WorldWideScience

Sample records for local cold application

  1. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  2. The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Semra; Akyuz, Aygul; Tunay, Servet

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy. A randomised clinical trial design. The sample consisted of patients (n = 96) who were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis. During the application stage, patients were designated to the hot and cold application groups and administered hot and cold application twice a day for 3 weeks together with standard osteoarthritis treatment. The control group only used standard osteoarthritis treatment. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, a Pain Scale, the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and a Patient Satisfaction Evaluation Form. Outcome measures included pain intensity, functional status and quality of life. We found decreased primary measurement pain scores and improved functional status scores and quality of life scores after the application programme compared to the pre-application stage in both the hot and cold application groups. Once the application was completed, the pain scores, functional status scores and quality-of-life scores on the second measurements were found to be still statistically lower than the pre-application scores but higher than the first measurement ([p  .05). It was found that both hot and cold application resulted in a mild improvement in pain, functional status and quality of life, but this improvement was not sufficient to create a significant difference between the groups. This study contributes to the literature on hot and cold application methods as self-management strategies for patients with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 John Wiley

  3. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  4. Cold neutron production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Noboru.

    1976-01-01

    The first part gives general introduction to cold neutrons, namely the definition and the role as a probe in basic science and technology. The second part reviews various methods of cold neutron production. Some physical characteristics required for cold moderators are presented, and a list summarizes a number of cold moderators and their reactor physics constants. The definition of flux gain factor and the measured values for liquid light- and heavy-hydrogen are also given. The cold neutron spectra in methane and liquid hydrogen measured by LINAC time-of-flight method are presented to show the advantage of solid methane. The cold neutron sources using experimental reactors or linear accelerators are explained along with the examples of existing facilities. Two Japanese programs, the one is the use of a high flux reactor and the other is the use of a LINAC, are also presented. The third part of this report reviews the application areas of cold neutrons. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in lower extremities during local cooling in young women with a cold constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2017-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group. The application of menthol enhanced the cold sensation at a low temperature in the N group, but not in the C group. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to local skin cooling were not altered by menthol treatment in either of the two groups. These findings suggest the desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in the legs of C group subjects, and a minor role of cold receptor activity in cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

  6. Light localization in cold and dense atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    We report on results of theoretical analysis of possibilities of light strong (Anderson) localization in a cold atomic ensemble. We predict appearance of localization in dense atomic systems in strong magnetic field. We prove that in absence of the field the light localization is impossible. (paper)

  7. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  8. Strong Anderson localization in cold atom quantum quenches

    OpenAIRE

    Micklitz, T.; Müller, C. A.; Altland, A.

    2013-01-01

    Signatures of strong Anderson localization in the momentum distribution of a cold atom cloud after a quantum quench are studied. We consider a quasi one-dimensional cloud initially prepared in a well defined momentum state, and expanding for some time in a disorder speckle potential. Anderson localization leads to a formation of a coherence peak in the \\emph{forward} scattering direction (as opposed to the common weak localization backscattering peak). We present a microscopic, and fully time...

  9. Strong Anderson localization in cold atom quantum quenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklitz, T; Müller, C A; Altland, A

    2014-03-21

    Signatures of Anderson localization in the momentum distribution of a cold atom cloud after a quantum quench are studied. We consider a quasi-one-dimensional cloud initially prepared in a well-defined momentum state, and expanding for some time in a disorder speckle potential. Quantum interference generates a peak in the forward scattering amplitude which, unlike the common weak localization backscattering peak, is a signature of strong Anderson localization. We present a nonperturbative, and fully time resolved description of the phenomenon, covering the entire diffusion-to-localization crossover. Our results should be observable by present day experiments.

  10. Measurement of Local Gravity via a Cold Atom Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lin; Xiong Zong-Yuan; Yang Wei; Tang Biao; Peng Wen-Cui; Wang Yi-Bo; Xu Peng; Wang Jin; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a precision measurement of local gravity acceleration g in Wuhan by a compact cold atom interferometer. The atom interferometer is in vertical Mach—Zehnder configuration realized using a π/2 - π - π/2 Raman pulse sequence. Cold atoms were prepared in a magneto-optical trap, launched upward to form an atom fountain, and then coherently manipulated to interfere by stimulated Raman transition. Population signal vs Raman laser phase was recorded as interference fringes, and the local gravity was deduced from the interference signal. We have obtained a resolution of 7 × 10 −9 g after an integration time of 236s under the best vibrational environment conditions. The absolute g value was derived from the chirp rate with a difference of 1.5 × 10 −7 g compared to the gravity reference value. The tidal phenomenon was observed by continuously monitoring the local gravity over 123 h. (atomic and molecular physics)

  11. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  12. Cryogenic technology review of cold neutron source facility for localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Cheol; Park, D. S.; Moon, H. M.; Soon, Y. P. [Daesung Cryogenic Research Institute, Ansan (Korea); Kim, J. H. [United Pacific Technology, Inc., Ansan (Korea)

    1998-02-01

    This Research is performed to localize the cold neutron source(CNS) facility in HANARO and the report consists of two parts. In PART I, the local and foreign technology for CNS facility is investigated and examined. In PART II, safety and licensing are investigated. CNS facility consists of cryogenic and warm part. Cryogenic part includes a helium refrigerator, vacuum insulated pipes, condenser, cryogenic fluid tube and moderator cell. Warm part includes moderator gas control, vacuum equipment, process monitoring system. Warm part is at high level as a result of the development of semiconductor industries and can be localized. However, even though cryogenic technology is expected to play a important role in developing the 21st century's cutting technology, it lacks of specialists and the research facility since the domestic market is small and the research institutes and government do not recognize the importance. Therefore, it takes a long research time in order to localize the facility. The safety standard of reactor for hydrogen gas in domestic nuclear power regulations is compared with that of the foreign countries, and the licensing method for installation of CNS facility is examined. The system failure and its influence are also analyzed. 23 refs., 59 figs., 26 tabs. (Author)

  13. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  14. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Mattissen, D.; Schaumann, T.W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Advanced multiphase steels offer a great potential for bodies-in-white through their combination of formability and achievable component strength levels. They are first choice for strength and crash-relevant parts of challenging geometry. The intensive development of high-strength multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled DP and RA steels. New continuously annealed grades with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for applications mainly in the field of structural automobile elements make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP and TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fortschrittliche Multiphasen-Staehle eroeffnen wegen der inzwischen erreichbaren Kombination aus Umformbarkeit und Bauteilfestigkeit ein enormes Potenzial fuer Rohkarosserien. Sie stellen eine erste Wahl dar, wenn es um Festigkeit und um Crashsicherheit geht und besondere Anforderungen an die Bauteilgeometrien gestellt werden. Bei ThyssenKrupp hat die Entwicklung hochfester Multiphasen-Staehle in Verbindung mit dem Feuerverzinken zur Realisierung von Blechhalbzeugen gefuehrt, die hervorragend formbar sind. Es werden heute feuerverzinkte Komplexphasenstaehle neben den bewaehrten kaltgewalzten Dualphasen(DP) - und Retained Austenit(RA)-Staehlen produziert. Die neuen kontinuierlich gegluehten Stahlvarianten mit Festigkeiten bis zu 1000 MPa in Kombination mit der bei Strukturbauteilen im Automobilbau geforderten Duktilitaet nutzen sowohl die klassischen Vorteile des Mikrolegierens aus und dazu die Prinzipien, die man bei DP- und TRIP-Staehlen anwendet. Eine weitere Verbesserung des Eigenschaftsprofils wird mit dem

  15. Cold neutron interferometry and its application. 2. Coherency and cold neutron spin interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiwa, Norio; Ebisawa, Toru

    1998-03-01

    The second workshop entitled 'Interference studies and cold neutron spin interferometry' was held on 10 and 11 March 1998 at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori). Cold neutron spin interferometry is a new field. So it is very important for its development to learn the studies of X-ray and neutron optics which are rapidly developing with long history. In the workshop, the issues related to interference were reviewed such as experimental studies on cold neutron spin interferometry, theoretical and experimental approach on tunneling time, interference experiments by neutrons and its application, interference studies using synchrotron radiation, topics on silicon interferometry and quantum measurement problem and cold neutron interference experiment related to quantum measurement problem. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Harald; Mattissen, Dorothea; Schaumann, Thomas Wilhelm [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Center of Materials Excellence, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Advanced high-strength steels offer a great potential for the further development of automobile bodies-in-white due to their combined mechanical properties of high formability and strength. They represent the first choice in material selection for strength and crash-relevant parts with challenging geometries. The intensive development of multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp Steel has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex-phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled dual phase (DP) and retained austenite (RA) or transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. New continuously annealed grades of steel are being developed with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for the high demands of structural automobile components. These steels make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP steels and RA / TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (orig.)

  17. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  18. Cold and ultracold molecules: science, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Lincoln D; DeMille, David; Krems, Roman V; Ye Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in the research field of cold and ultracold molecules. It serves as an introduction to the focus issue of New Journal of Physics on Cold and Ultracold Molecules and describes new prospects for fundamental research and technological development. Cold and ultracold molecules may revolutionize physical chemistry and few-body physics, provide techniques for probing new states of quantum matter, allow for precision measurements of both fundamental and applied interest, and enable quantum simulations of condensed-matter phenomena. Ultracold molecules offer promising applications such as new platforms for quantum computing, precise control of molecular dynamics, nanolithography and Bose-enhanced chemistry. The discussion is based on recent experimental and theoretical work and concludes with a summary of anticipated future directions and open questions in this rapidly expanding research field.

  19. Detecting many-body-localization lengths with cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuefei; Li, Xiaopeng

    2018-03-01

    Considering ultracold atoms in optical lattices, we propose experimental protocols to study many-body-localization (MBL) length and criticality in quench dynamics. Through numerical simulations with exact diagonalization, we show that in the MBL phase the perturbed density profile following a local quench remains exponentially localized in postquench dynamics. The size of this density profile after long-time-dynamics defines a localization length, which tends to diverge at the MBL-to-ergodic transition as we increase the system size. The determined localization transition point agrees with previous exact diagonalization calculations using other diagnostics. Our numerical results provide evidence for violation of the Harris-Chayes bound for the MBL criticality. The critical exponent ν can be extracted from our proposed dynamical procedure, which can then be used directly in experiments to determine whether the Harris-Chayes-bound holds for the MBL transition. These proposed protocols to detect localization criticality are justified by benchmarking to the well-established results for the noninteracting three-dimensional Anderson localization.

  20. The Structure of the Local Universe and the Coldness of the Cosmic Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weygaert, R.; Hoffman, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: Unlike the substantial coherent bulk motion in which our local patch of the Cosmos is participating, the amplitude of the random motions around this large scale flow seems to be surprisingly low. Attempts to invoke global explanations to account for this coldness of the local cosmic

  1. The structure of the local universe and the coldness of the cosmic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, R; Hoffman, Y; Courteau, S; Strauss, MA; Willick, JA

    2000-01-01

    Unlike the substantial coherent bulk motion in which our local patch of the Cosmos is participating, the amplitude of the random motions around this large scale flow seems to be surprisingly low. Attempts to invoke global explanations to account for this coldness of the local cosmic velocity field

  2. Analysis of local dislocation densities in cold-rolled alloy 690 using transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Service failure of alloy 690 in NPP has not been reported. However, some research groups reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) occurred in severely cold-rolled alloy 690. Transgranular craking was also reported in coll-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. In order to understand the effect of cold rolling on the cracking of alloy 690, many research groups have focused on the local strain and the cracked carbide induced by cold-rolling, by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been widely used to characterize structural materials because this technique has superior spatial resolution and allows for the analysis of crystallographic and chemical information. The aim of the present study is to understand the mechanism of the abnormally high crack growth rate (CGR) in cold-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. The local dislocation density was measured by TEM to confirm the effects of local strain on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy 690 with a banded structure. The effects of intragranular carbides on the SCC were also evaluated in this study. The local dislocation densities were directly measured using TEM to understand the effect of local strain on the SCC of Ni-based alloy 690 with a banded structure. The dislocation densities in the interior of the grains sharply increased in highly cold-rolled specimens due to intragranular carbide, which acted as a dislocation source

  3. Superstructures: First Cold Test and Future Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; C Albrecht; V Ayvazyan; R Bandelmann; T Buttner; P Castro; S Choroba; J Eschke; B Faatz; A Gossel; K Honkavaara; B Horst; J Iverson; K Jensch; H Kaiser; R Kammering; G Kreps; D Kostin; J Lorkiewicz; R Lange; A Matheisen; W -D Moller; H -B Peters; D Proch; K Rehlich; H Schlarb; S Schrieber; D Reschke; S Simrock; W Singer; X Singer; K Twarowski; T Weichert; M Wojtkiewicz; G Wendt; K Zapfe; M Liepe; M Huening; M Ferrario; E Plawski; C Pagani; P Kneisel; G Wu; N Baboi; C Thomas; H Chen; W Huang; C Tang; S Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirme Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results. The tests confirmed very good damping of HOMs in superstructures and thus has opened a possible new application of this concept to high current energy recovery machines. We have built two 1.5 GHz copper models of two superstructures: 2x5-cells and 2x2-cells to prove further improvement of HOM damping. This contribution presents also measured results on these models. d expectations on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results

  4. Matter-wave localization in disordered cold atom lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Uri; Castin, Yvan

    2005-07-08

    We propose to observe Anderson localization of ultracold atoms in the presence of a random potential made of atoms of another species or spin state and trapped at the nodes of an optical lattice, with a filling factor less than unity. Such systems enable a nearly perfect experimental control of the disorder, while the possibility of modeling the scattering potentials by a set of pointlike ones allows an exact theoretical analysis. This is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the one-dimensional case.

  5. Local randomness: Examples and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Honghao; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-03-01

    When two players achieve a superclassical score at a nonlocal game, their outputs must contain intrinsic randomness. This fact has many useful implications for quantum cryptography. Recently it has been observed [C. Miller and Y. Shi, Quantum Inf. Computat. 17, 0595 (2017)] that such scores also imply the existence of local randomness—that is, randomness known to one player but not to the other. This has potential implications for cryptographic tasks between two cooperating but mistrustful players. In the current paper we bring this notion toward practical realization, by offering near-optimal bounds on local randomness for the CHSH game, and also proving the security of a cryptographic application of local randomness (single-bit certified deletion).

  6. Local health and social care responses to implementing the national cold weather plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, C; Jones, L; Ritchie, B; Erens, B; Chalabi, Zaid; Mays, N

    2017-09-18

    The Cold Weather Plan (CWP) for England was launched by the Department of Health in 2011 to prevent avoidable harm to health by cold weather by enabling individuals to prepare and respond appropriately. This study sought the views of local decision makers involved in the implementation of the CWP in the winter of 2012/13 to establish the effects of the CWP on local planning. It was part of a multi-component independent evaluation of the CWP. Ten LA areas were purposively sampled which varied in level of deprivation and urbanism. Fifty-two semi-structured interviews were held with health and social care managers involved in local planning between November 2012 and May 2013. Thematic analysis revealed that the CWP was considered a useful framework to formalize working arrangements between agencies though local leadership varied across localities. There were difficulties in engaging general practitioners, differences in defining vulnerable individuals and a lack of performance monitoring mechanisms. The CWP was welcomed by local health and social care managers, and improved proactive winter preparedness. Areas for improvement include better integration with general practice, and targeting resources at socially isolated individuals in cold homes with specific interventions aimed at reducing social isolation and building community resilience. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Explaining Cold-Pulse Dynamics in Tokamak Plasmas Using Local Turbulent Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Grierson, B. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Rice, J. E.; Yuan, X.; Cao, N. M.; Creely, A. J.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Irby, J. H.; Sciortino, F.

    2018-02-01

    A long-standing enigma in plasma transport has been resolved by modeling of cold-pulse experiments conducted on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Controlled edge cooling of fusion plasmas triggers core electron heating on time scales faster than an energy confinement time, which has long been interpreted as strong evidence of nonlocal transport. This Letter shows that the steady-state profiles, the cold-pulse rise time, and disappearance at higher density as measured in these experiments are successfully captured by a recent local quasilinear turbulent transport model, demonstrating that the existence of nonlocal transport phenomena is not necessary for explaining the behavior and time scales of cold-pulse experiments in tokamak plasmas.

  8. Nerve conduction velocity in human limbs with late sequelae after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, A; Wilson, J; Rosén, L

    1996-06-01

    Cold-induced neuropathy may play a dominant role in the long-term sequelae with cold sensitivity after local cold injuries (LCIs). Somatosensory functions were assessed and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and motor distal delay (MDD) were measured in the limbs of 31 Norwegian former soldiers with persistent cold intolerance 3-4 years after the primary LCI. NCV measurements were performed in 24 lower and 16 upper extremities. NCV was related to degree of overall subjective complaints quantified by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). Motor (MNCV) and sensory conduction velocity (SNCV) in the lower extremities and SNCV in the hands were significantly decreased compared with controls. MDD was pathologically increased in the feet. NCV of the forearms ranged from normal to significant reduction. The more pronounced effect on the lower extremities may be caused by deeper cooling of the calves compared with forearms for several reasons. No significant associations were found between VAS and NCV except for the right median nerve. NCV measurements may provide objective findings in cold-injured patients and in those with few or no conspicuous clinical signs.

  9. Applications of Cold Cathode PIG Ion Source in Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassal, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    The cold cathode Penning ion source (PIG) of axial type could be modified to produce ion and electron beam with a considerable amount to use it in the lithography process. Lithography is a new applications of ion/electron beam at which one can use the ion/ or electron beam as a pencil to write and draw on a metal surface. The electron beam takes 1/3 the time needed for ion beam to make good picture. So that with the help of ion/or electron beam lithography one can mark tools, parts, instruments, and equipment with names, numbers, designs, trademark or brand name in few seconds. It is an easy process, quick and an inexpensive method. Firstly, operating characteristics of this ion source is studied. Lithography application of ion source with optimum conditions is done. Later, the hardness and the tensile strength is measured and each of them increases with increasing time

  10. Effects of menthol application on the skin during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonis, P G; Kounalakis, S N; Cherouveim, E D; Koskolou, M D; Geladas, N D

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55 minutes in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝM) and with (M) whole-body skin application of menthol cream. Tre, the proximal-distal skin temperature gradient, and oxygen uptake were continuously measured. ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to detect differences among variables. Significance level was set at 0.05. The area under the curve for Tre was calculated and was greater in 24°C M (-1.81 ± 8.22 a.u) compared to 24°C NM (-27.09 ± 19.09 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), 14°C NM (-18.08 ± 10.85 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), and 14°C M (-11.71 ± 12.58 a.u, P = .05, r = .81). In cool water, oxygen uptake and local vasoconstriction were increased (P ≤ .05) by 39 ± 25% and 56 ± 37%, respectively, with menthol compared to ΝM, while no differences were observed in cold water. Menthol application on the skin before prolonged immersion reduces heat loss resulting in a blunted Tre decline. However, such a response is less obvious at 14°C water immersion, possibly because high-threshold cold-sensitive fibers are already maximally recruited and the majority of cold receptors saturated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modelling of Argon Cold Atmospheric Plasmas for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; van der Mullen, J. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Plasmas for biomedical applications are one of the newest fields of plasma utilization. Especially high is the interest toward plasma usage in medicine. Promising results are achieved in blood coagulation, wound healing, treatment of some forms of cancer, diabetic complications, etc. However, the investigations of the biomedical applications from biological and medical viewpoint are much more advanced than the studies on the dynamics of the plasma. In this work we aim to address some specific challenges in the field of plasma modelling, arising from biomedical applications - what are the plasma reactive species’ and electrical fields’ spatial distributions as well as their production mechanisms; what are the fluxes and energies of the various components of the plasma delivers to the treated surfaces; what is the gas flow pattern? The focus is on two devices, namely the capacitive coupled plasma jet and the microwave surface wave sustained discharge. The devices are representatives of the so called cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs). These are discharges characterized by low gas temperature - less than 40°C at the point of application - and non-equilibrium chemistry.

  12. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Imperial Oil Resources Limited applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for approval to expand its operations at Cold Lake, Alberta and to construct and operate an electrical power plant and electrical generator substation. Imperial Oil also applied to the Alberta Environmental Protection Branch to prepare the site for a new central plant for the expansion. The company also requested a short-term groundwater withdrawal permit to provide temporary water supply for start-up. Imperial Oil claims that the project is in the public interests given the project's social, environmental and economic effects. Imperial Oil submitted this 4 volume document in support of their application. The documentation includes a project description, an environmental impact assessment, a biophysical and resource use assessment, a socio-economic assessment, and environmental baseline studies. The project is scheduled for start-up in late 1999 at a total cost of at least $440 million. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Development and application of the european cold chain database as a tool for cold chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gogou , E.; Katsaros , G.; Derens , E.; Li , L.; Alvarez , G.; Taoukis , P.

    2013-01-01

    2nd IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, Paris, FRA, 02-/04/2013 - 04/04/2013; International audience; Storage and distribution are the weakest links in the food management. Their effective control is important for their commercial viability, since they often deviate from specifications. FRISBEE (http://frisbee - project.eu) is a Food Refrigeration Innovation for Cold Chain research IP European project. Within FRISBEE a web - based platform (hosted in the link ht...

  14. Local deposition of Copper on Aluminum based MWT Back Contact Foil using Cold Spray Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    MWT cell and module technology has been shown to result in modules with up to 5% higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this study, the use of a low cost conductive back-sheet with aluminium as the current carrier in combination with locally applied copper (5 to 30 {mu}m) using the cold spray method is benchmarked against a standard PVF-PET-copper foil in 2 x 2 cell modules. Cell to module losses and reliability during climate chamber tests according to IEC61215 ed. 2, are comparable to module made with the standard foil. Optimizing the cold spray process can result in a cost reduction of more than a factor 10 of the current carrying component, when compared to a full copper conductive back-sheet foil.

  15. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  16. Applications of locally orderless images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van B.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent work, J. J. Koenderink and A. J. Van Doorn considered a family of three intertwined scale-spaces coined the locally orderless image (LOI) (1999, J. Comput. Vision, 31 (2/3), 159–168). The LOI represents the image, observed at inner scale ó, as a local histogram with bin-width â, at each

  17. Effect of Local Strain Distribution of Cold-Rolled Alloy 690 on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.-W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the stress corrosion crack growth behavior of cold-rolled Alloy 690 in the primary water of a pressurized water reactor. Compared with Alloy 600, which shows typical intergranular cracking along high angle grain boundaries, the cold-rolled Alloy 690, with its heterogeneous microstructure, revealed an abnormal crack growth behavior in mixed mode, that is, in transgranular cracking near a banded region, and in intergranular cracking in a matrix region. From local strain distribution analysis based on local mis-orientation, measured along the crack path using the electron back scattered diffraction method, it was suggested that the abnormal behavior was attributable to a heterogeneity of local strain distribution. In the cold-rolled Alloy 690, the stress corrosion crack grew through a highly strained area formed by a prior cold-rolling process in a direction perpendicular to the maximum principal stress applied during a subsequent stress corrosion cracking test.

  18. Engine cold start analysis using naturalistic driving data: City level impacts on local pollutants emissions and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marta V; Varella, Roberto A; Duarte, Gonçalo O; Farias, Tiago L; Baptista, Patrícia C

    2018-07-15

    The analysis of vehicle cold start emissions has become an issue of utmost importance since the cold phase occurs mainly in urban context, where most of the population lives. In this sense, this research work analyzes and quantifies the impacts of cold start in urban context using naturalistic driving data. Furthermore, an assessment of the influence of ambient temperature on the percentage of time spent on cold start was also performed. Regarding the impacts of ambient temperature on cold start duration, a higher percentage of time spent on cold start was found for lower ambient temperatures (80% of the time for 0°C and ~50% for 29°C). Results showed that, during cold start, energy consumption is >110% higher than during hot conditions while emissions are up to 910% higher. Moreover, a higher increase on both energy consumption and emissions was found for gasoline vehicles than for diesel vehicles. When assessing the impacts on a city perspective, results revealed that the impacts of cold start increase for more local streets. The main finding of this study is to provide evidence that a higher increase on emissions occurs on more local streets, where most of the population lives. This kind of knowledge is of particular relevance to urban planners in order to perform an informed definition of public policies and regulations to be implemented in the future, to achieve a cleaner and healthier urban environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The unique built-in design features of the proposed mini pulse tube cryocooler avoid all thermal expansion issues enabling it to operate within a cold, 150 K...

  20. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  1. Experimental microangiography for measuring cerebral blood circulation following local cold stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruttmann, G

    1982-01-01

    In 54 female Wistar rats the exposed brain was right-parietally traumatised; cerebral perfusion of two anatomically different brain sections was angiographically imaged and densitometrically evaluated at various instants. The observation period ranged between 1 and 168 hours after the local cold stroke had been applied. Whereas in the telencephal section situated beyond the direct zone of lesion a maximum perfusion difference between the two hemispheres occurred already 1 hour after the animal had been traumatised, a maximum of perfusion difference was observed 6 hours after traumatisation in the diencephalic section situated directly across the site of the cold lesion. Within the first posttraumatic hours the total cerebral perfusion rapidly decreased. The minimum was reached 24 hours after traumatisation. Then it increased again and on the 7th posttraumatic day the perfusion level reached that of the control group. The tendencies of perfusion behaviour differing from one another, which were observed in both hemispheres, followed the course of the total perfusion. The decrease of perfusion occurring during the first hours after traumatisation is provoked by the compressive effect due to the expanding edema. This is principally indicated by the acute hyperperfusion during the first hours to be observed in the telencephalic section. The different velocities at which the hemispheres recover in the diencephalic section must be attributed to metabolic and hypoxic components. The incomplete recovery of perfusion in the injured hemisphere after 7 days may be due to the glial reaction.

  2. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan; Newman, Roger C.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved

  3. Application of Mastic Asphalt Waterproofing Layer in High-Speed Railway Track in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw damage is a typical distress incurred in road and railway engineering in cold regions. Concrete waterproofing layer is commonly used in high-speed railway tracks to prevent the penetration of surface water, however, it cracks easily under thermal stress, especially in cold regions. Recently solutions have been proposed to increase the waterproofing layer’s cracking resistance by using asphalt layers. Nonetheless, the use of emulsified asphalt as well as dense-graded asphalt mixture were not effective enough. To improve the effectiveness, in this study, mastic asphalt was designed for application as the waterproofing layer on the subgrade surface of high-speed railway tracks in cold regions. The overall performance of mastic asphalt was preliminarily evaluated by laboratory tests, then a 200-m test section was constructed for field validation in northeastern China as part of a new high-speed railway line, and water content sensors were placed inside the subgrade to monitor the performance of the mastic asphalt waterproofing layer (MAWL. The subsequent field investigation and monitoring data during the two years operation showed that MAWL dramatically outperformed the conventional concrete waterproofing layer in terms of waterproof performance. Plenty of serious cracks were found in the conventional concrete waterproofing layer, but only a limited number of local cracks were observed in MAWL. As a result, MAWL keeps the water content of subgrade at a stable level. In addition, MAWL showed relatively high stability during the two years investigation period, and no obvious deterioration was observed in the test section.

  4. Effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Towle-Millard, Heather A; Rankin, David C; Roush, James K

    2013-03-01

    To measure the effect of cold compress application on tissue temperature in healthy dogs. 10 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were sedated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV). Three 24-gauge thermocouple needles were inserted to a depth of 0.5 (superficial), 1.0 (middle), and 1.5 (deep) cm into a shaved, lumbar, epaxial region to measure tissue temperature. Cold (-16.8°C) compresses were applied with gravity dependence for periods of 5, 10, and 20 minutes. Tissue temperature was recorded before compress application and at intervals for up to 80 minutes after application. Control data were collected while dogs received identical sedation but with no cold compress. Mean temperature associated with 5 minutes of application at the superficial depth was significantly decreased, compared with control temperatures. Application for 10 and 20 minutes significantly reduced the temperature at all depths, compared with controls and 5 minutes of application. Twenty minutes of application significantly decreased temperature at only the middle depth, compared with 10 minutes of application. With this method of cold treatment, increasing application time from 10 to 20 minutes caused a further significant temperature change at only the middle tissue depth; however, for maximal cooling, the minimum time of application should be 20 minutes. Possible changes in tissue temperature and adverse effects of application > 20 minutes require further evaluation.

  5. Generalized locally Toeplitz sequences theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garoni, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Based on their research experience, the authors propose a reference textbook in two volumes on the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz sequences and their applications. This first volume focuses on the univariate version of the theory and the related applications in the unidimensional setting, while the second volume, which addresses the multivariate case, is mainly devoted to concrete PDE applications. This book systematically develops the theory of generalized locally Toeplitz (GLT) sequences and presents some of its main applications, with a particular focus on the numerical discretization of differential equations (DEs). It is the first book to address the relatively new field of GLT sequences, which occur in numerous scientific applications and are especially dominant in the context of DE discretizations. Written for applied mathematicians, engineers, physicists, and scientists who (perhaps unknowingly) encounter GLT sequences in their research, it is also of interest to those working in the fields of...

  6. Plasticity and stress tolerance override local adaptation in the responses of Mediterranean holm oak seedlings to drought and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Pías, Beatriz; Lemos-Filho, José P; Valladares, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations of widely distributed species experience a broad range of environmental conditions that can be faced by phenotypic plasticity or ecotypic differentiation and local adaptation. The strategy chosen will determine a population's ability to respond to climate change. To explore this, we grew Quercus ilex (L.) seedlings from acorns collected at six selected populations from climatically contrasting localities and evaluated their response to drought and late season cold events. Maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), instantaneous water use efficiency (iWUE), and thermal tolerance to freeze and heat (estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence versus temperature curves) were measured in 5-month-old seedlings in control (no stress), drought (water-stressed), and cold (low suboptimal temperature) conditions. The observed responses were similar for the six populations: drought decreased A(max) and increased iWUE, and cold reduced A(max) and iWUE. All the seedlings maintained photosynthetic activity under adverse conditions (drought and cold), and rapidly increased their iWUE by closing stomata when exposed to drought. Heat and freeze tolerances were similarly high for seedlings from all the populations, and they were significantly increased by drought and cold, respectively; and were positively related to each other. Differences in seedling performance across populations were primarily induced by maternal effects mediated by seed size and to a lesser extent by idiosyncratic physiologic responses to drought and low temperatures. Tolerance to multiple stresses together with the capacity to physiologically acclimate to heat waves and cold snaps may allow Q. ilex to cope with the increasingly stressful conditions imposed by climate change. Lack of evidence of physiologic seedling adaptation to local climate may reflect opposing selection pressures to complex, multidimensional environmental conditions operating within the distribution range of this species.

  7. Microstructure and Property Modifications of Cold Rolled IF Steel by Local Laser Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Adamski, Frédéric; Baïz, Sarah; Castelnau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Laser annealing experiments are performed on cold rolled IF steel whereby highly localized microstructure and property modification are achieved. The microstructure is seen to develop by strongly heterogeneous recrystallization to provide steep gradients, across the submillimeter scale, of grain size and crystallographic texture. Hardness mapping by microindentation is used to reveal the corresponding gradients in macroscopic properties. A 2D level set model of the microstructure development is established as a tool to further optimize the method and to investigate, for example, the development of grain size variations due to the strong and transient thermal gradient. Particular focus is given to the evolution of the beneficial γ-fiber texture during laser annealing. The simulations indicate that the influence of selective growth based on anisotropic grain boundary properties only has a minor effect on texture evolution compared to heterogeneous stored energy, temperature variations, and nucleation conditions. It is also shown that although the α-fiber has an initial frequency advantage, the higher probability of γ-nucleation, in combination with a higher stored energy driving force in this fiber, promotes a stronger presence of the γ-fiber as also observed in experiments.

  8. Going Green and Cold: Biosurfactants from Low-Temperature Environments to Biotechnology Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfumo, Amedea; Banat, Ibrahim M; Marchant, Roger

    2018-03-01

    Approximately 80% of the Earth's biosphere is cold, at an average temperature of 5°C, and is populated by a diversity of microorganisms that are a precious source of molecules with high biotechnological potential. Biosurfactants from cold-adapted organisms can interact with multiple physical phases - water, ice, hydrophobic compounds, and gases - at low and freezing temperatures and be used in sustainable (green) and low-energy-impact (cold) products and processes. We review the biodiversity of microbial biosurfactants produced in cold habitats and provide a perspective on the most promising future applications in environmental and industrial technologies. Finally, we encourage exploring the cryosphere for novel types of biosurfactants via both culture screening and functional metagenomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations to the cold-atom physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Deltuva, A.; Lazauskas, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present some recent applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations in describing atomic bound and scattering problems. We consider the scattering of a charged particle X by atomic hydrogen with special interest in X = p,e ± , systems of cold bosonic molecules and the bound and scattering properties of N=3 and N=4 atomic 4 He multimers. (authors)

  10. Local heteroepitaxy as an adhesion mechanism in aluminium coatings cold gas sprayed on AlN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wüstefeld, Christina; Rafaja, David; Motylenko, Mykhaylo; Ullrich, Christiane; Drehmann, Rico; Grund, Thomas; Lampke, Thomas; Wielage, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Cold gas sprayed Al coatings deposited onto wurtzitic AlN substrates show excellent adhesion. As a possible adhesion mechanism, the local heteroepitaxy between Al and AlN was considered and verified experimentally in Al coatings, which were deposited using magnetron sputtering or cold gas spraying on single-crystalline and polycrystalline AlN substrates. Analysis of the local orientation relationships at the Al/AlN interfaces revealed that preferentially such lattice planes of Al align parallel with the upright lattice planes of AlN, which possess similar interplanar distances. The matching lattice planes in the Al coatings grew as continuations of the lattice planes in the AlN substrates. In all samples under study, the parallel alignment of the lattice planes {220}_A_l and {110}_A_l_N was found. Additional orientation relationships between Al and AlN arose if parallel lattice planes with similar interplanar spacing could be found in both counterparts via rotation of the lattice planes {220}_A_l around their normal direction. Still, the oriented growth of Al on AlN is only possible if Al atoms in the deposited coatings are mobile enough to rearrange along the AlN surface. Whereas the mobility of Al atoms in a magnetron sputtering process is expected to be sufficiently high, the intrinsic mobility of Al atoms in the cold gas sprayed particles is anticipated to be low. However, the auxiliary microstructure analyses have shown that local recrystallization and partial melting are two phenomena, which can facilitate the rearrangement of Al atoms within the cold gas sprayed coating.

  11. Industrial applications at the new cold neutron radiography and tomography facility of the HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.; Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Banhart, J.

    2005-01-01

    The new cold neutron radiography and tomography facility at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin is suited for the investigation of components and materials from different industrial fields. The high-flux measuring position of the facility allows real-time imaging of fast dynamical processes. Cold neutrons interact stronger with the matter compared to thermal neutrons, which leads to a much better radiography contrast. Some examples of different industry applications like investigations on discharging of a Lithium battery or on oil sediments in a vent pipe are presented

  12. A Meteorological Supersite for Aviation and Cold Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Agelin-Chaab, M.; Komar, J.; Elfstrom, G.; Boudala, F.; Zhou, B.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand atmospheric boundary layer processes and parameters, and to evaluate physical processes for aviation applications using data from a supersite observing site. Various meteorological sensors, including a weather and environmental unmanned aerial vehicle (WE-UAV), and a fog and snow tower (FSOS) observations are part of the project. The PanAm University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Meteorological Supersite (PUMS) observations are being collected from April 2015 to date. The FSOS tower gathers observations related to rain, snow, fog, and visibility, aerosols, solar radiation, and wind and turbulence, as well as surface and sky temperature. The FSOSs are located at three locations at about 450-800 m away from the PUMS supersite. The WE-UAV measurements representing aerosol, wind speed and direction, as well as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) are provided during clear weather conditions. Other measurements at the PUMS site include cloud backscattering profiles from CL51 ceilometer, MWR observations of liquid water content (LWC), T, and RH, and Microwave Rain Radar (MRR) reflectivity profile, as well as the present weather type, snow water depth, icing rate, 3D-ultrasonic wind and turbulence, and conventional meteorological observations from compact weather stations, e.g., WXTs. The results based on important weather event studies, representing fog, snow, rain, blowing snow, wind gust, planetary boundary layer (PBL) wind research for UAV, and icing conditions are given. The microphysical parameterizations and analysis processes for each event are provided, but the results should not be generalized for all weather events and be used cautiously. Results suggested that integrated observing systems based on data from a supersite as well as satellite sites can provide better information applicable to aviation meteorology, including PBL weather research, validation of numerical weather model predictions, and

  13. Technology Application of Environmental Friendly Refrigeration (Green Refrigeration) on Cold Storage for Fishery Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, IM; Susila, IDM; Subagia, IWA

    2018-01-01

    The application of refrigeration technology to postharvest fishery products is an very important. Moreover, Indonesia is a tropical region with relatively high temperatures. Fish storage age can be prolonged with a decrease in temperature. Frozen fish can even be stored for several months. Fish freezing means preparing fish for storage in low-temperature cold storage. The working fluid used in cold storage to cool low-temperature chambers and throw heat into high-temperature environments is refrigerant. So far refrigerant used in cold storage is Hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFC) that is R-22. Chlor is a gas that causes ODP (Ozone Depleting Potential), while Flour is a gas that causes GWP (Global Warming Potential). Government policy began in 2015 to implement Hydrochloroflourocarbons Phase-Out Management Plan. Hydrocarbon (HC) is an alternative substitute for R-22. HC-22 (propane ≥ 99.5%) has several advantages, among others: environmentally friendly, indicated by a zero ODP value, and GWP = 3 (negligible), thermophysical property and good heat transfer characteristics, vapor phase density Which is low, and good solubility with mineral lubricants. The use of HC-22 in cold storage is less than R-22. From the analysis results obtained, cold storage system using HC-22 has better performance and energy consumption is more efficient than the R-22.

  14. Potential application of glazed transpired collectors to space heating in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lixin; Bai, Hua; Mao, Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) is developed. • Glazing results in optical loss, but it decreases convective heat loss effectively. • Thermal performance of GTC shows considerable improvement on flat-plate collectors. • GTC using recirculated air is applicable to space heating in cold climates. - Abstract: Although unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) succeed in industrial ventilation applications, solar fraction is very low when they are used in space heating in cold climates due to the lower exit air temperature. Considering the potential for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) using recirculated air for space heating applications in cold climates, a mathematical model is developed for predicting the thermal performance of GTC. Simulation results show that although glazing results in optical loss, it could decrease convective heat loss resulted from high crosswind velocities effectively. For a solar radiation of 400 W/m 2 , an ambient temperature of −10 °C, and a suction velocity of 0.01 m/s, the exit air temperature of GTC is higher than that of UTC for crosswind velocities exceeding 3.0 m/s. By comparison with a conventional flat-plate solar air collector operating under the same conditions, the thermal performance of GTC shows a significant improvement. For a five-storey hotel building located in the severe cold climate zone of China, case study shows that the annual solar fraction of the GTC-based solar air heating system is about 20%, which is two times higher than that of the flat-plate collector-based system and nearly nine times higher than that of the UTC-based system respectively. Hence, an enormous amount of energy will be saved with the application of GTC to space heating in cold climates

  15. Stochastic local search foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hoos, Holger H; Stutzle, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms are among the most prominent and successful techniques for solving computationally difficult problems in many areas of computer science and operations research, including propositional satisfiability, constraint satisfaction, routing, and scheduling. SLS algorithms have also become increasingly popular for solving challenging combinatorial problems in many application areas, such as e-commerce and bioinformatics. Hoos and Stützle offer the first systematic and unified treatment of SLS algorithms. In this groundbreaking new book, they examine the general concepts and specific instances of SLS algorithms and carefully consider their development, analysis and application. The discussion focuses on the most successful SLS methods and explores their underlying principles, properties, and features. This book gives hands-on experience with some of the most widely used search techniques, and provides readers with the necessary understanding and skills to use this powerful too...

  16. Localization of Cold Atoms in State-Dependent Optical Lattices via a Rabi Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, Birger; Duerr, Stephan; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel realization of Anderson localization in nonequilibrium states of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A Rabi pulse transfers part of the population to a different internal state with infinite effective mass. These frozen atoms create a quantum superposition of different disorder potentials, localizing the mobile atoms. For weakly interacting mobile atoms, Anderson localization is obtained. The localization length increases with increasing disorder and decreasing interaction strength, contrary to the expectation for equilibrium localization.

  17. Cold local heating. Agrothermal heat supply of an ecovillage; Kalt Nahwaerme. Agrothermische Waermeversorgung einer Plusenergiesiedlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietruschka, Dirk [Hochschule fuer Technik Stuttgart (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Nachhaltige Energietechnik; Kluge, Juergen [Doppelacker GmbH, Petershagen-Eggersdorf (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    An ecovillage with highly efficient residential buildings is arisen in the Swabian community Wuestenrot. The power generation in these residential buildings by means of photovoltaic power plants is greater than the energy consumption. Decentralized heat plants supply thermal energy for the space heating and industrial waste. Central agrothermal collectors provide the necessary low-temperature heat for the effective operation of heat pumps over a so-called cold heat grid.

  18. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  19. Application and verification of cold air velocity technique for solving tube ash erosion problem in PC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Jeong, Kwon Seok [Korea Southern Power Corporation, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Fly ash erosion is a leading cause of boiler tube failure in PC boilers. Therefore, shields or baffle plates are installed in specific areas to mitigate fly ash erosion and prevent boiler tube failure. However, the tube failure problems caused by fly ash erosion cannot be eliminated with this solution alone, because each PC boiler has a different flue gas flow pattern and erosion can become severe in unexpected zones. This problem is caused by an asymmetric internal flow velocity and local growth of the flue gas velocity. For these reasons, clearly defining the flow pattern in PC boilers is important for solving the problem of tube failure caused by fly ash erosion. For this purpose, the cold air velocity technique (CAVT) can be applied to the fly ash erosion problem. In this study, CAVT was carried out on the Hadong 2 PC boiler and the feasibility of application of CAVT to conventional PC boilers was validated.

