例进行冰敷治疗;观察组40例以消肿膏外敷治疗,且以U型树脂绷带进行托外固定,比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果观察组与对照组患者的治疗总有效率分别为95%及75%,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论消肿膏外敷对早期踝关节扭伤局部肿胀具有较好的效果,优于传统的冰敷治疗。

  1. Clinical feasibility of combined intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer employing MRI with a tandem/ring applicator in situ and virtual preplanning of the interstitial component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokdal, Lars; Tanderup, Kari; Hokland, Steffen Bjerre; Røhl, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Paludan, Merete; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility of virtually planned needles, changes in DVH parameters and clinical feasibility of combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) pulsed dose rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT) for locally advanced cervical cancer based on 3D MRI preplanning. Material and methods: Fifty-eight consecutively patients accrued in the EMBRACE study were included. Treatment was initiated with external beam radiotherapy and cisplatin. Three BT implants and MRI with the applicator in situ were performed in all patients, i.e. week 5 (BT0), week 6 (BT1) and week 7 (BT2) of the treatment. BT0 was only used for preplanning of subsequent implantations, whereas BT1 and BT2 comprised 2 equal sized fractions of PDR BT. Results: Based on BT0, 24 patients (41%) were selected for a combined IC/IS implant at BT1 and BT2. Patients treated with IC/IS BT had significantly larger tumours compared with patients treated with IC BT only (p < 0.03). Additional time in general anaesthesia for the IC/IS component was on average 16 min. The number of preplanned virtual needles was 5.3 ± 2.7 compared to 5.3 ± 2.9 and 5.4 ± 3.0 needles implanted at BT1 and BT2, respectively (p = 0.72). Planned needle implantation depth was 33 ± 15 mm compared to 30 ± 10 mm at BT1 and 29 ± 11 mm at BT2 (p = 0.04). In the 24 patients selected for IC/IS BT both the virtual IC/IS plan (BT0) and the actually delivered plan (BT1 + BT2) significantly increased D90 and D100 for HR CTV (p < 0.01) and reduced D2cc for sigmoid (p < 0.01) and bowel (p = 0.04) compared to the optimised IC preplan (BT0). IC/IS BT was only associated with minor morbidity, which was resolved at a 3-month follow up. Conclusion: Combined IC/IS BT based on full 3D MRI preplanning is clinically feasible. The virtual preplanned needle positions are reproducible at subsequent BT applications leading to significantly improved DVH parameters and a clinically feasible and fast implant procedure

  2. Local supervision of solariums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Norway, new regulations on radiation protection and application of radiation came into force on the first of January 2004. Local authorities may now perform the supervision of solariums. There are over 500 solar studios in Norway, with over 5000 solariums accessible to the public. An unknown number of solariums are in private homes, on workplaces, and in hotels and fitness studios. Norway currently has the highest frequency of skin cancer in Europe. The frequency of mole cancer has increased sixfold during the last 30 years, and 200 people die each year of this type of cancer. The Nordic cancer registers estimate that 95 per cent of the skin cancer incidences would have been avoided by limiting sunbathing. It is unknown how many cases are due to the use of solariums. But several studies indicate increased risk of mole cancer caused by solariums. It was found in previous inspection of 130 solariums that only 30 per cent had correct tubes and lamps. Only one solarium satisfied all the requirements of the regulations. But this has since improved. With the new regulations, all solarium businesses offering cosmetic solariums for sale, renting out or use have an obligation to submit reports to the Radiation Protection Authority

  3. Active Neural Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplot, Devendra Singh; Parisotto, Emilio; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Localization is the problem of estimating the location of an autonomous agent from an observation and a map of the environment. Traditional methods of localization, which filter the belief based on the observations, are sub-optimal in the number of steps required, as they do not decide the actions taken by the agent. We propose "Active Neural Localizer", a fully differentiable neural network that learns to localize accurately and efficiently. The proposed model incorporates ideas of tradition...

  4. Representative of local committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, C.

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Barcelo, spoke about the involvement of local companies in the dismantling project. Local companies realised that they could not undertake the whole project, and informed ENRESA of the tasks in which they would be able to co-operate. On the whole, during the course of the 5-year project the local and regional firms were given more work than they had originally expected. Mr. Barcelo praised the good partnership that evolved between the local firms and the implementer. (author)

  5. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  6. Theory and Algorithms for Global/Local Design Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Layne T; Guerdal, Zafer; Haftka, Raphael T

    2005-01-01

    The motivating application for this research is the global/local optimal design of composite aircraft structures such as wings and fuselages, but the theory and algorithms are more widely applicable...

  7. Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions. Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Kurov, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals

  8. Quantum Strategies and Local Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2010-02-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I we introduce a new formalism for quantum strategies, which specify the actions of one party in any multi-party interaction involving the exchange of multiple quantum messages among the parties. This formalism associates with each strategy a single positive semidefinite operator acting only upon the tensor product of the input and output message spaces for the strategy. We establish three fundamental properties of this new representation for quantum strategies and we list several applications, including a quantum version of von Neumann's celebrated 1928 Min-Max Theorem for zero-sum games and an efficient algorithm for computing the value of such a game. In Part II we establish several properties of a class of quantum operations that can be implemented locally with shared quantum entanglement or classical randomness. In particular, we establish the existence of a ball of local operations with shared randomness lying within the space spanned by the no-signaling operations and centred at the completely noisy channel. The existence of this ball is employed to prove that the weak membership problem for local operations with shared entanglement is strongly NP-hard. We also provide characterizations of local operations in terms of linear functionals that are positive and "completely" positive on a certain cone of Hermitian operators, under a natural notion of complete positivity appropriate to that cone. We end the thesis with a discussion of the properties of no-signaling quantum operations.

  9. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  10. Quantum Locality in Game Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Luna, Carlos A; Susa, Cristian E; Ducuara, Andrés F; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H

    2017-03-22

    Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.

  11. Quantum Locality in Game Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Luna, Carlos A.; Susa, Cristian E.; Ducuara, Andrés F.; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H.

    2017-03-01

    Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players’ input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.

  12. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  13. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  14. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  15. Local Worlds of Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Kerstin; Hollertz, Katarina; Garsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    arrangements and the role of private services and actors in service delivery differed significantly too, ranging from strictly market-based forms of governance to classical public administration. The article moreover shows how the different activation approaches were reflected in the radically different usages...... from local politics, established local traditions, patterns of networking and modes of collaborating, as the notion of ‘local words of activation’ intends to capture....

  16. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  17. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  18. Local Estuary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information about