  20. Application and verification of cold air velocity technique for solving tube ash erosion problem in PC boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Jeong, Kwon Seok

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash erosion is a leading cause of boiler tube failure in PC boilers. Therefore, shields or baffle plates are installed in specific areas to mitigate fly ash erosion and prevent boiler tube failure. However, the tube failure problems caused by fly ash erosion cannot be eliminated with this solution alone, because each PC boiler has a different flue gas flow pattern and erosion can become severe in unexpected zones. This problem is caused by an asymmetric internal flow velocity and local growth of the flue gas velocity. For these reasons, clearly defining the flow pattern in PC boilers is important for solving the problem of tube failure caused by fly ash erosion. For this purpose, the cold air velocity technique (CAVT) can be applied to the fly ash erosion problem. In this study, CAVT was carried out on the Hadong 2 PC boiler and the feasibility of application of CAVT to conventional PC boilers was validated

  1. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase ...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals....... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  2. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  3. Application of Cold Storage for Raja Sere Banana (Musa acuminata colla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismas, S. R. S.; Purwanto, Y. A.; Sutrisno

    2018-05-01

    Raja Sere is one of the indigenous banana cultivars in Indonesia. This cultivar has a yellow color when ripen, small size and sweet taste. Traditionally, the growers market this banana cultivar to the market without any treatment to delay the ripening process. Banana fruits are commonly being harvested at the condition of hard green mature. At this condition of hard green mature, banana fruits can be stored for a long-term period. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cold storage on the quality of raja sere banana that stored at 13°C. Banana fruits cultivar Raja Sere were harvested from local farmer field at the condition of hard green mature (about 14 weeks age after the flower bloom). Fifteen bunches of banana were stored in cold storage with a temperature of 13°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days, respectively. For the control, room temperature storage (28°C) was used. At a storage period, samples of banana fruits ripened in the ripening chamber by injecting 100 ppm of ethylene gas at 25°C for 24 hours. The quality parameters namely respiration rate, hardness, total soluble solids (TSS), change in color, and weight loss were measured. For those banana fruits stored at room temperature, the shelf-life of banana was only reached up to 6 days. For those banana fruits stored in cold storage, the condition of banana fruits was reached up to 12 days. After cold storage and ripening, the third day measurement was the optimal time for bananas to be consumed which indicated by the yellow color (lightness value = 68.51, a* = 4.74 and value b* = 62.63), TSS 24.30 °Brix and hardness 0.48 kgf, weight loss about 7.53-16.45% and CO2 respiration rate of 100.37 mLCO2 / kg.hr.

  4. The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Ulrich, Anita; Schloericke, Erik; Limmer, Stefan; Habermann, Jens Karsten; Wolken, Heike; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Kujath, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A technique for the safe transfer of electric energy to the pulmonary surface for the potential evaporation of malignant tumours is non-existent to date. By conducting the current study, we wanted to generate data on the potential beneficiary effects and complications of using cold-plasma coagulation on the pulmonary surface. Cold-plasma coagulation was applied to the pulmonary surface in eight female mini-pigs via a thoracoscopic access. After 12 days, we performed a re-thoracoscopy on the contralateral side. After a further 12 days, we performed a median sternotomy and did cold-plasma coagulation on previously untreated areas of either lung. No pulmonary fistulas were detected. In two of the eight pigs, we found a localized chronic pneumonia. None of the pigs died during the course of the study. Morbidity was also low with two pigs refusing food intake, one pig with dyspnoea after difficult intubation and one pig coughing. All events were self-limited and occurred only on post-operative Day 1. The treatment effect was almost linear and correlated to the generator energy applied. The differences between the effects reached statistical significance (P < 0.05). The application of cold-plasma coagulation to the pulmonary surface is safe in pigs. A potential clinical application of this technique is treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:22194274

  5. Thermodynamic, Environmental and Economic Analyses of Solar Ejector Refrigeration System Application for Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration processes have been widely applied for especially in cold storages. In these plants, the systems working with compressed vapour cooling cycles have been used as a classical method. In general, electrical energy is used for compressing in these processes. Although, mainly the electricity itself has no pollution effect on the environment, the fossil fuels that are widely used to produce electricity in the most of the world, affect the nature terribly. In short, these refrigeration plants, because of the source of the electricity pollute the nature indirectly. However, for compression an ejector refrigeration system requires one of the important renewable energy sources with negligible pollution impact on the environment, namely solar energy from a thermal source. Thermodynamical, environmental and economical aspects of the ejector refrigeration system working with solar energy was investigated in this study. As a pilot case, apple cold storage plants widely used in ISPARTA city, which 1/5 th of apple production of TURKEY has been provided from, was chosen. Enviromental and economical advantages of solar ejector refrigeration system application for cold storage dictated by thermodynamic, economic and enviromental analyses in this research.

  6. Experimental microangiography for measuring cerebral blood circulation following local cold stroke. Experimentelle Mikroangiographie der zerebralen Durchblutung nach lokalem Kaeltetrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruttmann, G

    1982-01-01

    In 54 female Wistar rats the exposed brain was right-parietally traumatised; cerebral perfusion of two anatomically different brain sections was angiographically imaged and densitometrically evaluated at various instants. The observation period ranged between 1 and 168 hours after the local cold stroke had been applied. Whereas in the telencephal section situated beyond the direct zone of lesion a maximum perfusion difference between the two hemispheres occurred already 1 hour after the animal had been traumatised, a maximum of perfusion difference was observed 6 hours after traumatisation in the diencephalic section situated directly across the site of the cold lesion. Within the first posttraumatic hours the total cerebral perfusion rapidly decreased. The minimum was reached 24 hours after traumatisation. Then it increased again and on the 7th posttraumatic day the perfusion level reached that of the control group. The tendencies of perfusion behaviour differing from one another, which were observed in both hemispheres, followed the course of the total perfusion. The decrease of perfusion occurring during the first hours after traumatisation is provoked by the compressive effect due to the expanding edema. This is principally indicated by the acute hyperperfusion during the first hours to be observed in the telencephalic section. The different velocities at which the hemispheres recover in the diencephalic section must be attributed to metabolic and hypoxic components. The incomplete recovery of perfusion in the injured hemisphere after 7 days may be due to the glial reaction.

  7. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  8. The Dynamics and Cold Gas Content of Luminous Infrared Galaxy Mergers in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privon, G. C.

    2014-08-01

    Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; 10^11 ≤ L_IR [8 - 1000 μm]/L_sun systems in the local universe, both in terms of their absolute star formation rates—ten to several hundred times that of ``normal'' galaxies—and their star formation rate densities. Many U/LIRGs are interacting or merging disk galaxies undergoing enhanced star formation and/or nuclear activity, likely triggered as the objects transform into massive S0 and elliptical merger remnants. The LIRG population also contains a significant number of apparently isolated disk galaxies which are undergoing enhanced star formation, providing a window on secular galaxy evolution. This work examines nearby U/LIRGs chosen from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), an infrared flux and luminosity selected sample. The proximity of these systems enables high spatial resolution study of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and extreme star formation in these objects. New maps of the neutral hydrogen (HI) emission are presented for systems morphologically classified in the optical and mid-infrared as non-merging or pre-merger systems. The results of this study suggests that some infrared-selected galaxies may be minor mergers or interactions which are being viewed so soon after first pass that the stellar disk has not yet been significantly disturbed. Galaxy mergers appear to drive much of the enhanced activity observed in U/LIRGs; understanding the merger state of these systems provides a context for observations of star formation and AGN properties. In order to constrain the merger stage, dynamical models for a sample of nine systems were matched to the observed kinematics and morphology as obtained from optical imaging and interferometric HI maps. The resulting models are used not only to constrain the merger stage, but also the encounter geometry of the precursor. Based on these dynamical models a new merger stage classification is presented, which re-scales objects to a common timeline is used to

  9. Infrared thermography based studies on the effect of age on localized cold stress induced thermoregulation in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Nishanthi, K.; Mohanalakshmi, K.; Veni, L.; Saumya; Yacin, S. M.; Philip, John

    2016-05-01

    Thermoregulatory control of blood flow plays an important role in maintaining the human body temperature and it provides physiological resistance against extreme environmental thermal stresses. To understand the role of age on thermal signals from veins and the thermoregulatory mechanism, the dynamic variation of the vein temperature on the hands of 17 human subjects, under a localized cold stress, was studied using infrared thermography. It was observed that the vein temperature of the stimulated hand initially decreased with time up to a time interval (called 'inversion time'), which was attributed to the localized cutaneous vasoconstriction. Beyond inversion time, a rise in the vein temperature of the stimulated hand was observed. A shift in the inversion time to higher values was observed for the older subjects, which was attributed to the reduced efficiency and responsiveness of the cutaneous vasoconstriction mechanism in these subjects. Our studies indicated that the inversion time increased linearly with subject age with strong positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94. It was also observed that the contralateral symmetry in vasoconstriction was much lower in older subjects than the younger subjects. The absolute difference between the left and right inversion time varied between 11-118 s and 5-28 s for the older and younger subjects, respectively. Our study clearly demonstrated that infrared thermography is one of the most effective experimental tool for studying dynamic variation in vein pixel temperature under localized thermal stresses.

  10. Magnetic-field-driven localization of light in a cold-atom gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipetrov, S E; Sokolov, I M

    2015-02-06

    We discover a transition from extended to localized quasimodes for light in a gas of immobile two-level atoms in a magnetic field. The transition takes place either upon increasing the number density of atoms in a strong field or upon increasing the field at a high enough density. It has many characteristic features of a disorder-driven (Anderson) transition but is strongly influenced by near-field interactions between atoms and the anisotropy of the atomic medium induced by the magnetic field.

  11. Steganography System with Application to Crypto-Currency Cold Storage and Secure Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pelosi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and describe a novel approach to adaptive image steganography which is combined with One-Time Pad encryption and demonstrate the software which implements this methodology. Testing using the state-of-the-art steganalysis software tool StegExpose concludes the image hiding is reliably secure and undetectable using reasonably-sized message payloads (≤25% message bits per image pixel; bpp. Payload image file format outputs from the software include PNG, BMP, JP2, JXR, J2K, TIFF, and WEBP. A variety of file output formats is empirically important as most steganalysis programs will only accept PNG, BMP, and possibly JPG, as the file inputs. In this extended reprint, we introduce additional application and discussion regarding cold storage of crypto-currency account and password information, as well as applications for secure transfer in hostile or insecure network circumstances.

  12. Biometrical characteristics and physiological responses to a local cold exposure of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Sendowski, I; Bittel, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the physiological responses observed in 19 subjects during immersion of the arm up to the elbow in water at 5 degrees C (5 min) followed by a 10-min recovery and secondly, to correlate the observed physiological responses with biometrical characteristics of the subjects (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max, percentage fat content of whole body, BF, and arm, forearm and hand skinfold thickness). The results showed that the time courses of changes in forearm and hand skin temperature were different compared to those of finger skin temperatures both during local cooling and during rewarming (P immersion, decreased hand skin temperature was correlated to VO2max (r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05) whereas decreased forearm skin temperature was correlated both to VO2max (r = 0.44, P < or = 0.05) and to skinfold thickness (r = -0.44, P < or = 0.05) but not to BF. During the beginning of the recovery period only, outside, inside forearm and hand skin temperatures were related to VO2max (r = 0.54, P < or = 0.05; r = 0.66, P < or = 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05, respectively) and all the skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.47 to -0.71, P < or = 0.05). It was concluded that the local skin temperature profiles differed according to the upper limb segment both during cooling and during early rewarming. Moreover, VO2max and upper limb skinfold thickness but not BF did influence the forearm and hand skin temperature changes during cooling and early rewarming but not the finger skin temperature changes and cardiovascular responses.

  13. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; de Roo, R.; England, A. W.; Gu, H.; Pham, H.; Boprie, D.; Graf, T.; Koike, T.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.; Hardy, J.; Cline, D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8~ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3rd Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (February, 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan's Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37~GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike in IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  14. Cold Molecular Gas Along the Merger Sequence in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Evans, Aaron S.; Arimatsu, Ko

    2017-08-01

    We present an initial result from the 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of 79 galaxies in 62 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (LIRG and ULIRG) systems obtained using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. This is a systematic 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. The molecular gas mass of the sample is in the range 2.2× {10}8{--}7.0× {10}9 {M}⊙ within the central several kiloparsecs subtended by the 15\\prime\\prime beam. A method to estimate the size of a CO gas distribution is introduced, which is combined with the total CO flux in the literature. This method is applied to part of our sample, and we find that the median CO radius is 1-4 kpc. From the early stage to the late stage of mergers, we find that the CO size decreases while the median value of the molecular gas mass in the central several-kiloparsec region is constant. Our results statistically support a scenario where molecular gas inflows toward the central region from the outer disk to replenish gas consumed by starburst, and that such a process is common in merging LIRGs.

  15. The application of sheet filters in treatment of fruit brandy after cold stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljić Uroš D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common use of sheet filtration for clarification of fruit brandies, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of its application on the stability and composition of volatile compounds of apricot brandy after cold stabilisation. Cold stabilisation treatment involved holding of the brandy at -1°C during 24 hours. Five depth filter sheets with the nominal retention rate of 0.3 μm, 0.5-0.7 μm, 0.7-1.0 μm, 1.0-2.0 μm and 2.5-4.0 μm, were tested in the study. It was shown that all assessed filter sheets were efficient in removing chill haze by significantly reducing the content of fatty acid esters (primarily ethyl palmitate and ethyl laurate. Other volatile and aromatic compounds were not significantly influenced by the applied treatments. However, the filter sheets with higher nominal retention rate (> 0.7 μm, had a smaller impact on the sensory characteristics of the apricot brandy. The re-exposure to lower temperatures did not lead to chill haze formation in any sample obtained after sheet filtration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  16. Human cold stress of strong local-wind "Hijikawa-arashi" in Japan, based on the UTCI index and thermo-physiological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Katsuta, Takumi; Tani, Haruka; Okabayashi, Taiki; Miyahara, Satoshi; Miyashita, Ryoji

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the cold stress caused by a strong local wind called "Hijikawa-arashi," through in situ vital measurements and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). This wind is a very interesting winter phenomenon, localized in an area within 1 km of the seashore in Ozu City, Ehime Prefecture in Japan. When a strong Hijikawa-arashi (HA) occurred at 14-15 m s-1, the UTCI decreased to - 30 °C along the bridge where commuting residents are the most exposed to strong and cold winds. On the bridge, most participants in our experiment felt "very cold" or "extremely cold." The UTCI of HA can be predicted from a multiple regression equation using wind speed and air temperature. The cold HA wind is also harmful to human thermo-physiological responses. It leads to higher blood pressure and increased heart rate, both of which act as cardiovascular stress triggers. Increases of 6-10 mmHg and 3-6 bpm for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI were seen on all observational days, including HA and non-HA days. In fact, the participants' body skin temperatures decreased by approximately 1.2 to 1.7 °C for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI. Thus, the UTCI variation due to the HA outbreak corresponded well with the cold sensation and thermo-physiological responses in humans. This result suggests that daily UTCI monitoring enables the prediction of thermo-physiological responses to the HA cold stress.

  17. Human cold stress of strong local-wind "Hijikawa-arashi" in Japan, based on the UTCI index and thermo-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Katsuta, Takumi; Tani, Haruka; Okabayashi, Taiki; Miyahara, Satoshi; Miyashita, Ryoji

    2018-03-30

    We investigated the cold stress caused by a strong local wind called "Hijikawa-arashi," through in situ vital measurements and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). This wind is a very interesting winter phenomenon, localized in an area within 1 km of the seashore in Ozu City, Ehime Prefecture in Japan. When a strong Hijikawa-arashi (HA) occurred at 14-15 m s -1 , the UTCI decreased to - 30 °C along the bridge where commuting residents are the most exposed to strong and cold winds. On the bridge, most participants in our experiment felt "very cold" or "extremely cold." The UTCI of HA can be predicted from a multiple regression equation using wind speed and air temperature. The cold HA wind is also harmful to human thermo-physiological responses. It leads to higher blood pressure and increased heart rate, both of which act as cardiovascular stress triggers. Increases of 6-10 mmHg and 3-6 bpm for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI were seen on all observational days, including HA and non-HA days. In fact, the participants' body skin temperatures decreased by approximately 1.2 to 1.7 °C for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI. Thus, the UTCI variation due to the HA outbreak corresponded well with the cold sensation and thermo-physiological responses in humans. This result suggests that daily UTCI monitoring enables the prediction of thermo-physiological responses to the HA cold stress.

  18. Application of argon atmospheric cold plasma for indium tin oxide (ITO) based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Nia, S.; Jalili, Y. Seyed; Salar Elahi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers due to transparency, high conductivity and hole injection capability have attracted a lot of attention. One of these layers is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO due to low resistance, transparency in the visible spectrum and its proper work function is widely used in the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. One way for improving the ITO surface is plasma treatment. In this paper, changes in surface morphology, by applying argon atmospheric pressure cold plasma, was studied through Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis showed functional groups were not added or removed, but chemical bond angle and bonds strength on the surface were changed and also AFM images showed that surface roughness was increased. These factors lead to the production of diodes with enhanced Ohmic contact and injection mechanism which are more appropriate in industrial applications.

  19. Structural consideration for hot and cold pipe clamps in LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Huang, S.N.; Kappauf, H.; Wagner, S.E.; Wirtz, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    A series of analytical studies are described which evaluate stress levels induced in a 600 mm high temperature, thin-wall sodium pipeline by two alternate clamp designs. The first design consists of a band mounted directly on the pipe and is called the hot clamp. The second design consists of a band mounted using insulation standoffs and is called the cold clamp. Pipe stress levels induced by transient thermal dead weight and seismic loads are discussed. Pipe stress levels and system dynamic spring rates are presented. Procedures utilized to combine clamp induced pipe stress with other short and long term pipe system stresses are detailed. Recommendations for practical application in LMFBR pipe systems are made

  20. Structural considerations for hot and cold pipe clamps in LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Huang, S.N.; Wagner, S.E.; Kappauf, H.; Wirtz, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    A series of analytical studies are described which evaluate stress levels induced in a 600 mm high temperature, thin-wall sodium pipeline by two alternate clamp designs. The first design consists of a band mounted directly on the pipe and is called the hot clamp. The second design consists of a band mounted using insulation standoffs and is called the cold clamp. Pipe stress levels induced by transient thermal dead weight and seismic loads are discussed. Pipe stress levels and system dynamic spring rates are presented. Procedures utilized to combine clamp induced pipe stress with other short and long term pipe system stresses are detailed. Recommendations for practical application in LMFBR pipe systems are made

  1. Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF and Local Binary Patterns (LBP. The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification.

  2. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  3. Cold sprayed WO3 and TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Schneider, Jenny; Fleisch, Manuel; Gutzmann, Henning; Klassen, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2017-10-03

    Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO 3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO 2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO 2 /WO 3 photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO 2 P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.

  4. Application of GRID to Foreign Atom Localization in Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, A; Wesch, W; Weber, B; Börner, H G; Jentschel, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) spectroscopy to the localization of foreign atoms in single crystals is demonstrated on erbium in YAP. By the investigation of the Doppler broadened secondary γ line for two crystalline directions, the Er was determined to be localized on the Y site. Conditions for the nuclear parameters of the impurity atoms used for the application of GRID spectroscopy are discussed.

  5. Localization in Wireless Networks Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sanford, Jessica Feng; Slijepcevic, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    In a computational tour-de-force, this volume wipes away a host of problems related to location discovery in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. WASNs have recognized potential in many applications that are location-dependent, yet are heavily constrained by factors such as cost and energy consumption. Their “ad-hoc” nature, with direct rather than mediated connections between a network of wireless devices, adds another layer of difficulty.   Basing this work entirely on data-driven, coordinated algorithms, the authors' aim is to present location discovery techniques that are highly accurate—and which fit user criteria. The research deploys nonparametric statistical methods and relies on the concept of joint probability to construct error (including location error) models and environmental field models. It also addresses system issues such as the broadcast and scheduling of the beacon. Reporting an impressive accuracy gain of almost 17 percent, and organized in a clear, sequential manner, this book represe...

  6. The fabrication and evaluation of diamond cold cathodes for field emitter display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, N.A.

    1998-08-01

    Semiconducting diamond is a candidate wide-band gap material for applications in vacuum microelectronic devices. Its potential use in components that are operated at high frequencies, handle high powers or are subjected to extremes of temperature and radiation have yet to be commercially realised. The work presented below sets out to determine whether semiconducting diamond is a suitable material for such active electronic devices by examining the most efficient means of initiating electron emission from Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD), semiconducting diamond. Novel methods are reported for the incorporation of impurity atoms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus into CVD diamond that employ ion-implantation techniques. Demonstration of the efficient incorporation of these impurities to form donor states with low activation energies into polycrystalline diamond would facilitate efficient room temperature operation of pn junctions devices. The effectiveness of boron as a p-type dopant in CVD diamond films has enabled the investigation of potential field emitter structures using different boron concentrations in order to identify their respective conduction mechanisms and to make a comparison of their relative electron emission performance. It has been concluded that efficient electron emission is observed to originate from the interface of n + -p, silicon/diamond heterojunctions that employ thin p-type regions which are less than 5μm thick. The emission current may be controlled by the application of a low voltage forward bias of less than 1 volt. Only the np junction containing 400 ppm of boron in the p-diamond layer demonstrated forward biased electron emission. It is proposed that carrier conduction across the junction interface involves recombination and tunnelling steps between interface trap states. Furthermore it is believed that due to the junction interface being in direct contact with vacuum, within this region of the emitter structure, a surface conduction emission

  7. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  8. Non-local quantal Noether identities and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional for a system with a singular high-order Lagrangian, the quantal canonical Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such system have been derived. For a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian, the quantal Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in configuration space have also been derived. it has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantal Noether identities may be converted to the conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantal conservation laws is significantly different from the first quantal Noether theorem. The applications to the non-Abelian CS theories with higher-order derivatives are given. The conserved quantities at the quantum level for some local and non-local transformation are found respectively

  9. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  10. Applicability of multisyringe chromatography coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Serra, A.M.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Cerdà, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An automatic system, based on the applicability of multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) detection is developed for mercury speciation. Highlights: ► The on-line coupling of MSC to CV/AFS was developed for mercury speciation analysis. ► The speciation of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + was achieved on a RP C18 monolithic column. ► The hyphenated system provided higher sample throughput compared to HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The limits of detection for mercury species were comparable or better than those reported by HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The developed method also provided low instrumental and operational costs. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel automatic approach for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), methylmercury (MeHg + ) and ethylmercury (EtHg + ) using multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) was developed. For the first time, the separation of mercury species was accomplished on a RP C18 monolithic column using a multi-isocratic elution program. The elution protocol involved the use of 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (99:1, v/v), followed by 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The eluted mercury species were then oxidized under post-column UV radiation and reduced using tin(II) chloride in an acidic medium. Subsequently, the generated mercury metal were separated from the reaction mixture and further atomized in the flame atomizer and detected by AFS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) were found to be 0.03, 0.11 and 0.09 μg L −1 for MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of the peak height for 3, 6 and 3 μg L −1 of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + (as Hg) ranged from 2.4 to 4.0%. Compared with the conventional HPLC–CV/AFS hyphenated systems

  11. Application of cold thermal energy storage (CTES) for building demand management in hot climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Nagarajan, Balamurugan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. • CTES systems were used to perform demand management strategies, removing partial load operations and shaving peak loads. • CTES was used to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the difference between peak and off peak electricity rates in Singapore. • Results showed that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole system, achieving both energy and economic savings. • Depending on the sizing scenario, the pay back periods ranged from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of Cold Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) for building demand management applications in hot climate characterized by a cooling season lasting all year long. An existing office building, located in Singapore, serves as case study. The CTES is coupled to the existing cooling systems in order to address the opportunity of improving overall energy efficiency and to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the spread between peak and off-peak energy tariffs. Six different sizes for the CTES are analyzed, addressing different percentage of the daily cooling energy demand. A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole cooling system, achieving both energy and economic savings. The payback periods of the different solutions range from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. All these aspects make CTES applications a viable option. However, a large amount of space in direct proximity to the building is necessary and, especially in largely urban environment, this is not always available.

  12. Synthesis of industrial applications of local approach to fracture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eripret, C.

    1993-03-01

    This report gathers different applications of local approach to fracture models to various industrial configurations, such as nuclear pressure vessel steel, cast duplex stainless steels, or primary circuit welds such as bimetallic welds. As soon as models are developed on the basis of microstructural observations, damage mechanisms analyses, and fracture process, the local approach to fracture proves to solve problems where classical fracture mechanics concepts fail. Therefore, local approach appears to be a powerful tool, which completes the standard fracture criteria used in nuclear industry by exhibiting where and why those classical concepts become unvalid. (author). 1 tab., 18 figs., 25 refs

  13. Experimental validation of a local dehumidification system based on cold water droplets and air-to-air heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hammink, H.A.J.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive humidity is a problem in Dutch growing circumstances. A traditional solution is heating and natural ventilation. To save energy a number of energy efficient dehumidification methods are developed, like mechanical ventilation with dry outside air or a curtain of cold water droplets. In this

  14. Neutron polarizing Fe-Al supermirror on a Si crystal substrate and its applications for thermal and cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syromyatnikov, V.G.; Shchebetov, A.F.; Soroko, Z.N.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for an Fe-Al neutron polarizing supermirror on a Si crystal substrate with an antireflecting Cd layer. The polarizing efficiency of this supermirror is P≥qslant0.8 for the range of glancing angles θ/λ=0.25-1.7 /nm and P≥qslant0.95 for θ/λ=0.34-1.7 /nm. Some applications of this supermirror for thermal and cold neutrons are considered. ((orig.))

  15. A Novel Application of Thermoelectric Modules in an HVAC System Under Cold Climate Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Toru; Radermacher, Reinhard; Hwang, Yunho

    2012-06-01

    A vapor compression cycle (VCC) with integrated thermoelectric (TE) modules to boost the heating capacity of the system in an energy-efficient way, especially for cold climate operation, is suggested in this paper. While a baseline heat pump (HP) cycle absorbs heat from a source through an evaporator, the proposed system utilizes TE modules as an intermediate (or third) stage of an otherwise two-stage vapor compression system with a vapor injection compressor. This increases the overall system efficiency and augments the system capacity through the high coefficient of performance (COP) of the TE for small temperature lift conditions. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype refrigerant-to-solid (TE) heat exchanger, consisting of TE modules and microchannel flat tubes, was designed and fabricated so that the whole system could realize an additional 1 kW of heating capacity compared with the baseline system. The TE heat exchanger was integrated into a residential HP unit that uses R-410A as a refrigerant, and the system was tested in a laboratory under the severe condition of -17.8°C, in order to investigate the capacity improvement and the overall COP. Finally, an application of this technique in an automotive heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system with HFC134a working fluid has been studied for the purpose of providing supplemental heating for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles by establishing a detailed simulation model of a HP system with the TE heat exchanger. Both the laboratory test and the calculation study show that a VCC with integrated TE modules has both reasonable efficiency and increased heating capacity.

  16. The application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) for the sterilisation of spacecraft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus; Satoshi Shimizu, .; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Plasma, oft called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas, is defined by its ionized state. Ionization can be induced by different means, such as a strong electromagnetic field applied with a microwave generator. The concentration and composition of reactive atoms and molecules produced in Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) depends on the gases used, the gas flow, the power applied, the humidity level etc.. In medicine, low-temperature plasma is already used for the sterilization of surgical instruments, implants and packaging materials as plasma works at the atomic level and is able to reach all surfaces, even the interior of small hollow items like needles. Its ability to sterilise is due to the generation of biologically active bactericidal agents, such as free radicals and UV radiation. In the project PLASMA-DECON (DLR/BMWi support code 50JR1005) a prototype of a device for sterilising spacecraft material and components was built based on the surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma technology. The produced plasma species are directed into a closed chamber which contains the parts that need to be sterilised. To test the inactivation efficiency of this new device bacterial spores were used as model organisms because in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy all bioburden constraints are defined with respect to the number of spores (and other heat-tolerant aerobic microorganisms). Spores from different Bacillus species and strains, i.e. wildtype strains from culture collections and isolates from spacecraft assembly cleanrooms, were dried on three different spacecraft relevant materials and exposed to CAP. The specificity, linearity, precision, and effective range of the device was investigated. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the application of CAP proved to be a suitable method for bioburden reduction / sterilisation in the frame of planetary protection measures and the design of a larger plasma device is planned in the future.

  17. Effects of peripheral cold application on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgar Pour, Hossein; Yavuz, Meryem

    2014-04-01

    This study designed to assess the effects of peripheral cold application (PCA) on core body temperature and haemodynamic parameters in febrile patients. This study was an experimental, repeated-measures performed in the neurosurgical intensive-care unit. The research sample included all patients with fever in postoperative period. PCA was performed for 20 min. During fever, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (O2 Sat) decreased by 5.07 ± 7.89 mm Hg, 0.191 ± 6.00 mm Hg and 0.742% ± 0.97%, respectively, whereas the pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure increased by 8.528 ± 4.42 beats/ min and 1.842 ± 6.9 mmHg, respectively. Immediately after PCA, core body temperature and pulse rate decreased by 0.3°C, 3.3 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by, 1.40 mm Hg, 1.87 mm Hg, 0.98 mmHg and 0.27%, respectively. Thirty minutes after the end of PCA, core body temperature, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate decreased by 0.57°C, 0.34 mm Hg, 0.60 mm Hg and 4.5 beats/min, respectively, whereas systolic blood pressure and O2 Sat increased by 0.98 mm Hg and 0.04%, respectively. The present results showed that PCA increases systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and O2 Sat, and decreases core body temperature and pulse rate. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part two: Applications in an Agro Food Industry and a Hypermarket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the cold energy available during LNG regasification, which can be recovered and utilized both inside the LNG regasification area and at a distance, such as in deep freezing agro food industry facilities and for space conditioning in the commercial and residential sector (e.g. Supermarkets and Hypermarkets). The feasibility study of this kind of application has been carried out at DREAM, Palermo University, within the framework of a research program. The results of a feasibility study of the kind of venture proposed, starting from its conceptual design and with a thorough thermodynamic and economic analysis, demonstrated the suitability and the profitability of the applications proposed. They seem very attractive due to expected wide future exploitation of LNG regasification in the World. -- Highlights: → Proposal pertaining cold recovery during LNG regasification. → Cold utilization far from the regasification site. → Transfer of liquid/gaseous carbon dioxide pipeline. → Exergetic and economic analysis of venture pertaining applications proposed. → Results of venture economic analysis.

  19. Novel applications of locally sourced montmorillonite (MMT) clay as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work explores the application of a locally sourced raw material, montmorillonite (MMT) clay, as a disintegrant in the formulation of an analgesic pharmaceutical product - paracetamol. The raw MMT was refined and treated with 0.IM NaCl to yield sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT) and the powder properties established in ...

  20. Applicability of multisyringe chromatography coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L. [Department of Chemistry Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, Pedro de Alba s/n, C.P. 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Serra, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hernandez-Ramirez, A. [Department of Chemistry Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, Pedro de Alba s/n, C.P. 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cerda, V., E-mail: victor.cerda@uib.es [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-12-05

    Graphical abstract: An automatic system, based on the applicability of multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) detection is developed for mercury speciation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The on-line coupling of MSC to CV/AFS was developed for mercury speciation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The speciation of MeHg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+} and EtHg{sup +} was achieved on a RP C18 monolithic column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hyphenated system provided higher sample throughput compared to HPLC-CV/AFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection for mercury species were comparable or better than those reported by HPLC-CV/AFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method also provided low instrumental and operational costs. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel automatic approach for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}), methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) and ethylmercury (EtHg{sup +}) using multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) was developed. For the first time, the separation of mercury species was accomplished on a RP C18 monolithic column using a multi-isocratic elution program. The elution protocol involved the use of 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)-acetonitrile (99:1, v/v), followed by 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The eluted mercury species were then oxidized under post-column UV radiation and reduced using tin(II) chloride in an acidic medium. Subsequently, the generated mercury metal were separated from the reaction mixture and further atomized in the flame atomizer and detected by AFS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3{sigma}) were found to be 0.03, 0.11 and 0.09 {mu}g L{sup -1} for MeHg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+} and EtHg{sup +}, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of the

  1. Clinical application of 201Tl scintigraphy in patients with cold thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Bunko, H.; Michigishi, T.; Kuwajima, A.; Hisada, K.

    1978-01-01

    201 Tl-chloride scintigraphy was performed in 45 patients with cold thyroid nodules. The 201 Tl scintigram was positive in 17 of 18 thyroid patients with cancer (94.4%), 8 of 20 patients with an adenoma (40.0%), 1 of 2 adenomatous goiter patients (50.5%), and all of 5 cases of chronic thyroiditis (100.0%). When the cold nodule was demonstrated to be positive with 201 Tl, the statistical chance of the lesion being a cellular one was 100.0% and a risk of its malignancy was 54.8%. On the other hand, the nodule with negative 201 Tl concentration had a 14.3% chance of cellularity and a 7.1% risk of malignancy. Thus, 201 Tl scintigraphy is of use in the differential diagnosis of the cold thyroid nodule

  2. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  3. Optimal response of key enzymes and uncoupling protein to cold in BAT depends on local T3 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have examined the activity of three lipogenic enzymes [malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase], the activity of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent α-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPD), and the mitochondrial concentration of uncoupling protein (UCP) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats, both at room temperature and in response to acute cold stress. These enzymes and UCP are important for the thermogenic response of BAT in adaptation to cold. The basal level of the lipogenic enzymes was normal or slightly elevated in hypothyroid rats maintained at 23 0 C, but the levels of α-GPD and UCP were markedly reduced. Forty-eight hours at 4 0 C resulted in an increase in the activity of G-6-PD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and α-GPD and in the concentration of UCP both in euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, but the levels reached were invariably less in hypothyroid animals, indicating that thyroid hormone is necessary for a full metabolic response of BAT under maximal demands. Of all variables measured, the most affected was UCP followed by α-GDP. Dose-response relationship analysis of the UCP response to T 3 indicated that the normalization of the response to cold requires saturation of the nuclear T 3 receptors. They concluded, therefore, that the activation of the BAT 5'-deiodinase induced by cold exposure is essential to provide the high levels of nuclear T 3 required for the full expression of BAT thermogenic potential

  4. The Application Research of Modern Intelligent Cold Chain Distribution System Based on Internet of Things Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dehui; Gao, Shan

    This paper implemented an intelligent cold chain distribution system based on the technology of Internet of things, and took the protoplasmic beer logistics transport system as example. It realized the remote real-time monitoring material status, recorded the distribution information, dynamically adjusted the distribution tasks and other functions. At the same time, the system combined the Internet of things technology with weighted filtering algorithm, realized the real-time query of condition curve, emergency alarming, distribution data retrieval, intelligent distribution task arrangement, etc. According to the actual test, it can realize the optimization of inventory structure, and improve the efficiency of cold chain distribution.

  5. The critical spot eraser—a method to interactively control the correction of local hot and cold spots in IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süss, Philipp; Bortz, Michael; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Thieke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Common problems in inverse radiotherapy planning are localized dose insufficiencies like hot spots in organs at risk or cold spots inside targets. These are hard to correct since the optimization is based on global evaluations like maximum/minimum doses, equivalent uniform doses or dose–volume constraints for whole structures. In this work, we present a new approach to locally correct the dose of any given treatment plan. Once a treatment plan has been found that is acceptable in general but requires local corrections, these areas are marked by the planner. Then the system generates new plans that fulfil the local dose goals. Consequently, it is possible to interactively explore all plans between the locally corrected plans and the original treatment plan, allowing one to exactly adjust the degree of local correction and how the plan changes overall. Both the amount (in Gy) and the size of the local dose change can be navigated. The method is introduced formally as a new mathematical optimization setting, and is evaluated using a clinical example of a meningioma at the base of the skull. It was possible to eliminate a hot spot outside the target volume while controlling the dose changes to all other parts of the treatment plan. The proposed method has the potential to become the final standard step of inverse treatment planning. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org (paper)

  6. Application of Cascade Refrigeration System with Mixing Refrigerant in Cold Air Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Tong, M. W.; Yang, G.; Wang, X. P.

    In the mechanical cutting process, the replacement of traditional cutting solution with cold air can avoid the pollution of environment. In order to high efficient the refrigerating device and flexible adjust the temperature of cold air, it is necessary to use cascade refrigeration system to supply cool quantity for the compressed air. The introduction of a two-component non-azeotropic mixing refrigerant into the cryogenic part of the cascade system, can effectively solve the problems of the system working at too high pressure and the volume expanding of refrigerant in case of the cascade refrigeration sets closed down. However, the filling ratio of mixing refrigerants impact on the relationships among the closing down pressure, refrigerating output and refrigerating efficiency. On the basis of computing and experiment, the optimal mixing ratio of refrigerant R22/R13 and a low temperature of -60° were obtained in this study. A cold air injecting device possessing high efficiency in energy saving has also been designed and manufactured. The cold air, generated from this cascade system and employed in a cutting process, takes good comprehensive effects on machining and cutting.

  7. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  8. Application of infrared thermography for the analysis of rewarming in patients with cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Brandsma, M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Cold intolerance is a serious long-term problem after injury to the ulnar and median nerves, and its pathophysiology is unclear. We investigated the use of infrared thermography for the analysis of thermoregulation after injury to peripheral nerves. Four patients with injuries to the ulnar nerve and

  9. Potential applications of heat and cold stress indices to sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S

    2001-01-01

    Many recreational and elite athletes participate in sporting events every year. However, when these events are conducted under hostile environmental conditions, whether in cold or hot climates, the risk for environmental illnesses increases. The higher the stress, the greater is the potential for performance decrements, injuries and illnesses. The most common expected heat illnesses are heat exhaustion and heatstroke, whereas hypothermia and frostbite are the most common cold injuries. However, heat and cold stress indices can minimise the risk for environmental illnesses and dehydration by following the recommendations and guidelines which accompany these indices. Stress indices should be used by athletes, coaches and officials to prevent injury and improve safety conditions for competitors and participants in recreational activities. All participants should be made aware of warning signs, susceptibility and predisposing conditions. Coaches should be aware of their responsibility with regard to the safety of their trainees, and officials should organise and plan events at times that are likely to be of low environmental stress. However, they must also be prepared and equipped with the means necessary to reduce injuries and treat cases of collapse and environmental illnesses. The lack of a friendly, small and simple device for environmental stress assessment is probably the main reason why stress indices are not commonly used. We believe that developing a new portable heat and cold stress monitor in wristwatch format for use by those exposed to environmental stress could help in the decision making process of expected hazards caused by exercising and working in hostile environments, and might help prevent heat and cold illnesses.

  10. Two new eigenvalue localization sets for tensors and theirs applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianxing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Qi (J. Symbolic Comput., 2005, 40, 1302-1324 and Li et al. (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl., 2014, 21, 39-50. As an application, a weaker checkable sufficient condition for the positive (semi-definiteness of an even-order real symmetric tensor is obtained. Meanwhile, an S-type E-eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than that presented by Wang et al. (Discrete Cont. Dyn.-B, 2017, 22(1, 187-198. As an application, an S-type upper bound for the Z-spectral radius of weakly symmetric nonnegative tensors is obtained. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  11. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosi, J.B.; Irvine, G.; Skierszkan, E.K.; Doyle, J.R.; Kimpe, L.E.; Janvier, J.; Blais, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  12. Thermodynamic, Environmental and Economic Analyses of Solar Ejector Refrigeration System Application for Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2009-01-01

    The refrigeration processes have been widely applied for especially in cold storages. In these plants, the systems working with compressed vapour cooling cycles have been used as a classical method. In general, electrical energy is used for compressing in these processes. Although, mainly the electricity itself has no pollution effect on the environment, the fossil fuels that are widely used to produce electricity in the most of the world, affect the nature terribly. In short, these refrigera...

  13. Application of Cold Chain Logistics Safety Reliability in Fresh Food Distribution Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Yifeng; Xie Ruhe

    2013-01-01

    In view of the nature of fresh food’s continuous decrease of safety during distribution process, this study applied safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish fresh food distribution routing optimization model with time windows, and solved the model using MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) with case analysis. Studies have shown that the mentioned model and algorithm can better solve the problem of fresh food distribution routing optimization with time windows.

  14. Application of modeling to local chemistry in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchon, C.; Millett, P.J.; Ollar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Localized corrosion of the SG tubes and other components is due to the presence of an aggressive environment in local crevices and occluded regions. In crevices and on vertical and horizontal tube surfaces, corrosion products and particulate matter can accumulate in the form of porous deposits. The SG water contains impurities at extremely low levels (ppb). Low levels of non-volatile impurities, however, can be efficiently concentrated in crevices and sludge piles by a thermal hydraulic mechanism. The temperature gradient across the SG tube coupled with local flow starvation, produces local boiling in the sludge and crevices. Since mass transfer processes are inhibited in these geometries, the residual liquid becomes enriched in many of the species present in the SG water. The resulting concentrated solutions have been shown to be aggressive and can corrode the SG materials. This corrosion may occur under various conditions which result in different types of attack such as pitting, stress corrosion cracking, wastage and denting. A major goal of EPRI's research program has been the development of models of the concentration process and the resulting chemistry. An improved understanding should eventually allow utilities to reduce or eliminate the corrosion by the appropriate manipulation of the steam generator water chemistry and or crevice conditions. The application of these models to experimental data obtained for prototypical SG tube support crevices is described in this paper. The models adequately describe the key features of the experimental data allowing extrapolations to be made to plant conditions. (author)

  15. AIRPORT NOISE CHARGES AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES: APPLICATION TO REGIONAL AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MANTECCHINI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  16. Application of local area network technology in an engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, A.D.; Sokolowski, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of local area network technology in an engineering environment. Mobil Research and Development Corporation Engineering, Dallas, texas has installed a local area network (LAN) linking over 85 microcomputers. This network, which has been in existence for more than three years, provides common access by all engineers to quality output devices such as laser printers and multi-color pen plotters; IBM mainframe connections; electronic mail and file transfer; and common engineering program. The network has been expanded via a wide area ethernet network to link the Dallas location with a functionally equivalent LAN of over 400 microcomputers in Princeton, N.J. Additionally, engineers on assignment at remote areas in Europe, U.S., Africa and project task forces have dial-in access to the network via telephone lines

  17. An eigenvalue localization set for tensors and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Li et al. (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015 and Huang et al. (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:254, 2016. As an application of this set, new bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of M $\\mathcal{M}$ -tensors are established and proved to be sharper than some known results. Compared with the results obtained by Huang et al., the advantage of our results is that, without considering the selection of nonempty proper subsets S of N = { 1 , 2 , … , n } $N=\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$ , we can obtain a tighter eigenvalue localization set for tensors and sharper bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of M $\\mathcal{M}$ -tensors. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  18. An eigenvalue localization set for tensors and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Sang, Caili

    2017-01-01

    A new eigenvalue localization set for tensors is given and proved to be tighter than those presented by Li et al . (Linear Algebra Appl. 481:36-53, 2015) and Huang et al . (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:254, 2016). As an application of this set, new bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of [Formula: see text]-tensors are established and proved to be sharper than some known results. Compared with the results obtained by Huang et al ., the advantage of our results is that, without considering the selection of nonempty proper subsets S of [Formula: see text], we can obtain a tighter eigenvalue localization set for tensors and sharper bounds for the minimum eigenvalue of [Formula: see text]-tensors. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify the theoretical results.

  19. Application of Nanofibrillated Cellulose on BOPP/LDPE Film as Oxygen Barrier and Antimicrobial Coating Based on Cold Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanofibrillated cellulose (NC films in packaging industry has been hindered by its lack of heat-sealing ability. Incorporation of NC films with the biaxially oriented polypropylene/low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDPE laminates can take advantage of each material and endow the films with novel functions for food packaging applications. In this study, a coating that consists of NC and nisin was applied onto a cold plasma treated BOPP/LDPE film to fabricate a novel active packaging with an improved oxygen barrier performance and an added antimicrobial effect. The results showed that cold plasma treatment improved the surface hydrophilicity of BOPP/LDPE films for better attachment of the coatings. NC coatings significantly enhanced oxygen barrier property of the BOPP/LDPE film, with an oxygen transmission rate as low as 24.02 cc/m2·day as compared to that of the non-coated one (67.03 cc/m2·day. The addition of nisin in the coating at a concentration of 5 mg/g caused no significant change in barrier properties but imparted the film excellent antimicrobial properties, with a growth inhibition of L. monocytogenes by 94%. All films exhibit satisfying mechanical properties and transparency, and this new film has the potential to be used as antimicrobial and oxygen barrier packaging.

  20. Application of local vacuum slide sealing electron beam welding procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shozo; Takano, Genta; Minami, Masaharu; Enami, Koji; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuri, Shuhei

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam welding process is efficient and is superior in workmanship and its application to the welding of large plate structures is eagerly awaited. However, since electron beam welding is generally performed with the object of welding entirely put in a vacuum chamber, high welding cost becomes a problem. In response to this demand, two kinds of local vacuum slide sealing type electron beam welding machines have been developed. These welding machines are designed to perform welding with only the neighborhood of the weld line put in vacuum, one of which is for longitudinal joints and the other for circumferential joints. The welding machine for circumferential joints has been put to practical use for the welding of nucear fusion reactor vacuum vessels (outside diameter 3.5 m, inside diameter 1.7 m), showing that it is applicable to the welding of large structures. (author)

  1. Heat capacity changes in RNA folding: application of perturbation theory to hammerhead ribozyme cold denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Peter J; Feig, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    In proteins, empirical correlations have shown that changes in heat capacity (DeltaC(P)) scale linearly with the hydrophobic surface area buried upon folding. The influence of DeltaC(P) on RNA folding has been widely overlooked and is poorly understood. In addition to considerations of solvent reorganization, electrostatic effects might contribute to DeltaC(P)s of folding in polyanionic species such as RNAs. Here, we employ a perturbation method based on electrostatic theory to probe the hot and cold denaturation behavior of the hammerhead ribozyme. This treatment avoids much of the error associated with imposing two-state folding models on non-two-state systems. Ribozyme stability is perturbed across a matrix of solvent conditions by varying the concentration of NaCl and methanol co-solvent. Temperature-dependent unfolding is then monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The resulting array of unfolding transitions can be used to calculate a DeltaC(P) of folding that accurately predicts the observed cold denaturation temperature. We confirm the accuracy of the calculated DeltaC(P) by using isothermal titration calorimetry, and also demonstrate a methanol-dependence of the DeltaC(P). We weigh the strengths and limitations of this method for determining DeltaC(P) values. Finally, we discuss the data in light of the physical origins of the DeltaC(P)s for RNA folding and consider their impact on biological function.

  2. Investigation of slip transfer across HCP grain boundaries with application to cold dwell facet fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zebang; Balint, Daniel S.; Dunne, Fionn P.E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of grain boundary slip transfer and thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity in the redistribution of grain boundary stresses during cold dwell fatigue in titanium alloys. Atomistic simulations have been utilised to calculate the grain boundary energies for titanium with respect to the misorientation angles. The grain boundary energies are utilised within a thermally-activated discrete dislocation plasticity model incorporating slip transfer controlled by energetic and grain boundary geometrical criteria. The model predicts the grain size effect on the flow strength in Ti alloys. Cold dwell fatigue behaviour in Ti-6242 alloy is investigated and it is shown that significant stress redistribution from soft to hard grains occurs during the stress dwell, which is observed both for grain boundaries for which slip transfer is permitted and inhibited. However, the grain boundary slip penetration is shown to lead to significantly higher hard-grain basal stresses near the grain boundary after dwell, thus exacerbating the load shedding stress compared to an impenetrable grain boundary. The key property controlling the dwell fatigue response is argued to remain the time constant associated with the thermal activation process for dislocation escape, but the slip penetrability is also important and exacerbates the load shedding. The inclusion of a macrozone does not significantly change the conclusions but does potentially lead to the possibility of a larger initial facet.

  3. Engineered disulfide bonds increase active-site local stability and reduce catalytic activity of a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Adalbjörnsson, Björn Vidar; Gylfason, Gudjón Andri

    2007-06-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an extracellular enzyme that is membrane-bound in eukaryotes but resides in the periplasmic space of bacteria. It normally carries four cysteine residues that form two disulfide bonds, for instance in the APs of Escherichia coli and vertebrates. An AP variant from a Vibrio sp. has only one cysteine residue. This cysteine is second next to the nucleophilic serine in the active site. We have individually modified seven residues to cysteine that are on two loops predicted to be within a 5 A radius. Four of them formed a disulfide bond to the endogenous cysteine. Thermal stability was monitored by circular dichroism and activity measurements. Global stability was similar to the wild-type enzyme. However, a significant increase in heat-stability was observed for the disulfide-containing variants using activity as a measure, together with a large reduction in catalytic rates (k(cat)) and a general decrease in Km values. The results suggest that a high degree of mobility near the active site and in the helix carrying the endogenous cysteine is essential for full catalytic efficiency in the cold-adapted AP.

  4. In Shackleton's trails: Central and local thermoadaptive modifications to cold and hypoxia after a man-hauling expedition on the Antarctic Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2018-04-01

    Cold and hypoxia constitute the main environmental stressors encountered on the Antarctic Plateau. Hence, we examined whether central and/or peripheral acclimatisation to the combined stressors of cold and hypoxia would be developed in four men following an 11-day man-hauling expedition on this polar region. Before and after the journey, participants performed a static whole-body immersion in 21 °C water, during which they were breathing a hypoxic gas (partial pressure of inspired O 2 : ~97 mmHg). To evaluate their local responses to cold, participants also immersed the hand into 8 °C water for 30 min, while they were whole-body immersed and mildly hypothermic [i.e. 0.5 °C fall in rectal temperature (T rec ) from individual pre-immersion values]. T rec and skin temperature (T sk ), skin blood flux, and oxygen uptake (reflecting shivering thermogenesis) were monitored throughout. The polar expedition accelerated by ~14 min the drop in T rec [final mean (95% confidence interval) changes in T rec : Before = -0.94 (0.15) °C, After: - 1.17 (0.23) °C]. The shivering onset threshold [Before: 19 (22) min, After: 25 (19) min] and gain [Before: - 4.19 (3.95) mL min -1 kg -1 , After: - 1.70 (1.21) mL min -1 kg -1 ] were suppressed by the expedition. T sk did not differ between trials. The development of a greater post-expedition hypothermic state did not compromise finger circulation during the hand-cooling phase. Present findings indicate therefore that a hypothermic pattern of cold acclimatisation, as investigated in hypoxia, was developed following a short-term expedition on the South Polar Plateau; an adaptive response that is characterised mainly by suppressed shivering thermogenesis, and partly by blunted cutaneous vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistics of work and orthogonality catastrophe in discrete level systems: an application to fullerene molecules and ultra-cold trapped Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Sindona

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sudden introduction of a local impurity in a Fermi sea leads to an anomalous disturbance of its quantum state that represents a local quench, leaving the system out of equilibrium and giving rise to the Anderson orthogonality catastrophe. The statistics of the work done describe the energy fluctuations produced by the quench, providing an accurate and detailed insight into the fundamental physics of the process. We present here a numerical approach to the non-equilibrium work distribution, supported by applications to phenomena occurring at very diverse energy ranges. One of them is the valence electron shake-up induced by photo-ionization of a core state in a fullerene molecule. The other is the response of an ultra-cold gas of trapped fermions to an embedded two-level atom excited by a fast pulse. Working at low thermal energies, we detect the primary role played by many-particle states of the perturbed system with one or two excited fermions. We validate our approach through the comparison with some photoemission data on fullerene films and previous analytical calculations on harmonically trapped Fermi gases.

  6. Perspectives of local diclofenacol 1% liniment application in joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Balabanova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess efficacy and safety diclofenacol 1% liniment application in comparison with diclo- ran plus. Material and methods. An open controlled 2-weeks trial of diclofenacol 1% liniment on 30 pts with active joint syndrome (group 1 compared with dicloran plus 1% gel on 20 pts (group II. Pts age ranged from 16 to 79 years, mean disease duration was 8,2 1,5 years. Most pts had II activity degree. Results. Diclofenacol 1% liniment applications decreased pain at rest and at movement and circle of aim joints. In pts with RA effect was more prominent. Dicloran plus provided equivalent results. Local effect of diclofenacol appeared in average after 31,5 min. (from 10 to 73 min and lasted during 118,3 min (from 50 to 240 min.. Diclofenacol allowed to decrease dose of oral NSAIDs in 43,3% of pts and dicloran - in 40% of pts. Diclofenacol safety was good without local and systemic adverse events. Conclusion. Diclofenacol 1% liniment manufactured by Hiperion S.A. (Rumania can be recommended for wide administration in treatment of joint diseases particularly in pts with concomitant gastrointestinal diseases and hypertension.

  7. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 3: environmental impact assessment: socio-economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-02-01

    Anticipated social and economic effects from the construction and operation of the proposed Cold Lake Expansion Project in Alberta were described. The regions and communities that would be directly affected by the project were identified and project impacts with respect to the following areas were analyzed: population and demographics, local economy and labour force, education, health, social and recreational services, protective and emergency services, physical community infrastructure, real estate, and current community planning and land use initiatives. The main sources of information used for the analysis were public statistical data compiled by Statistics Canada, provincial government statistics and municipal planning documents. The overall social impact of the project was expected to range from low to medium. 50 refs., 44 tabs., 6 figs

  8. PCM thermal storage design in buildings: Experimental studies and applications to solaria in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, Francesco; Athienitis, Andreas; Cellura, Maurizio; Bastien, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system. • A wall opposing a glazed surface serves as phase change materials thermal storage. • The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. • Heat is stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation. • Yearly heating requirements are reduced by 17% in a cold climate. - Abstract: As energy availability and demand often do not match, thermal energy storage plays a crucial role to take advantage of solar radiation in buildings: in particular, latent heat storage via phase-change material is particularly attractive due to its ability to provide high energy storage density. This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system to increase the energy performances of solaria in a cold climate. A wall opposing a highly glazed façade (south oriented) is used as thermal storage with phase change materials embedded in the wall. The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. The concept considered is particularly suited to retrofits in a solarium since the PCM can be added as layers facing the large window on the vertical wall directly opposite. Results indicate that this PCM thermal storage system is effective during the whole year in a cold climate. The thermal storage allows solar radiation to be stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation: this has effects on both the reduction of daily temperature swings (up to 10 °C) and heating requirements (more than 17% on a yearly base). Coupling of the thermal storage system with natural ventilation is important during mid-seasons and summer to improve the PCM charge-discharge cycles and to reduce overheating. Results also show that cooling is less important than heating, reaching up to 20% of the overall annual energy requirements for the city of Montreal, Canada. Moreover, the phase change temperature range of the material used (18–24

  9. Physicochemical and technological aspects of application of anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit for production of cold-bottom hearth mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokhidov, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present work is devoted to physicochemical and technological aspects of application of anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit for production of cold-bottom hearth mass. The purpose of present work is to study the composition and physicochemical properties of initial and calcined anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit, revelation of optimal parameters of its thermal treatment. Therefore, the structure, composition and physicochemical properties of anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit have been studied by means of chemical, thermographic, X-ray, electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy methods; physicochemical and mechanical properties of cold-bottom hearth mass produced at various mass ratio of filler, binding and plasticizer have been studied as well; the flowsheets of production of cold-bottom hearth mass with the usage of anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit have been elaborated; the pilot bitch of cold-bottom hearth mass has been produced and tested at industrial scale.

  10. Muscle Reaction Time During a Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain After Wet-Ice Application or Cold-Water Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thain, Peter K; Bleakley, Christopher M; Mitchell, Andrew C S

    2015-07-01

    Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory. A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 ± 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain. Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes. Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement. We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P > .05). Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is warranted to assess the clinical applicability of these interventions.

  11. Uses of Local Plant Biodiversity among the Tribal Communities of Pangi Valley of District Chamba in Cold Desert Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Puneet; Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Rana, Jai Chand

    2014-01-01

    Pangi Valley is the interior most tribal area in Himachal Pradesh of Northwest Himalaya. An ethnobotanical investigation is attempted to highlight the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribes of Pangi Valley. Various localities visited in the valley 2-3 times in a year and ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews with elderly people, women, shepherds, and local vaids during May 2009 to September 2013. This paper documented 67 plant species from 59 genera and 36 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage, including the use of 35 plants with new ethnomedicinal and other use from the study area for the first time. Wild plants represent an important part of their medicinal, dietary, handicraft, fuel wood, veterinary, and fodder components. These tribal inhabitants and migrants depend on the wild plant resources for food, medicines, fuel, fibre, timber, and household articles for their livelihood security. The present study documents and contributes significant ethnobotanical information from the remote high altitude and difficult region of the world, which remains cut off from rest of the world for 6-7 months due to heavy snowfall. PMID:24696658

  12. Uses of Local Plant Biodiversity among the Tribal Communities of Pangi Valley of District Chamba in Cold Desert Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pangi Valley is the interior most tribal area in Himachal Pradesh of Northwest Himalaya. An ethnobotanical investigation is attempted to highlight the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribes of Pangi Valley. Various localities visited in the valley 2-3 times in a year and ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews with elderly people, women, shepherds, and local vaids during May 2009 to September 2013. This paper documented 67 plant species from 59 genera and 36 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage, including the use of 35 plants with new ethnomedicinal and other use from the study area for the first time. Wild plants represent an important part of their medicinal, dietary, handicraft, fuel wood, veterinary, and fodder components. These tribal inhabitants and migrants depend on the wild plant resources for food, medicines, fuel, fibre, timber, and household articles for their livelihood security. The present study documents and contributes significant ethnobotanical information from the remote high altitude and difficult region of the world, which remains cut off from rest of the world for 6-7 months due to heavy snowfall.

  13. Hot-rolled and cold-finished zirconium and zirconium alloy bars, rod, and wire for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The specification covers hot- and cold-finished zirconium alloy bars, rod, and wire, other than those required for reforging, including rounds, squares, and shapes. One unalloyed grade and three alloy grades for use in nuclear applications are described. The products covered include the following sections and sizes: bars, rounds in coils for subsequent reworking (6.4 to 19 mm) and flats (6.4 to 250 mm); rods, rounds in coils for subsequent reworking (6.4 to 19 mm); wire (9.5 mm). The specification covers ordering information, manufacture, condition, chemical requirements, mechanical properties, corrosion properties, permissible variations in dimensions, significance of numerical limits, lot size, special tests, workmanship, finish, inspection, certification, packaging and marking

  14. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  15. Local application of zoledronate for maximum anchorage during space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adam J A J; Campbell, Phillip M; Hinton, Robert; Naidu, Aparna; Buschang, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Orthodontists have used various compliance-dependent physical means such as headgears and intraoral appliances to prevent anchorage loss. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1 local application of the bisphosphonate zoledronate could be used to prevent anchorage loss during extraction space closure in rats. Thirty rats had their maxillary left first molars extracted and their maxillary left second molars protracted into the extraction space with a 10-g nickel-titanium closing coil for 21 days. Fifteen control rats received a local injection of phosphate-buffered saline solution, and 15 experimental rats received 16 μg of the bisphosphonate zoledronate. Bisphosphonate was also delivered directly into the extraction site and left undisturbed for 5 minutes. Cephalograms and incremental thickness gauges were used to measure tooth movements. Tissues were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology. The control group demonstrated significant (P <0.05) tooth movements throughout the 21-day period. They showed significantly greater tooth movements than the experimental group beginning in the second week. The experimental group showed no significant tooth movement after the first week. The microcomputed tomography and histologic observations showed significant bone loss in the extraction sites and around the second molars of the controls. In contrast, the experimental group had bone preservation and bone fill. There was no evidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis in any sample. A single small, locally applied dose of zoledronate provided maximum anchorage and prevented significant bone loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Some like it hot, some like it cold: Temperature dependent biotechnological applications and improvements in extremophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2015-12-01

    The full biotechnological exploitation of enzymes is still hampered by their low activity, low stability and high cost. Temperature-dependent catalytic properties of enzymes are a key to efficient and cost-effective translation to commercial applications. Organisms adapted to temperature extremes are a rich source of enzymes with broad ranging thermal properties which, if isolated, characterized and their structure-function-stability relationship elucidated, could underpin a variety of technologies. Enzymes from thermally-adapted organisms such as psychrophiles (low-temperature) and thermophiles (high-temperature) are a vast natural resource that is already under scrutiny for their biotechnological potential. However, psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes show an activity-stability trade-off that necessitates the use of various genetic and chemical modifications to further improve their properties to suit various industrial applications. This review describes in detail the properties and biotechnological applications of both cold-adapted and thermophilic enzymes. Furthermore, the review critically examines ways to improve their value for biotechnology, concluding by proposing an integrated approach involving thermally-adapted, genetically and magnetically modified enzymes to make biocatalysis more efficient and cost-effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  18. The effect of local hydrodynamics on the spatial extent and morphology of cold-water coral habitats at Tisler Reef, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clippele, L. H.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Orejas, C.; Lundälv, T.; Fox, A.; Hennige, S. J.; Roberts, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This study demonstrates how cold-water coral morphology and habitat distribution are shaped by local hydrodynamics, using high-definition video from Tisler Reef, an inshore reef in Norway. A total of 334 video frames collected on the north-west (NW) and south-east (SE) side of the reef were investigated for Lophelia pertusa coral cover and morphology and for the cover of the associated sponges Mycale lingua and Geodia sp. Our results showed that the SE side was a better habitat for L. pertusa (including live and dead colonies). Low cover of Geodia sp. was found on both sides of Tisler Reef. In contrast, Mycale lingua had higher percentage cover, especially on the NW side of the reef. Bush-shaped colonies of L. pertusa with elongated branches were the most abundant coral morphology on Tisler Reef. The highest abundance and density of this morphology were found on the SE side of the reef, while a higher proportion of cauliflower-shaped corals with short branches were found on the NW side. The proportion of very small L. pertusa colonies was also significantly higher on the SE side of the reef. The patterns in coral spatial distribution and morphology were related to local hydrodynamics—there were more frequent periods of downwelling currents on the SE side—and to the availability of suitable settling substrates. These factors make the SE region of Tisler Reef more suitable for coral growth. Understanding the impact of local hydrodynamics on the spatial extent and morphology of coral, and their relation to associated organisms such as sponges, is key to understanding the past and future development of the reef.

  19. LOCAL APPLICATION OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN KNEE REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pshenitsyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study – assessment of the efficacy of local application of tranexamic acid in TKA and the choice of the optimal dosage. Materials and methods. 48 patients were included in open-prospective study and were randomized to one of four groups. In the first group tranexamic acid was used as intravenous bolus at the beginning of the operation at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Additionally, after the installation of the prosthetic components, the surgeon performed periarticular infiltration of soft tissue by tranexamic acid solution at a dose of 15 mg/kg. In the second group of patients tranexamic acid was used as 500 mg intravenous bolus before surgery, and 500 mg locally after installation of the prosthesis components. In the third group of patients received tranexamic acid once at the beginning of the operation at a dose of 15 mg/kg iv bolus. In the fourth group tranexam was used after surgery once at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Results. In the first group of patients were achieved statistically significant, 5-6 times, reduction of blood loss on drainage in comparison with other groups, where the volume of postoperative blood loss was not significantly different between groups. Also in the first group recorded the smallest decrease in hemoglobin at the 5th postoperative day compared to the third and fourth groups. Complications associated with the use of tranexamic acid were not revealed. Conclusion. The method of periarticular infiltration by tranexamic acid in combination with its intravenous use in knee joint replacement is an effective and safe method for reduction of post-operative blood loss.

  20. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  1. Application of Local Knowledge in Land Degradation Assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objective of the study was to find out local approaches used in assessing land degradation by ... Organizations and local authorities) in the locality has resulted in poor planning and implementation of land degradation intervention measures. ... malnutrition, poverty and migratory movements and lead to crises, conflicts.

  2. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-12-28

    During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

  3. Cold rocks, hot sands: In-situ cosmogenic applications in Australia at ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, David; McKelvey, B.; Hannan, D.; Newsome, D.

    2000-01-01

    The ANTARES AMS facility at ANSTO is conducting a comprehensive program in the application of in-situ cosmogenic radionuclides based on strong university collaborations in the earth sciences. The program targets two major objectives: (1) to determine and improve the Quaternary glacial chronology of the Southern Hemisphere in support of global climate change studies; (2) to characterise the processes of surface weathering and landscape evolution in semi-arid regions of the Australian continent. An overview of the program is presented with preliminary results from the first phase of these studies

  4. Optimal design and application of a compound cold storage system combining seasonal ice storage and chilled water storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, C.; Shi, W.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cold storage using natural cold sources for cooling is a sustainable cooling technique. However, this technique suffers from limitations such as large storage space and poor reliability. Combining seasonal storage with short-term storage might be a promising solution while it is not

  5. The single-collision thermalization approximation for application to cold neutron moderation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritenour, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The single collision thermalization (SCT) approximation models the thermalization process by assuming that neutrons attain a thermalized distribution with only a single collision within the moderating material, independent of the neutron's incident energy. The physical intuition on which this approximation is based is that the salient properties of neutron thermalization are accounted for in the first collision, and the effects of subsequent collisions tend to average out statistically. The independence of the neutron incident and outscattering energy leads to variable separability in the scattering kernel and, thus, significant simplification of the neutron thermalization problem. The approximation also addresses detailed balance and neutron conservation concerns. All of the tests performed on the SCT approximation yielded excellent results. The significance of the SCT approximation is that it greatly simplifies thermalization calculations for CNS design. Preliminary investigations with cases involving strong absorbers also indicates that this approximation may have broader applicability, as in the upgrading of the thermalization codes

  6. APPLICATION OF NATURAL COLD FOR PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES AGAINST POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sosnovskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented herein discusses theoretical and practical aspects of formation artificial firn-ice masses and prospects for their use in solutions of practical and environmental problems. The method utilizes winter sprinkler irrigation with long-jet sprinklers. The mass of artificial firm can be as high as 10 meters. This application is effective for treatment and desalination to protect water resources from contamination. Mineralization of artificial firn is 5–10 times lower than the salinity of the original water. The dynamics of the removal of salts ions, microelements, and dissolved organic compounds during firn melting is assessed through mathematical modeling and experimental research. Melting of one-third of the firn mass decreases mineralization by more than a factor of 10.

  7. The influence of cold pack on labour pain relief and birth outcomes: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Ganji, Zhila

    2014-09-01

    (1) To evaluate the influence of local cold on severity of labour pain and (2) to identify the effect of local cold on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fear of labour pain results in an increase in pain and duration of labour, maternal discontent and demand for caesarean section. Regarding maternal and foetal complications of analgesic medications, the attention to application of nonpharmacological methods including cold therapy is increased. Randomised controlled trial. Sixty-four pregnant women, at initiation of active phase of labour, were allocated randomly to cold therapy and control groups (n = 64). Null parity, term pregnancy, presence of single foetus, cephalic presentation and completing informed consent were considered as inclusion criteria. Administration of analgesic and anaesthesia, foetal distress, skin lesions in regions of cold therapy and high-risk pregnancy provided exclusion criteria. Cold pack was applied over abdomen and back, for 10 minutes every 30 minutes during first phase of labour. Additionally, cold pack was placed over perineum, for 5 minutes every 15 minutes during second phase. Pain severity was assessed based on the visual analogue scale. The two groups were not significantly different considering demographic data, gestational age, foetal weight, rupture of membranes and primary severity of pain. Degree of pain was lower in cold therapy group during all parts of active phase and second stage. Duration of all phases was shorter in cold therapy group in all phases. Foetal heart rate, perineal laceration, type of birth, application of oxytocin and APGAR score were not significantly different between two groups. Labour pain is probably reduced based on gate theory using cold. Pain control by cold maybe improves labour progression without affecting mother and foetus adversely. Local cold therapy could be included in labour pain management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fabrication of Y-TZP For Dental Crowns Applications by Combining Slip Casting and Cold Isostatic Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, C.C.; Andanastuti Muchtar; Che Husna Azhari; Masfueh Razali; Mohamed Aboras

    2016-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) is a popular material for dental restoration because of its outstanding mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and slip casting are among several consolidation methods for Y-TZP. These methods produce Y-TZP with high mechanical properties. This study aims to enhance the mechanical properties of Y-TZP by combining slip casting and CIP. Y-TZP samples were fabricated using CIP, slip casting, and their combination. Subsequently, the green bodies of the samples were sintered at 1600 degree Celcius. Their mechanical properties (density and hardness) were tested and their microstructures were scrutinized under a scanning electron microscope. Compared with the other two methods, the combined method significantly improved the mechanical properties of Y-TZP. In addition, the combined method also produced a compact and homogeneous microstructure. Therefore, the combination of slip casting and CIP is recommended in the production of Y-TZP with high mechanical properties for dental crown applications. (author)

  9. Development of an experimental radioisotope based process tomography system for research applications in a cold trickle bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Madhusudan; Kumar, Pravesh; Kumar, Umesh; Acharya, Rajesh; Singh, Gursharan

    2009-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical engineering applications, random and structured packing are used in process columns to enhance the heat and mass transfer between two phases. The packing used in such columns is meant to obtain a high specific interfacial area. It is of paramount importance for scale-up and design of trickle bed process columns, to understand and predict the complex multiphase fluid dynamics. In simplified terms, the phase holdup, solid packing distribution in terms of density and gas and liquid velocities among other important parameters need to be qualitatively and quantitatively understood. In the petrochemical industry, many processes are carried out using fixed bed reactors with concurrent upward and downward gas and liquid flows. In order to characterize the liquid and gas flow distribution through a mock-up column, data on planar and volume density distribution using computed tomographic measurements are very helpful. The paper describes the development efforts of a multi-detector 137 Cs radioisotope based in-situ tomography scanner suitable for 600mm dia. cold trickle bed reactor. The development work is at present in progress. The schematics and development of the scanner gantry is described in this paper. (author)

  10. Evaluation of a fast power demand response strategy using active and passive building cold storages for smart grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Borui; Wang, Shengwei; Yan, Chengchu; Xue, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fast power demand response strategy is developed for smart grid applications. • The developed strategy can provide immediate and stepped power demand reduction. • The demand reduction and building indoor temperature can be predicted accurately. • The demand reduction during the DR event is stable. - Abstract: Smart grid is considered as a promising solution in improving the power reliability and sustainability where demand response is one important ingredient. Demand response (DR) is a set of demand-side activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid efficiency and reliability. This paper presents the investigations on the power demand alternation potential for buildings involving both active and passive cold storages to support the demand response of buildings connected to smart grids. A control strategy is developed to provide immediate and stepped power demand reduction through shutting chiller(s) down when requested. The primary control objective of the developed control strategy is to restrain the building indoor temperature rise as to maintain indoor thermal comfort within certain level during the DR event. The chiller power reduction is also controlled under certain power reduction set-point. The results show that stepped and significant power reduction can be achieved through shutting chiller(s) down when requested. The power demand reduction and indoor temperature during the DR event can be also predicted accurately. The power demand reduction is stable which is predictable for the system operators

  11. Application Waste Sawdust as Mixed Polyurethane Insulation in Traditional Cold Storage of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Purwono Fitri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of fishing it takes some supplies such as fishing equipment, instrumentation and storage of fish. The traditional fishermen of their fishing days fishing usually only bring ice cubes. Solid plastic polyurethane foam is a mixture solution of polyols and isocyanates, commonly used as an insulating material storage. From the observation waste generated being sawmill sawdust per spindle with diameter of 30 cm and a length of 1 m with 5 times sawmill, Saws 0.8 cm thick produced 0.0088 m³ / burnable logs only discarded. Therefore takes thermal conductivity test to review mixture of sawdust and polyurethane comparison with variations different dosing. Maximum disposals sawdust can be done is 40% of the total volume of material mixture, polyurethane and sawdust because composite material (sawdust-polyurethane can not be bond with good so easy slab separately from origin form. Thermal Conductivity insulating good and economical on disposals 40% wood flour (0.05252 W / m°C and is able to maintain a 2 kg of ice crystals melt up perfect on 34 hours. Operating profits economical from 4,8 m³insulation composite application with obtained Rp 4.486.000 compared with 100% Polyurethane Insulation Manufacture.

  12. Dynamic light scattering study on phase separation of a protein-water mixture: Application on cold cataract development in the ocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, V.; Pharmakakis, N.; Papatheodorou, G. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.

    2008-06-01

    We present a detailed dynamic light scattering study of the phase separation in the ocular lens emerging during cold cataract development. Cold cataract is a phase separation effect that proceeds via spinodal decomposition of the lens cytoplasm with cooling. The intensity autocorrelation functions of the lens protein content are analyzed with the aid of two methods, providing information on the populations and dynamics of the scattering elements associated with cold cataract. It is found that the temperature dependence of many measurable parameters changes appreciably at the characteristic temperature ˜16±1°C which is associated with the onset of cold cataract. By extending the temperature range of this work to previously inaccessible regimes, i.e., well below the phase separation or coexistence curve at Tcc , we have been able to accurately determine the temperature dependence of the collective and self-diffusion coefficients of proteins near the spinodal. The analysis showed that the dynamics of proteins bears some resemblance to the dynamics of structural glasses, where the apparent activation energy for particle diffusion increases below Tcc , indicating a highly cooperative motion. Application of ideas developed for studying the critical dynamics of binary protein-solvent mixtures, as well as the use of a modified Arrhenius equation, enabled us to estimate the spinodal temperature Tsp of the lens nucleus. The applicability of dynamic light scattering as a noninvasive, early-diagnostic tool for ocular diseases is also demonstrated in light of the findings of the present paper.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of biosynthesized colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles for a fortified cold cream formulation: A potent nanocosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sonia; H, Linda Jeeva Kumari; K, Ruckmani; M, Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Nanocosmeceuticals are promising applications of nanotechnology in personal care industries. Zinc oxide is an inorganic material that is non-toxic and skin compatible with self-cleansing and microbicidal properties. Herein, exploitation of colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONps) as potent biomaterial for a topical formulation of cosmetic and dermatological significance is employed. ZnONps were green synthesized using environmentally benign Adhatoda vasica leaf extract and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results reveal that the biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit an absorption peak at 352nm. XRD and HR-TEM analyses confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnONps with particle size of about 10nm to 12nm. Elemental analysis by EDX confirms the presence of zinc and oxygen. Zeta potential of -24.6mV affirms the stability of nanoparticles. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit mean zone of inhibition from 08.667±0.282 to 21.666±0.447 (mm) and 09.000±0.177 to 19.000±0.307 (mm) respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value exerted from the antioxidant activity of ZnONps is found to be 139.27μgmL -1 . ZnONps infused cold cream formulation of microbicidal and antioxidant properties was further tested against clinical skin pathogens. The nano-based cold cream exhibited significant inhibitory action against Candida sp., which showed resistance against a commercial antifungal cream (2%). Therefore, this study demonstrates the exploitation of ZnONps as promising colloidal drug carriers in cosmeceuticals that can significantly alleviate human skin infections and oxidative stress induced cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application study of monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China based on the cold vortex persistence activity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Liu; Meihui, Qu; Guolin, Feng; Qucheng, Chu; Jing, Cao; Jie, Yang; Ling, Cao; Yao, Feng

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces three quantitative indicators to conduct research for characterizing Northeast China cold vortex persistence activity: cold vortex persistence, generalized "cold vortex," and cold vortex precipitation. As discussed in the first part of paper, a hindcast is performed by multiple regressions using Northeast China precipitation from 2012 to 2014 combination with the previous winter 144 air-sea system factors. The results show that the mentioned three cold vortex index series can reflect the spatial and temporal distributions of observational precipitation in 2012-2014 and obtain results. The cold vortex factors are then added to the Forecast System on Dynamical and Analogy Skills (FODAS) to carry out dynamic statistical hindcast of precipitation in Northeast China from 2003 to 2012. Based on the characteristics and significance of each index, precipitation hindcast is carried out for Northeast China in May, June, July, August, May-June, and July-August. It turns out that the Northeast Cold Vortex Index Series, as defined in this paper, can make positive corrections to the FODAS forecast system, and most of the index correction results are higher than the system's own correction value. This study provides quantitative index products and supplies a solid technical foundation and support for monthly precipitation forecast in Northeast China.

  15. Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Hemodynamics and Oxygenation After Cold-Spray Application as Monitored by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir H.; Hoens, Alison; Reid, W. Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Context Vapocoolant spray, commonly known as cold spray (CS), is a cryotherapy modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiologic effects of cryotherapy modalities include reductions in tissue blood flow, oxygenation, and cell metabolism in addition to attenuation of pain perception attributed to reduced superficial nerve conduction velocity. Objective To examine the effects of CS on subcutaneous and intramuscular blood flow and oxygenation on the thigh muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy, an optical method to monitor changes in tissue oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Muscle Biophysics Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Participants were 13 healthy adults (8 men, 5 women; age = 37.4 ± 6 years, body mass index = 27.4 ± 2.6, adipose tissue thickness = 7.2 ± 1.8 mm). Intervention(s) Conventional CS was applied to the vastus medialis muscles. Main Outcome Measure(s) Changes in chromophore concentrations of O2Hb, HHb, and tHb at superficial and deep layers were monitored for 5 minutes using a 2-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Thirty seconds after CS application, we observed a decrease from baseline in O2Hb and tHb only in the superficial layer that was maintained for 3 minutes. Conclusions Application of CS induced a transient change in blood flow and oxygenation of the superficial tissues with no change in deeper tissues over the healthy vastus medialis muscle. The limited physiologic effect of CS on the superficial hemodynamics and oxygenation of limb muscles may limit the therapeutic benefit of this cryotherapy modality to a temporary analgesic effect, a hypothesis that warrants a clinical trial on traumatized muscles. PMID:26098273

  16. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  17. Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for Optimization of Operating Parameters and Performance Evaluation of Cooling Tower Cold Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar RAMAKRISHNAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a cooling tower was analyzed with various operating parameters tofind the minimum cold water temperature. In this study, optimization of operating parameters wasinvestigated. An experimental design was carried out based on central composite design (CCD withresponse surface methodology (RSM. This paper presents optimum operating parameters and theminimum cold water temperature using the RSM method. The RSM was used to evaluate the effectsof operating variables and their interaction towards the attainment of their optimum conditions.Based on the analysis, air flow, hot water temperature and packing height were high significanteffect on cold water temperature. The optimum operating parameters were predicted using the RSMmethod and confirmed through experiment.

  18. Scientific and Technological Principles of Development of New Cold-Resistant Arc-Steels (Steels for Arctic Applications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, O. V.; Khlusova, E. I.; Yashin, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of quantitative analysis of C, Mn, Ni and Cu content on strength and cold-resistance of rolled plates. Relations between the ferritic-bainitic structure morphology and anisotropy and steel performance characteristics have been established. Influence of thermal and deformation rolling patterns on steel structure has been studied. The steel chemical composition has been improved and precision thermomechanical processing conditions for production of cold-resistant Arc-steel plates have been developed.

  19. Node localization algorithm of wireless sensor networks for large electrical equipment monitoring application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Node localization technology is an important technology for the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. An improved 3D node localization algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on a Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) node localization algorithm for large electrical equipment monito...

  20. An ultrasonic phased array applicator for deep localized hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Foster, S.G.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an ultrasonic phased array applicator presents a major advantage over the fixed beam ultrasonic applicators which are typically used for clinical hyperthermia. Such an applicator allows focal region placement in the three dimensional treatment field by electronic steering instead of mechanical movement of the transducer assembly. The design of an array is discussed theoretically, considering that the constraints on grating lobes and power output for hyperthermic applications are quite different from those for imaging. The effects of various design parameters are discussed. Experimental results are presented for several arrays for frequencies under 1 Mhz

  1. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  2. Multivariate Local Polynomial Regression with Application to Shenzhen Component Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Su

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to characterize and predict stock index series in Shenzhen stock market using the concepts of multivariate local polynomial regression. Based on nonlinearity and chaos of the stock index time series, multivariate local polynomial prediction methods and univariate local polynomial prediction method, all of which use the concept of phase space reconstruction according to Takens' Theorem, are considered. To fit the stock index series, the single series changes into bivariate series. To evaluate the results, the multivariate predictor for bivariate time series based on multivariate local polynomial model is compared with univariate predictor with the same Shenzhen stock index data. The numerical results obtained by Shenzhen component index show that the prediction mean squared error of the multivariate predictor is much smaller than the univariate one and is much better than the existed three methods. Even if the last half of the training data are used in the multivariate predictor, the prediction mean squared error is smaller than the univariate predictor. Multivariate local polynomial prediction model for nonsingle time series is a useful tool for stock market price prediction.

  3. Performance and applications of the ORNL local electrode atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The commercial introduction in 2003 of the local electrode atom probe (LEAP) developed by Imago Scientific Instruments has made dramatic, orders of magnitude improvements in the data acquisition rate and the size of the analyzed volume compared to previous types of three-dimensional atom probes and other scanning atom probes. This state-of-the-art instrument may be used for the analysis of traditional needle-shaped specimens and specimens fabricated from 'flat' specimens with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The advantage of this local electrode configuration is that significantly lower (∼50 %) standing and pulse voltages are required to produce the field strength required to field evaporate ions from the specimen. New high speed (200 kHz) pulse generators coupled with crossed delay line detectors and faster timing systems also enable significantly faster (up to 300 times) data acquisition rates to be achieved. This new design also permits a significantly larger field of view to be analyzed and results in data sets containing up to 10 8 atoms. In the local electrode atom probe, a ∼10-50 μm diameter aperture is typically positioned approximately one aperture diameter in front of the specimen. In order to accurately align the specimen to the aperture in the funnel-shaped electrode, the specimen is mounted on a three axis nanopositioning stage. An approximate alignment is performed while viewing the relative positions of the specimen and the local electrode with a pair of low magnification video cameras and then a pair of higher magnification video cameras attached to long range microscopes. The final alignment is performed with the use of the field evaporated ions from the specimen. A discussion on the alignment of the specimen with the local electrode, the effects of the fields on the specimen, and the effects of aperture size on aperture lifetime will be presented. The performance of the ORNL local electrode atom probe will be described. The

  4. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with 'cold' magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ω i are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1(ω' ω-mω i + , ω + = (-ω ci +Ω i )/2, Ω i (ω ci 2 -4eE r /m i r) 1/2 is called the 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f N i /n e = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ω pe 2 /ω ce 2 . The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ω i consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece--Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ω i above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ω i and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ω i ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max ≅0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ω i ) max pe 2 /ω ce 2 , corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ω ci 2 r /m i r|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency dependencies of MIC modes. They are similar to oscillations on dispersion curves of electron waves in

  5. Applicability of the local field concept for the electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, D.; Sjoelander, A.; Swierkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The static exchange-correlation hole surrounding an electron in an electron gas at metallic densities has been a highly successful and useful concept. The properties of the static exchange-correlation hole can be accurately reflected by the construction of a static local field. This field surrounds each electron and modifies it interaction with the other electrons in the system. An important limitation of the local field concept is that it does not handle the time-dependent relaxation of the surrounding electron cloud in a particularly transparent way. At metallic densities this is if no consequence since relaxation effects are only small corrections anyway, but at lower densities and in two-dimensional systems they become increasingly important. Approaches which attempt to address these problems are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  6. Detecting phase synchronization by localized maps: Application to neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, T.; Baptista, M. S.; Kurths, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach which enables to state about the existence of phase synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators without having to measure the phase. This is done by observing the oscillators at special times, and analyzing whether this set of points is localized. In particular, we show that this approach is fruitful to analyze the onset of phase synchronization in chaotic attractors whose phases are not well defined, as well as, in networks of non-identical spiking/bursting neurons ...

  7. A 1.5--4 Kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1990-01-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5--4K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D 2 for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs

  8. Perspectives of local diclofenacol 1% liniment application in joint diseases

    OpenAIRE

    R M Balabanova; О Н Egorova; Т П Grishaeva; Н Е Lopatina; Г М Tarasova; A O Pchelintseva; Т П Fedina

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess efficacy and safety diclofenacol 1% liniment application in comparison with diclo- ran plus. Material and methods. An open controlled 2-weeks trial of diclofenacol 1% liniment on 30 pts with active joint syndrome (group 1) compared with dicloran plus 1% gel on 20 pts (group II). Pts age ranged from 16 to 79 years, mean disease duration was 8,2 1,5 years. Most pts had II activity degree. Results. Diclofenacol 1% liniment applications decreased pain at rest and at movement ...

  9. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  10. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  11. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  12. Exponential local discriminant embedding and its application to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi; Bosaghzadeh, Alireza

    2013-06-01

    Local discriminant embedding (LDE) has been recently proposed to overcome some limitations of the global linear discriminant analysis method. In the case of a small training data set, however, LDE cannot directly be applied to high-dimensional data. This case is the so-called small-sample-size (SSS) problem. The classical solution to this problem was applying dimensionality reduction on the raw data (e.g., using principal component analysis). In this paper, we introduce a novel discriminant technique called "exponential LDE" (ELDE). The proposed ELDE can be seen as an extension of LDE framework in two directions. First, the proposed framework overcomes the SSS problem without discarding the discriminant information that was contained in the null space of the locality preserving scatter matrices associated with LDE. Second, the proposed ELDE is equivalent to transforming original data into a new space by distance diffusion mapping (similar to kernel-based nonlinear mapping), and then, LDE is applied in such a new space. As a result of diffusion mapping, the margin between samples belonging to different classes is enlarged, which is helpful in improving classification accuracy. The experiments are conducted on five public face databases: Yale, Extended Yale, PF01, Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE), and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET). The results show that the performances of the proposed ELDE are better than those of LDE and many state-of-the-art discriminant analysis techniques.

  13. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  14. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  15. Plasma-based localized defect for switchable coupling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, Stefan; Gabard, Benjamin; Sokoloff, Jerome; Bolioli, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper experimental measurements in order to validate the concept of switchable electromagnetic band gap filters based on plasma capillaries in the microwave regime. The plasma tube is embedded inside the structure to create a bistable (plasma on or off) punctual defect. We first investigate two kinds of discharge tubes: Ar-Hg and pure Ne, which we then use to experimentally achieve plasma-based reconfigurable applications, namely, a two-port coupler and a two-port demultiplexer.

  16. Applicability of Mixolab test with local wheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vazquez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several types of equipment have been used to predict dough behaviour during breadmaking. The complexity of requirements means that no device is able to predict all the properties, and therefore, new tests are released continuously. The Chopin Mixolab mixes the dough at different temperatures, allowing the study of dough mixing properties, weakening, gelatinization, gel stability and retrogradation in one test. The objective of this work was to study the suitability of the Mixolab to predict rheological properties and breadmaking quality of local wheats. Flour was obtained from 29 wheat samples  from different genotypes and environments. The correlation of results from traditional analyses  (test weight, protein content, sedimentation volume, wet gluten, Falling Number, Alveograph and Farinograph  with Mixolab parameters was studied. The properties of two different bread types were compared with all these parameters. Stability and water absorption values from the Farinograph were highly correlated with the respective Mixolab parameters. It was concluded that wheat samples could be sorted by mixing properties in similar order independently of which method was used. Beyond that, gluten strength estimators obtained from these three rheological methods and the sedimentation volume test were highly correlated. Whilst the correlation of Mixolab parameters with pan loaf volume was not as high as traditional ones, Mixolab developing time, stability and C5 were the best correlated with the most important hearth bread characteristics. Studies performed by other researchers, using wheats from diverse origins, found different results. The need for empirical rheology evaluation with local wheat samples was proved.

  17. The characterization of weighted local hardy spaces on domains and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng-geng; Yang, Xiao-ming

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we give the four equivalent characterizations for the weighted local hardy spaces on Lipschitz domains. Also, we give their application for the harmonic function defined in bounded Lipschitz domains.

  18. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  19. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  20. 2012/13 abnormal cold winter in Japan associated with Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation and Local Sea Surface Temperature over the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Ogi, M.; Tachibana, Y.

    2013-12-01

    On Japan, wintertime cold wave has social, economic, psychological and political impacts because of the lack of atomic power stations in the era of post Fukushima world. The colder winter is the more electricity is needed. Wintertime weather of Japan and its prediction has come under the world spotlight. The winter of 2012/13 in Japan was abnormally cold, and such a cold winter has persisted for 3 years. Wintertime climate of Japan is governed by some dominant modes of the large-scale atmospheric circulations. Yasunaka and Hanawa (2008) demonstrated that the two dominant modes - Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) pattern - account for about 65% of the interannual variation of the wintertime mean surface air temperature of Japan. A negative AO brings about cold winter in Japan. In addition, a negative WP also brings about cold winter in Japan. Looking back to the winter of 2012/13, both the negative AO and negative WP continued from October through December. If the previous studies were correct, it would have been extremely very cold from October through December. In fact, in December, in accordance with previous studies, it was colder than normal. Contrary to the expectation, in October and November, it was, however, warmer than normal. This discrepancy signifies that an additional hidden circumstance that heats Japan overwhelms these large-scale atmospheric circulations that cool Japan. In this study, we therefore seek an additional cause of wintertime climate of Japan particularly focusing 2012 as well as the AO and WP. We found that anomalously warm oceanic temperature surrounding Japan overwhelmed influences of the AO or WP. Unlike the inland climate, the island climate can be strongly influenced by surrounding ocean temperature, suggesting that large-scale atmospheric patterns alone do not determine the climate of islands. (a) Time series of a 5-day running mean AO index (blue) as defined by Ogi et al., (2004), who called it the SVNAM index. For

  1. Stability of Non-Neutral Plasma Cylinder Consisting of Magnetized Cold Electrons and of Small Density Fraction of Ions Born at Rest: Non-Local Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2009-03-01

    The non-local stability problem of the plasma cylinder, filled with "cold" magnetized rigidly rotating electrons, and a small density fraction of ions, is solved. The ions are supposed to be born at rest by ionization of background gas. The study is based on the kinetic description of ions. The equilibrium distribution function, taking into account the peculiarity of ions birth, is used. The radial electric field is caused by space charge of non-neutral plasma. The dispersion equation for plasma eigen frequencies is obtained analytically. It is valid within the total admissible range of values of electric and magnetic fields. Normalized eigen frequencies ω'/Ωi are calculated for the basic azimuth mode m = 1 (ω' = ω-mωi+, ω+ = (-ωci+Ωi)/2, Ωi = (ωci2-4eEr/mir)1/2 is called the "modified" ion cyclotron (MIC) frequency), for the density fraction of ions of atomic nitrogen f = Ni/ne = 0,01 and are presented in graphic form versus parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2. The spectra of oscillations ω'/Ωi consist of the family of electron Trivel-piece—Gould (TG) modes and of the families of MIC modes. The frequencies of MIC modes are located in a small vicinity of harmonics of the MIC frequency Ωi above and below the harmonic. The TG modes in non-neutral plasma fall in the region of MIC frequencies Ωi and interact strongly with MIC modes. The slow TG modes become unstable near the crossings with non-negative harmonics of MIC frequencies. The instabilities have a resonant character. The lowest radial TG mode has a maximum growth rate at crossing with a zero harmonic of Ωi ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≈0,074). The growth rates of MIC modes are much lower ((Im ω'/Ωi)max≲0,002). Their instability has a threshold character. The instabilities of TG and MIC modes take place mainly at the values of parameter 2ωpe2/ωce2, corresponding to strong radial electric fields (ωci2≪|eEr/mir|), in which the ions are unmagnetized. The oscillations of small amplitude are seen on some frequency

  2. Application of Local Fractional Series Expansion Method to Solve Klein-Gordon Equations on Cantor Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the local fractional series expansion method to solve the Klein-Gordon equations on Cantor sets within the local fractional derivatives. The analytical solutions within the nondifferential terms are discussed. The obtained results show the simplicity and efficiency of the present technique with application to the problems of the liner differential equations on Cantor sets.

  3. Integrating information systems : linking global business goals to local database applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to design modern information systems that offer an integrated access to the data and knowledge that is available in local applications. By integrating the local data management activities into one transparent information distribution process, modern organizations

  4. 3D Interest Point Detection using Local Surface Characteristics with Application in Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    2014-01-01

    . The proposed Difference-of-Normals (DoN) 3D IP detector operates on the surface mesh, and evaluates the surface structure (curvature) locally (per vertex) in the mesh data. We present an exam- ple of application in action recognition from a sequence of 3-dimensional geometrical data, where local 3D motion de...

  5. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  6. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  7. Local indicators of geocoding accuracy (LIGA: theory and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquez Geoffrey M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sources of positional error in geographic locations (e.g. geocoding error used for describing and modeling spatial patterns are widely acknowledged, research on how such error impacts the statistical results has been limited. In this paper we explore techniques for quantifying the perturbability of spatial weights to different specifications of positional error. Results We find that a family of curves describes the relationship between perturbability and positional error, and use these curves to evaluate sensitivity of alternative spatial weight specifications to positional error both globally (when all locations are considered simultaneously and locally (to identify those locations that would benefit most from increased geocoding accuracy. We evaluate the approach in simulation studies, and demonstrate it using a case-control study of bladder cancer in south-eastern Michigan. Conclusion Three results are significant. First, the shape of the probability distributions of positional error (e.g. circular, elliptical, cross has little impact on the perturbability of spatial weights, which instead depends on the mean positional error. Second, our methodology allows researchers to evaluate the sensitivity of spatial statistics to positional accuracy for specific geographies. This has substantial practical implications since it makes possible routine sensitivity analysis of spatial statistics to positional error arising in geocoded street addresses, global positioning systems, LIDAR and other geographic data. Third, those locations with high perturbability (most sensitive to positional error and high leverage (that contribute the most to the spatial weight being considered will benefit the most from increased positional accuracy. These are rapidly identified using a new visualization tool we call the LIGA scatterplot. Herein lies a paradox for spatial analysis: For a given level of positional error increasing sample density

  8. Method to characterize local meteorology at nuclear facilities for application to emergency response needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Glantz, C.S.

    1986-04-01

    Effluent dispersion is evaluated using computer codes that require various meteorological parameters such as wind and stability data. These data will be based on current conditions at the site in question, and on forecasts of the expected local meteorology for the time period to be simulated. To assist NRC personnel in preparing these forecasts, a weather-typing model was implemented to analyze the characteristic behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic-scale weather features (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, high pressure systems). Historical observations acquired by instrumented towers at several nuclear power plants were analyzed as a function of the prevailing synoptic weather feature, synoptic-scale pressure gradient, and time of year. This study focused on sites located in shoreline and complex terrain environments because of the occurrence of mesoscale circulations, which are the sea/lake-land breeze and valley wind systems. Such circulations produce diurnally changing wind and stability conditions that cannot be readily identified by synoptic-scale weather forecasts. The advantage in analyzing the climatological behavior of local meteorology as it responds to various synoptic weather systems is that certain weather systems will control the local meteorology and produce persistent conditions

  9. High Resolution Robust GPS-free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks and its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mirza, Mohammed

    2011-12-12

    In this thesis we investigate the problem of robustness and scalability w.r.t. estimating the position of randomly deployed motes/nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) without the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. We propose a few applications of range independent localization algorithms that allow the sensors to actively determine their location with high resolution without increasing the complexity of the hardware or any additional device setup. In our first application we try to present a localized and centralized cooperative spectrum sensing using RF sensor networks. This scheme collaboratively sense the spectrum and localize the whole network efficiently and with less difficulty. In second application we try to focus on how efficiently we can localize the nodes, to detect underwater threats, without the use of beacons. In third application we try to focus on 3-Dimensional localization for LTE systems. Our performance evaluation shows that these schemes lead to a significant improvement in localization accuracy compared to the state-of-art range independent localization schemes, without requiring GPS support.

  10. Application of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Cold Plasma (Dbd-Acp) for Eshcerichia Coli Inactivation in Apple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xinyu; Li, Jiao; Muhammad, Aliyu Idris; Suo, Yuanjie; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Ding, Tian

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising non-thermal technology in food industry. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-ACP exhibited strong bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli in apple juice. Under a 30 to 50 W input power, less than 40 s treatment time was required for DBD-ACP to result in 3.98 to 4.34 log CFU/mL reduction of E. coli in apple juice. The inactivation behavior of ACP on E. coli was well described by the Weibull model. During the treatment, the cell membrane of E. coli was damaged severely by active species produced by plasma, such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and nitrate. In addition, the ACP exposure had slight effect on the °Brix, pH, titratable acidity (TA), color values, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of apple juice. However, higher level of DBD-ACP treatment, 50 W for more than 10 s in this case, resulted in significant change of the pH, TA, color and total phenolic content of apple juice. The results in this study have provided insight in potential use of DBD-ACP as an alternative to thermal processing for fruit juices in food industry. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice is a potential risk for public health. This study demonstrated that 30 s cold plasma treatment resulted in more than 4 log CFU/mL reduction under 50 W, while the quality attributes of apple juice were not significantly affected. Therefore, cold plasma technology is a promising alternative substitute of traditional thermal processing for juice pasteurization. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Improved derivation of the modified BGK collision term and applications to the Hall effect and cold plasma dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.

    1983-01-01

    A derived addition to the BGK collision term,is improved and expressed in simple form. The collision frequency for scattering depends anisotropically on the velocity vector. The improved macroscopic equation of momentum flow is applied to the Hall effect, the cold plasma dispersion relation and the cyclotron resonance. The Hall coefficient which is constant in the case of the BGK collision term now depends on the magnetic field. It is also shown that, compared with the almost symmetric classical curves of cyclotron resonance, the new curves are considerably asymmetric and their half-widths are about 3/2 times the classical ones. (autho)

  12. Comprehensive and consistent interpretation of local fault experiments and application to hypothetical local overpower accident in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies on local fault (LF) accidents in fast breeder reactors have been performed in many countries because LFs have been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents. Comprehensive and consistent interpretations of in-pile and out-of-pile experiments related to LF were arrived at in this study based on state-of-the-art review and data analysis techniques. Safety margins for a hypothetical local overpower accident, which was evaluated as a LF accident in the licensing document of the construction permit for a prototype fast breeder reactor called Monju, were also studied. Based on comprehensive interpretations of the latest experimental database, including those performed after the permission of Monju construction, it was clarified that the evaluation of the hypothetical local overpower accident in the Monju licensing was sufficiently conservative. Furthermore, it incorporated adequate safety margins in terms of failure thresholds of the fuel pin, molten fuel ejection, fuel sweep-out behavior after molten fuel ejection, and pin-to-pin failure propagation. Moreover, these comprehensive interpretations are valid and applicable to the safety evaluation of LF accidents of other fast breeder reactors with various fuel and core designs. (author)

  13. Exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage systems for building applications. Paper no. IGEC-1-155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    An exergoeconomic analysis is reported of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamic analysis (using both the first and second laws of thermodynamics) with principles of economics, mostly cost accounting. Exergy analysis provides more meaningful and useful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. The main reason is that traditional analyses are based on mass and energy balances and only external losses can be detected, while exergy analysis measures the quality of energy and includes irreversibility's that occur during any process. According to simulation results, the exergy efficiency of the glycol CTES is roughly 75% less than the energy efficiency due to irreversibility's, and the system efficiency is less than the tank efficiency. Irreversibility's for the overall system are higher than for the tank. Also, the reference ambient temperature has an effect on exergy destruction and efficiency. A 5 o C change in ambient temperature causes a 25% change in exergy efficiency. This result implies that cold energy is more efficient at higher ambient temperatures. Heat losses from the tank depend on the ambient temperature; a 5 o C increase in ambient temperature causes a heat loss increase of 6%. (author)

  14. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J [Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4.

  15. Managing locality in grand challenge applications: a case study of the gyrokinetic toroidal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, G; Jin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J

    2008-01-01

    Achieving high performance with grand challenge applications on today's large-scale parallel systems requires tailoring applications for the characteristics of the modern microprocessor architectures. As part of the US Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program, we studied and tuned the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC), a particle-in-cell code for simulating turbulent transport of particles and energy in burning plasma, developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. In this paper, we present a performance study of the application that revealed several opportunities for improving performance by enhancing its data locality. We tuned GTC by performing three kinds of transformations: static data structure reorganization to improve spatial locality, loop nest restructuring for better temporal locality, and dynamic data reordering at run-time to enhance both spatial and temporal reuse. Experimental results show that these changes improve execution time by more than 20% on large parallel systems, including a Cray XT4

  16. Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release using a modified application technique of local anesthesia: safety and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khayat Jehad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthesia is widely used for open carpal tunnel release. However, injection of local anesthesia as described by Altissimi and Mancini (1988 can interfere with endoscopic carpal tunnel release, by increasing the bulk of synovial layers and consequently result in worsening of the view. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy using modified technique for application of local anesthesia. Methods 33 patients suffering from gradual increasing symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients were also asked to evaluate the pain associated with injection as well as tourniquet during surgery using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum pain. Results One patient required additionally local anesthesia because of mild pain in the hand. The tourniquet was inflated for 13.00 (2.8 min. The pain score related to injection was 2.5 (0.8 and to tourniquet was 3.6 (0.9. Inflation of the tourniquet was well tolerated by all patients. Postoperative neurological sensory and motor deficits related to surgery and local blocks were not occurred. Conclusion Endoscopic release of the carpal tunnel syndrome in local anesthesia is effective, well tolerated and safe. This kind of application of local anesthesia did not reduce visibility.

  17. xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinella, Barbara; Saintonge, Amélie; Janowiecki, Steven; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Lemonias, Jenna J.; Cooper, Andrew P.; Schiminovich, David; Hummels, Cameron B.; Fabello, Silvia; Geréb, Katinka; Kilborn, Virginia; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    We present the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (xGASS), a gas fraction-limited census of the atomic hydrogen (H I) gas content of 1179 galaxies selected only by stellar mass (M⋆ = 109-1011.5 M⊙) and redshift (0.01 new Arecibo observations of 208 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H I spectra. In addition to extending the GASS H I scaling relations by one decade in stellar mass, we quantify total (atomic+molecular) cold gas fractions and molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios, Rmol, for the subset of 477 galaxies observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that atomic gas fractions keep increasing with decreasing stellar mass, with no sign of a plateau down to log M⋆/M⊙ = 9. Total gas reservoirs remain H I-dominated across our full stellar mass range, hence total gas fraction scaling relations closely resemble atomic ones, but with a scatter that strongly correlates with Rmol, especially at fixed specific star formation rate. On average, Rmol weakly increases with stellar mass and stellar surface density μ⋆, but individual values vary by almost two orders of magnitude at fixed M⋆ or μ⋆. We show that, for galaxies on the star-forming sequence, variations of Rmol are mostly driven by changes of the H I reservoirs, with a clear dependence on μ⋆. Establishing if galaxy mass or structure plays the most important role in regulating the cold gas content of galaxies requires an accurate separation of bulge and disc components for the study of gas scaling relations.

  18. A simple chemical synthesis of amorphous carbon nanotubes–MnO{sub 2} flake hybrids for cold cathode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sourav [Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Banerjee, Diptonil; Das, Nirmalya Sankar [School of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar, E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); School of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) have been synthesized chemically. • The walls of the aCNTs have been anchored by MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes. • It is seen for the first time that MnO{sub 2} modified aCNTs show much better field emission property. • Experimental result has also been supported theoretically. • This can acts as doorstep to develop a new hybrid system as a novel cold cathode material. - Abstract: A simple approach has been implemented to synthesize amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) hybrid nanostructure at temperature as low as ∼250 °C in open atmosphere. Microscopic studies of the samples revealed that the walls of the a-CNTs were coated uniformly by MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes. The composition of the as prepared sample was studied with the help of energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electron field emission study was done in a custom built high vacuum field emission setup for the prepared a-CNT and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) hybrid nanostructure. It is seen that the performance of the a-CNTs as cold cathode emitter has been enhanced greatly when MnO{sub 2} nanoflakes were coated uniformly over it. The turn on field has been reduced from 7.17 to value as low as 3.82 V/mm with enhancement factor increases from 2428 to 6965. Finite element based simulation study theoretically confirms the enhancement of field emission properties of as prepared MnO{sub 2} nanoflake coated a-CNTs. The results have been explained due to enhanced surface roughness leading to higher enhancement factor and overall increase of emission sites.

  19. Construction of local boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem using micro-local analysis: application to optical waveguide problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucq, Helene; Bekkey, Chokri; Djellouli, Rabia

    2004-01-01

    We present a general procedure based on the pseudo-differential calculus for deriving artificial boundary conditions for an eigenvalue problem that characterizes the propagation of guided modes in optical waveguides. This new approach allows the construction of local conditions that (a) are independent of the frequency regime, (b) preserve the sparsity pattern of the finite element discretization, and (c) are applicable to arbitrarily shaped convex artificial boundaries. The last feature has the potential for reducing the size of the computational domain. Numerical results are presented to highlight the potential of conditions of order 1/2 and 1, for improving significantly the computational efficiency of finite element methods for the solution of optical waveguide problems

  20. Distributed collaborative processing in wireless sensor networks with application to target localization and beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Béjar Haro, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of wireless sensor networks and the variety of envisioned applications associated with them has motivated the development of distributed algorithms for collaborative processing over networked systems. One of the applications that has attracted the attention of the researchers is that of target localization where the nodes of the network try to estimate the position of an unknown target that lies within its coverage area. Particularly challenging is the problem of es...

  1. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  2. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  3. Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given.

  4. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim

    2018-04-10

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic information. In many applications, location-based services are the main service, and localization accuracy is the main problem. VANETs also require accurate vehicle location information in real time. To fulfill this requirement, a number of algorithms have been proposed; however, the location accuracy required for public safety applications in VANETs has not been achieved. In this paper, an improved subspace algorithm is proposed for time of arrival (TOA) measurements in VANETs localization. The proposed method gives a closed-form solution and it is robust for large measurement noise, as it is based on the eigen form of a scalar product and dimensionality. Furthermore, we developed the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to evaluate the performance of the proposed 3D VANETs localization method. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparison with the CRLB and other localization algorithms available in the literature through numerous simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed 3D VANETs localization method is better than the literature methods especially for fewer anchors at road side units and large noise variance.

  5. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  6. Concentration gradient along the scala tympani after local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea after local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected, and histologic studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex after local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. A recently developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along the scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples that were taken after up to 3 hours of local application to the round window niche. Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of the scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4,000 times greater concentration at the base compared with the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients.

  7. Concentration gradient along scala tympani following the local application of gentamicin to the round window membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K.; Mynatt, Robert; Gill, Ruth M.; Borgmann, Stefan; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The distribution of gentamicin along the fluid spaces of the cochlea following local applications has never previously been demonstrated. Computer simulations have predicted that significant basal-apical concentration gradients might be expected and histological studies indicate that hair cell damage is greater at the base than at the apex following local gentamicin application. In the present study, gradients of gentamicin along the cochlea were measured. Methods A recently-developed method of sampling perilymph from the cochlear apex of guinea pigs was used, in which the samples represent fluid originating from different regions along scala tympani. Gentamicin concentration was determined in sequential apical samples which were taken following up to three hours of local application to the round window niche. Results Substantial gradients of gentamicin along the length of scala tympani were demonstrated and quantified, averaging more than 4000 times greater concentration at the base compared to the apex at the time of sampling. Peak concentrations and gradients for gentamicin varied considerably between animals, likely resulting from variations in round window membrane permeability and rates of perilymph flow. Conclusions The large gradients for gentamicin demonstrated here in guinea pigs account for how it is possible to suppress vestibular function in some patients with a local application of gentamicin without damaging auditory function. Variations in round window membrane permeability and in perilymph flow could account for why hearing losses are observed in some patients. PMID:17603318

  8. Accurate localization of intracavitary brachytherapy applicators from 3D CT imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerma, F.A.; Williamson, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To present an accurate method to identify the positions and orientations of intracavitary (ICT) brachytherapy applicators imaged in 3D CT scans, in support of Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations, enabling accurate dose modeling in the presence of applicator shielding and interapplicator attenuation. Materials and methods: The method consists of finding the transformation that maximizes the coincidence between the known 3D shapes of each applicator component (colpostats and tandem) with the volume defined by contours of the corresponding surface on each CT slice. We use this technique to localize Fletcher-Suit CT-compatible applicators for three cervix cancer patients using post-implant CT examinations (3 mm slice thickness and separation). Dose distributions in 1-to-1 registration with the underlying CT anatomy are derived from 3D Monte Carlo photon-transport simulations incorporating each applicator's internal geometry (source encapsulation, high-density shields, and applicator body) oriented in relation to the dose matrix according to the measured localization transformations. The precision and accuracy of our localization method are assessed using CT scans, in which the positions and orientations of dense rods and spheres (in a precision-machined phantom) were measured at various orientations relative to the gantry. Results: Using this method, we register 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations directly onto post insertion patient CT studies. Using CT studies of a precisely machined phantom, the absolute accuracy of the method was found to be ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.3 mm in the axial direction while its precision was ±0.2 mm in plane, and ±0.2 mm axially. Conclusion: We have developed a novel, and accurate technique to localize intracavitary brachytherapy applicators in 3D CT imaging studies, which supports 3D dose planning involving detailed 3D Monte Carlo dose calculations, modeling source positions, shielding and interapplicator shielding

  9. Imaging with cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-01-01

    research field in its own sing the Bragg edge behavior and its modification to contribute to material research by the direct visualization of textures and the observation of stress and strain. This topic is still in the beginning but has some important relevance for the design of future beam lines for imaging at the pulsed spallation sources. Considering the neutrons to be waves, the cold energy range is important to push and to investigate phase effects in detail with high spatial resolution. Although a lot of studies have been done in this respect previously, there is enough space to study refraction at the edges, diffraction and total reflection with the best possible accuracy, and to figure out when and why neutrons interfere. Phase contrast methods like grating interference methods have to be implemented as a user option, which enables one to define their future application range.

  10. Application of local computer networks in nuclear-physical experiments and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The bases of construction, comparative performance and potentialities of local computer networks with respect to their application in physical experiments are considered. The principle of operation of local networks is shown on the basis of the Ethernet network and the results of analysis of their operating performance are given. The examples of operating local networks in the area of nuclear-physics research and nuclear technology are presented as follows: networks of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, California University and Los Alamos National Laboratory, network realization according to the DECnet and Fast-bus programs, home network configurations of the USSR Academy of Sciences and JINR Neutron Physical Laboratory etc. It is shown that local networks allows significantly raise productivity in the sphere of data processing

  11. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a research project aiming at developing an architecture supporting local mobility within hospitals. The architecture is based on fieldwork and design workshops within a large Danish hospital and it has been implemented and evaluated after a pilot phase. Our...... fieldwork has emphasised the differences between remote mobility, where users travel over long distances, and local mobility, where users walk around within a fixed set of buildings and/or places. Based on our field studies and our design work, we conclude that local mobility puts up three requirements...... for computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  12. Cold metal transfer spot plug welding of AA6061-T6-to-galvanized steel for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, R.; Huang, Q.; Chen, J.H.; Wang, Pei-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two Al-to-galvanized steel spot plug welding joints were studied by CMT method. • The optimum process variables for the two joints were gotten by orthogonal test. • Connection mechanism of the two joints were discussed. -- Abstract: In this study, cold metal transfer (CMT) spot plug joining of 1 mm thick Al AA6061-T6 to 1 mm thick galvanized steel (i.e., Q235) was studied. Welding variables were optimized for a plug weld in the center of a 25 mm overlap region with aluminum 4043 wire and 100% argon shielding gas. Microstructures and elemental distributions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Mechanical testing of CMT spot plug welded joints was conducted. It was found that it is feasible to join Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized steel by CMT spot plug welding method. The process variables for two joints with Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel and galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 are optimized. The strength of CMT spot welded Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel is determined primarily by the strength and area of the brazed interface. While, the strength of the galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 joint is mainly dependent upon the area of the weld metal

  13. Surface modification of a natural zeolite by treatment with cold oxygen plasma: Characterization and application in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Velasco-Maldonado, Paola S.; Hernández-Montoya, Virginia; Montes-Morán, Miguel A.; Vázquez, Norma Aurea-Rangel; Pérez-Cruz, Ma. Ana

    2018-03-01

    In the present work the possible surface modification of natural zeolite using cold oxygen plasma was studied. The sample with and without treatment was characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM/EDX analysis and X-Ray Diffraction. Additionally, the two samples were used for the removal of lead and acid, basic, reactive and food dyes in batch systems. The natural zeolite was found to be a mesoporous material with a low specific surface area (23 m2/g). X-ray patterns confirmed that clinoptilolite was the main crystal structure present in the natural zeolite. The molecular properties of dyes and the zeolitic structure were studied using molecular simulation, with the purpose to understand the adsorption mechanism. The results pointed out that only the roughness of the clinoptilolite was affected by the plasma treatment, whereas the specific surface area, chemical functionality and crystal structure remained constant. Finally, adsorption results confirmed that the plasma treatment had no significant effects on the dyes and lead retention capacities of the natural zeolite.

  14. Continuous Transversus Abdominis Plane Nerve Blocks: Does Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method-Automatic Repeated Bolus Versus Continuous Basal Infusion-Influence the Extent of Sensation to Cold?: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Crossover Study in Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Bahareh; Said, Engy T; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Monahan, Amanda M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Furnish, Timothy J; Tran, Johnathan T; Donohue, Michael C; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2017-04-01

    It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours. The right side was randomly assigned to either a basal infusion (8 mL/h) or bolus doses (24 mL administered every 3 hours for a total of 2 bolus doses) in a double-masked manner. The left side received the alternate treatment. The primary end point was the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller along the axillary line at hour 6 (6 hours after the local anesthetic administration was initiated). Secondary end points included the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller and Von Frey filaments along the axillary line and along a transverse line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine at hours 0 to 6. Although there were statistically significant differences between treatments within the earlier part of the administration period, by hour 6 the difference in extent of sensory deficit to cold failed to reach statistical significance along the axillary line (mean = 0.9 cm; SD = 6.8; 95% confidence interval -2.0 to 3.8; P = .515) and transverse line (mean = 2.5 cm; SD = 10.1; 95% confidence interval -1.8 to 6.8; P = .244). Although the difference between treatments was statistically significant at various early time points for the horizontal, vertical, and estimated area measurements of both cold and mechanical pressure sensory deficits, no comparison remained statistically significant by hour 6. No evidence was found in this study involving healthy volunteers to support the hypothesis that changing the local anesthetic

  15. An Application-Level QoS Control Method Based on Local Bandwidth Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service (QoS is an important performance indicator for Web applications and bandwidth is a key factor affecting QoS. Current methods use network protocols or ports to schedule bandwidth, which require tedious manual configurations or modifications of the underlying network. Some applications use dynamic ports and the traditional port-based bandwidth control methods cannot deal with them. A new QoS control method based on local bandwidth scheduling is proposed, which can schedule bandwidth at application level in a user-transparent way and it does not require tedious manual configurations. Experimental results indicate that the new method can effectively improve the QoS for applications, and it can be easily integrated into current Web applications without the need to modify the underlying network.

  16. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  17. Intestinal microdialysis--applicability, reproducibility and local tissue response in a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, K J; Wara, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Microdialysis has been applied to the intestinal wall for the purpose of monitoring local ischemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability, reproducibility and local response to microdialysis in the intestinal wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 pigs two...... the probes were processed for histological examination. RESULTS: Large intra- and inter-group differences in the relative recovery were found between all locations. Absolute values of metabolites showed no significant changes during the study period. The lactate in blood was 25-30% of the intra-tissue values...

  18. The ‘full sleeve’ application in the horizontal cold-chamber machine for pressure die casting of aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konopka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘full sleeve’ construction has been designed and accomplished in the horizontal cold-chamber pressure die casting machine. Main part of this solution is a counter plunger placed in a movable die half which allows for full filling of the shot sleeve and precisely fixes the metal quantity needed for casting. The purpose of this new construction solution is mainly the reduction of the casting porosity caused by air entrapment and the improvement of both castability and accuracy of the die cavity reproduction. For such a redesigned machine there have been performed examinations consisting in pressure casting of AlSi9Cu alloy (EN AC-46000 at varying plunger velocity in the second stage of injection and varying intensification pressure. The alloy castability (the die filling ability has been measured for each parameter setting. For the purpose of comparison, similar measurements have been performed also for the conventional system without a counter plunger. The castability examination has been done by means of a specially designed die with an impression of a trial casting of variable wall thickness. The experiments have been held according to the assumed factor design 22, what allowed for determining the mathematical models describing the influence of die filling parameters on the castability and the die cavity reproduction level. Both alternatives of the experiment confirmed the positive influence of plunger velocity and intensification pressure increase on the improvement of castability, the measure of the latter being the filled length of the impression. Applying of the new ‘full sleeve’ solution has improved castability for each experiment by about 20% as compared with conventional alternative. Castability in the ‘full sleeve’ system has been increased even for low values of plunger velocity and intensification pressure. For both alternative systems the influence of plunger velocity has been found, as an average, by four times

  19. Application of gamma densitometer for measurement of void fraction in liquid hydrogen moderator of HANARO cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Choi, Jungwoon; Sun, Gwang-Min; Lee, Kye-Hong

    2009-01-01

    The void fraction in the liquid hydrogen used for the moderator of the HANARO cold neutron source (CNS) was measured by using a gamma densitometer technique. A mock-up of the HANARO CNS facility with an electric heating system as the heat source instead of radiations was constructed. The photon transmissions through the hydrogen moderator were simulated to search for an optimum experimental condition. From the simulation, it was confirmed that Am-241 was suitable for the measurement of the void fraction in the liquid hydrogen medium. A gamma densitometer using the Am-241 gamma-ray source was designed and installed at the mock-up of the CNS. The attenuation of 59.5 keV gamma-rays from the Am-241 through the hydrogen medium was measured by using an HPGe detector. The void fraction was determined using the amount of the gamma-ray attenuation. The void fractions in the hydrogen moderator were measured for stable thermo-siphon loops with several electric heat loads applied to the moderator cell of the CNS mock-up. The longitudinal distribution of the void fraction inside the moderator cell was also determined. The void fraction measured at a heat load of 720 W had values of 8-41% depending on the height from the bottom of the moderator cell. The overall void fraction was obtained by volume-weighted averaging of its longitudinal distribution. The void fraction at the nuclear heating power expected at the normal operation condition of the HANARO CNS facility was determined to be about 20%. The large uncertainty was expected in the void fraction determination by a gamma densitometer for the liquid hydrogen medium with the void fraction less than 10%. When the void fraction of the liquid hydrogen was near 20%, the uncertainty in the void fraction determination by using a gamma densitometer became relatively small, and it was regarded as an acceptable level. The measurements for the void fraction will be very useful for the design and operation of the HANARO CNS.

  20. Signal-to-noise based local decorrelation compensation for speckle interferometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molimard, Jerome; Cordero, Raul; Vautrin, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Speckle-based interferometric techniques allow assessing the whole-field deformation induced on a specimen due to the application of load. These high sensitivity optical techniques yield fringe images generated by subtracting speckle patterns captured while the specimen undergoes deformation. The quality of the fringes, and in turn the accuracy of the deformation measurements, strongly depends on the speckle correlation. Specimen rigid body motion leads to speckle decorrelation that, in general, cannot be effectively counteracted by applying a global translation to the involved speckle patterns. In this paper, we propose a recorrelation procedure based on the application of locally evaluated translations. The proposed procedure implies dividing the field into several regions, applying a local translation, and calculating, in every region, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the latter is a correlation indicator (the noise increases with the decorrelation) we argue that the proper translation is that which maximizes the locally evaluated SNR. The search of the proper local translations is, of course, an interactive process that can be facilitated by using a SNR optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed recorrelation procedure was tested on two examples. First, the SNR optimization algorithm was applied to fringe images obtained by subtracting simulated speckle patterns. Next, it was applied to fringe images obtained by using a shearography optical setup from a specimen subjected to mechanical deformation. Our results show that the proposed SNR optimization method can significantly improve the reliability of measurements performed by using speckle-based techniques

  1. Study of Train-Side Passive Magnetic Measurements with Applications to Train Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heirich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive magnetic sensors measure the magnetic field density in three axes and are often integrated on a single chip. These low-cost sensors are widely used in car navigation as well as in battery powered navigation equipment such as smartphones as part of an electronic compass. We focus on a train localization application with multiple, exclusively onboard sensors and a track map. This approach is considered as a base technology for future railway applications such as collision avoidance systems or autonomous train driving. In this paper, we address the following question: how beneficial are passive magnetic measurements for train localization? We present and analyze measurements of two different magnetometers recorded on a regional train at regular passenger service. We show promising correlations of the measurements with the track positions and the traveled switch way. The processed data reveals that the railway environment has repeatable, location-dependent magnetic signatures. This is considered as a novel approach to train localization, as the use of these magnetic signals at first view is not obvious. The proposed methods based on passive magnetic measurements show a high potential to be integrated in new and existing train localization approaches.

  2. Techno-economic evaluation for the heat integration of vaporisation cold energy in natural gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine

  3. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  4. Localization in fluids: A comparison of competing theories and their application to positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.N.; Fan, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses two central issues in our understanding of self-trapping, or localization, of a light particle (e.g., electron, positron, or positronium atom) in a fluid. The first concerns the relationship between the mean-field calculations of localized states carried out from the mid-1950s until the present, and the direct calculation of light-particle (LP) properties from the adiabatic model. The second concerns the universality of the ring polymer representation of the LP, which has proved to be extremely useful for computing the properties of localized electrons. We first demonstrate that the mean-field theories of localization, which are derived from density functionals, can be obtained from the adiabatic model by employing a Gutzwiller type of approximation. We then study the application of the adiabatic model, via the polymer representation, to the annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in a fluid. Expressions for the decay rate and its variance are derived in terms of the two- and three-point distribution functions for the polymer sites and positions of the atomic nuclei. The momentum distribution of the localized LP is shown to be proportional to the Fourier transform of the distribution function for the displacement between the ends of a broken polymer

  5. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbrandt Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral responses to noxious heat or mechanical stimuli were normal. Furthermore, behavioral responses remained reduced or blocked in NGFIB knockout mice even after repetitive application of cold stimuli. Our results provide strong evidence that the first transcription factor NGFIB determines the ability of animals to respond to cold stimulation.

  6. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P cold or heat tolerance had relationships with cold tolerance index, T max, and amplitude ( P cold tolerance classified through a standardized survey could be a good index to predict physiological cold tolerance.

  7. Cold thermal injury from cold caps used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belum, Viswanath Reddy; de Barros Silva, Giselle; Laloni, Mariana Tosello; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Goldfarb, Shari B; Norton, Larry; Sklarin, Nancy T; Lacouture, Mario E

    2016-06-01

    The use of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is increasing. Cold caps are placed onto the hair-bearing areas of the scalp for varying time periods before, during, and after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although not yet reported, improper application procedures could result in adverse events (AEs). At present, there are no evidence-based scalp cooling protocols, and there is no regulatory oversight of their use. To report the occurrence of cold thermal injury (frostbite) on the scalp, following the use of cold caps for the prevention of CIA. We identified four patients who developed cold thermal injuries on the scalp following the application of cold caps. Medical records were analyzed to retrieve the demographic and clinical characteristics. The cold thermal injuries in our patients were grade 1/2 in severity and improved with topical interventions and interruption of cold cap use, although grade 1 persistent alopecia ensued in 3 patients. The true incidence of such injuries in this setting, however, remains unknown. Cold thermal injuries are likely infrequent and preventable AEs that may result from improper device application procedures during cold cap use. Although these untoward events are usually mild to moderate in severity, the potential occurrence of long-term sequelae (e.g., permanent alopecia and scarring) or the need to discontinue cold cap use, are not known. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the risk and standardize healthcare delivery methods, and to improve patient/supportive/healthcare provider education.

  8. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  9. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  10. On the local applications of antibiotics and antibiotic-based agents in endodontics and dental traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Z; Abbott, P V

    2009-07-01

    Antibiotics are a valuable adjunctive to the armamentarium available to health professionals for the management of bacterial infections. During endodontic treatment and when managing trauma to the teeth, antibiotics may be applied systemically (orally and/or parenterally) or locally (i.e. intra-dentally via irrigants and medicaments). Due to the potential risk of adverse effects following systemic application, and the ineffectiveness of systemic antibiotics in necrotic pulpless teeth and the periradicular tissues, the local application of antibiotics may be a more effective mode for delivery in endodontics. The aim of this article was to review the history, rationale and applications of antibiotic-containing irrigants and medicaments in endodontics and dental traumatology. The search was performed from 1981 to 2008 and was limited to English-language papers. The keywords searched on Medline were 'Antibiotics AND endodontics', 'Antibiotics AND root canal irrigation', 'Antibiotics AND intra-canal medicament', 'Antibiotics AND Dental trauma' and 'Antibiotics AND root resorption'. The reference section of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information. It seems that local routes of antibiotic administration are a more effective mode than systemic applications. Various antibiotics have been tested in numerous studies and each has some advantages. Tetracyclines are a group of bacteriostatic antibiotics with antibacterial substantivity for up to 12 weeks. They are typically used in conjunction with corticosteroids and these combinations have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-resorptive properties, all of which help to reduce the periapical inflammatory reaction including clastic-cell mediated resorption. Tetracyclines have also been used as part of irrigating solutions but the substantivity is only for 4 weeks. Clindamycin and a combination of three antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline) have also been

  11. Local application of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel to endometriosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhito; Murakami, Koichi; Shozu, Makio; Nakama, Tsuyoshi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Inoue, Masaki

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a drug delivery system composed of danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid for local application to endometriosis. Prospective, randomized study. Academic research unit of the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Danazol-loaded hyaluronic acid hydrogel (DZ-HA gel) was injected into the rat endometriosis model. Size and histological changes in experimental endometriosis, the concentration of danazol in the cyst wall and plasma, and estrous cycles were examined. Histologically, DZ-HA gel-treated cysts displayed marked atrophy of the endometrial epithelium. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells and decreased numbers of proliferative cells were noted with 10 mg/mL DZ-HA gel. Size of treated cysts decreased to approximately 60% at 9 weeks after injection. The estrous cycles were not disturbed during DZ-HA gel treatment. Local injection of DZ-HA gel achieved endometrial atrophy of an experimental model of endometriosis without disturbing the sexual cycle. These results suggest that local application of DZ using this drug delivery system may prove useful for treating endometriosis.

  12. [Local application of bFGF and sucralfate during continuous tissue expansion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-lan; Guo, Shu-zhong; Lu, Kai-hua; Han, Yan; Lei, Yong-hong; Song, Bao-qiang; Pan, Yong

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of local application of bFGF and sucralfate during continuous tissue expansion (CTE). CTE combined with local administration of bFGF and sucralfate was used in twelve patients with scar and nasal tip defects. Twenty three expanders were placed in the subcutaneous pockets through intralesion short incisions. Continuous expansion began at 1-3 days after expander implantation. The histomorphological changes and epidermal cell proliferation were observed. The clinical results were investigated. The average inflation time was 8.9 days. The average interval of the two operations was 13.5 days. The average hospitalization was 28.4 days. The average immediate stretch-back rate of the expanded skin was 25.7%. The clinical results were satisfactory without any complications. Histological examinations showed that the epidermal, granular and spinous layer became thicker. The basal cells increased significantly. The dermis thinned slightly and the collagen fibers became thicker. The elastic fiber regenerated significantly. Fibroblast and capillary density increased obviously. The immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the proliferation of epidemic basal cells was significant postoperatively. Local application of exogenous bFGF and sucralfate during CTE was feasible in patients. It could accelerate tissue expansion and improve the quality of expanded skin flap.

  13. Application of urban neighborhoods in understanding of local level electricity consumption patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Aggregated national or regional level electricity consumption data fail to capture the spatial variation in consumption, a function of location, climate, topography, and local economics. Spatial monitoring of electricity usage patterns helps to understand derivers of location specific consumption behavior and develop models to cater to the consumer needs, plan efficiency measures, identify settled areas lacking access, and allows for future planning through assessing requirements. Developed countries have started to deploy sensor systems such as smart meters to gather information on local level consumption patterns, but such infrastructure is virtually nonexistent in developing nations, resulting in serious dearth of reliable data for planners and policy makers. Remote sensing of artificial nighttime lights from human settlements have proven useful to study electricity consumptions from global to regional scales, however, local level studies remain scarce. Using the differences in spatial characteristics among different urban neighborhoods such as industrial, commercial and residential, observable through very high resolution day time satellite images (lights observations, which we use as a proxy for electricity consumption in the absence of ground level consumption data. The overall trends observed through this analysis provides useful explanations helping in understanding of broad electricity consumption patterns in urban areas lacking ground level observations. This study thus highlights possible application of remote sensing data driven methods in providing novel insights into local level socio-economic patterns that were hitherto undetected due to lack of ground data.

  14. A Low Cost Sensors Approach for Accurate Vehicle Localization and Autonomous Driving Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivacqua, Rafael; Vassallo, Raquel; Martins, Felipe

    2017-10-16

    Autonomous driving in public roads requires precise localization within the range of few centimeters. Even the best current precise localization system based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can not always reach this level of precision, especially in an urban environment, where the signal is disturbed by surrounding buildings and artifacts. Laser range finder and stereo vision have been successfully used for obstacle detection, mapping and localization to solve the autonomous driving problem. Unfortunately, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDARs) are very expensive sensors and stereo vision requires powerful dedicated hardware to process the cameras information. In this context, this article presents a low-cost architecture of sensors and data fusion algorithm capable of autonomous driving in narrow two-way roads. Our approach exploits a combination of a short-range visual lane marking detector and a dead reckoning system to build a long and precise perception of the lane markings in the vehicle's backwards. This information is used to localize the vehicle in a map, that also contains the reference trajectory for autonomous driving. Experimental results show the successful application of the proposed system on a real autonomous driving situation.

  15. Local Control of Audio Environment: A Review of Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Kuutti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a local audio environment is to have sound playback locally restricted such that, ideally, adjacent regions of an indoor or outdoor space could exhibit their own individual audio content without interfering with each other. This would enable people to listen to their content of choice without disturbing others next to them, yet, without any headphones to block conversation. In practice, perfect sound containment in free air cannot be attained, but a local audio environment can still be satisfactorily approximated using directional speakers. Directional speakers may be based on regular audible frequencies or they may employ modulated ultrasound. Planar, parabolic, and array form factors are commonly used. The directivity of a speaker improves as its surface area and sound frequency increases, making these the main design factors for directional audio systems. Even directional speakers radiate some sound outside the main beam, and sound can also reflect from objects. Therefore, directional speaker systems perform best when there is enough ambient noise to mask the leaking sound. Possible areas of application for local audio include information and advertisement audio feed in commercial facilities, guiding and narration in museums and exhibitions, office space personalization, control room messaging, rehabilitation environments, and entertainment audio systems.

  16. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  17. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.

  18. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). What medicines can I give my child? There is no cure for the cold or the flu, and antibiotics do not work against the viruses that cause colds and the flu. Pain relievers such as ...

  19. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  20. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient. Avoid giving more than one OTC cold medicine to your child. It may cause an overdose with severe side ... the dosage instructions strictly while giving an OTC medicine to your child. When giving OTC cold medicines to your child: ...

  1. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, Cindy [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, Pat [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schirber, Tom [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Yost, Peter [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Murry, Tessa [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  2. Simulation of delamination crack growth in composite laminates: application of local and non-local interface damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)

  3. Synthesis methods of gold nanoparticles for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR sensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuri Nurul Diyanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (GNPs have been known as an excellent characteristic for Local Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR sensors due to their sensitive spectral response to the local environment of the nanoparticle surface and ease of monitoring the light signal due to their strong scattering or absorption. Prior the technologies, GNPs based LSPR has been commercialized and have become a central tool for characterizing and quantifying in various field. In this review, we presented a brief introduction on the history of surface plasmon, the theory behind the surface plasmon resonance (SPR and the principles of LSPR. We also reported on the synthetization as well of the properties of the GNPs and the applications in current LSPR sensors.

  4. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Morsche Hennie G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  5. Implementation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support Application to Augment Local Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian M; Ford, Diana C; Ince, Dilek; Ernst, Erika J; Livorsi, Daniel J; Heintz, Brett H; Masse, Vincent; Brownlee, Michael J; Ford, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Medical applications for mobile devices allow clinicians to leverage microbiological data and standardized guidelines to treat patients with infectious diseases. We report the implementation of a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) application to augment local antimicrobial stewardship. We detail the implementation of our mobile CDS application over 20 months. Application utilization data were collected and evaluated using descriptive statistics to quantify the impact of our implementation. Project initiation focused on engaging key stakeholders, developing a business case, and selecting a mobile platform. The preimplementation phase included content development, creation of a pathway for content approval within the hospital committee structure, engaging clinical leaders, and formatting the first version of the guide. Implementation involved a media campaign, staff education, and integration within the electronic medical record and hospital mobile devices. The postimplementation phase required ongoing quality improvement, revision of outdated content, and repeated staff education. The evaluation phase included a guide utilization analysis, reporting to hospital leadership, and sustainability and innovation planning. The mobile application was downloaded 3056 times and accessed 9259 times during the study period. The companion web viewer was accessed 8214 times. Successful implementation of a customizable mobile CDS tool enabled our team to expand beyond microbiological data to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship, broadening our influence on antimicrobial prescribing and incorporating utilization data to inspire new quality and safety initiatives. Further studies are needed to assess the impact on antimicrobial utilization, infection control measures, and patient care outcomes.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Locality-Conscious Processor Allocation and Scheduling of Mixed-Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydyanathan, Naga; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sabin, Gerald M.; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Kurc, Tahsin; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy; Saltz, Joel H.

    2009-08-01

    Complex parallel applications can often be modeled as directed acyclic graphs of coarse-grained application-tasks with dependences. These applications exhibit both task- and data-parallelism, and combining these two (also called mixedparallelism), has been shown to be an effective model for their execution. In this paper, we present an algorithm to compute the appropriate mix of task- and data-parallelism required to minimize the parallel completion time (makespan) of these applications. In other words, our algorithm determines the set of tasks that should be run concurrently and the number of processors to be allocated to each task. The processor allocation and scheduling decisions are made in an integrated manner and are based on several factors such as the structure of the taskgraph, the runtime estimates and scalability characteristics of the tasks and the inter-task data communication volumes. A locality conscious scheduling strategy is used to improve inter-task data reuse. Evaluation through simulations and actual executions of task graphs derived from real applications as well as synthetic graphs shows that our algorithm consistently generates schedules with lower makespan as compared to CPR and CPA, two previously proposed scheduling algorithms. Our algorithm also produces schedules that have lower makespan than pure taskand data-parallel schedules. For task graphs with known optimal schedules or lower bounds on the makespan, our algorithm generates schedules that are closer to the optima than other scheduling approaches.

  7. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  8. Maximum likelihood approach to “informed” Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Most state-of-the-art Sound Source Localization (SSL) algorithms have been proposed for applications which are "uninformed'' about the target sound content; however, utilizing a wireless microphone worn by a target talker, enables recent Hearing Aid Systems (HASs) to access to an almost noise......-free sound signal of the target talker at the HAS via the wireless connection. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach, which we call MLSSL, to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the target signal given access to the target signal content. Compared with other "informed...

  9. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  10. Cold Flows and Large Scale Tides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, R. van de; Hoffman, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: Several studies have indicated that the local cosmic velocity field is rather cold, in particular in the regions outside the massive, virialized clusters of galaxies. If our local cosmic environment is taken to be a representative volume of the Universe, the repercussion of this finding is

  11. A Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata Model and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automaton (CA is an important method in land use and cover change studies, however, the majority of research focuses on the discovery of macroscopic factors affecting LUCC, which results in ignoring the local effects within the neighborhoods. This paper introduces a Local Land Use Competition Cellular Automata (LLUC-CA model, based on local land use competition, land suitability evaluation, demand analysis of the different land use types, and multi-target land use competition allocation algorithm to simulate land use change at a micro level. The model is applied to simulate land use changes at Jinshitan National Tourist Holiday Resort from 1988 to 2012. The results show that the simulation accuracies were 64.46%, 77.21%, 85.30% and 99.14% for the agricultural land, construction land, forestland and water, respectively. In addition, comparing the simulation results of the LLUC-CA and CA-Markov model with the real land use data, their overall spatial accuracies were found to be 88.74% and 86.82%, respectively. In conclusion, the results from this study indicated that the model was an acceptable method for the simulation of large-scale land use changes, and the approach used here is applicable to analyzing the land use change driven forces and assist in decision-making.

  12. Accelerometer-based on-body sensor localization for health and medical monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdatpour, Alireza; Amini, Navid; Xu, Wenyao; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technique to recognize the position of sensors on the human body. Automatic on-body device localization ensures correctness and accuracy of measurements in health and medical monitoring systems. In addition, it provides opportunities to improve the performance and usability of ubiquitous devices. Our technique uses accelerometers to capture motion data to estimate the location of the device on the user’s body, using mixed supervised and unsupervised time series analysis methods. We have evaluated our technique with extensive experiments on 25 subjects. On average, our technique achieves 89% accuracy in estimating the location of devices on the body. In order to study the feasibility of classification of left limbs from right limbs (e.g., left arm vs. right arm), we performed analysis, based of which no meaningful classification was observed. Personalized ultraviolet monitoring and wireless transmission power control comprise two immediate applications of our on-body device localization approach. Such applications, along with their corresponding feasibility studies, are discussed. PMID:22347840

  13. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  14. Application of Local Injection of Botulinum Toxin A in Cosmetic Patients with Congenital Drooping Mouth Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhang, Yan-Kun; Lv, Wei; Hou, Ying; Cao, Qian; Fan, Ju-Feng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at the depressor anguli oris in patients with congenital drooping mouth corner. From September 2013 to March 2015, 36 cosmetic patients received local injections of botulinum toxin A at the depressor anguli oris, with 1-3 injection sites in the moving region of the depressor anguli oris on each side. At each injection site, 2-4 U of BTX-A was injected, and the total dose for any unilateral treatment did not exceed 8 U. The change in the degree of drooping of the mouth corner before and after the injection was analyzed using statistical methods. The clinical efficacy, preservation time, and adverse reactions were observed. The degree of drooping of the mouth corners of the cosmetic patients before the treatment was compared with that at 1 month after using a paired t test, and the difference was statistically significant, with P injection. The local injection of BTX-A at the depressor anguli oris can effectively lift a drooping mouth corner, thereby improving the depressed, stern, and aged appearance of the face. The performance of this treatment is simple, safe, and easy to perform in clinical applications. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. The NOAA Local Climate Analysis Tool - An Application in Support of a Weather Ready Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    Citizens across the U.S., including decision makers from the local to the national level, have a multitude of questions about climate, such as the current state and how that state fits into the historical context, and more importantly, how climate will impact them, especially with regard to linkages to extreme weather events. Developing answers to these types of questions for locations has typically required extensive work to gather data, conduct analyses, and generate relevant explanations and graphics. Too frequently providers don't have ready access to or knowledge of reliable, trusted data sets, nor sound, scientifically accepted analysis techniques such that they can provide a rapid response to queries they receive. In order to support National Weather Service (NWS) local office forecasters with information they need to deliver timely responses to climate-related questions from their customers, we have developed the Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT). LCAT uses the principles of artificial intelligence to respond to queries, in particular, through use of machine technology that responds intelligently to input from users. A user translates customer questions into primary variables and issues and LCAT pulls the most relevant data and analysis techniques to provide information back to the user, who in turn responds to their customer. Most responses take on the order of 10 seconds, which includes providing statistics, graphical displays of information, translations for users, metadata, and a summary of the user request to LCAT. Applications in Phase I of LCAT, which is targeted for the NWS field offices, include Climate Change Impacts, Climate Variability Impacts, Drought Analysis and Impacts, Water Resources Applications, Attribution of Extreme Events, and analysis techniques such as time series analysis, trend analysis, compositing, and correlation and regression techniques. Data accessed by LCAT are homogenized historical COOP and Climate Prediction Center

  16. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2014-01-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  17. [Experimental study on two-way application of traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in cold and hot blood stasis syndrome I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Er-Wei; Deng, Jia-Gang; Du, Zheng-Cai; Yan, Ke; Zheng, Zuo-Wen; Wang, Qin; Huang, Li-Zhen; Bao, Chuan-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Qiong; Lu, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Zhi-Ling

    2012-11-01

    To study the action characteristics of "two-way application and conditioned dominance" of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property by observing the action characteristic of 10 traditional Chinese medicines capable of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis with neutral property in the microcirculation in rats with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome. The rat model with heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was established by injecting carrageenan and dry yeast, and the rat model with cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome was built by the body freezing method. Ten traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, including 5 with hot property and 5 with cold property, were selected for intervention to observe blood flow rate and flow state indicators in rat auricles and make a comparative analysis on action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property. ANOVA showed that among the 10 traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property, 6 such as Typhae Pollen, Sappan Lignum and Vaccariae Semen can obviously increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with cold property can increase the blood flow rate (P medicines showed no notable effect; among the 5 traditional Chinese medicines with hot property, Carthamus tinctorius and Ligusticum chuanxiong can increase the blood flow rate (P traditional Chinese medicines with natural and cold properties showed similar effect on heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with hot property; those with natural and hot properties showed similar effect and better effect in increasing blood flow rate than those with cold property. Under the condition of heat stagnation and blood stasis syndrome, traditional Chinese medicines with neutral property have the similar action characteristics with those with cold property; wile under the condition of cold stagnation and blood stasis syndrome

  18. Effect of a New Local Anesthetic Buffering Device on Pain Reduction During Nerve Block lnjections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-10

    the anticipation of pain associated with dental care is a significant deterrent in seeking treatment. With the advent of modern local anesthesia ...eliminate pain from dental injection to include: application of topical anesthesia , tissue pressure/vibration, cold application, and buffering of the local ...anesthetic solution. In dentistry , the effect of buffering local anesthetic solutions was first studied by Gros and Laewen in 1910 and then by

  19. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  20. Local File Disclosure Vulnerability: A Case Study of Public-Sector Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. Imran; Maruf Hassan, Md; Bhuyian, Touhid

    2018-01-01

    Almost all public-sector organisations in Bangladesh now offer online services through web applications, along with the existing channels, in their endeavour to realise the dream of a ‘Digital Bangladesh’. Nations across the world have joined the online environment thanks to training and awareness initiatives by their government. File sharing and downloading activities using web applications have now become very common, not only ensuring the easy distribution of different types of files and documents but also enormously reducing the time and effort of users. Although the online services that are being used frequently have made users’ life easier, it has increased the risk of exploitation of local file disclosure (LFD) vulnerability in the web applications of different public-sector organisations due to unsecure design and careless coding. This paper analyses the root cause of LFD vulnerability, its exploitation techniques, and its impact on 129 public-sector websites in Bangladesh by examining the use of manual black box testing approach.

  1. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  2. Local Geostatistical Models and Big Data in Hydrological and Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2015-04-01

    The advent of the big data era creates new opportunities for environmental and ecological modelling but also presents significant challenges. The availability of remote sensing images and low-cost wireless sensor networks implies that spatiotemporal environmental data to cover larger spatial domains at higher spatial and temporal resolution for longer time windows. Handling such voluminous data presents several technical and scientific challenges. In particular, the geostatistical methods used to process spatiotemporal data need to overcome the dimensionality curse associated with the need to store and invert large covariance matrices. There are various mathematical approaches for addressing the dimensionality problem, including change of basis, dimensionality reduction, hierarchical schemes, and local approximations. We present a Stochastic Local Interaction (SLI) model that can be used to model local correlations in spatial data. SLI is a random field model suitable for data on discrete supports (i.e., regular lattices or irregular sampling grids). The degree of localization is determined by means of kernel functions and appropriate bandwidths. The strength of the correlations is determined by means of coefficients. In the "plain vanilla" version the parameter set involves scale and rigidity coefficients as well as a characteristic length. The latter determines in connection with the rigidity coefficient the correlation length of the random field. The SLI model is based on statistical field theory and extends previous research on Spartan spatial random fields [2,3] from continuum spaces to explicitly discrete supports. The SLI kernel functions employ adaptive bandwidths learned from the sampling spatial distribution [1]. The SLI precision matrix is expressed explicitly in terms of the model parameter and the kernel function. Hence, covariance matrix inversion is not necessary for parameter inference that is based on leave-one-out cross validation. This property

  3. Local respiratory motion correction for PET/CT imaging: Application to lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr; Fernandez, P. [INCIA, UMR 5287, University of Bordeaux, Talence F-33400, France and Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29609 (France)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom) and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid

  4. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  5. Ultra-cold molecule production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled

  6. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  7. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  8. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  9. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  10. Sensor Network-Based Localization for Continuous Tracking Applications: Implementation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Davoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in systems able to provide users with immersive services (e.g., domotics, context-aware applications, and immersive distance learning tools has encouraged the development of cheap and effective platforms aimed at tracking objects and people within a certain space. In this context, wireless sensor networks (WSNs can play a very important role, since specialized sensors can be fruitfully exploited in order to generate/receive signals by means of which the WSN can derive the position of nodes joined to the objects to be tracked. The paper presents an original localization platform that exploits a single-hop WSN, based on a Microchip MCU and a Cypress RF device, to track its moving nodes. Specifically, the nodes of the network are divided into three sets: the first set consists of anchor nodes that, according to the commands from the sink (the central node of the WSN, generate ultrasonic pulses. These pulses are received by the second set of (moving nodes, which estimate the pulse time trip and communicate it to the sink. Finally, the last set is constituted by general purpose nodes that collect any kind of data from the surrounding field. The sink gathers all the data, computes the position of moving nodes, and transfers information to external users on the Internet. The algorithms adopted to manage the network and to localize moving nodes are discussed. A working prototype based upon the hardware platform, software, and protocol described in this paper has been deployed and tested, and some results are shown. Simulation results of the localization system are presented to show system scalability.

  11. Localized Energy-Based Normalization of Medical Images: Application to Chest Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, R H H M; Maduskar, P; Hogeweg, L; Melendez, J; Sánchez, C I; van Ginneken, B

    2015-09-01

    Automated quantitative analysis systems for medical images often lack the capability to successfully process images from multiple sources. Normalization of such images prior to further analysis is a possible solution to this limitation. This work presents a general method to normalize medical images and thoroughly investigates its effectiveness for chest radiography (CXR). The method starts with an energy decomposition of the image in different bands. Next, each band's localized energy is scaled to a reference value and the image is reconstructed. We investigate iterative and local application of this technique. The normalization is applied iteratively to the lung fields on six datasets from different sources, each comprising 50 normal CXRs and 50 abnormal CXRs. The method is evaluated in three supervised computer-aided detection tasks related to CXR analysis and compared to two reference normalization methods. In the first task, automatic lung segmentation, the average Jaccard overlap significantly increased from 0.72±0.30 and 0.87±0.11 for both reference methods to with normalization. The second experiment was aimed at segmentation of the clavicles. The reference methods had an average Jaccard index of 0.57±0.26 and 0.53±0.26; with normalization this significantly increased to . The third experiment was detection of tuberculosis related abnormalities in the lung fields. The average area under the Receiver Operating Curve increased significantly from 0.72±0.14 and 0.79±0.06 using the reference methods to with normalization. We conclude that the normalization can be successfully applied in chest radiography and makes supervised systems more generally applicable to data from different sources.

  12. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  13. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  14. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Giuseppe; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β -cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia) is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine) at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate). Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i) the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii) using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  15. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tringali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β-cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate. Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  16. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gilliland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment.

  17. The Local Maximum Clustering Method and Its Application in Microarray Gene Expression Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yidong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An unsupervised data clustering method, called the local maximum clustering (LMC method, is proposed for identifying clusters in experiment data sets based on research interest. A magnitude property is defined according to research purposes, and data sets are clustered around each local maximum of the magnitude property. By properly defining a magnitude property, this method can overcome many difficulties in microarray data clustering such as reduced projection in similarities, noises, and arbitrary gene distribution. To critically evaluate the performance of this clustering method in comparison with other methods, we designed three model data sets with known cluster distributions and applied the LMC method as well as the hierarchic clustering method, the -mean clustering method, and the self-organized map method to these model data sets. The results show that the LMC method produces the most accurate clustering results. As an example of application, we applied the method to cluster the leukemia samples reported in the microarray study of Golub et al. (1999.

  18. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.

  19. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  20. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  1. The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Martin; Ulrich, Anita; Schloericke, Erik; Limmer, Stefan; Habermann, Jens Karsten; Wolken, Heike; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Kujath, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A technique for the safe transfer of electric energy to the pulmonary surface for the potential evaporation of malignant tumours is non-existent to date. By conducting the current study, we wanted to generate data on the potential beneficiary effects and complications of using cold-plasma coagulation on the pulmonary surface. Cold-plasma coagulation was applied to the pulmonary surface in eight female mini-pigs via a thoracoscopic access. After 12 days, we performed a re-thoracoscopy on the c...

  2. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  3. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  4. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  5. A new device for vein localization and effect of application of disinfectant spray on its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyer Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A functional device was developed to immediately show the localization of veins by detecting a temperature increase on the skin directly above them. Our new idea, compared to other developments, is the comparison of temperatures between a small, ideally punctiform, skin area, and a larger circularly surrounding area. This is realized by two infrared temperature sensors, one with a small field of view, and the other one with a larger field of view. The position of the vein is indicated by two laser modules, which beams cross in one spot, when the device is held in a defined distance to the skin. If the device is held over a vein, the laser spot lightens up. The device was tested in ten study participants. Cooling of the skin by disinfectant spray prior to the measurements increases the temperature gradient and thereby improves the efficiency of the device. Temperature profiles of four skin areas of each study participant were measured before and one minute after application of disinfectant spray. After application of disinfectant spray, a temperature difference of more than 0.3 K between a measuring point above a vein and points 15 mm next to this could be found in 36 out of 40 measurements (90%, compared to 26 out of 40 (65% before disinfection. The mean temperature gradient could be increased from 0.476 K to 1.03 K (p < 0.001.

  6. Monitoring Local Changes in Granite Rock Under Biaxial Test: A Spatiotemporal Imaging Application With Diffuse Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fan; Ren, Yaqiong; Zhou, Yongsheng; Larose, Eric; Baillet, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse acoustic or seismic waves are highly sensitive to detect changes of mechanical properties in heterogeneous geological materials. In particular, thanks to acoustoelasticity, we can quantify stress changes by tracking acoustic or seismic relative velocity changes in the material at test. In this paper, we report on a small-scale laboratory application of an innovative time-lapse tomography technique named Locadiff to image spatiotemporal mechanical changes on a granite sample under biaxial loading, using diffuse waves at ultrasonic frequencies (300 kHz to 900 kHz). We demonstrate the ability of the method to image reversible stress evolution and deformation process, together with the development of reversible and irreversible localized microdamage in the specimen at an early stage. Using full-field infrared thermography, we visualize stress-induced temperature changes and validate stress images obtained from diffuse ultrasound. We demonstrate that the inversion with a good resolution can be achieved with only a limited number of receivers distributed around a single source, all located at the free surface of the specimen. This small-scale experiment is a proof of concept for frictional earthquake-like failure (e.g., stick-slip) research at laboratory scale as well as large-scale seismic applications, potentially including active fault monitoring.

  7. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches. The Role of Local Referenda. Deliverable D16a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtechova, Hana (Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic))

    2009-10-15

    , the only solution to a problem remains an open discussion on the basis of which all stakeholders reach a compromise. - Local referenda may be easily manipulated and certain interest groups may 'abuse' them - The outcome of a referendum is a picture of public opinion at a specific moment, but the moods and opinions of the public are likely to change, whereas the result of the referendum remains. - Representatives of local self-government or other organizations responsible for solution of the particular issue would be disturbed in their work; the citizens would unreasonably prolong the decision-making process. Naturally, it is not only important whether the citizens are politically active through the use of the institute of local referendum or other instrument of direct democracy, but also what impact these instruments have on politicians, local representatives and formation of policy at the local and state level as such. If public involvement is to work, it needs to be a two-way process. Not only do citizens need to let their voice be heard at various forms of consideration (deliberation) and discussions or through referenda and other citizens' initiatives, but also political representatives (people in power) have to take those views in some way into consideration in their decision-making. More consistent application of the principle of subsidiarity embedded in the primary law of the European Communities/European Union would facilitate the development of direct democracy, at least in European context. This principle stipulates that regulations should be adopted at the level closest to the citizens, i.e. at the lowest level of public administration where these are implemented. Unfortunately, the EC/EU itself faces considerable problems with application of this principle since the desire of non-elected European officials to influence the life of citizens in the EU is more than obvious. An illustrative example is the effort to harmonize tax legislation in

  8. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches. The Role of Local Referenda. Deliverable D16a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2009-10-01

    , the only solution to a problem remains an open discussion on the basis of which all stakeholders reach a compromise. - Local referenda may be easily manipulated and certain interest groups may 'abuse' them - The outcome of a referendum is a picture of public opinion at a specific moment, but the moods and opinions of the public are likely to change, whereas the result of the referendum remains. - Representatives of local self-government or other organizations responsible for solution of the particular issue would be disturbed in their work; the citizens would unreasonably prolong the decision-making process. Naturally, it is not only important whether the citizens are politically active through the use of the institute of local referendum or other instrument of direct democracy, but also what impact these instruments have on politicians, local representatives and formation of policy at the local and state level as such. If public involvement is to work, it needs to be a two-way process. Not only do citizens need to let their voice be heard at various forms of consideration (deliberation) and discussions or through referenda and other citizens' initiatives, but also political representatives (people in power) have to take those views in some way into consideration in their decision-making. More consistent application of the principle of subsidiarity embedded in the primary law of the European Communities/European Union would facilitate the development of direct democracy, at least in European context. This principle stipulates that regulations should be adopted at the level closest to the citizens, i.e. at the lowest level of public administration where these are implemented. Unfortunately, the EC/EU itself faces considerable problems with application of this principle since the desire of non-elected European officials to influence the life of citizens in the EU is more than obvious. An illustrative example is the effort to harmonize tax legislation in the EU countries

  9. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  10. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  11. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  12. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  13. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  14. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  15. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part one: Cold utilization far from the regasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with cold recovery during LNG regasification. The applications analyzed pertain to the use in deep freezing agro food industry and in space air conditioning facilities in commercial sector (Supermarkets and Hypermarkets) of cold recovered from the regasification process. A modular LNG regasification unit is proposed having the regasification capacity of 2 BCM/year of gas and it is based on use of a Power Cycle working with Ethane, this unit allows operation of cold energy transfer, contained in LNG to be regasified, in a range of temperatures suitable for multipurpose use of cold, reducing regasification process irreversibility. Some electric energy is produced by the Power Cycle, but the purpose of the modular unit is to deliver cold suitable for industrial and commercial use in the proper temperature range utilizing Carbon dioxide as secondary fluid to transfer cold from regasification site to far end users. The subject is divided in two papers: this paper deals with facilities delivering cold released during LNG regasification and related pipeline facilities to transfer cold at far end users while the other paper pertains to analysis of end users applications. Results of a detailed thermodynamic and economic analysis demonstrate the suitability of the proposal.

  16. Application of wMelPop Wolbachia Strain to Crash Local Populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Ritchie

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis (wMel strain has been successfully established in several populations of Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. The virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop is known to cause several pathological impacts (increased egg mortality, life shortening, etc. reducing overall fitness in the mosquito Ae. aegypti. Increased egg mortality could substantially reduce egg banks in areas with a lengthy monsoonal dry season, and be employed to eliminate local populations. We tested this application under semi-field cage conditions. First, we determined that wMelPop infection significantly reduced the survival of desiccation-resistant eggs of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti, with shade and temperature having a significant impact; nearly all wMelPop-infected eggs failed to hatch after 6 and 10 weeks in summer and winter conditions, respectively. In laboratory selection experiments we found that egg desiccation resistance can be increased by selection, and that this effect of wMelPop infection is due to the nuclear background of the host rather than Wolbachia. We then conducted an invasion of wMelPop within a semi-field cage using sustained weekly releases of wMelPop infected mosquitoes, with fixation achieved after 9 weeks. The egg populations wMelPop infected and an uninfected control were then subjected to a simulated prolonged monsoonal dry season (2.5 months before flooding to induce hatching. The wMelPop infected eggs suffered significantly greater mortality than the controls, with only 0.67% and 4.35% of respective infected and uninfected eggs held in 99% shade hatching after 80 days. These studies suggest that wMelPop could be used to locally eliminate populations of Ae. aegypti that are exposed to prolonged dry conditions, particularly if combined with vector control.

  17. 3.7. Technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to technical and economic aspects of the application of cement concretes obtained from local minerals. The following composite materials obtained from local raw materials were considered: mineral (cement, lime), inorganic (phosphates, sodium silicate), organic (phenol formaldehyde, epoxide, urea-formaldehyde, carbamide, acryl, organosilicon, furfural aniline). It was concluded that from technical and economical points of view the most effective materials were: mineral composite materials, crude shale oils and ligno sulphonates.

  18. A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique and its application to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A scanning tunneling microscopy based potentiometry technique for the measurements of the local surface electric potential is presented. A voltage compensation circuit based on this potentiometry technique is developed and employed to maintain a desired tunneling voltage independent of the bias current flow through the film. The application of this potentiometry technique to the local sensing of the spin Hall effect is outlined and some experimental results are reported.

  19. Local cooling does not prevent hyperalgesia following burn injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Pedersen, Juri L

    2002-01-01

    One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti-inflammato......One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti...

  20. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang [KAIST, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys.

  1. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang

    2015-01-01

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys

  2. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  3. Theoretical analysis of the local field potential in deep brain stimulation applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Lempka

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a common therapy for treating movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, and provides a unique opportunity to study the neural activity of various subcortical structures in human patients. Local field potential (LFP recordings are often performed with either intraoperative microelectrodes or DBS leads and reflect oscillatory activity within nuclei of the basal ganglia. These LFP recordings have numerous clinical implications and might someday be used to optimize DBS outcomes in closed-loop systems. However, the origin of the recorded LFP is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to theoretically analyze LFP recordings within the context of clinical DBS applications. This goal was achieved with a detailed recording model of beta oscillations (∼20 Hz in the subthalamic nucleus. The recording model consisted of finite element models of intraoperative microelectrodes and DBS macroelectrodes implanted in the brain along with multi-compartment cable models of STN projection neurons. Model analysis permitted systematic investigation into a number of variables that can affect the composition of the recorded LFP (e.g. electrode size, electrode impedance, recording configuration, and filtering effects of the brain, electrode-electrolyte interface, and recording electronics. The results of the study suggest that the spatial reach of the LFP can extend several millimeters. Model analysis also showed that variables such as electrode geometry and recording configuration can have a significant effect on LFP amplitude and spatial reach, while the effects of other variables, such as electrode impedance, are often negligible. The results of this study provide insight into the origin of the LFP and identify variables that need to be considered when analyzing LFP recordings in clinical DBS applications.

  4. A demodulating approach based on local mean decomposition and its applications in mechanical fault diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia; Chen, Xuefeng; Cao, Hongrui; Cai, Gaigai; Zi, Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    Since machinery fault vibration signals are usually multicomponent modulation signals, how to decompose complex signals into a set of mono-components whose instantaneous frequency (IF) has physical sense has become a key issue. Local mean decomposition (LMD) is a new kind of time–frequency analysis approach which can decompose a signal adaptively into a set of product function (PF) components. In this paper, a modulation feature extraction method-based LMD is proposed. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. The computed IF and IA are displayed together in the form of time–frequency representation (TFR). Modulation features can be extracted from the spectrum analysis of the IA and IF. In order to make the IF have physical meaning, the phase-unwrapping algorithm and IF processing method of extrema are presented in detail along with a simulation FM signal example. Besides, the dependence of the LMD method on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also investigated by analyzing synthetic signals which are added with Gaussian noise. As a result, the recommended critical SNRs for PF decomposition and IF extraction are given according to the practical application. Successful fault diagnosis on a rolling bearing and gear of locomotive bogies shows that LMD has better identification capacity for modulation signal processing and is very suitable for failure detection in rotating machinery

  5. An innovative application of time-domain spectroscopy on localized surface plasmon resonance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Chang, Ying-Feng; Wang, Huai-Yi; Lin, Yu-Xen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Su, Li-Chen

    2017-03-01

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is often used to study the surface profiles and properties of thin films because the strength of the technique lies in its ability to provide fast and high resolution measurements. An innovative attempt is made in this paper to apply WLSI as a time-domain spectroscopic system for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. A WLSI-based spectrometer is constructed with a breadboard of WLSI in combination with a spectral centroid algorithm for noise reduction and performance improvement. Experimentally, the WLSI-based spectrometer exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10-3 refractive index units (RIU), which is better than that obtained with a conventional UV-Vis spectrometer, by resolving the LSPR peak shift. Finally, the bio-applicability of the proposed spectrometer was investigated using the rs242557 tau gene, an Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease biomarker. The LOD was calculated as 15 pM. These results demonstrate that the proposed WLSI-based spectrometer could become a sensitive time-domain spectroscopic biosensing platform.

  6. Surgical model-view-controller simulation software framework for local and collaborative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Anderson; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Halic, Tansel; Arikatla, Venkata Sreekanth; Lu, Zhonghua; De, Suvranu

    2011-07-01

    Surgical simulations require haptic interactions and collaboration in a shared virtual environment. A software framework for decoupled surgical simulation based on a multi-controller and multi-viewer model-view-controller (MVC) pattern was developed and tested. A software framework for multimodal virtual environments was designed, supporting both visual interactions and haptic feedback while providing developers with an integration tool for heterogeneous architectures maintaining high performance, simplicity of implementation, and straightforward extension. The framework uses decoupled simulation with updates of over 1,000 Hz for haptics and accommodates networked simulation with delays of over 1,000 ms without performance penalty. The simulation software framework was implemented and was used to support the design of virtual reality-based surgery simulation systems. The framework supports the high level of complexity of such applications and the fast response required for interaction with haptics. The efficacy of the framework was tested by implementation of a minimally invasive surgery simulator. A decoupled simulation approach can be implemented as a framework to handle simultaneous processes of the system at the various frame rates each process requires. The framework was successfully used to develop collaborative virtual environments (VEs) involving geographically distributed users connected through a network, with the results comparable to VEs for local users.

  7. Local Antibiotic Delivery Systems: Current and Future Applications for Diabetic Foot Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Faris, Alan Robert; Sharaf, Hamed; Faris, Barzo; Rees, Sharon; Bowling, Frank L

    2018-03-01

    Foot infections are common among diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and/or peripheral arterial disease, and it can be the pivotal event leading to a minor or major amputation of the lower extremity. Treatment of diabetic foot infections, especially deep-seated ones, remains challenging, in part because impaired blood perfusion and the presence of biofilms can impair the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics. The local application of antibiotics is an emerging field in the treatment of diabetic foot infections, with demonstrable advantages. These include delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics in the affected area, limited systemic absorption, and thus negligible side effects. Biodegradable vehicles, such as calcium sulfate beads, are the prototypical system, providing a good elution profile and the ability to be impregnated with a variety of antibiotics. These have largely superseded the nonbiodegradable vehicles, but the strongest evidence available is for calcium bead implantation for osteomyelitis management. Natural polymers, such as collagen sponge, are an emerging class of delivery systems, although thus far, data on diabetic foot infections are limited. There is recent interest in the novel antimicrobial peptide pexiganan in the form of cream, which is active against most of the microorganisms isolated in diabetic foot infections. These are promising developments, but randomized trials are required to ascertain the efficacy of these systems and to define the indications for their use. Currently, the role of topical antibiotic agents in treating diabetic foot infections is limited and outside of routine practice.

  8. Local Application of Growth Hormone to Enhance Osseointegration in Osteoporotic Bones: A Morphometric and Densitometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Monge, Elena; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Clemente, Celia; Tresguerres, Jesús Af

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local application of growth hormone on osseointegration of dental implants inserted in osteoporotic bones. Twenty female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Ten were ovariectomized and fed a low-calcium diet for 6 weeks, and the others remained intact. A titanium implant was inserted into each tibia, in both groups. In half of the rabbits, 2 IU of growth hormone was placed into the ostectomy prior to the implant insertion. Two weeks after implant surgery, all animals were sacrificed. Tibiae were dissected from soft tissues, and included in methacrylate to be studied under light microscopy. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by morphometric and densitometric analysis, respectively. Multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical evaluation. P growth hormone was able to increase the BIC in the ovariectomized group, with statistically significant differences with respect to the control group (P growth hormone at the moment of titanium implant insertion in rabbit tibiae significantly enhanced the BIC around titanium implants 15 days after the implantation in this experimental osteoporotic animal model, without affecting the BMD.

  9. Development of an instantaneous local fuel-concentration measurement probe: an engine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Boutar, Z.; Lemoyne, L.

    2003-11-01

    This work presents a new tool which can deliver instantaneous local measurements of fuel concentration in an engine cylinder with a high temporal resolution, particularly during compression strokes. Fuel concentration is represented by means of equivalence fuel-air ratio, i.e. the real engine mass ratio of fuel to air divided by the same ratio in ideal stoichiometry conditions. Controlling the mixture configuration for any strategy in a spark ignition engine and for auto-ignition combustion has a dominant effect on the subsequent processes of ignition, flame propagation and auto-ignition combustion progression, pollutant formation under lean or even stoichiometric operating conditions. It is extremely difficult, under a transient operation, to control the equivalence air/fuel ratio precisely at a required value and at the right time. This requires the development of a highly accurate equivalence air/fuel ratio control system and a tool to measure using crank angle (CA) resolution. Although non-intrusive laser techniques have considerable advantages, they are most of the time inappropriate due to their optical inaccessibility or the complex experimental set-up involved. Therefore, as a response to the demand for a relatively simple fuel-concentration measurement system a probe is presented that replaces a spark plug and allows the engine to run completely normally. The probe is based on hot-wire like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation at the wire surface. The development, characteristics and calibration of the probe are presented followed by applications to in-cylinder engine measurements.

  10. The Recreation Applications in Local Administrations: The Sample of Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KOÇYİĞİT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The population increase in the big cities, the crowd and urbanization phenomenon’s cause changes in expectations of people as well. Anyone who lives in the big city and feels the atmosphere of metropolis culture, are desiring to have a healthier and greene r city atmosphere alongside with their increasing demands from technological developments, and ease in the transportation to increase in the living standards. They want to live with much amusement with joyful activities and healthier, through the shopping malls constructed at the city centers, movie houses and amusement centers and also playgrounds, walking trials and runways, parks and green fields for people to relax. People want to reach such centers and recreational fields not with long time, hour long voyages but immediately. They desire it to be close to his house, workplace. He wants to stop by a park, a recreational ground, picnic area even for a short time, to fish, blow off the daily steam, refresh, and relax. People want the recreational grounds t o be close to their houses, nursery, and school of their children. While the social activity grounds continues to increase in Konya, now big recreational grounds, parks, green grounds are being formed that can offer all those means to citizens. In this con text the aim of the working is, to examine the recreational applications made by Konya Metropolitan Municipality, by researching the facilities and application methods related with the recreation, to form the infrastructure of a study that can be model for the recreational applications in other Metropolis. In the study, the current recreational grounds constructed by the Konya Metropolitan Municipality have been examined and potential of the recreation areas has been investigated. The data of the research h ave been acquired through the context analysis method applied to observation and data. According to the findings of the research, the recreation areas constructed by Konya

  11. [Impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Bi-Dan; Yang, Li-Bai; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jin-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Li, Wu; Yang, Shu-Quan; Huang, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Xing-Ping; Cao, Yue; Pan, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    To observe the impacts on repeated common cold for the adults with different constitutions treated by acupoint application in the dog days (the three periods of the hottest days) and the three nine-day periods after the winter solstice (the three periods of the coldest days). One hundred and fifty-two cases of repeated common cold were divided into four zones according to the body constitution. Each zone was sub-divided into a group of the dog days + the three nine-day periods of the coldest days (group A), and a simple group of the dog periods (group B). In both groups, Dazhui (GV 14), Feishu (BL 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Danzhong (CV 17), Zhongfu (LU 1) and Shenshu (BL 23) were selected. In group A, the acupoint application was given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010, as well as the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the coldest days in 2010 separately. In group B, the acupoint application was only given on the 1st or 2nd day of the first, second and third periods of the hottest days in 2010. The follow-up visit was conducted before the acupoint application in the three periods of the coldest days in 2010 and before the acupoint application in the three periods of the hottest days in 2011. Additionally, the frequency of disease attack and the symptom score in sickness were taken as the observation indices for the efficacy assessment in both groups. (1) In both groups, the attack frequency was reduced obviously in half a year after the three periods of the hottest days for the patients of qi deficiency constitution, yang deficiency constitution and qi stagnation constitution and the clinical symptom score were reduced apparently (all Pcoldest days for the patients of those four constitutions as compared with those before treatment (all Pcoldest days, the efficacy for reducing the attack frequency and the improvements in the clinical symptoms were better than those in group B (all P<0.01). The

  12. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable...... to that of unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  13. Flange Curling in Cold Formed Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Ramonas, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear flange curling phenomenon in cold formed profiles is the tendency of slender flanges to deform towards the neutral axis for increasing flexural curvature. Based on Braziers work, Winter proposed a simple engineering formula for determination of the local flange deformation towards...

  14. Quantification of non-coding RNA target localization diversity and its application in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lixin; Leung, Kwong-Sak

    2018-04-01

    Subcellular localization is pivotal for RNAs and proteins to implement biological functions. The localization diversity of protein interactions has been studied as a crucial feature of proteins, considering that the protein-protein interactions take place in various subcellular locations. Nevertheless, the localization diversity of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) target proteins has not been systematically studied, especially its characteristics in cancers. In this study, we provide a new algorithm, non-coding RNA target localization coefficient (ncTALENT), to quantify the target localization diversity of ncRNAs based on the ncRNA-protein interaction and protein subcellular localization data. ncTALENT can be used to calculate the target localization coefficient of ncRNAs and measure how diversely their targets are distributed among the subcellular locations in various scenarios. We focus our study on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and our observations reveal that the target localization diversity is a primary characteristic of lncRNAs in different biotypes. Moreover, we found that lncRNAs in multiple cancers, differentially expressed cancer lncRNAs, and lncRNAs with multiple cancer target proteins are prone to have high target localization diversity. Furthermore, the analysis of gastric cancer helps us to obtain a better understanding that the target localization diversity of lncRNAs is an important feature closely related to clinical prognosis. Overall, we systematically studied the target localization diversity of the lncRNAs and uncovered its association with cancer.

  15. Chilling Out With Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill out and you might prevent a cold! Reviewed by: Patricia ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  17. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  18. Localized whole eye radiotherapy for retinoblastoma using a 125I applicator, 'claws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, Clare; Sealy, Rossall; Hering, Egbert; Korrubel, Jan; Hill, John; Barron, Adrian; Knowles, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To treat children with retinoblastoma, who require whole eye radiotherapy, with a specially designed 125 I applicator that irradiates the eye while sparing the surrounding tissues. Methods and Materials: Under general anesthesia, a pericorneal ring is attached to the 4 extraocular muscles, and 4 appendages, each loaded with 125 I seeds, are inserted beneath the conjunctiva in-between each pair of muscles and attached anteriorly to the ring. Twenty-nine eyes were treated. Eighteen received a median dose of 28 Gy during 91 hours and 11 received 40 Gy during 122 hours, when the relative biologic effectiveness was taken as 1 instead of 1.5. Six had received prior chemotherapy. Results: Twenty-four eyes were followed up for 2-157 months (median 29). Although 22 eyes responded, local control was achieved in 13 patients, 3 of whom required additional treatment for new tumors; a further 3 required additional treatment for tumor recurrence as well as new tumors. One of these eyes was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma. All 6 Group I-III eyes and 6 of 18 Group V eyes were retained for 2-157 months (median 39), with good vision in 10 eyes. Three developed cataracts 7, 8, and 12 years later, 1 of which has been removed. Conclusions: This is a new way of irradiating the whole eye with a minimal dose to the surrounding tissues. The treatment time is only 5 days. It is effective in Groups I-III, but only 33% of Group V eyes retained vision. No late cosmetic defects occurred

  19. Cutaneous and renal vasodilatory response to local pressure application: A comparative study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begey, Anne-Laure; Liu, Kiao Ling; Lo, Ming; Josset-Lamaugarny, Audrey; Picard, Nicolas; Gauthier, Catherine; Fromy, Berengere; Sigaudo-Roussel, Dominique; Dubourg, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    We have reported a novel relationship involving mechanical stimulation and vasodilation in rodent and human skin, referred to as pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). It is unknown whether this mechanism exists in kidney and reflects the microcirculation in deep organs. Therefore, we compared the skin and kidney PIV to determine whether their changes were similar. In anesthetized mice fed a normal salt-diet, laser Doppler flux (LDF) signals were measured when an increase in local pressure was applied to the surface of the head skin with the rate of 2.2Pa/s (1mmHg/min) and to the left kidney with a rate of 4.4Pa/s (2mmHg/min). The mechanism underlying renal PIV was also investigated. The skin and kidney PIV were also compared during salt load (4% NaCl diet). The kidney had higher baseline LDF and vascular conductance compared to those of the skin. Pressure application increased the LDF in the kidney as well as in the skin with a comparable maximal magnitude (about 25% from baseline value), despite different kinetics of PIV evolution. As we previously reported in the skin, the kidney PIV response was mediated by the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels, the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the participation of prostaglandins and nitric oxide. In the absence of hypertension, high salt intake abolished the cutaneous PIV response and markedly impaired the renal one. PIV response in the mouse kidney results from a neuro-vascular interaction. Despite some differences between the skin and the kidney PIV, the similarities in their response and signaling mechanisms suggest that the cutaneous microcirculation could reflect, in part, the microcirculation of the renal cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of 1D Array FBG Configuration for Impact Localization on Composite Wing under Simulated Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Nakamura et al., implemented a FBG/ PZT hybrid sensor system for impact monitoring of aircraft composite structure [9]. FBG sensor was shown to be...is the coefficient of thermal expansion,  is the thermal-optic coefficient , T is the temperature,  is the strain value, and ep is the photo...localization algorithm is used to localize the impact points. In the correlation based impact localization algorithm, the correlation coefficient between the

  1. Being connected to the local community through a Festival mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyungsik; Wirth, Richard; Hanrahan, Benjamin; Chen, Jiawei; Lee, Sooyeon; Carroll, John M.

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report our investigation into how using and interacting with a local festival mobile app enhanced users’ festival experiences and connected them to other local users and their community. We explored the relationship between users’ perceived basic affordances of mobile technology, perceived opportunities of the festival app, and three elements that sustain the local community — attachment, engagement, and social support networks. Based on the usage logs of 348 active users, as well as survey responses from 80 users, we present a mobile-mediated local community framework and found that engagement is a key mediator of mobile experiences and facets of community.

  2. Identification of the significant factors in food safety using global sensitivity analysis and the accept-and-reject algorithm: application to the cold chain of ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duret, Steven; Guillier, Laurent; Hoang, Hong-Minh; Flick, Denis; Laguerre, Onrawee

    2014-06-16

    Deterministic models describing heat transfer and microbial growth in the cold chain are widely studied. However, it is difficult to apply them in practice because of several variable parameters in the logistic supply chain (e.g., ambient temperature varying due to season and product residence time in refrigeration equipment), the product's characteristics (e.g., pH and water activity) and the microbial characteristics (e.g., initial microbial load and lag time). This variability can lead to different bacterial growth rates in food products and has to be considered to properly predict the consumer's exposure and identify the key parameters of the cold chain. This study proposes a new approach that combines deterministic (heat transfer) and stochastic (Monte Carlo) modeling to account for the variability in the logistic supply chain and the product's characteristics. The model generates a realistic time-temperature product history , contrary to existing modeling whose describe time-temperature profile Contrary to existing approaches that use directly a time-temperature profile, the proposed model predicts product temperature evolution from the thermostat setting and the ambient temperature. The developed methodology was applied to the cold chain of cooked ham including, the display cabinet, transport by the consumer and the domestic refrigerator, to predict the evolution of state variables, such as the temperature and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The impacts of the input factors were calculated and ranked. It was found that the product's time-temperature history and the initial contamination level are the main causes of consumers' exposure. Then, a refined analysis was applied, revealing the importance of consumer behaviors on Listeria monocytogenes exposure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The analysis of 14.8 percent cold leg break without the application of hydroaccumulators in the PMK-NHV test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.; Ezsoel, Gy.; Perneczky, L.

    1990-12-01

    A series of reactor safety tests have been performed in the experimental reactor simulation facility PMK-NHV of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, with and without the use of hydroaccumulator (SIT) operation. 14.8 percent cold leg break simulation experiments are reported without SITs in action, and the measurement results were analyzed using the RELAP5/mod2 computer code. The description of the experiment is followed by the parameter variations and their analysis, together with an interpretation of the measurement results. The lessons from the LOCA simulation tests are evaluated. (R.P.) 10 refs.; 48 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. A coupled diffusion-transport computational method and its application for the determination of space dependent angular flux distributions at a cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    A fast calculation program ''BRIDGE'' was developed for the calculation of a Cold Neutron Source (CNS) at a radial beam tube of the FRG-I reactor, which couples a total assembly diffusion calculation to a transport calculation for a certain subregion. For the coupling flux and current boundary values at the common surfaces are taken from the diffusion calculation and are used as driving conditions in the transport calculation. 'Equivalence Theorie' is used for the transport feedback effect on the diffusion calculation to improve the consistency of the boundary values. The optimization of a CNS for maximizing the subthermal flux in the wavelength range 4 - 6 A is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha, E-mail: luizaeq@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Paiva, Paulo Renato Perdigao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento [APERAM South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  6. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  7. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  8. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  9. Cold urticaria: inhibition of cold-induced histamine release by doxantrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Phillips, C B; Eady, R A; Greaves, M W

    1978-10-01

    Thirteen patients with cold urticaria were studied to assess the effect of the systemic drug doxantrazole, which has actions resembling disodium cromoglycate, on cold evoked histamine release. The patients, all of whom developed an immediate local whealing response after cooling of the forearm, demonstrated release of histamine into venous blood draining that forearm. Following doxantrazole treatment, significant suppression of histamine release occurred. In some but not all patients this was accompanied by diminution of urtication in response to cooling. A double-blind study was carried out in 3 subjects, all of whom showed diminished cold-stimulated histamine release after doxantrazole. Two of these showed clinical improvement. Doxantrazole had no effect on erythema due to intradermal histamine, but did suppress the erythematous reaction to intradermal injection of compound 48/80. Our results suggest that doxantrazole or related anti-allergic agents might be useful in the treatment of cold urticaria.

  10. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... reviewed by the HCA before referral to the AAG/A. The referral will include all pertinent data on which the... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this subpart...

  11. Changes in blood flow by local hypothermia and its application to cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Higano, Shuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Humihiko

    1984-01-01

    Protective effects of local hypothermia on radiation dermatitis and mucositis were shown. It was considered that the main factor influencing radioprotection was decrease of local blood flow. Our examinations showed that blood flow of the skin and oral mucosa decreased while that of the tumors did not so change. Adequate results were obtained in the combined treatment of radiation and chemotherapy. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune, however, is a legal question requiring advice and assistance of the agency-designated counsel. (b) When it... from State and local taxation that may be available. If appropriate, the contracting officer shall...

  13. The effects of local insulin application to lumbar spinal fusions in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, John D; Yalamanchili, Praveen; Munoz, William; Uko, Linda; Chaudhary, Saad B; Lin, Sheldon S; Vives, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The rates of pseudoarthrosis after a single-level spinal fusion have been reported up to 35%, and the agents that increase the rate of fusion have an important role in decreasing pseudoarthrosis after spinal fusion. Previous studies have analyzed the effects of local insulin application to an autograft in a rat segmental defect model. Defects treated with a time-released insulin implant had significantly more new bone formation and greater quality of bone compared with controls based on histology and histomorphometry. A time-released insulin implant may have similar effects when applied in a lumbar spinal fusion model. This study analyzes the effects of a local time-released insulin implant applied to the fusion bed in a rat posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion model. Our hypothesis was twofold: first, a time-released insulin implant applied to the autograft bed in a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion will increase the rate of successful fusion and second, will alter the local environment of the fusion site by increasing the levels of local growth factors. Animal model (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved) using 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty skeletally mature Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 500 g each underwent posterolateral intertransverse lumbar fusions with iliac crest autograft from L4 to L5 using a Wiltse-type approach. After exposure of the transverse processes and high-speed burr decortication, a Linplant (Linshin Canada, Inc., ON, Canada) consisting of 95% microrecrystalized palmitic acid and 5% bovine insulin (experimental group) or a sham implant consisting of only palmitic acid (control group) was implanted on the fusion bed with iliac crest autograft. As per the manufacturer, the Linplant has a release rate of 2 U/day for a minimum of 40 days. The transverse processes and autograft beds of 10 animals from the experimental and 10 from the control group were harvested at Day 4 and analyzed for growth factors. The

  14. Application of a cold spray technique to the fabrication of a copper canister for the geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Radioactive Waste Management Technology Development, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A new method was proposed for the manufacture of a copper-cast iron canister for the spent fuel disposal based on the cold spray coating technique. The thickness of a copper shell could be fabricated to be as thin as 10 mm with the new method. Around 6 tons of copper could be saved with a 10 mm thick canister compared with a 50 mm thick canister. The electrochemical properties of the cold sprayed copper layer and forged copper were measured through a polarization test. The two copper layers showed very similar electrochemical properties. The lifetime of a 10 mm copper canister was estimated with a mathematical model based on the mass transport of sulfide ions through the buffer. The results showed that the canister lifetime was more than 140,000 years under the Korean granite groundwater condition. The thermal analysis with a current pre-conceptual design of a CANDU spent fuel canister showed that the maximum temperature between the canister and the saturated buffer was below the thermal criteria, 100 {sup o}C. Finally, the mechanical stability of the copper canister was confirmed with a computer program, ABAQUS, under the rock movement scenario.

  15. Validation of normalized pulse volume in the outer ear as a simple measure of sympathetic activity using warm and cold pressor tests: towards applications in ambulatory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jihyoung; Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi; Rolfe, Peter; Kim, Kyungho

    2013-01-01

    Normalized pulse volume (NPV) derived from the ear has the potential to be a practical index for monitoring daily life stress. However, ear NPV has not yet been validated. Therefore, we compared NPV derived from an index finger using transmission photoplethysmography as a reference, with NPV derived from a middle finger and four sites of the ear using reflection photoplethysmography during baseline and while performing cold and warm water immersion in ten young and six middle-aged subjects. The results showed that logarithmically-transformed NPV (lnNPV) during cold water immersion as compared with baseline values was significantly lower, only at the index finger, the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal. Furthermore, lnNPV reactivities (ΔlnNPV; the difference between baseline and test values) from an index finger were significantly related to ΔlnNPV from the middle finger and the bottom of the ear-canal (young: r = 0.90 and 0.62, middle-aged: r = 0.80 and 0.58, respectively). In conclusion, these findings show that reflection and transmission photoplethysmography are comparable methods to derive NPV in accordance with our theoretical prediction. NPV derived from the bottom of the ear-canal is a valid approach, which could be useful for evaluating daily life stress. (paper)

  16. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  17. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Eccles, R.; Hegmann, G.; Morrison, L.; Salter, R.; van Egmond, T.; Vonk, P.; Ash, G.; Crowther, R.; Dance, T.; Edwards, W.; Veldman, W.

    1997-02-01

    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  18. The Combined Effect of Cold and Moisture on Manual Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Matthew; Sanli, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert; Ennis, Kerri Ann; Carnahan, Heather

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cold and moisture on manual performance and tactile sensitivity. Background People working in the ocean environment often perform manual work in cold and wet conditions. Although the independent effects of cold and moisture on hand function are known, their combined effect has not been investigated. Method Participants completed sensory (Touch-Test, two-point discrimination) and motor (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) tests in the following conditions: dry hand, wet hand, cold hand, and cold and wet hand. Results For the Purdue Pegboard and knot untying tasks, the greatest decrement in performance was observed in the cold-and-wet-hand condition, whereas the decrements seen in the cold-hand and wet-hand conditions were similar. In the Grooved Pegboard task, the performance decrements exhibited in the cold-and-wet-hand condition and the cold-hand condition were similar, whereas no decrement was observed in the wet-hand condition. Tactile sensitivity was reduced in the cold conditions for the Touch-Test but not the two-point discrimination test. The combined effect of cold and moisture led to the largest performance decrements except when intrinsic object properties helped with grasp maintenance. The independent effects of cold and moisture on manual performance were comparable. Application Tools and equipment for use in the cold ocean environment should be designed to minimize the effects of cold and moisture on manual performance by including object properties that enhance grasp maintenance and minimize the fine-dexterity requirements.

  19. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    C, respectively. Process variables were defined and effects of individual parameters were studied systematically through control variable method with Li2MoO4-water system. Crystalline structure, fractured surface morphology and chemical bonding information of the cold sintered pellets were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, etc. Densification mechanism studies were conducted on ZnO. Through comparison experiments, it was found that the Zn2+ concentration in the solution is critical for densification, while dissolution of grains only serves as a means to the former. Through pressure dependent studies, a critical value was found, which correlated well with the hydrostatic pressure keeping liquid water from thermal expansion. These results confirmed establishment of hydrothermal condition that would be important for mass transport in densification. Densification rate variations with process time was estimated and similar time dependence to Kingery's model was found. The densification process was proposed to be consist of three consecutive stages, which are quick initial compaction, grain rearrangement and dissolution-reprecipitation events. Binary metal oxides with different acidities were subjected to cold sintering with various aqueous solutions in establishing a criteria for material selection. It was found that in general materials with high solubility at around neutral pH, high dissolution kinetics and similar free energy to their hydroxides or hydrates at ambient would be more likely for full densification with high phase purity. The anions in solution should also be wisely selected to avoid stable compound or complex formation. To extend the applicable material list for full densification, non-aqueous solvent of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based solution was studied for cold sintering. Both improvement of pellet density and suppression of hydroxide formation were achieved for MnO by using DMSO

  1. Linear study and bundle adjustment data fusion; Application to vision localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michot, J.

    2010-01-01

    The works presented in this manuscript are in the field of computer vision, and tackle the problem of real-time vision based localization and 3D reconstruction. In this context, the trajectory of a camera and the 3D structure of the filmed scene are initially estimated by linear algorithms and then optimized by a nonlinear algorithm, bundle adjustment. The thesis first presents a new technique of line search, dedicated to the nonlinear minimization algorithms used in Structure-from-Motion. The proposed technique is not iterative and can be quickly installed in traditional bundle adjustment frameworks. This technique, called Global Algebraic Line Search (G-ALS), and its two-dimensional variant (Two way-ALS), accelerate the convergence of the bundle adjustment algorithm. The approximation of the re-projection error by an algebraic distance enables the analytical calculation of an effective displacement amplitude (or two amplitudes for the Two way-ALS variant) by solving a degree 3 (G-ALS) or 5 (Two way-ALS) polynomial. Our experiments, conducted on simulated and real data, show that this amplitude, which is optimal for the algebraic distance, is also efficient for the Euclidean distance and reduces the convergence time of minimizations. One difficulty of real-time tracking algorithms (monocular SLAM) is that the estimated trajectory is often affected by drifts: on the absolute orientation, position and scale. Since these algorithms are incremental, errors and approximations are accumulated throughout the trajectory and cause global drifts. In addition, a tracking vision system can always be dazzled or used under conditions which prevented temporarily to calculate the location of the system. To solve these problems, we propose to use an additional sensor measuring the displacement of the camera. The type of sensor used will vary depending on the targeted application (an odometer for a vehicle, a lightweight inertial navigation system for a person). We propose to

  2. Composable local memory organisation for streaming applications on embedded MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrose, J.; Molnos, A.; Nelson, A.; Cotofana, S.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Juurlink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Processor Systems on a Chip (MPSoCs) are suitable platforms for the implementation of complex embedded applications. An MPSoC is composable if the functional and temporal behaviour of each application is independent of the absence or presence of other applications. Composability is required

  3. Mechanics of localized slippage in tactile sensing and application to soft sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Anh-Van

    2014-01-01

    Localized slippage occurs during any relative sliding of soft contacts, ranging from human fingertips to robotic fingertips. Although this phenomenon is dominant for a very short time prior to gross slippage, localized slippage is a crucial factor for any to-be-developed soft sensing system to respond to slippage before it occurs. The content of this book addresses all aspects of localized slippage, including modeling and simulating it, as well as applying it to the construction of novel sensors with slip tactile perception.

  4. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    .... This thesis presents an integrated auditory system for a humanoid robot, currently under development, that will, among other things, learn to localize normal, everyday sounds in a realistic environment...

  5. Robust Sound Localization: An Application of an Auditory Perception System for a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irie, Robert E

    1995-01-01

    Localizing sounds with different frequency and time domain characteristics in a dynamic listening environment is a challenging task that has not been explored in the field of robotics as much as other perceptual tasks...

  6. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  7. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  8. Application in localization of the material used for CRDM seismic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingtian; He Peifeng; Mu Dianpeng

    2011-01-01

    CRDM seismic support stand in the top of reactor vessel head, and belong to LS equipment. Now all of the manufacture of CRDM seismic support are in China, so the materials localization of CRDM seismic support is quite vital. Comparing with chemical requirements, mechanical properties and hardness between foreign and domestic equipment material, the paper bring forward the base material and welding material. At last, mechanical analysis is adopted, and the result indicates the material localization meet the design requirements. (authors)

  9. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  10. A possible candidate for cold dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This additional scalar can be a viable candidate of cold dark matter (CDM) since the stability of is achieved by the application of Z 2 symmetry on . Considering as a possible candidate of CDM, Boltzmann's equation is solved to find the freeze-out temperature and relic density of for Higgs mass 120 GeV in the scalar ...

  11. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  12. Two cold-season derechoes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzen, Christoph; Púčik, Tomas; Ryva, David

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.

  13. Beyond Gisin's Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chunfeng; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Żukowski, Marek; Kwek, L C

    2015-06-25

    We demonstrate here that for a given mixed multi-qubit state if there are at least two observers for whom mutual Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is possible, i.e. each observer is able to steer the other qubits into two different pure states by spontaneous collapses due to von Neumann type measurements on his/her qubit, then nonexistence of local realistic models is fully equivalent to quantum entanglement (this is not so without this condition). This result leads to an enhanced version of Gisin's theorem (originally: all pure entangled states violate local realism). Local realism is violated by all mixed states with the above steering property. The new class of states allows one e.g. to perform three party secret sharing with just pairs of entangled qubits, instead of three qubit entanglements (which are currently available with low fidelity). This significantly increases the feasibility of having high performance versions of such protocols. Finally, we discuss some possible applications.

  14. Analysis of stiffness and fatigue resistance of cold recycled asphalt mixtures manufactured with foamed bitumen for their application to airfield pavement design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Lacalle-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold recycled bound materials (CRBMs provide an economic and environmental advantage for pavements since they decrease energy and raw material consumption. However, design methods for airfield pavements do not include key CRBM properties. In this paper an empirical-mechanistic method is used to study airfield pavement design with CRBM in order to develop design guidance. The aim of the paper is to obtain the inputs related to material properties needed for use in this method. For this purpose, CRBM containing reclaimed asphalt, with fly ash, cement and foamed bitumen as stabilising agents, was characterised. The methodology included indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM and indirect tensile fatigue tests (ITFT in strain control mode. The inputs needed for a pavement design analysis with CRBM were then obtained. The results showed the importance of further study on CRBM fatigue to understand the behaviour of these mixes under cyclic loading.

  15. Analysis of off-axis solenoid fields using the magnetic scalar potential: An application to a Zeeman-slower for cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Sérgio R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Bhattacharya, M.

    2015-06-01

    In a region free of currents, magnetostatics can be described by the Laplace equation of a scalar magnetic potential, and one can apply the same methods commonly used in electrostatics. Here, we show how to calculate the general vector field inside a real (finite) solenoid, using only the magnitude of the field along the symmetry axis. Our method does not require integration or knowledge of the current distribution and is presented through practical examples, including a nonuniform finite solenoid used to produce cold atomic beams via laser cooling. These examples allow educators to discuss the nontrivial calculation of fields off-axis using concepts familiar to most students, while offering the opportunity to introduce themes of current modern research.

  16. Weighing neutrinos in the scenario of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter: application of the parameterized post-Friedmann approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin, E-mail: guoruiyun110@163.com, E-mail: liyh19881206@126.com, E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    We constrain the neutrino mass in the scenario of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter by using current cosmological observations. To avoid the large-scale instability problem in interacting dark energy models, we employ the parameterized post-Friedmann (PPF) approach to do the calculation of perturbation evolution, for the Q = β H ρ{sub c} and Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} models. The current observational data sets used in this work include Planck (cosmic microwave background), BSH (baryon acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae, and Hubble constant), and LSS (redshift space distortions and weak lensing). According to the constraint results, we find that β > 0 at more than 1σ level for the Q = β H ρ{sub c} model, which indicates that cold dark matter decays into vacuum energy; while β = 0 is consistent with the current data at 1σ level for the Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} model. Taking the ΛCDM model as a baseline model, we find that a smaller upper limit, ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.11 eV (2σ), is induced by the latest BAO BOSS DR12 data and the Hubble constant measurement H {sub 0} = 73.00 ± 1.75 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. For the Q = β H ρ{sub c} model, we obtain ∑ m {sub ν}<0.20 eV (2σ) from Planck+BSH. For the Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} model, ∑ m {sub ν}<0.10 eV (2σ) and ∑ m {sub ν}<0.14 eV (2σ) are derived from Planck+BSH and Planck+BSH+LSS, respectively. We show that these smaller upper limits on ∑ m {sub ν} are affected more or less by the tension between H {sub 0} and other observational data.

  17. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  18. Application of Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) to evidence localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu, Nicoleta; Alexis, Joël; Lacroix, Loïc; Abrudeanu, Marioara; Petit, Jacques-Alain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  19. Study of the localized corrosion of over-aged aeronautical 2024 aluminum alloy. Kelvin probe Force Microscopy (KFM) application

    OpenAIRE

    Radutoiu , Nicoleta; Lacroix , Loïc; Alexis , Joël; Abrudeanu , Marioara; Petit , Jacques-Alain

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The 2xxx serie aluminum alloys are characterized by good mechanical performances and low density, however they are susceptible to different forms of localized corrosion: pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The 2024-T351 aluminum alloy is used in the aircraft industry for numerous applications such as fuselage and door skin. Corrosion damage of the material is also very detrimental for the structural integrity of the aircraft. The p...

  20. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  1. Application of Matrix Pencil Algorithm to Mobile Robot Localization Using Hybrid DOA/TOA Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Anh Trinh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization plays an important role in robotics for the tasks of monitoring, tracking and controlling a robot. Much effort has been made to address robot localization problems in recent years. However, despite many proposed solutions and thorough consideration, in terms of developing a low-cost and fast processing method for multiple-source signals, the robot localization problem is still a challenge. In this paper, we propose a solution for robot localization with regards to these concerns. In order to locate the position of a robot, both the coordinate and the orientation of a robot are necessary. We develop a localization method using the Matrix Pencil (MP algorithm for hybrid detection of direction of arrival (DOA and time of arrival (TOA. TOA of the signal is estimated for computing the distance between the mobile robot and a base station (BS. Based on the distance and the estimated DOA, we can estimate the mobile robot's position. The characteristics of the algorithm are examined through analysing simulated experiments and the results demonstrate the advantages of our method over previous works in dealing with the above challenges. The method is constructed based on the low-cost infrastructure of radio frequency devices; the DOA/TOA estimation is performed with just single value decomposition for fast processing. Finally, the MP algorithm combined with tracking using a Kalman filter allows our proposed method to locate the positions of multiple source signals.

  2. Adaptive local surface refinement based on LR NURBS and its application to contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Christopher; Sauer, Roger A.

    2017-12-01

    A novel adaptive local surface refinement technique based on Locally Refined Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (LR NURBS) is presented. LR NURBS can model complex geometries exactly and are the rational extension of LR B-splines. The local representation of the parameter space overcomes the drawback of non-existent local refinement in standard NURBS-based isogeometric analysis. For a convenient embedding into general finite element codes, the Bézier extraction operator for LR NURBS is formulated. An automatic remeshing technique is presented that allows adaptive local refinement and coarsening of LR NURBS. In this work, LR NURBS are applied to contact computations of 3D solids and membranes. For solids, LR NURBS-enriched finite elements are used to discretize the contact surfaces with LR NURBS finite elements, while the rest of the body is discretized by linear Lagrange finite elements. For membranes, the entire surface is discretized by LR NURBS. Various numerical examples are shown, and they demonstrate the benefit of using LR NURBS: Compared to uniform refinement, LR NURBS can achieve high accuracy at lower computational cost.

  3. Improved Application of Local Models to Steel Corrosion in Lead-Bismuth Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Li Ning

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion of steels exposed to flowing liquid metals is influenced by local and global conditions of flow systems. The present study improves the previous local models when applied to closed loops by incorporating some global condition effects. In particular the bulk corrosion product concentration is calculated based on balancing the dissolution and precipitation in the entire closed loop. Mass transfer expressions developed in aqueous medium and an analytical expression are tested in the liquid-metal environments. The improved model is applied to a pure lead loop and produces results closer to the experimental data than the previous local models do. The model is also applied to a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) test loop. Systematic studies illustrate the effects of the flow rate, the oxygen concentration in LBE, and the temperature profile on the corrosion rate

  4. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor node is connected to the internet for remote monitoring and has the capability of localization. The paper presents the design of antenna-on-package as well as details of the communication and localization system. Fabrication challenges unique to 3D printing and integration of electronics on 3D printed circuit board are also discussed. Finally, the paper presents measurement results of antenna radiation pattern, return loss, localization accuracy and accuracy of sensing parameters.

  5. Localized saddle-point search and application to temperature-accelerated dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yunsic; Amar, Jacques G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Callahan, Nathan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-07

    We present a method for speeding up temperature-accelerated dynamics (TAD) simulations by carrying out a localized saddle-point (LSAD) search. In this method, instead of using the entire system to determine the energy barriers of activated processes, the calculation is localized by only including a small chunk of atoms around the atoms directly involved in the transition. Using this method, we have obtained N-independent scaling for the computational cost of the saddle-point search as a function of system size N. The error arising from localization is analyzed using a variety of model systems, including a variety of activated processes on Ag(100) and Cu(100) surfaces, as well as multiatom moves in Cu radiation damage and metal heteroepitaxial growth. Our results show significantly improved performance of TAD with the LSAD method, for the case of Ag/Ag(100) annealing and Cu/Cu(100) growth, while maintaining a negligibly small error in energy barriers.

  6. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  7. Cold fusion - todays situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the history of cold fusion is given. It is noted that it is not possible to draw any definite conclusions about all the experimental and theoretical details, but that some of the results presented do not seem to be reached according to the normal scientific methods. 6 figs

  8. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  9. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  10. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  11. Localization of leaks in underground pipes with the application of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupa, A.; Morawiec, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method of leaks localization on gas pipe-lines during resistance and tightness tests was elaborated. The leaks were localized using tracer technique. Sodium 24 was used as a tracer for short sections of the pipe-line (up to 30 km). Only 1 m 3 of water with a tracer was introduced into the pipe-line. A measuring probe was also put into pipe-line. All leaks were detected and the method appeared useful. For the longer sections of the pipe-line iodine 131 ought to be used. (A.S.)

  12. Burning Cold: Involvement of TRPA1 in Noxious Cold Sensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Soon after its discovery ten years ago, the ion channel TRPA1 was proposed as a sensor of noxious cold. Evidence for its activation by painfully cold temperatures (below ~15° C) has been mixed, however. Some groups found that cold elicits a nonselective conductance in cells expressing TRPA1; others found no activation, or argued that activation is an indirect effect of elevated \\(Ca^{ 2+}\\) . Sensory cells from the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia that are activated by cold were sometimes c...

  13. On the Impact of Localization and Density Control Algorithms in Target Tracking Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Andre N.; Souza, Efren L.; Nakamura, Fabiola G.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Target tracking is an important application of wireless sensor networks. The networks' ability to locate and track an object is directed linked to the nodes' ability to locate themselves. Consequently, localization systems are essential for target tracking applications. In addition, sensor networks are often deployed in remote or hostile environments. Therefore, density control algorithms are used to increase network lifetime while maintaining its sensing capabilities. In this work, we analyze the impact of localization algorithms (RPE and DPE) and density control algorithms (GAF, A3 and OGDC) on target tracking applications. We adapt the density control algorithms to address the k-coverage problem. In addition, we analyze the impact of network density, residual integration with density control, and k-coverage on both target tracking accuracy and network lifetime. Our results show that DPE is a better choice for target tracking applications than RPE. Moreover, among the evaluated density control algorithms, OGDC is the best option among the three. Although the choice of the density control algorithm has little impact on the tracking precision, OGDC outperforms GAF and A3 in terms of tracking time. PMID:22969329

  14. Application of Local Fourier Transform to Mathematical Simulation of Synchronous Machines with Valve Excitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.

  15. Application of local singularity in prospecting potential oil/gas Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Bao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with generalized self-similarity and the fractal spectrum, local singularity analysis has been introduced as one part of the new 3S principle and technique for mineral resource assessment based on multifractal modeling, which has been demonstrated to be useful for anomaly delineation. Local singularity is used in this paper to characterize the property of multifractal distribution patterns of geochemical indexes to delineate potential areas for oil/gas exploration using the advanced GeoDAS GIS technology. Geochemical data of four oil/gas indexes, consisting of acid-extracted methane (SC1, ethane (SC2, propane (SC3, and secondary carbonate (ΔC, from 9637 soil samples amassed within a large area of 11.2×104 km2 in the Songpan-Aba district, Sichuan Province, southwestern China, were analyzed. By eliminating the interference of geochemical oil/gas data with the method of media-modification and Kriging, the prospecting area defined by the local singularity model is better identified and the results show that the subareas with higher singularity exponents for the four oil/gas indexes are potential targets for oil/gas exploration. These areas in the shape of rings or half-rings are spatially associated with the location of the known producing drilling well in this area. The spatial relationship between the anomalies delineated by oil/gas geochemical data and distribution patterns of local singularity exponents is confirmed by using the stable isotope of δ13C.

  16. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is an agent of the Government, the matter shall be referred to the agency head for review. The referral... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by States...

  17. Localization of the eigenvalues of linear integral equations with applications to linear ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, J. M.; Kranzler, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    The equivalence of a considered integral equation form with an infinite system of linear equations is proved, and the localization of the eigenvalues of the infinite system is expressed. Error estimates are derived, and the problems of finding upper bounds and lower bounds for the eigenvalues are solved simultaneously.

  18. A novel local learning based approach with application to breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new local learning based approach and apply it for the well-studied problem of breast cancer diagnosis using BIRADS-based mammographic features. To learn from our clinical dataset the latent relationship between these features and the breast biopsy result, our method first dynamically partitions the whole sample population into multiple sub-population groups through stochastically searching the sample population clustering space. Each encountered clustering scheme in our online searching process is then used to create a certain sample population partition plan. For every resultant sub-population group identified according to a partition plan, our method then trains a dedicated local learner to capture the underlying data relationship. In our study, we adopt the linear logistic regression model as our local learning method's base learner. Such a choice is made both due to the well-understood linear nature of the problem, which is compellingly revealed by a rich body of prior studies, and the computational efficiency of linear logistic regression--the latter feature allows our local learning method to more effectively perform its search in the sample population clustering space. Using a database of 850 biopsy-proven cases, we compared the performance of our method with a large collection of publicly available state-of-the-art machine learning methods and successfully demonstrated its performance advantage with statistical significance.

  19. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent colds or relieve cold symptoms. Andrographis (Andrographis paniculata) Chinese herbal medicines Green tea Guided imagery Hydrotherapy ... measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of ...

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  1. Taming light with cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard Hau, Lene

    2002-01-01

    Much of the extraordinary progress of developments in communication (e-mail, and/or internet) has been achieved due to improvements in optical communication. This paper describes a new approach which could improve the speed of communication. The ability to stop light in its tracks by passing it through a cloud of ultracold atoms could lead to new techniques for optical storage. The described slow-light experiments have triggered new physics both on the experimental and theoretical fronts. The cold atom system allows the steepest possible refractive index profiles, and therefore the most dramatic effects, as Doppler effects are eliminated. Furthermore, cold atoms provide maximum flexibility in the choice of beam geometry. This is important for the storage and retrieval of multiple pulses of optical information in an atomic medium, as it would allow individual pulses to be selectively addressed. Slow and stopped light have many potential applications in optical communication and processing, including optical information storage, ultra-sensitive optical switches, and optical delay lines. It could also be used in quantum-information processing, in which quantum-mechanical information is used for computing and communication purposes. On a very different front, slow light provides us with a totally new way of probing the unusual properties of Bose-Einstein condensates

  2. Accurate 3D Localization Method for Public Safety Applications in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Abdul Rahim; Saeed, Nasir; Haq, Mian Imtiaz Ul; Cho, Sunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) represent a very promising research area because of their ever increasing demand, especially for public safety applications. In VANETs vehicles communicate with each other to exchange road maps and traffic

  3. Involvement of WRKY Transcription Factors in Abscisic-Acid-Induced Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong-Lan; Ba, Liang-Jie; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-05-10

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to play important roles in various stress responses. The involvement of WRKY TFs in ABA-mediated cold tolerance of economical fruits, such as banana fruit, however remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that ABA application could induce expressions of ABA biosynthesis-related genes MaNCED1 and MaNCED2, increase endogenous ABA contents, and thereby enhance cold tolerance in banana fruit. Four banana fruit WRKY TFs, designated as MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71, were identified and characterized. All four of these MaWRKYs were nuclear-localized and displayed transactivation activities. Their expressions were induced by ABA treatment during cold storage. More importantly, the gel mobility shift assay and transient expression analysis revealed that MaWRKY31, MaWRKY33, MaWRKY60, and MaWRKY71 directly bound to the W-box elements in MaNCED1 and MaNCED2 promoters and activated their expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that banana fruit WRKY TFs are involved in ABA-induced cold tolerance by, at least in part, increasing ABA levels via directly activating NECD expressions.

  4. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  5. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000?y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations...

  6. Neural network model for growth of Salmonella serotypes in ground chicken subjected to temperature abuse during cold storage for application in HACCP and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of commercial software applications, it is now easy to develop neural network models for predictive microbiology applications. However, different versions of the model may be required to meet the divergent needs of model users. In the current study, the commercial software applicat...

  7. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  8. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  9. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  10. Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-09-05

    In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these \\'shaped like\\' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.

  11. Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Zhang, Jiayu; Achten, Eric; Serrai, Hacene

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these 'shaped like' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.

  12. Seismic micro-zoning in the alpine valleys and local application in urban planning regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Cartier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Confrontées au risque sismique, les vallées sédimentaires alpines testent différentes solutions politiques pour transcrire en règles d’urbanisme les connaissances apportées par les micro-zonages. France, Italie, Slovénie et Suisse composent avec leur tradition politique et l’adoption de codes européens pour améliorer la sécurité selon la vulnérabilité et la géologie locales.Management of earthquake risks in the sedimentary valleys of the Alps depends on the ability to transcribe scientific knowledge obtained from micro-zoning into urban planning regulations. France, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland are working with new European codes, and within their respective political contexts, to improve earthquake safety on the basis of enhanced input on local geological conditions and vulnerability levels.

  13. Computational modeling of local hemodynamics phenomena: methods, tools and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponzini, R.; Rizzo, G.; Vergara, C.; Veneziani, A.; Morbiducci, U.; Montevecchi, F.M.; Redaelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local hemodynamics plays a key role in the onset of vessel wall pathophysiology, with peculiar blood flow structures (i.e. spatial velocity profiles, vortices, re-circulating zones, helical patterns and so on) characterizing the behavior of specific vascular districts. Thanks to the evolving technologies on computer sciences, mathematical modeling and hardware performances, the study of local hemodynamics can today afford also the use of a virtual environment to perform hypothesis testing, product development, protocol design and methods validation that just a couple of decades ago would have not been thinkable. Computational fluid dynamics (Cfd) appears to be more than a complementary partner to in vitro modeling and a possible substitute to animal models, furnishing a privileged environment for cheap fast and reproducible data generation.

  14. Characterization of Quantum Correlations with Local Dimension Constraints and Its Device-Independent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navascués

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future progress of semi-device-independent quantum information science depends crucially on our ability to bound the strength of the nonlocal correlations achievable with finite-dimensional quantum resources. In this work, we characterize quantum nonlocality under local dimension constraints via a complete hierarchy of semidefinite programming relaxations. In the bipartite case, we find that the first level of the hierarchy returns nontrivial bounds in all cases considered, allowing us to study nonlocality scenarios with four measurement settings on one side and twelve on the other in a normal desktop. In the tripartite case, we apply the hierarchy to derive a Bell-type inequality that can only be violated when each of the three parties has local dimension greater than 2, hence certifying three-dimensional tripartite entanglement in a device-independent way. Finally, we show how the new method can be trivially modified to detect nonseparable measurements in two-qubit scenarios.

  15. A Relative-Localization Algorithm Using Incomplete Pairwise Distance Measurements for Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Y. Foo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of localizing underwater assets involves the relative localization of each unit using only pairwise distance measurements, usually obtained from time-of-arrival or time-delay-of-arrival measurements. In the fluctuating underwater environment, a complete set of pair-wise distance measurements can often be difficult to acquire, thus hindering a straightforward closed-form solution in deriving the assets' relative coordinates. An iterative multidimensional scaling approach is presented based upon a weighted-majorization algorithm that tolerates missing or inaccurate distance measurements. Substantial modifications are proposed to optimize the algorithm, while the effects of refractive propagation paths are considered. A parametric study of the algorithm based upon simulation results is shown. An acoustic field-trial was then carried out, presenting field measurements to highlight the practical implementation of this algorithm.

  16. Detrended cross-correlation coefficient: Application to predict apoptosis protein subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunyun; Liu, Sanyang; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-12-01

    Apoptosis, or programed cell death, plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of an organism. Obtaining information on subcellular location of apoptosis proteins is very helpful for understanding the apoptosis mechanism. The prediction of subcellular localization of an apoptosis protein is still a challenging task, and existing methods mainly based on protein primary sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based method by using detrended cross-correlation (DCCA) coefficient of non-overlapping windows. Then a 190-dimensional (190D) feature vector is constructed on two widely used datasets: CL317 and ZD98, and support vector machine is adopted as classifier. To evaluate the proposed method, objective and rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on the two datasets. The results show that our approach offers a novel and reliable PSSM-based tool for prediction of apoptosis protein subcellular localization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conceptual design of HANARO cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Sim, Cheul Muu; Park, K. N.; Choi, Y. H.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the cold source is to increase the available neutron flux delivered to instruments at wavelength 4 ∼ 12 A. The major engineering targets of this CNS facility is established for a reach out of very high gain factors in consideration with the cold neutron flux, moderator, circulation loop, heat load, a simplicity of the maintenance of the facility, safety in the operation of the facility against the hydrogen explosion and a layout of a minimum physical interference with the present facilities. The cold source project has been divided into 5 phases: (1) pre-conceptual (2) conceptual design (3) Testing (4) detailed design and procurement (5) installation and operation. Although there is sometime overlap between the phases, in general, they are sequential. The pre-conceptual design and concept design of KCNS has been performed on elaborations of PNPI Russia and review by Technicatome, Air Liquid, CILAS France. In the design of cold neutron source, the characteristics of cold moderators have been studied to obtain the maximum gain of cold neutron, and the analysis for radiation heat, design of hydrogen system, vacuum system and helium system have been performed. The possibility for materialization of the concept in the proposed conceptual design has been reviewed in view of securing safety and installing at HANARO. Above all, the thermosiphon system to remove heat by circulation of sub-cooled two phase hydrogen has been selected so that the whole device could be installed in the reactor pool with the reduced volume. In order to secure safety, hydrogen safety has been considered on protection to prevent from hydrogen-oxygen reaction at explosion of hydrogen-oxygen e in the containment. A lay out of the installation, a maintenance and quality assurance program and a localization are included in this report. Requirements of user, regulatory, safety, operation, maintenance should be considered to be revised for detailed design, testing, installation

  18. Applications of the Local Algebras of Vector Fields to the Modelling of Physical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Bayak, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the local algebras of linear vector fields that can be used in the mathematical modelling of physical space by building the dynamical flows of vector fields on eight-dimensional cylindrical or toroidal manifolds. It is shown that the topological features of the vector fields obey the Dirac equation when moving freely within the surface of a pseudo-sphere in the eight-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.

  19. Indoor Localization of a Quadrotor Based on WSN: A Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Rullan-Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time localization algorithm is presented in this paper. The algorithm presented here uses an extended Kalman filter and is based on Time Difference Of Arrivals (TDOA measurements of radio signal. The position and velocity of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are successfully estimated in closed-loop in real-time, both in hover and path following flights. Relatively small position errors obtained from the experiments prove the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  20. A Potential Reduction Method for Canonical Duality, with an Application to the Sensor Network Localization Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    We propose to solve large instances of the non-convex optimization problems reformulated with canonical duality theory. To this aim we propose an interior point potential reduction algorithm based on the solution of the primal-dual total complementarity (Lagrange) function. We establish the global convergence result for the algorithm under mild assumptions and demonstrate the method on instances of the Sensor Network Localization problem. Our numerical results are promising and show the possi...

  1. On the applicability of local approaches for the determination of the failure behavior of ductile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Eisele, U.; Seidenfuss, M.

    1992-01-01

    The strength and deformation behavior of specimens and components is, on one hand, influenced by the local state of stress and strain and, on the other hand by the chemical composition and the microstructure of the material used. Using two different steels it was investigated in how far it is possible to predict the failure behavior of specimens and components qualitatively and quantitatively by means of local approaches. For this purpose two methods differing considerably from the basic idea were chosen. For the description of the failure behavior so-called damage models were used. These damage models try to describe numerically the process developing microscopically and finally leading to fracture by means of continuum mechanical approaches in order to calculate the macroscopical failure behavior. The results show that for ductile materials the damage models allow a very accurate calculation of smooth and notched specimens and components. The efforts presently required for the calculation are however still very high. Analyses using fracture mechanics approaches (J-Integral) in combination with the local stress states (multiaxiality) were performed to describe the failure behavior. With this approach it was tried to calculate crack initiation and maximum load of precracked specimens and components. The fracture mechanics methods are to be preferred for cracked components if an engineering estimation of crack initiation and maximum load is required only, since the calculational efforts of the fracture mechanics methods are much lower than those of the damage models

  2. A Wireless Sensor Network with Soft Computing Localization Techniques for Track Cycling Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik Kamel; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2016-08-06

    In this paper, we propose two soft computing localization techniques for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The two techniques, Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), focus on a range-based localization method which relies on the measurement of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the three ZigBee anchor nodes distributed throughout the track cycling field. The soft computing techniques aim to estimate the distance between bicycles moving on the cycle track for outdoor and indoor velodromes. In the first approach the ANFIS was considered, whereas in the second approach the ANN was hybridized individually with three optimization algorithms, namely Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), and Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA). The results revealed that the hybrid GSA-ANN outperforms the other methods adopted in this paper in terms of accuracy localization and distance estimation accuracy. The hybrid GSA-ANN achieves a mean absolute distance estimation error of 0.02 m and 0.2 m for outdoor and indoor velodromes, respectively.

  3. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are −0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions. (paper)

  4. Application of Learning Methods to Local Electric Field Distributions in Defected Dielectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kim; Jones, Dumont

    2014-03-01

    Local electric fields reflect the structural and dielectric fluctuations in a semiconductor, and affect the material performance both for electron transport and carrier lifetime properties. In this paper, we use the LOCALF methodology with periodic boundary conditions to examine the local electric field distributions and its perturbations for II-VI (CdTe, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te) semiconductors, containing Te inclusions and small fluctuations in the local dielectric susceptibility. With inclusion of the induced-field term, the electric field distribution shows enhancements and diminishments compared to the macroscopic applied field, reflecting the microstructure characteristics of the dielectric. Learning methods are applied to these distributions to assess the spatial extent of the perturbation, and determine an electric field defined defect size as compared to its physical dimension. Critical concentrations of defects are assessed in terms of defect formation energies. This work was supported by the US Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, under competitively awarded contract/IAA HSHQDC-08-X-00872-e. This support does not constitute an express or implied endorsement on the part of the Gov't.

  5. Applicability and Effectiveness of Closed Reduction of Nasal Fractures under Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilela, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A significant portion of patients treated in emergency departments have nasal fracture. It is important that the otolaryngologist know how to treat such damage. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of nasal fracture reduction under local anesthesia and tolerance to the procedure. Methods Twenty-four patients treated in the emergency department with closed reduction under local anesthesia were prospectively followed. Epidemiologic information and data regarding pain and complications during the management were noted. The degree of satisfaction was researched by visual analog scale. Results The majority of patients were male (75%, and the most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident. We found a significant association between time to reduction and referred pain during the procedure. In patients in whom the procedure was delayed (over 3 days, there was less pain, and those who bled during the procedure had a shorter average time to reduction than the group of patients who did not bleed. Most patients were very satisfied, with more than 95% of these willing to undergo the same process again, if necessary. Conclusions The closed approach in the clinic under local anesthesia was effective and safe in restoration of the nose.

  6. Application of noise analysis for the study of core local instability at Forsmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Ritsuo

    1997-10-01

    Core local instability was recently experienced at Forsmark 1 BWR. The event has been studied by applying noise analysis to data collected in January 1997 for the stability test. The result indicated that there was a region in the left corner of the core which was subject to instability due to neutronic and thermal-hydraulic coupling. The result of the noise analysis suggested two types of disturbance source, one in the vicinity of the detector string LPRM10 having resonant oscillation at 0.5 Hz and another relatively wide band noise in the neighbourhood of LPRM18. Three hypotheses have been examined as the possible cause, operational factor, abnormal fuel assembly, and wide band low frequency disturbance. Although the real cause has not been made clear from the noise analysis, it is likely that the operational factor played an important role as the cause. Further investigations are expected to be performed in the future. In order to detect the local instability it is important to have a stability monitor with a capability of monitoring a sufficient number of LPRMs so as to cover the whole core. This is important since local instability is a type of anomaly which should not occur during reactor operation

  7. Calibration of a fluxgate magnetometer array and its application in magnetic object localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Luo, Shitu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-07-01

    The magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization. Calibration is important to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array. A magnetic sensor array built with four three-axis DM-050 fluxgate magnetometers is designed, which is connected by a cross aluminum frame. In order to improve the accuracy of the magnetometer array, a calibration process is presented. The calibration process includes magnetometer calibration, coordinate transformation and misalignment calibration. The calibration system consists of a magnetic sensor array, a GSM-19T proton magnetometer, a two-dimensional nonmagnetic rotation platform, a 12 V-dc portable power device and two portable computers. After magnetometer calibration, the RMS error has been decreased from an original value of 125.559 nT to a final value of 1.711 nT (a factor of 74). After alignment, the RMS error of misalignment has been decreased from 1322.3 to 6.0 nT (a factor of 220). Then, the calibrated array deployed on the nonmagnetic rotation platform is used for ferromagnetic object localization. Experimental results show that the estimated errors of X, Y and Z axes are -0.049 m, 0.008 m and 0.025 m, respectively. Thus, the magnetometer array is effective for magnetic object detection and localization in three dimensions.

  8. Applications of X-ray fluorescence holography to determine local lattice distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We summarized topics of X-ray fluorescence holography focused on the local lattice distortions. • We found details of behaviors of nearest neighbor atoms around dopants. • We found the average distributions of the atoms at the individual sites in mixed crystals. • Distorted and undistorted sires sometimes coexist in a same mixed crystal. - Abstract: X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for investigating atomic order up to the medium ranges, and can provide 3D atomic images around specific elements within a radius of nm order. In addition to these characteristics, XFH is sensitive to positional fluctuations of atoms, and therefore it is useful for characterizing the local lattice distortions around specific elements. We have applied XFH to dopants and mixed crystals. We found interesting features in local lattice distortions, such as the displacements of first-neighbor atoms around dopants, far-sighted views of the atomistic fluctuations in mixed crystals, and the coexistence of distorted/undistorted sites in the same material

  9. The need to be cold : cold warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2008-10-15

    This article discussed the changing climate of Ellesmere Island and the adaptation of the Inuit in response to the climate change, with particular reference to Canada's most northern community of Grise Fiord. Because of the changing climate, the vast northern landscape that the Inuit navigated for centuries by reading its subtle signs is becoming warmer, softer, and unpredictable. The geographic history and demographics of Grise Fiord were described. The community's main water supply comes from a glacier which is sinking. The negative impacts of ice shrinkage on this northern community and on the environment were presented. These included more international shipping through the Arctic, more resource exploration, a greater risk of environmental contamination, and reduced habitat for the polar bears and seals that eat, mate, and reproduce on the ice. Climate change impacts on the sea and sea ice were also discussed. Several photographs illustrating the changing climate were presented. The article noted that climate change could destroy the Inuit culture, making climate change an issue of human rights, notably the right to live connected to the land and the right to be cold. It was concluded that in one generation, Inuit were swept up by both a social and an economic upheaval. In one more generation, they will undergo an environmental shift. 13 figs.

  10. A local environment approach for deep-level defects in semiconductors: Application to the vacancy in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongliang; Lindefelt, U.

    1987-04-01

    A local environment approach for calculation of the electronic structure of localized defects in semiconductors is described. The method starts out from a description of localized orbitals or tight-binding model for semiconductors and is based on the recursion method of Haydock. A repeated symmetrical supercell containing 686 atoms plus defects is formed, both the translational and point-group symmetry of the crystal are fully exploited. In this paper, we report an application of this approach to an undistorted isolated vacancy by using a self-consistent Hamiltonian. A bound state of T 2 symmetry at 0.87 eV above the valence-band edge and a number of band resonances within the valence-band were extracted using Lanczos algorithm and a continued-fraction representation of the local density of states. It was found that the T 2 symmetry gap state is mainly p-like and most of the wavefunction for one of the A 1 symmetry resonances is concentrated on the vacant site and another concentrated on the first neighbors of the vacancy. From the small shifts of the band edges of silicon with a vacancy, we can conclude that the supercell is big enough and the interaction between the defects of different supercells is negligible. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs

  11. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  12. Progress with cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Johnson, I; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2006-01-01

    The creation of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations, working at CERN's unique Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility, has ushered in a new era in atomic physics. This contribution will briefly review recent results from the ATHENA experiment. These include discussions of antiproton slowing down in a cold positron gas during antihydrogen formation, information derived on the dependence of the antihydrogen formation rate upon the temperature of the stored positron plasma and, finally, upon the spatial distribution of the emitted anti-atoms. We will discuss the implications of these studies for the major outstanding goal of trapping samples of antihydrogen for precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. The physics motivations for undertaking these challenging experiments will be briefly recalled.

  13. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  14. Cold source economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, Serge.

    1975-01-01

    This computer code is intended for the statement of the general economic balance resulting from using a given cold source. The balance includes the investments needed for constructing the various materials, and also production balances resulting from their utilization. The case of either using an open circuit condenser on sea or river, or using air cooling systems with closed circuits or as auxiliaries can be dealt with. The program can be used to optimize the characteristics of the various parts of the cold source. The performance of the various materials can be evaluated for a given situation from using very full, precise economic balances, these materials can also be classified according to their possible uses, the outer constraints being taken into account (limits for heat disposal into rivers or seas, water temperature, air temperature). Technical choices whose economic consequences are important have been such clarified [fr

  15. Local morphologic scale: application to segmenting tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer TMAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Chandran, Sharat; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the concept and associated methodological framework for a novel locally adaptive scale notion called local morphological scale (LMS). Broadly speaking, the LMS at every spatial location is defined as the set of spatial locations, with associated morphological descriptors, which characterize the local structure or heterogeneity for the location under consideration. More specifically, the LMS is obtained as the union of all pixels in the polygon obtained by linking the final location of trajectories of particles emanating from the location under consideration, where the path traveled by originating particles is a function of the local gradients and heterogeneity that they encounter along the way. As these particles proceed on their trajectory away from the location under consideration, the velocity of each particle (i.e. do the particles stop, slow down, or simply continue around the object) is modeled using a physics based system. At some time point the particle velocity goes to zero (potentially on account of encountering (a) repeated obstructions, (b) an insurmountable image gradient, or (c) timing out) and comes to a halt. By using a Monte-Carlo sampling technique, LMS is efficiently determined through parallelized computations. LMS is different from previous local scale related formulations in that it is (a) not a locally connected sets of pixels satisfying some pre-defined intensity homogeneity criterion (generalized-scale), nor is it (b) constrained by any prior shape criterion (ball-scale, tensor-scale). Shape descriptors quantifying the morphology of the particle paths are used to define a tensor LMS signature associated with every spatial image location. These features include the number of object collisions per particle, average velocity of a particle, and the length of the individual particle paths. These features can be used in conjunction with a supervised classifier to correctly differentiate between two different object

  16. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  17. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  18. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    matching pre- calibrated amplifier • BEI Shaft Encoder (0.2 CAD) • Wolff Instrumented Injector The high speed data was recorded and post-processed by...14. ABSTRACT These fuels were used for testing a GEP 6.5L turbocharged V-8 diesel engine operation in a cold box. This engine architecture is...Z39.18 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A fuel’s cetane number is very important for the operation of modern diesel

  19. Generalized non-Local Resistance Expression and its Application in F/N/F Spintronic Structure with Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei

    We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.

  20. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  1. Application of Cold-Induced Aggregation Microextraction Based on Ionic Liquid for Determination of Trace Amount of Cadmium and Lead in Powder Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cold-induced aggregation micro extraction based (CIAME based on ionic liquid was used as a rapid and simple method for determination trace amounts of cadmium and lead in milk powder by analysis with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Methods: Sample solution containing of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in dynamic range, phosphate buffer (pH = 9, 3 ml, diethyl dithiocarbamate (complexing agent, Triton X-100, NaPF6 ,[HMIM][PF6] (extraction solvent were transferred into conical bottom glass tube. Sample was kept in a thermostated bath and then ice bath; a cloudy solution was formed. Two phases separated by centrifugation. After removing of aqueous phase, IL-phase was dissolved in methanol and diluted was injected to the FAAS by microsampler introduction. Results: ILs, containing imidazoliumcation and hexafluoro phosphate anion, [HMIM][PF6](70mg, 200 mg NaPF6 ,0.01 mol.L-1 DDTC, 0.015% of Triton X-100 obtained, pH 9 and centrifuge time; 5 min (4000 rmp was chosen. Detection limit were obtained 0.12 µgL-1, 1.61µgL-1, RSD 0.95%, 2.2% and enrichment factor of 70, 67 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusion: CIAME allows determination of cadmium and lead in real samples in a simple, rapid and safe method with only a small amount of ionic liquid was used. In comparison with the organic solvent extraction, CIAME is much safer and the determination of species in high ionic strength samples is possible.

  2. [Isolation of an excellent bio-flocculant-producing strain and its application in the treatment of cold-rolling waste oily water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guo-Yuan; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yang, Jia-Xuan

    2011-09-01

    An excellent strain (designated as T-3) which produces bio-flocculants was isolated from soil samples, and identified as Klebsiella sp. species based on the analysis of morphology, physiology and biochemistry and 16S rDNA sequences measurement. The effects of culture conditions such as pH values, temperature, carbon sources and nitrogen sources on bio-flocculants production by T-3 strain were studied. The experiment results show that T-3 strain has better adaptability to carbon sources and nitrogen sources, and higher capacity of bio-flocculants was obtained when the initial pH value of culture and temperature were 9 and 25 degrees C respectively. Based on the colorimetric reactions of proteins and polysaccharide substance, ultraviolet scanning analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, it is found that the bio-flocculants produced by T-3 strain contains -OH and -COO(-) groups and belongs to anionic type flocculant. Moreover, the main component is polysaccharides. The treatment of oily cold-rolling wastewater by the bio-flocculant was investigated and the better result was obtained. When the dosages of CaCl2, bio-flocculants and poly aluminium chloride were 4 g x L(-1), 10% (volume fraction) and 1 g x L(-1) respectively, and the pH value was 7.0, the oil concentration, COD and turbidity were decreased to 10 mg x L(-1), 218.4 mg x L(-1) and 1.36 from 4 819 mg x L(-1), 28 456.8 mg x L(-1) and 3 950 with the removal efficiencies of 99.79%, 92.32% and 99.97% respectively. The interaction between flocculant and oily droplets is achieved by the interaction of Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond and the bridged coordination of Ca2+, in which the bridged coordination of Ca2+ is the dominant.

  3. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  4. Objective local weather types with applications on urban air pollution and on mortality with chronicle illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Janos; Ivady, Anett; Fulop, Andrea; Makra, László

    2010-05-01

    Synoptic climatology i.e. classification of the endless variability of the everyday weather states according to the pressure configuration and frontal systems relative to the point, or region of interest has long history in meteorology. Its logical alternative, i.e. classification of weather according to the observed local weather elements was less popular until the recent times when the numerical weather forecasts became able to outline not only the synoptic situation, but the near-surface meteorological variables, as well. Nowadays the computer-based statistical facilities are able to operate with matrices of multivariate diurnal samples, as well. The paper presents an attempt to define a set of local weather types using point-wise series at five rural stations, Szombathely, Pécs, Budapest, Szeged és Debrecen in the 1961-1990 reference period. Ten local variables are used, i.e. the diurnal mean temperature, the diurnal temperature range; the cloudiness, the sunshine duration, the water vapour pressure, the precipitation in a logarithmic scale, also differing trace (below 0.1 mm) and no precipitation, the relative humidity and wind speed, including the more extremity indicators of the two latter parameters, i.e. number of hours with over 80 % relative humidity and over 15 m/s wind gusts. Factor analysis of these ten variables was performed leading to 5 fairly independent variables retained for cluster analysis to obtain the local weather types. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to classify the 840-930 days within each month of the 30 years period. Furthers neighbour approach was preferred based on Euclidean metrics to establish optimum number of types. The 12 months and the 5 stations exhibited slightly different results but the optimum number of the types was always between 4 and 12 which is a quite reasonable number from practical considerations. According to a further reasonable compromise, the common number of the types not too bad in either

  5. Application of a three-microneedle device for the delivery of local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayoko Ishikawa,1 Hidekazu Fukamizu,1 Tetsuya Takiguchi,1 Yusuke Ohta,1 Yoshiki Tokura2 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan Purpose: We investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed device for the delivery of local anesthetics in the treatment of axillary osmidrosis and hyperhidrosis. We developed a device with three fine, stainless steel needles fabricated with a bevel angle facing outside (“three-microneedle device” [TMD] to release a drug broadly and homogeneously into tissue in the horizontal plane. Use of this device could reduce the risk of complications when transcutaneous injections are undertaken.Patients and methods: Sixteen Japanese patients were enrolled. The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area needed to elicit anesthesia when using a TMD was compared with that the volume required when using a conventional 27-gauge needle. The visual analog scale (VAS score of needlestick pain and injection-associated pain was also compared.Results: The mean volume of lidocaine hydrochloride per unit area to elicit anesthesia using the TMD was significantly lower than that the volume required when using the conventional 27-gauge needle. The VAS score of needlestick pain for the TMD was significantly lower than that the VAS score for the 27-gauge needle.Conclusion: These data suggest that the TMD could be useful for the delivery of local anesthetics in terms of clinical efficacy and avoidance of adverse effects. Keywords: three-microneedle device, transcutaneous drug delivery, local anesthesia, lidocaine, pain

  6. Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), with application to hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.; Clark, M. P.; Weerts, A. H.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid local-global sensitivity analysis method termed the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), which is used here to identify important and unimportant parameters and evaluate how model parameter importance changes as parameter values change. DELSA uses derivative-based "local" methods to obtain the distribution of parameter sensitivity across the parameter space, which promotes consideration of sensitivity analysis results in the context of simulated dynamics. This work presents DELSA, discusses how it relates to existing methods, and uses two hydrologic test cases to compare its performance with the popular global, variance-based Sobol' method. The first test case is a simple nonlinear reservoir model with two parameters. The second test case involves five alternative "bucket-style" hydrologic models with up to 14 parameters applied to a medium-sized catchment (200 km2) in the Belgian Ardennes. Results show that in both examples, Sobol' and DELSA identify similar important and unimportant parameters, with DELSA enabling more detailed insight at much lower computational cost. For example, in the real-world problem the time delay in runoff is the most important parameter in all models, but DELSA shows that for about 20% of parameter sets it is not important at all and alternative mechanisms and parameters dominate. Moreover, the time delay was identified as important in regions producing poor model fits, whereas other parameters were identified as more important in regions of the parameter space producing better model fits. The ability to understand how parameter importance varies through parameter space is critical to inform decisions about, for example, additional data collection and model development. The ability to perform such analyses with modest computational requirements provides exciting opportunities to evaluate complicated models as well as many alternative models.

  7. Computational applications of the thermodynamic local potential: The case of pattern forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.Z.

    1986-09-01

    Using the thermodynamic local potential Φ a single variational principle may be formulated for a broad class of pattern formation phenomena (this class contains patterns which are: macroscopic, possess steady states, are degenerate at least with respect to one parameter, approach the steady state via fluctuations in the coarsely grained (macroscopic) phase space and so have no memory of the initial conditions). When a steady state is reached Φ assumes its minimum value with respect to distribution function and a maximum with respect to the actually assumed values of free parameters. (author)

  8. Application of empirical mode decomposition with local linear quantile regression in financial time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Abobaker M; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Altaher, Alsaidi M

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly forecasts the daily closing price of stock markets. We propose a two-stage technique that combines the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with nonparametric methods of local linear quantile (LLQ). We use the proposed technique, EMD-LLQ, to forecast two stock index time series. Detailed experiments are implemented for the proposed method, in which EMD-LPQ, EMD, and Holt-Winter methods are compared. The proposed EMD-LPQ model is determined to be superior to the EMD and Holt-Winter methods in predicting the stock closing prices.

  9. Buckling of Actin-Coated Membranes under Application of a Local Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfer, E.; Harlepp, S.; Bourdieu, L.; Robert, J.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Chatenay, D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composite membranes obtained by self-assembly of actin filaments with giant fluid vesicles are studied by micromanipulation with optical tweezers. These complexes exhibit typical mechanical features of a solid shell, including a finite in-plane shear elastic modulus (∼10 -6 N /m). A buckling instability is observed when a localized force of the order of 0.5pN is applied perpendicular to the membrane plane. Although predicted for polymerized vesicles, this is the first evidence of such an instability

  10. The results of local radiation application at organ-reserving treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimova, T.P.; Ponomar'ov, Yi.M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the given study is the clinical morphological investigation of the breast cancer pre-operation radiotherapy effectiveness by the proposed method, and its influence to the apoptosis. The clinical morphological investigation has been carried out in 28 breast cancer patients, the treatment of which has been began with the pre-operation radiation therapy course by the dose large fractionating method on the breast gland with the local tumor radiation, inguinal lymph glands with the next execution of the organ-preserving operation. We can draw a conclusion, that this very method is effective, as it devitalizes the tumors, and gives the enough high indicator of survival

  11. Locally optimal control under unknown dynamics with learnt cost function: application to industrial robot positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Joris; Gibaru, Olivier; Thiery, Stéphane; Nyiri, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Recent methods of Reinforcement Learning have enabled to solve difficult, high dimensional, robotic tasks under unknown dynamics using iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian control theory. These algorithms are based on building a local time-varying linear model of the dynamics from data gathered through interaction with the environment. In such tasks, the cost function is often expressed directly in terms of the state and control variables so that it can be locally quadratized to run the algorithm. If the cost is expressed in terms of other variables, a model is required to compute the cost function from the variables manipulated. We propose a method to learn the cost function directly from the data, in the same way as for the dynamics. This way, the cost function can be defined in terms of any measurable quantity and thus can be chosen more appropriately for the task to be carried out. With our method, any sensor information can be used to design the cost function. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method through simulating, with the V-REP software, the learning of a Cartesian positioning task on several industrial robots with different characteristics. The robots are controlled in joint space and no model is provided a priori. Our results are compared with another model free technique, consisting in writing the cost function as a state variable.

  12. Diffusion in the presence of a local attracting factor: Theory and interdisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veermäe, Hardi; Patriarca, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In many complex diffusion processes the drift of random walkers is not caused by an external force, as in the case of Brownian motion, but by local variations of fitness perceived by the random walkers. In this paper, a simple but general framework is presented that describes such a type of random motion and may be of relevance in different problems, such as opinion dynamics, cultural spreading, and animal movement. To this aim, we study the problem of a random walker in d dimensions moving in the presence of a local heterogeneous attracting factor expressed in terms of an assigned position-dependent "attractiveness function." At variance with standard Brownian motion, the attractiveness function introduced here regulates both the advection and diffusion of the random walker, thus providing testable predictions for a specific form of fluctuation-relations. We discuss the relation between the drift-diffusion equation based on the attractiveness function and that describing standard Brownian motion, and we provide some explicit examples illustrating its relevance in different fields, such as animal movement, chemotactic diffusion, and social dynamics.

  13. Construction of an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer and the applications in geomagnetic observation and ferromagnetic target localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Liu, Z.; Ge, J.; Bai, B.; Zhang, C.

    2017-10-01

    The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.

  14. INDOOR LOCALIZATION USING WI-FI BASED FINGERPRINTING AND TRILATERATION TECHIQUES FOR LBS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen wide spread adoption of outdoor positioning services, mainly GPS, being incorporated into everyday devices such as smartphones and tablets. While outdoor positioning has been well received by the public, its indoor counterpart has been mostly limited to private use due to its higher costs and complexity for setting up the proper environment. The objective of this research is to provide an affordable mean for indoor localization using wireless local area network (WLAN Wi-Fi technology. We combined two different Wi-Fi approaches to locate a user. The first method involves the use of matching the pre-recorded received signal strength (RSS from nearby access points (AP, to the data transmitted from the user on the fly. This is commonly known as "fingerprint matching". The second approach is a distance-based trilateration approach using three known AP coordinates detected on the user's device to derive the position. The combination of the two steps enhances the accuracy of the user position in an indoor environment allowing location-based services (LBS such as mobile augmented reality (MAR to be deployed more effectively in the indoor environment. The mapping of the RSS map can also prove useful to IT planning personnel for covering locations with no Wi-Fi coverage (ie. dead spots. The experiments presented in this research helps provide a foundation for the integration of indoor with outdoor positioning to create a seamless transition experience for users.

  15. Surface temperature and evapotranspiration: application of local scale methods to regional scales using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, B.; Courault, D.; Guerif, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperatures have proven useful for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) rates and crop water use because of their direct relationship with sensible and latent energy exchange processes. Procedures for using the thermal infrared (IR) obtained with hand-held radiometers deployed at ground level are now well established and even routine for many agricultural research and management purposes. The availability of IR from meteorological satellites at scales from 1 km (NOAA-AVHRR) to 5 km (METEOSAT) permits extension of local, ground-based approaches to larger scale crop monitoring programs. Regional observations of surface minus air temperature (i.e., the stress degree day) and remote estimates of daily ET were derived from satellite data over sites in France, the Sahel, and North Africa and summarized here. Results confirm that similar approaches can be applied at local and regional scales despite differences in pixel size and heterogeneity. This article analyzes methods for obtaining these data and outlines the potential utility of satellite data for operational use at the regional scale. (author)

  16. Indoor Localization Using Wi-Fi Based Fingerprinting and Trilateration Techiques for Lbs Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Sohn, G.

    2012-06-01

    The past few years have seen wide spread adoption of outdoor positioning services, mainly GPS, being incorporated into everyday devices such as smartphones and tablets. While outdoor positioning has been well received by the public, its indoor counterpart has been mostly limited to private use due to its higher costs and complexity for setting up the proper environment. The objective of this research is to provide an affordable mean for indoor localization using wireless local area network (WLAN) Wi-Fi technology. We combined two different Wi-Fi approaches to locate a user. The first method involves the use of matching the pre-recorded received signal strength (RSS) from nearby access points (AP), to the data transmitted from the user on the fly. This is commonly known as "fingerprint matching". The second approach is a distance-based trilateration approach using three known AP coordinates detected on the user's device to derive the position. The combination of the two steps enhances the accuracy of the user position in an indoor environment allowing location-based services (LBS) such as mobile augmented reality (MAR) to be deployed more effectively in the indoor environment. The mapping of the RSS map can also prove useful to IT planning personnel for covering locations with no Wi-Fi coverage (ie. dead spots). The experiments presented in this research helps provide a foundation for the integration of indoor with outdoor positioning to create a seamless transition experience for users.

  17. Localized-itinerant magnetism: a simple model with applications to intermetallic of heavy rare-earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke Perlingueiro, P.J. von.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated various magnetic quantities of a system consisting of conduction electrons coupled to localized spins. In obtaining the magnetic state equations (which relate the ionic and electronic magnetisations to temperature and the model parameters) we have adopted the molecular field approximation. This simple model is of interest to the magnetism of the heavy rare earth intermettallics. For these systems the localized spin is that of the 4f shell; it is described by the parameters g (the Lande's factor) and J (the total angular momentum of the 4f electrons in the ground state). We derive an analytical linear relation between the critical temperature and The Gennes Factors J(J+1)(g-1) which is experimentally observed for RAl 2 . A fitting between the experimental points and the theoretical prediction gives for the exchange parameter the value J o = 48.6 meV. We have also performed a parametric study of the model, using a rectangular energy density of states. The results are shown on tables and diagrams. (author) [pt

  18. Construction of an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer and the applications in geomagnetic observation and ferromagnetic target localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Ge, J.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z.; Bai, B.

    2017-01-01

    The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.

  19. Relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation theory and applications to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.Z.

    1984-01-01

    A time-dependent linear-response theory appropriate to the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA) to quantum electrodynamics (QED) is developed. The resulting theory, the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation (RTDLDA) is specialized to the treatment of electric excitations in closed-shell atoms. This formalism is applied to the calculation of atomic photoionization parameters in the dipole approximation. The static-field limit of the RTDLDA is applied to the calculation of dipole polarizabilities. Extensive numerical calculations of the photoionization parameters for the rare gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and for mercury from the RTDLDA are presented and compared in detail with the results of other theories, in particular the relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and with experimental measurements. The predictions of the RTDLDA are comparable with the RRPA calculations made to date. This is remarkable in that the RTDLDA entails appreciably less computational effort. Finally, the dipole polarizabilities predicted by the static-field RTDLDA are compared with other determinations of these quantities. In view of its simplicity, the static-field RTDLDA demonstrates itself to be one of the most powerful theories available for the calculation of dipole polarizabilities

  20. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    for the first time. The rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport was also visualized using high-speed SPORT with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause. To improve the localization precision of the SPT technique with DIC microscopy, a precise three-dimensional (3D) localization method of spherical gold nanoparticle probes using model-based correlation coefficient mapping was introduced. To accomplish this, a stack of sample images at different z-positions are acquired, and a 3D intensity profile of the probe serving as the model is used to map out the positions of nanoparticles in the sample. By using this model-based correlation imaging method, precise localization can be achieved in imaging techniques with complicated point spread functions (PSF) such as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The 3D superlocalization method was applied to tracking gold nanospheres during live endocytosis events. Finally, a novel dual-modality imaging technique has been developed to super-localize a single gold nanorod while providing its orientation and rotational information. The super-localization of the gold nanorod can be accomplished by curve fitting the modified bright-field images generated by one of the two beams laterally shifted by the first Nomarski prism in a DIC microscope. The orientation and rotational information is derived from the DIC images of gold nanorods. The new imaging setup has been applied to study the

  1. Downscaling global precipitation for local applications - a case for the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; van Verseveld, Willem; Schellekens, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU FP7 project eartH2Observe a global Water Resources Re-analysis (WRR) is being developed. This re-analysis consists of meteorological and hydrological water balance variables with global coverage, spanning the period 1979-2014 at 0.25 degrees resolution (Schellekens et al., 2016). The dataset can be of special interest in regions with limited in-situ data availability, yet for local scale analysis particularly in mountainous regions, a resolution of 0.25 degrees may be too coarse and downscaling the data to a higher resolution may be required. A downscaling toolbox has been made that includes spatial downscaling of precipitation based on the global WorldClim dataset that is available at 1 km resolution as a monthly climatology (Hijmans et al., 2005). The input of the down-scaling tool are either the global eartH2Observe WRR1 and WRR2 datasets based on the WFDEI correction methodology (Weedon et al., 2014) or the global Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) dataset (Beck et al., 2016). Here we present a validation of the datasets over the Rhine catchment by means of a distributed hydrological model (wflow, Schellekens et al., 2014) using a number of precipitation scenarios. (1) We start by running the model using the local reference dataset derived by spatial interpolation of gauge observations. Furthermore we use (2) the MSWEP dataset at the native 0.25-degree resolution followed by (3) MSWEP downscaled with the WorldClim dataset and final (4) MSWEP downscaled with the local reference dataset. The validation will be based on comparison of the modeled river discharges as well as rainfall statistics. We expect that down-scaling the MSWEP dataset with the WorldClim data to higher resolution will increase its performance. To test the performance of the down-scaling routine we have added a run with MSWEP data down-scaled with the local dataset and compare this with the run based on the local dataset itself. - Beck, H. E. et al., 2016. MSWEP

  2. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    for the first time. The rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport was also visualized using high-speed SPORT with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause. To improve the localization precision of the SPT technique with DIC microscopy, a precise three-dimensional (3D) localization method of spherical gold nanoparticle probes using model-based correlation coefficient mapping was introduced. To accomplish this, a stack of sample images at different z-positions are acquired, and a 3D intensity profile of the probe serving as the model is used to map out the positions of nanoparticles in the sample. By using this model-based correlation imaging method, precise localization can be achieved in imaging techniques with complicated point spread functions (PSF) such as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The 3D superlocalization method was applied to tracking gold nanospheres during live endocytosis events. Finally, a novel dual-modality imaging technique has been developed to super-localize a single gold nanorod while providing its orientation and rotational information. The super-localization of the gold nanorod can be accomplished by curve fitting the modified bright-field images generated by one of the two beams laterally shifted by the first Nomarski prism in a DIC microscope. The orientation and rotational information is derived from the DIC images of gold nanorods. The new imaging setup has been applied to study

  3. Finger cold-induced vasodilation of older Korean female divers, haenyeo: effects of chronic cold exposure and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Koh, Eunsook; Cha, Seongwon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the local cold tolerance of older Korean female divers, haenyeo ( N = 22) in terms of cold acclimatization and ageing. As control groups, older non-diving females ( N = 25) and young females from a rural area ( N = 15) and an urban area ( N = 51) participated in this study. To evaluate local cold tolerance, finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during finger immersion of 4 °C water was examined. As a result, older haenyeos showed greater minimum finger temperature and recovery finger temperature than older non-diving females ( P < 0.05), but similar responses in onset time, peak time, maximum finger temperature, frequency of CIVD, heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal and pain sensations as those of older non-diving females. Another novel finding was that young urban females showed more vulnerable responses to local cold in CIVD variables and subjective sensations when compared to older females, whereas young rural females had the most excellent cold tolerance in terms of maximum temperature and frequency of CIVD among the four groups ( P < 0.05). The present results imply that older haenyeos still retain cold acclimatized features on the periphery even though they changed their cotton diving suits to wet suits in the early 1980s. However, cardiovascular responses and subjective sensations to cold reflect aging effects. In addition, we suggest that young people who have been adapted to highly insulated clothing and indoor heating systems in winter should be distinguished from young people who were exposed to less modern conveniences when compared to the aged in terms of cold tolerance.

  4. Supervised Kernel Optimized Locality Preserving Projection with Its Application to Face Recognition and Palm Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kernel Locality Preserving Projection (KLPP algorithm can effectively preserve the neighborhood structure of the database using the kernel trick. We have known that supervised KLPP (SKLPP can preserve within-class geometric structures by using label information. However, the conventional SKLPP algorithm endures the kernel selection which has significant impact on the performances of SKLPP. In order to overcome this limitation, a method named supervised kernel optimized LPP (SKOLPP is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the class separability in kernel learning. The proposed method maps the data from the original space to a higher dimensional kernel space using a data-dependent kernel. The adaptive parameters of the data-dependent kernel are automatically calculated through optimizing an objective function. Consequently, the nonlinear features extracted by SKOLPP have larger discriminative ability compared with SKLPP and are more adaptive to the input data. Experimental results on ORL, Yale, AR, and Palmprint databases showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Distributed embedded controller development with petri nets application to globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moutinho, Filipe de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a model-based development approach for globally-asynchronous locally-synchronous distributed embedded controllers.  This approach uses Petri nets as modeling formalism to create platform and network independent models supporting the use of design automation tools.  To support this development approach, the Petri nets class in use is extended with time-domains and asynchronous-channels. The authors’ approach uses models not only providing a better understanding of the distributed controller and improving the communication among the stakeholders, but also to be ready to support the entire lifecycle, including the simulation, the verification (using model-checking tools), the implementation (relying on automatic code generators), and the deployment of the distributed controller into specific platforms. Uses a graphical and intuitive modeling formalism supported by design automation tools; Enables verification, ensuring that the distributed controller was correctly specified; Provides flex...

  6. Locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks: theory and application to scene segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, DeLiang; Terman, David

    1995-01-01

    A novel class of locally excitatory, globally inhibitory oscillator networks (LEGION) is proposed and investigated analytically and by computer simulation. The model of each oscillator corresponds to a standard relaxation oscillator with two time scales. The network exhibits a mechanism of selective gating, whereby an oscillator jumping up to its active phase rapidly recruits the oscillators stimulated by the same pattern, while preventing other oscillators from jumping up. We show analytically that with the selective gating mechanism the network rapidly achieves both synchronization within blocks of oscillators that are stimulated by connected regions and desynchronization between different blocks. Computer simulations demonstrate LEGION's promising ability for segmenting multiple input patterns in real time. This model lays a physical foundation for the oscillatory correlation theory of feature binding, and may provide an effective computational framework for scene segmentation and figure/ground segregation.

  7. LOCAL APPLICATION OF RECOMBINANT INTERFERON-ALFA2 FOR TREATMENT OF RECURRENT RESPIRATORY PAPILLOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plouzhnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP is the most frequently occurring tumour of the upper airways associated with a human papilloma virus (HPV. The aim of this study was to reveal some features of systemic and local immunity in RRP, to investigate clinical and immunological efficiency of local treatment with recombinant interferon-α (rIFNα, and to determine clinical and laboratory indications to it’s administration. The study included forty-one patients with confirmed RRP. Their examination included histological examination of papillomas, detection of HPV DNA in papilloma tissues using PCR technique, phenotyping of circulating lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD25+, HLA-DR+ by means of flow cytometry. The levels of IFNγ, TNFα, GM-CSF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 in laryngeal secretions were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay. In all cases, we revealed an initially decreased functional activity of Т-lymphocytes, as well as low contents of Т-killer and NK-cells. In laryngeal secretions, increased values of Th1-type-specific cytokines (IFNγ and TNFα were found. Besides that, high levels of local IL-4 were detected thus being typical to alternative Th2-type response. Single inhalations 1000 000 ME of «Interal» or «Roferon» preparations were administered daily (a total of 10-15 millions ME per therapeutic course. Thirteen patients received the treatment after surgery, as an adjuvant therapy, and eleven patients underwent monotherapy. Complete tumor regression of tumors following this monotherapy was observed in 45,5% of the patients, whereas partial regression was registered in 45%. The effect was mostly expressed in frequently recurring juvenile papillomatosis with aggressive course and histological pattern of actively proliferating papilloma. In the patients with complete tumor regression, high initial levels of TNFα and IL-4/IFNг ratios were revealed initially in laryngeal secretions. When rIFNб was

  8. The Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application for Noise Removal in Localized Corrosion Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses the problem of induced external electrical noise as well as its removal from the electrical potential obtained from Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET in the pitting corrosion process of aluminum alloy A96061 in 3.5% NaCl. An accessible and efficient solution of this problem is presented with the use of virtual instrumentation (VI, embedded systems, and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT. The DWT is a computational algorithm for digital processing that allows obtaining electrical noise with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR superior to those obtained with Lock-In Amplifier equipment. The results show that DWT and the threshold method are efficient and powerful alternatives to carry out electrical measurements of potential signals from localized corrosion processes measured by SVET.

  9. The core pipeline equipment localization process and application prospects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the economic efficiency of gas pipelines, core equipment such as compressor sets and large-diameter valves must be localized. For this purpose, in alliance with other related enterprises, PetroChina Company Limited established an equipment localization R&D system and a new product testing system and successfully developed a 20 MW class motor-driven compressor set, a 30 MW-class gas turbine-driven compressor unit, and a high-pressure and large-diameter welded ball valve. First, the motor-driven compressor R&D focuses on three main units. The developed frequency-control device structure is a cascaded multilevel with a capacity of 25 MVA. The developed anti-explosion dynamo with a motor speed of 4800 rpm can produce a power of 22 MW. The developed compressor is PCL800 with features of a high efficiency and a wide flow-operating point-adjustment range. Second, there are two steps of the R&D of a GT-driven compressor unit (product A + product B: auxiliary supporting systems and control systems are developed for the imported GT25000 gas turbine, together with China-made compressors, to constitute product A; simultaneously, the R&D of product B of a gas turbine is carried out, which would replace the imported one. Third, aiming to solve the problems of sealing and welding, we developed the high-pressure and large-diameter all-welded ball valves in full replace of the same kind of imported products with three different sizes: NPS40 Class 600, NPS48 Class 600, and NPS48 Class 900.

  10. Localization of Hsp27 in the Rat Submandibular Gland Following the Application of Various Surgical Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobe, Kenichi; Kawabe, Yoshihiro; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Araki, Hisao; Amano, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Salivary glands repair and regenerate following various types of injuries and surgical procedures. However, the tissue responses induced in the contralateral glands have yet to be elucidated in detail. Hsp27, a member of the heat-shock protein (Hsp) family, is strongly expressed in physiological environments, particularly during development. Hsp27 was previously shown to play a role in the regulation of acinar cell proliferation and differentiation in the rat submandibular gland. The present study performed the following surgical treatments on the right submandibular glands of adult rats: 1) duct ligation followed by unligation after one week; 2) partial sialoadenectomy; and 3) total sialoadenectomy. Immunohistochemistry for Hsp27 and Ki67 was performed in the experimental and normal contralateral glands, and localization was histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The results obtained revealed the localization of Hsp27 to the intercalated duct in the submandibular glands of non-treated rats. The expression of Hsp27 was strongly induced in both the uninjured contralateral control glands as well as treated glands of experimental rats regardless of the surgical procedure performed. The number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells increased rapidly following surgery, and subsequently returned to the same level as that in non-treated rats after 4 weeks. However, no marked changes were observed in the number of Ki67-immunopositive proliferating cells. Therefore, the change in the number of Hsp27-immunopositive cells may have contributed to compensatory hypertrophy. The results of the present study indicate that the expression of Hsp27 in the intercalated duct in the submandibular gland may play a role in the differentiation of acinar cells

  11. Application of magnetic source imaging in localizing the epileptic foci in patients with grey matter heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jilin; Wu Jie; Jia Xiuchuan; Li Sumin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of magnetic source imaging (MSI) in localizing the epileptic foci of patients with histologically proved grey matter heterotopia (GMH) and seizure. Methods: MSI examinations were performed on 8 patients with GMH and seizure. The location of the epileptic foci defined by MSI was compared with the results of the ECoG. After imaging examinations, all patients received operation with 13-48 months follow up to observe the effectiveness of the operation. Results: Among the 8 patients, 1 had hippocampal sclerosis, 2 had focal cortical dysplasia of type Ⅰ B and 1 had focal cortical dysplasia of type Ⅱ B. MRI showed normal findings in 2 cases, subcortical heterotopia in 4 cases, and nodular heterotopia in 2 cases with one having schizencephaly. The epileptic foci defined by MSI were at right temporal lobe in 2 cases, left frontal lobe in 2 cases, biparietal lobe in 1 case, left parietal lobe in 1 case, left temporal lobe in 1 case, and left frontal-parietal lobe in 1 case. The epileptic foci defined by MSI were completely overlaid with area of GMH in 4 cases, closely behind the area of GMH in case, and partly overlaid with area of CMH in 1 cases with size larger than that of the latter. One patient showed two epileptic foci with one located within the area of GMH and the other one 2 centimeters anterior to the area of GMH. One case's epileptic focus located 2 centimeters posteolateral to the area of GMH. The locations of the epileptic foci defined by MSI showed no difference with those defined by ECoG in all patients. According to Engel classification of treatment effect of epilepsy, 6 patients achieved Engle class Ⅰ ( seizure free after operation), and 2 patients Engel class Ⅳ (no changes in the frequency of occurrence of seizures before and after operation). Conclusion: MSI can noninvasively and precisely localize the epileptic foci before operation in patients with GMH and seizure. (authors)

  12. Clinical application of synthesized brain surface imaging for preoperative simulation of brain biopsy under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yuko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Imai, Fumihiro; Fujisawa, Kazuhisa; Takeshita, Gen; Kanno, Tetsuo; Koga, Sukehiko

    1994-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) is the technique which permits the direct visualization of brain surface structures, including cortical sulci, guri, subcortical lesions as well as skin markings for craniotomy. A synthesized brain surface image is a technique that combines MR angiography (MRA) with SAS, and it proposed by us for detecting cerebral superficial veins with these surface structures on the same image. The purpose of this report is to present the result of applying the synthesized brain surface image to the preoperative simulation of biopsy under local anesthesia in 2 cases of multiple metastatic brain tumors. The parameters for SAS were TR/TE=50/40 msec, flip angle=60deg by the fast T 2 technique using refocused FID in steady-state (STERF technique). SAS images were processed by gray scale reversal. The MRA data were acquired with two-dimensional time of flight (TOF) sequence after intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA. Before imaging, the water-filled plastic tubes were placed on the patients scalp as markings for craniotomy. Their positions were planned by the neurosurgeons. On SAS, the markings for burr-hole appeared located above the tumors. However on the synthesized brain surface images, the positions of burr-hole were considered to be inadequate, since superficial cerebral vein and sinus were also visualized in the area of the markings. From these results, the positions of burr-hole were reset to avoid the venous structures, and so as to include the lesions in operations. The biopsies were performed successfully and safely because the venous structure could be excluded from the operative field. By this technique it was easy to confirm the relationships among lesions, skin markings and venous structures. The technique described appears to be a useful method for preoperative simulation of biopsies for multiple metastatic brain tumors under local anesthesia. (author)

  13. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The manufature of components in steel, aluminium and copper alloys by cold forging production has increased ever since the 1950's. Typical processes are forward rod extrusion and backward can extrusion, upsetting, ironing, tube extrusion and radial extrusion. The tribological conditions in cold...... forging are extremely severe due to large surface expansion and normal pressure in the tool/workpiece interface combined with elevated tool temperatures. Except for the more simple cold forging operations successful production therefore requires advanced lubrication systems. The present paper gives...... a detailed description of the state of art for lubricant systems for cold forging of C-steels and low alloy steels as well as aluminium alloys including all the basic operations such as cleaning of the slugs, application of eventual conversion coating and lubrication. As regards cold forging of steel...

  14. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  15. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  16. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, M. Bobby; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating

  17. Airborne DoA estimation of gunshot acoustic signals using drones with application to sniper localization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rigel P.; Ramos, António L. L.; Apolinário, José A.

    2017-05-01

    Shooter localization systems have been subject of a growing attention lately owing to its wide span of possible applications, e.g., civil protection, law enforcement, and support to soldiers in missions where snipers might pose a serious threat. These devices are based on the processing of electromagnetic or acoustic signatures associated with the firing of a gun. This work is concerned with the latter, where the shooter's position can be obtained based on the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DoA) of the acoustic components of a gunshot signal (muzzle blast and shock wave). A major limitation of current commercially available acoustic sniper localization systems is the impossibility of finding the shooter's position when one of these acoustic signatures is not detected. This is very likely to occur in real-life situations, especially when the microphones are not in the field of view of the shockwave or when the presence of obstacles like buildings can prevent a direct-path to sensors. This work addresses the problem of DoA estimation of the muzzle blast using a planar array of sensors deployed in a drone. Results supported by actual gunshot data from a realistic setup are very promising and pave the way for the development of enhanced sniper localization systems featuring two main advantages over stationary ones: (1) wider surveillance area; and (2) increased likelihood of a direct-path detection of at least one of the gunshot signals, thereby adding robustness and reliability to the system.

  18. [Local ice application in therapy of kinetic limb ataxia. Clinical assessment of positive treatment effects in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, H; Schwecht, M; Pöllmann, W; Parag, D; Erasmus, L P; König, N

    1998-12-01

    Upper limb ataxia is one of the most disabling symptoms of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). There are some clinically tested therapeutic strategies, especially with regard to cerebellar tremor. But most of the methods used for treatment of limb ataxia in physiotherapy and occupational therapy are not systematically evaluated, e.g. the effect of local ice applications, as reported by MS patients and therapists, respectively. We investigated 21 MS patients before and in several steps 1 up to 45 min after cooling the most affected forearm. We used a series of 6 tests, including parts of neurological status and activities of daily living as well. At each step skin temperature and nerve conduction velocity were recorded. All tests were documented by video for later offline analysis. Standardized evaluation was done by the investigators and separately by an independent second team, both of them using numeric scales for quality of performance. After local cooling all patients showed a positive effect, especially a reduction of intentional tremor. In most cases this effect lasted 45 min, in some patients even longer. We presume that a decrease in the proprioceptive afferent inflow-induced by cooling-may be the probable cause of this reduction of cerebellar tremor. Patients can use ice applications as a method of treating themselves when a short-time reduction of intention tremor is required, e.g. for typing, signing or self-catheterization.

  19. Application of Azolla and intermittent irrigation to improve the productivity and nutrient contents of local black rice variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulandjari; Yunindanova, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a local rice variety that contains a high level of anthocyanin pigment. Anthocyanin has been reported to be very effective in reducing cholesterol levels as well as cancer cell invasion. One of the main problems in rice cultivation is lack of water. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has shown to be able to increase rice productivity by increasing the number of tillers. This system is known as a water-efficient cultivation. Other rice cultivation barrier is related to the use of nitrogen fertilizer. One of replacement of nitrogen fertilizer is by adding azolla. The objective of this research was identifying growth and yield of organic black rice with intermittent irrigation and application of azolla. The plant material used was black rice Cempo variety from Sleman, Yogyakarta. This experiment utilized 4 dosages of azolla as the first treatment: 100 gm-2, 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2. The second treatment was water supply consisted of continuous flooded 2 cm; flooded 2 cm every 3 days; flooded 2 cm every 6 days. The results depicted that the application of azolla was able to increase the growth of black rice. Azolla of 200 gm-2 and 400 gm-2 and intermittent 3 days to 6 days generated higher dry grain, anthocyanin and antioxidant. Azolla 200 gm-2 with intermittent irrigation 3 days could be a good combination to improve plant growth, yield and properties of local black rice.

  20. Hybrid Systems: Cold Atoms Coupled to Micro Mechanical Oscillators =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Monge, Cris A.

    Micro mechanical oscillators can serve as probes in precision measurements, as transducers to mediate photon-phonon interactions, and when functionalized with magnetic material, as tools to manipulate spins in quantum systems. This dissertation includes two projects where the interactions between cold atoms and mechanical oscillators are studied. In one of the experiments, we have manipulated the Zeeman state of magnetically trapped Rubidium atoms with a magnetic micro cantilever. The results show a spatially localized effect produced by the cantilever that agrees with Landau-Zener theory. In the future, such a scalable system with highly localized interactions and the potential for single-spin sensitivity could be useful for applications in quantum information science or quantum simulation. In a second experiment, work is in progress to couple a sample of optically trapped Rubidium atoms to a levitated nanosphere via an optical lattice. This coupling enables the cooling of the center-of-mass motion of the nanosphere by laser cooling the atoms. In this system, the atoms are trapped in the optical lattice while the sphere is levitated in a separate vacuum chamber by a single-beam optical tweezer. Theoretical analysis of such a system has determined that cooling the center-of-mass motion of the sphere to its quantum ground state is possible, even when starting at room temperature, due to the excellent environmental decoupling achievable in this setup. Nanospheres cooled to the quantum regime can provide new tests of quantum behavior at mesoscopic scales and have novel applications in precision sensing.

  1. Correlation of splat state with deposition characteristics of cold sprayed niobium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Ramakrishna, M.; Chavan, N.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    2017-01-01

    The cold spray technique has a great potential to deposit refractory metals for a variety of potential applications. Cold spraying of different metals have been addressed comprehensively to understand the deposition characteristics of the coatings. Since there is no available data on the deposition characteristics of cold sprayed Niobium, impact behavior of splats at different deposition conditions were simulated and numerically analyzed using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and correlated with the experimental observations that highlight the role of the velocity and temperature of the particle upon impact on the bonding features. The increase in temperature of the splat drastically reduces the flow stress at the interface leading to best inter-splat bonding state. The synergistic effect of the temperature and the velocity leads to the formation of very dense, defect free niobium coating associated with deformation localization including interface melting. Formation of nanocrystalline grains at the inter-splat boundary was confirmed through TEM and compared with the FEM findings. Finally, understanding the deformation and deposition behavior of refractory metal such as niobium will be helpful to engineer the coatings for potential applications. - Graphical abstract: ▪

  2. Clinical Use of the Utrecht Applicator for Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Brachytherapy Treatment in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomden, Christel N.; Leeuw, Astrid A.C. de; Moerland, Marinus A.; Roesink, Judith M.; Tersteeg, Robbert J.H.A.; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the benefit of the Utrecht interstitial CT/MR applicator for combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) approach, using magnetic resonance imaging—guided brachytherapy, over the intracavitary approach alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and to analyze the clinical use of needles. Methods and Materials: This study includes the first 20 patients treated with the new applicator. Brachytherapy consisted of two pulsed dose rate applications, and the second application was performed with the IC/IS approach. The number of needles, chosen guiding holes through the ovoids, and insertion depths were based on the dose distribution and dosimetric shortcomings of the first application (IC alone). We investigated the dosimetric gain by comparing the clinical interstitial optimized plan (IC/IS clinical ) with an additionally generated optimized plan without needle use (IC study ). Furthermore, we studied the relation of the inserted needles and their source loading patterns with the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV). Results: A total of 54 needles (range, 1–6 per application) were applied with an average depth of 25 mm. The chosen needle positions corresponded with the location of the HR-CTV extensions. The total and individual needle treatment times per application were on average 19% (range, 4–35%) and 7% (range, 2–14%) of the implant treatment time, respectively. The total (external-beam radiotherapy + brachytherapy) D90 HR-CTV for the IC study and the IC/IS clinical were on average 79.5 (SD 7.4) Gy α/β10 and 83.9 (SD 6.7) Gy α/β10 , respectively, with an average gain of 4.4 (SD 2.3) Gy α/β10 for the second application. Conclusions: Needle placement was feasible in all patients and resulted in a gain in dose and better coverage of HR-CTV. Defining the location of HR-CTV protrusions and analyzing the associated needles has given us deeper understanding of the possibilities in magnetic

  3. An 802.11 n wireless local area network transmission scheme for wireless telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C F; Hung, S I; Chiang, I H

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, an 802.11 n transmission scheme is proposed for wireless telemedicine applications. IEEE 802.11n standards, a power assignment strategy, space-time block coding (STBC), and an object composition Petri net (OCPN) model are adopted. With the proposed wireless system, G.729 audio bit streams, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000) clinical images, and Moving Picture Experts Group 4 (MPEG-4) video bit streams achieve a transmission bit error rate (BER) of 10-7, 10-4, and 103 simultaneously. The proposed system meets the requirements prescribed for wireless telemedicine applications. An essential feature of this proposed transmission scheme is that clinical information that requires a high quality of service (QoS) is transmitted at a high power transmission rate with significant error protection. For maximizing resource utilization and minimizing the total transmission power, STBC and adaptive modulation techniques are used in the proposed 802.11 n wireless telemedicine system. Further, low power, direct mapping (DM), low-error protection scheme, and high-level modulation are adopted for messages that can tolerate a high BER. With the proposed transmission scheme, the required reliability of communication can be achieved. Our simulation results have shown that the proposed 802.11 n transmission scheme can be used for developing effective wireless telemedicine systems.

  4. Application of Ultrasound to Selectively Localize Nanodroplets for Targeted Imaging and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dayton

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-coated perfluorocarbon nanodroplets are submicrometer-diameter liquid-filled droplets with proposed applications in molecularly targeted therapeutics and ultrasound (US imaging. Ultrasonic molecular imaging is unique in that the optimal application of these agents depends not only on the surface chemistry, but also on the applied US field, which can increase receptor-ligand binding and membrane fusion. Theory and experiments are combined to demonstrate the displacement of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles in the direction of US propagation, where a traveling US wave with a peak pressure on the order of megapascals and frequency in the megahertz range produces a particle translational velocity that is proportional to acoustic intensity and increases with increasing center frequency. Within a vessel with a diameter on the order of hundreds of micrometers or larger, particle velocity on the order of hundreds of micrometers per second is produced and the dominant mechanism for droplet displacement is shown to be bulk fluid streaming. A model for radiation force displacement of particles is developed and demonstrates that effective particle displacement should be feasible in the microvasculature. In a flowing system, acoustic manipulation of targeted droplets increases droplet retention. Additionally, we demonstrate the feasibility of US-enhanced particle internalization and therapeutic delivery.

  5. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  6. Radiation distribution through serpentine concrete using local materials and its application as a reactor biological shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansouh, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New serpentine concrete was made and examined as a reactor biological shield. ► Ilmenite–limonite concrete is a better reactor biological shield. ► New serpentine concrete is a better reactor fast neutrons shield than ordinary and hematite–serpentine concretes. ► Serpentine concrete has lower properties as a reactor total gamma rays shields. - Abstract: In the present work attempt has been made to estimate the shielding parameters of the new serpentine concrete (density = 2.4 g/cm 3 ) using local materials on the shielding parameters for two types of heat resistant concretes, namely hematite–serpentine (density = 2.5 g/cm 3 ) and ilmenite–limonite (density = 2.9 g/cm 3 ). Shielding parameters for ordinary concrete (density = 2.3 g/cm 3 ) were also discussed. These parameters were determined experimentally for serpentine concrete and compared with previously published values for other concretes, which had also been obtained using local materials. The leakage spectra of reactor fast neutrons and total gamma photon beams from cylindrical samples of these concrete shields were also investigated using a collimated beam from ET-RR-1 reactor. A neutron–gamma spectrometer was used in order to obtain pulse height spectra of reactor fast neutrons and the total gamma rays leakage through the investigated concrete samples. These spectra were utilized to obtain the energy spectra required in these investigations. Removal cross section Σ R (E n ) and linear attenuation coefficient μ(E g ) for reactor fast neutrons and total gamma rays and their relative coefficients were evaluated and presented. Measured results were compared with those previously measured for other concretes. The results show that ilmenite–limonite concrete is a better reactor biological shield than the other three concretes. Serpentine concrete under investigation is a better reactor fast neutrons shield than ordinary and hematite–serpentine concretes. Serpentine concrete

  7. An Application of Project-Based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdpol, Sakon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a research entitled, " An Application of Project-based Learning on the Development of Young Local Tour Guides on Tai Phuan's Culture and Tourist Attractions in Sisatchanalai District, Sukhothai Province. It was intended to develop young local tour guides on Tai Phuan's culture and tourist attractions in…

  8. Uncertainty Estimates in Cold Critical Eigenvalue Predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, Atul A.; Moore, Brian R.; Mills, Vernon W.; Marrotte, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    A recent cycle of a General Electric boiling water reactor performed two beginning-of-cycle local cold criticals. The eigenvalues estimated by the core simulator were 0.99826 and 1.00610. The large spread in them (= 0.00784) is a source of concern, and it is studied here. An analysis process is developed using statistical techniques, where first a transfer function relating the core observable Y (eigenvalue) to various factors (X's) is established. Engineering judgment is used to recognize the best candidates for X's. They are identified as power-weighted assembly k ∞ 's of selected assemblies around the withdrawn rods. These are a small subset of many X's that could potentially influence Y. However, the intention here is not to do a comprehensive study by accounting for all the X's. Rather, the scope is to demonstrate that the process developed is reasonable and to show its applicability to performing detailed studies. Variability in X's is obtained by perturbing nodal k ∞ 's since they directly influence the buckling term in the quasi-two-group diffusion equation model of the core simulator. Any perturbations introduced in them are bounded by standard well-established uncertainties. The resulting perturbations in the X's may not necessarily be directly correlated to physical attributes, but they encompass numerous biases and uncertainties credited to input and modeling uncertainties. The 'vital few' from the 'unimportant many' X's are determined, and then they are subgrouped according to assembly type, location, exposure, and control rod insertion. The goal is to study how the subgroups influence Y in order to have a better understanding of the variability observed in it

  9. Successful treatment of a recurrent Aspergillus niger otomycosis with local application of voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappe, M; Vrignaud, S; de Gentile, L; Legrand, G; Lagarce, F; Le Govic, Y

    2018-04-16

    Fungal otitis (otomycosis) is a common infection encountered by otolaryngologists. Nevertheless, its management can be challenging because of its high recurrence rate and of the limited therapeutic options. A 45-year-old woman suffered from recurrent otomycosis. The ineffectiveness of successive antibiotic cures and repeated topical treatments with nystatin and then with econazole cream led to perform microbiological analyses. Culture of ear swab grew Aspergillus niger. The use of a 1% voriconazole sterile solution previously validated for treatment of eye infections was considered after ensuring the absence of known ototoxic effects of the antifungal and of the excipients. The patient was advised to apply locally this voriconazole solution daily for 14 days (3 drops, 3-4 times a day). Full recovery was obtained at the end of the treatment, and no relevant side effects were noticed. More than one year after completion of therapy, there was no recurrence. Our observation shows that voriconazole 1% solution is an interesting option for treating otomycosis which failed to respond to usual therapeutic options. Further prospective studies are now warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges in developing health promoting schools' project: application of global traits in local realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Behrouz; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Kousha, Ahmad; Jannati, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of student health and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health programs in developing countries. This study examined possible barriers to and challenges of such programs from the executive perspective in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. This qualitative study used the content analysis approach to recognize barriers to and challenges of health promoting school program from the executive perspective. Fourteen experts were selected in the areas of children and adolescents and school health, physical education and school headmasters. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Five themes were extracted as major barriers and challenges: 1. Intraand inter-sectorial collaboration; 2. Policy and rule formulation; 3. Infrastructure and capacity; 4. Human resources; 5. Community involvement. The localized version of the current health promoting school program had major faults. If this program is considered to be a healthcare system priority, it should be revised to set effective policies for implementation and to sustain school health programs based on the capacities and objectives of each country.

  11. Local BRST cohomology in the antifield formalism. Pt. 2. Application to Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, G.; Henneaux, M.

    1995-01-01

    Yang-Mills models with compact gauge group coupled to matter fields are considered. The general tools developed in a companion paper are applied to compute the local cohomology of the BRST differential s modulo the exterior spacetime derivative d for all values of the ghost number, in the space of polynomials in the fields, the ghosts, the antifields (=sources for the BRST variations) and their derivatives. New solutions to the consistency conditions sa+db=0 depending non-trivially on the antifields are exhibited. For a semi-simple gauge group, however, these new solutions arise only at ghost number two or higher. Thus at ghost number zero or one, the inclusion of the antifields does not bring in new solutions to the consistency condition sa+db=0 besides the already known ones. The analysis does not use power counting and is purely cohomological. It can be easily extended to more general actions containing higher derivatives of the curvature or Chern-Simons terms. (orig.)

  12. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Aptula, Aynur O

    2007-07-01

    The goal of eliminating animal testing in the predictive identification of chemicals with the intrinsic ability to cause skin sensitization is an important target, the attainment of which has recently been brought into even sharper relief by the EU Cosmetics Directive and the requirements of the REACH legislation. Development of alternative methods requires that the chemicals used to evaluate and validate novel approaches comprise not only confirmed skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers but also substances that span the full chemical mechanistic spectrum associated with skin sensitization. To this end, a recently published database of more than 200 chemicals tested in the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been examined in relation to various chemical reaction mechanistic domains known to be associated with sensitization. It is demonstrated here that the dataset does cover the main reaction mechanistic domains. In addition, it is shown that assignment to a reaction mechanistic domain is a critical first step in a strategic approach to understanding, ultimately on a quantitative basis, how chemical properties influence the potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed.

  14. Challenges in Developing Health Promoting Schools’ Project: Application of Global Traits in Local Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Fathi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of student health and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health programs in developing countries. This study examined possible barriers to and challenges of such programs from the executive perspective in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study used the content analysis approach to recognize barriers to and challenges of health promoting school program from the executive perspective. Fourteen experts were selected in the areas of children and adolescents and school health, physical education and school headmasters. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: Five themes were extracted as major barriers and challenges: 1. Intraand inter-sectorial collaboration; 2. Policy and rule formulation; 3. Infrastructure and capacity; 4. Human resources; 5. Community involvement. Conclusion: The localized version of the current health promoting school program had major faults. If this program is considered to be a healthcare system priority, it should be revised to set effective policies for implementation and to sustain school health programs based on the capacities and objectives of each country.

  15. Manufacturing process for cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized imprints and device for application of this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This invention involves a process for manufacturing permeable cylindrical ceramic tubes with localized relief such as annular, spiral or simple coiled or double crossed coils or even stipple imprints on their internal face. It is known that one of the techniques for the separation of the mixture of gases with close molecular masses is gaseous diffusion. According to this technique, the gas mixture is circulated under pressure inside tubes constituted by a microporous wall. These tubes, according to a known technique, are constituted by a macroporous ceramic tube, generally called a support, covered on the inside with a microporous layer deposited on this interior wall. The unit constituted by the tube itself or the ''support'' and the microporous layer makes it possible to adapt the total porosity of the covered tube or ''barrier'' in order to obtain an optimal coefficient of gas separation. This technique is used specifically for separation of two gases corresponding to various isotopes of the same simple body. 6 figs

  16. Local BRST cohomology in the antifield formalism. Pt. 2. Application to Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, G.; Henneaux, M.; Brandt, F.

    1994-01-01

    Yang-Mills models with compact gauge group coupled to matter fields are considered. The general tools developed in a companion paper are applied to compute the local cohomology of the BRST differential s modulo the exterior spacetime derivative d for all values of the ghost number, in the space of polynomials in the fields, the ghosts, the antifields (= sources for the BRST variations) and their derivatives. New solutions to the consistency conditions sa+db = 0 depending non trivially on the antifields are exhibited. For a semi-simple gauge group, however, these new solutions arise only at ghost number two or higher. Thus at ghost number zero or one, the inclusion of the antifields does not bring in new solutions to the consistency condition sa+db 0 besides the already known ones. The analysis does not use power counting and is purely cohomological. It can be easily extended to more general actions containing higher derivatives of the curvature, or Chern-Simons terms. (orig.)

  17. Anti-aging pharmacology in cutaneous wound healing: effects of metformin, resveratrol, and rapamycin by local application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Sui, Bing-Dong; Liu, Nu; Lv, Ya-Jie; Zheng, Chen-Xi; Lu, Yong-Bo; Huang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Chen, Ji; Pang, Dan-Lin; Fei, Dong-Dong; Xuan, Kun; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Cutaneous wounds are among the most common soft tissue injuries and are particularly hard to heal in aging. Caloric restriction (CR) is well documented to extend longevity; pharmacologically, profound rejuvenative effects of CR mimetics have been uncovered, especially metformin (MET), resveratrol (RSV), and rapamycin (RAPA). However, locally applied impacts and functional differences of these agents on wound healing remain to be established. Here, we discovered that chronic topical administration of MET and RSV, but not RAPA, accelerated wound healing with improved epidermis, hair follicles, and collagen deposition in young rodents, and MET exerted more profound effects. Furthermore, locally applied MET and RSV improved vascularization of the wound beds, which were attributed to stimulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, the key mediator of wound healing. Notably, in aged skin, AMPK pathway was inhibited, correlated with impaired vasculature and reduced healing ability. As therapeutic approaches, local treatments of MET and RSV prevented age-related AMPK suppression and angiogenic inhibition in wound beds. Moreover, in aged rats, rejuvenative effects of topically applied MET and RSV on cell viability of wound beds were confirmed, of which MET showed more prominent anti-aging effects. We further verified that only MET promoted wound healing and cutaneous integrity in aged skin. These findings clarified differential effects of CR-based anti-aging pharmacology in wound healing, identified critical angiogenic and rejuvenative mechanisms through AMPK pathway in both young and aged skin, and unraveled chronic local application of MET as the optimal and promising regenerative agent in treating cutaneous wound defects. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of a new dual localization-affinity purification tag reveals novel aspects of protein kinase biology in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Colin P; Hashmi, Shahr B; Osmani, Aysha H; Osmani, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi occupy critical environmental niches and have numerous beneficial industrial applications but devastating effects as pathogens and agents of food spoilage. As regulators of essentially all biological processes protein kinases have been intensively studied but how they regulate the often unique biology of filamentous fungi is not completely understood. Significant understanding of filamentous fungal biology has come from the study of the model organism Aspergillus nidulans using a combination of molecular genetics, biochemistry, cell biology and genomic approaches. Here we describe dual localization-affinity purification (DLAP) tags enabling endogenous N or C-terminal protein tagging for localization and biochemical studies in A. nidulans. To establish DLAP tag utility we endogenously tagged 17 protein kinases for analysis by live cell imaging and affinity purification. Proteomic analysis of purifications by mass spectrometry confirmed association of the CotA and NimXCdk1 kinases with known binding partners and verified a predicted interaction of the SldABub1/R1 spindle assembly checkpoint kinase with SldBBub3. We demonstrate that the single TOR kinase of A. nidulans locates to vacuoles and vesicles, suggesting that the function of endomembranes as major TOR cellular hubs is conserved in filamentous fungi. Comparative analysis revealed 7 kinases with mitotic specific locations including An-Cdc7 which unexpectedly located to mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs), the first such localization described for this family of DNA replication kinases. We show that the SepH septation kinase locates to SPBs specifically in the basal region of apical cells in a biphasic manner during mitosis and again during septation. This results in gradients of SepH between G1 SPBs which shift along hyphae as each septum forms. We propose that SepH regulates the septation initiation network (SIN) specifically at SPBs in the basal region of G1 cells and that localized gradients

  19. Website application for calculating cesium-137 ingestion doses from consumption of locally grown foods in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehl, S.R.; Hamilton, T.F.; Simpson, A.E.; Freitas, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fallout deposition from the US nuclear weapons test program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) resulted in widespread nuclear fallout contamination of the northern Marshall Islands. About 85-90 % of the nuclear test-related dose delivered to resident populations is derived from ingestion of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) contained in locally grown tree-crop food products. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a series of interactive internet applications to provide the public with an open access platform to learn more about radiological conditions in the Marshall Islands. The ingestion dose calculator application described here is one such feature whereby users can calculate hypothetical ingestion doses from 137 Cs based on interactive user input matched to environmental data on the activity concentration of 137 Cs contained in food plants such as coconut, breadfruit, Pandanus, and arrowroot. Users are asked to enter a date, an island and atoll location, a plant food type, and a daily intake amount (highlighted by the number of portions eaten per day in estimated gram equivalents). The application computes the user daily dose and the user equivalent annualized dose, and then compares the results with default settings based on dietary models developed for the Marshall Islands from independent dietary surveys. The default diets are based on a local plus imported food diet (or IA diet model) and an imported foods unavailable diet (or IUA diet model). Environmental data are decay corrected to the date entered by the user using an effective half-life of 137 Cs of 8.5 years (http://marshallislands.llnl.gov). (author)

  20. Laser-Free Cold-Atom Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Harvey; Feinberg, Benedict; Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have performed beam transport simulations on ultra cold (2 μK) and cold (130 μK) neutral Cs atoms in the F = M = + 4 (magnetic weak-field seeking) ground state. We use inhomogeneous magnetic fields to focus and accelerate the atoms. Acceleration of neutral atoms by an inhomogeneous magnetic field was demonstrated by Stern and Gerlach in 1922. In the simulations, a two mm diameter cloud of atoms is released to fall under gravity. A magnetic coil focuses the falling atoms. After falling 41 cm, the atoms are reflected in the magnetic fringe field of a solenoid. They return to their starting height, about 0.7 s later, having passed a second time through the focusing coil. The simulations show that > 98 % of ultra cold Cs atoms and > 70 % of cold Cs atoms will survive at least 15 round trips (assuming perfect vacuum). More than 100 simulations were run to optimize coil currents and focusing coil diameter and height. Simulations also show that atoms can be launched into a fountain. An experimental apparatus to test the simulations, is being constructed. This technique may find application in atomic fountain clocks, interferometers, and gravitometers, and may be adaptable for use in microgravity. It may also work with Bose-Einstein condensates of paramagnetic atoms.

  1. Deformation analysis of the repeated positional surveys in the undermined localities using web applications and WMS map services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Talich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The XML web application for on-line calculations of deformation analysis from the repeated positional surveys using Internet service and data is described. Parameters of deformation field (strain tensors, total dilatations are determined in a grid network covering the zone of interest. Displacement vectors from repeated measurements at given points of a geodetic network represent the imput data of calculation. The calculation is based on application of the theory of continuum mechanics and its fundamental prerequisite is homogeneity of the researched territory.The application currently utilizes the Web Map Services - WMS for the graphic presentation of calculated results as GIS. This service for example enables on-line thematic map composition as defined by the user in the window of Internet explorer based on data given by servers of WMS service. Thus the user does not need to own any geographic data to create his/her GIS.Furthermore there are also given application examples of the repeated geodetic surveys used in the field at localities in the forefront of ČSA giant quarry at Komořany and in the undermined territory in Ostrava region. The examples show the independence of calculated values of tensors from rotation and translation of the coordinate systems in practise. This fact gives the evidence that the deformation analysis is more objective dynamic indicator in the researched area and not only the calculus and representation of point displacement vectors. After registration this application is at all interested persons disposal to on-line calculations via the Internet.

  2. The use of cold plasma generators in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets R.O.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasma treatment of wounds is a modern area of therapeutic medicine. We describe the physical mechanisms of cold plasma, the principles of therapeutic effects and design of two common types of cold plasma generators for medical use. This work aims at disclosing the basic principles of construction of cold atmospheric plasma generators in medicine and prospects for their further improvement. The purpose of this work is to improve the existing cold atmospheric plasma generators for use in medical applications. Novelty of this work consists in the application of new principles of construction of cold atmospheric plasmas medical apparatus, namely the combination of the gas discharge chamber, electrodes complex shape forming device and plasma flow in a single package. This helps to achieve a significant reduction in the size of the device, and a discharge chamber design change increases the therapeutic effect. The design of cold atmospheric plasma generator type «pin-to-hole», which is able to control parameters using the plasma current (modulation fluctuations in the primary winding and mechanically (using optional rotary electrode. It is also possible to combine some similar generators in the set, which will increase the surface area of the plasma treatment. We consider the basic principles of generating low atmospheric plasma flow, especially the formation of the plasma jet, changing its shape and modulation stream. The features of cold plasma generator design and information about prospects for further application, and opportunities for further improvement are revealed. The recommendations for further use of cold atmospheric plasma generators in medicine are formulated.

  3. Multi-Satellite Orbit Determination Using Interferometric Observables with RF Localization Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Jeroen L.

    Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) specifically same-beam interferometry (SBI), and dual-satellite geolocation are two fields of research not previously connected. This is due to the different application of each field, SBI is used for relative interplanetary navigation of two satellites while dual-satellite geolocation is used to locate the source of a radio frequency (RF) signal. In this dissertation however, we leverage both fields to create a novel method for multi-satellite orbit determination (OD) using time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurements. The measurements are double differenced between the satellites and the stations, in so doing, many of the common errors are canceled which can significantly improve measurement precision. Provided with this novel OD technique, the observability is first analyzed to determine the benefits and limitations of this method. In all but a few scenarios the measurements successfully reduce the covariance when examining the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). Reduced observability is encountered with geostationary satellites as their motion with respect to the stations is limited, especially when only one baseline is used. However, when using satellite pairs with greater relative motion with respect to the stations, even satellites that are close to, but not exactly in a geostationary orbit can be estimated accurately. We find that in a strong majority of cases the OD technique provides lower uncertainties and solutions far more accurate than using conventional OD observables such as range and range-rate while also not being affected by common errors and biases. We specifically examine GEO-GEO, GEO-MEO, and GEO-LEO dual-satellite estimation cases. The work is further extended by developing a relative navigation scenario where the chief satellite is assumed to have perfect knowledge, or some small amount of uncertainty considered but not estimated, while estimating the deputy

  4. The synthetic scattering function and application to the design of cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources: a fast response methane based array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J. R.; Mayer, R. E.; Gillette, V. H.

    1997-09-01

    The Synthetic Scattering Function (SSF) allows a simple description of the incoherent interaction of slow neutrons with hydrogenous materials. The main advantages of this model reside in the analytical expressions that it produces for double-differential cross sections, energy-transfer kernels, and total cross sections, which in turn permit the fast evaluation of neutron scattering and transport properties. In this work we briefly discuss basic features of the SSF, review some previous applications to a number of moderating materials, and present new Monte Carlo results for a fast time-response moderator concept based on methane at low temperatures. (auth)

  5. Fostering the local production and application of industrial radiotracers in developing countries - IAEA's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Haji-Saeid, S.; Jin, Joon-Ha; Ramamoorthy, Natesan; )

    2006-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques provide fast and accurate information for solving various process problems in industrial plants. The IAEA is playing an important role in supporting the development and transfer of radiotracer techniques to developing countries. The IAEA has implemented 5 coordinated research projects (CRP), including two on-going projects, in the field of radiotracer and sealed source applications in industry. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for wear/corrosion measurement, residence time: distribution (RTD) study, validation of computed fluid dynamics data, industrial process tomography and inter-well connectivity study. A number of technical cooperation projects have been executed to strengthen the capability of radiotracer groups in developing Member States and to create awareness in the industries about the technical and economical benefits of radiotracer technology. The IAEA's regional projects have strongly impacted the transfer and adoption of the techniques. The status of radiotracer use in developing countries reveals that the lack of timely availability of radiotracers as one of the major problems. Development of some radionuclide generators is a possible solution. Cooperation among the international radiotracer communities is necessary to enhance the availability and use of radiotracers in developing countries. (author)

  6. Correlation Processing Of Local Seismic Data: Applications for Autonomous Sensor Deployments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, D A

    2010-11-16

    Excavation and operation of an underground facility is likely to produce an extensive suite of seismic signals observable at the surface for perhaps several km. Probably a large fraction of such signals will be correlated, so the design of a monitoring framework should include consideration of a correlation processing capability. Correlation detectors have been shown to be significantly more sensitive than beam-forming power detectors. Although correlation detectors have a limited detection footprint, they can be generalized into multi-rank subspace detectors which are sensitive over a much larger range of source mechanisms and positions. Production of subspace detectors can be automated, so their use in an autonomous framework may be contemplated. Waveform correlation also can be used to produce very high precision phase picks which may be jointly inverted to simultaneously relocate groups of events. The relative precision of the resulting hypocenters is sufficient to visualize structural detail at a scale of less than a few tens of meters. Three possible correlation processor systems are presented. All use a subspace signal detection framework. The simplest system uses a single-component sensor and is capable of detection and classification of signals. The most complicated system uses many sensors deployed around the facility, and is capable of detection, classification, and high-precision source location. Data from a deep underground mine are presented to demonstrate the applicability of correlation processing to monitoring an underground facility. Although the source region covers an area of about 600m by 580m, all but two of the events form clusters at a threshold of 0.7. All the events could have been detected and classified by the subspace detection framework, and high-precision picks can be computed for all cluster members.

  7. Formability of paperboard during deep-drawing with local steam application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Wilken; Stein, Philipp; Dörsam, Sven; Groche, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The use of paperboard can significantly improve the environmental compatibility of everyday products such as packages. Nevertheless, most packages are currently made of plastics, since the three-dimensional shaping of paperboard is possible only to a limited extent. In order to increase the forming possibilities, deep drawing of cardboard has been intensively investigated for more than a decade. An improvement with regard to increased forming limits has been achieved by heating of the tool parts, which leads to a softening of paperboard constituents such as lignin. A further approach is the moistening of the samples, whereby the hydrogen bonds between the fibers are weakened and as a result an increase of the formability. It is expected that a combination of both parameter approaches will result in a significant increase in the forming capacity and in the shape accuracy. For this reason, a new tool concept is introduced within the scope of this work which makes it possible to moisten samples during the deep drawing process by means of steam supply. The conducted investigations show that spring-back in the preferred fiber direction can be reduced by 38 %. Orthogonal to the preferred fiber direction a reduction of spring back of up to 79 % is determined, which corresponds to a perfect shape. Moreover, it was determined that the steam duration and the initial moisture content have an influence on the final shape. In addition to the increased dimensional accuracy, an optimized wrinkle compression compared to conventional deep drawing is found. According to the results, it can be summarized that a steam application in the deep drawing of paperboard significantly improves the part quality.

  8. Operational data products to support phenological research and applications at local to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Phenological data from a variety of platforms - across a range of spatial and temporal scales - are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Observational and modeled phenological data, especially when integrated with associated biophysical data (e.g., climate, land-use/land-cover, hydrology) has great potential to provide multi-faceted information critical to decision support systems, vulnerability and risk assessments, change detection applications, and early-warning and forecasting systems for natural and modified ecosystems. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on understanding the drivers and feedback effects of phenological variation in changing environments. The Network maintains a centralized database of over 10M ground-based observations of plants and animals for 1954-present, and leverages these data to produce operational data products for use by a variety of audiences, including researchers and resource managers. This presentation highlights our operational data products, including the tools, maps, and services that facilitate discovery, accessibility and usability of integrated phenological information. We describe (1) the data download tool, a customizable GUI that provides geospatially referenced raw, bounded or summarized organismal and climatological data and associated metadata (including calendars, time-series curves, and XY graphs), (2) the visualization tool, which provides opportunities to explore, visualize and export or download both organismal and modeled (gridded) products at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km) for the period 1980 to 6 days into the future, and (3) web services that enable custom query and download of map, feature and cover services in a variety of standard formats. These operational products facilitate scaling of integrated

  9. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Ping; He, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  10. Extended application of Kohn-Sham first-principles molecular dynamics method with plane wave approximation at high energy—From cold materials to hot dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Hongwei [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, and IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An extended first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method based on Kohn-Sham scheme is proposed to elevate the temperature limit of the FPMD method in the calculation of dense plasmas. The extended method treats the wave functions of high energy electrons as plane waves analytically and thus expands the application of the FPMD method to the region of hot dense plasmas without suffering from the formidable computational costs. In addition, the extended method inherits the high accuracy of the Kohn-Sham scheme and keeps the information of electronic structures. This gives an edge to the extended method in the calculation of mixtures of plasmas composed of heterogeneous ions, high-Z dense plasmas, lowering of ionization potentials, X-ray absorption/emission spectra, and opacities, which are of particular interest to astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion engineering, and laboratory astrophysics.

  11. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    strict relation was found among the productions carried out by W. cibaria strains. This study proved the suitability of the selected strains of L. citreum and W. cibaria for industrial-scale level applications in sourdough bread production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The manual of coldness engineering; Formulaire du froid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapin, P.; Jacquard, P.

    2001-07-01

    This book is a compilation of theoretical and practical data which allow the design, dimensioning, installation and maintenance of refrigerating systems for the industry and buildings. This 11. edition comprises several updates in particular in the domain of refrigerating fluids (environmental problems), technology of systems (automatisms, electrical devices), and fluidic and electrical schemes. Content: introduction, coldness production, technology of refrigerating machineries, automatisms, isothermal constructions and refrigerating statuses, applications of coldness, apparatuses, implementation, appendixes. (J.S.)

  13. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  14. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  15. Experiments in cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models

  16. Application of an empirical model in CFD simulations to predict the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Scharler, Robert; Obernberger, Ingwald

    2015-01-01

    To gain reliable data for the development of an empirical model for the prediction of the local high temperature corrosion potential in biomass fired boilers, online corrosion probe measurements have been carried out. The measurements have been performed in a specially designed fixed bed/drop tube reactor in order to simulate a superheater boiler tube under well-controlled conditions. The investigated boiler steel 13CrMo4-5 is commonly used as steel for superheater tube bundles in biomass fired boilers. Within the test runs the flue gas temperature at the corrosion probe has been varied between 625 °C and 880 °C, while the steel temperature has been varied between 450 °C and 550 °C to simulate typical current and future live steam temperatures of biomass fired steam boilers. To investigate the dependence on the flue gas velocity, variations from 2 m·s −1 to 8 m·s −1 have been considered. The empirical model developed fits the measured data sufficiently well. Therefore, the model has been applied within a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of flue gas flow and heat transfer to estimate the local corrosion potential of a wood chips fired 38 MW steam boiler. Additionally to the actual state analysis two further simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of enhanced steam temperatures and a change of the flow direction of the final superheater tube bundle from parallel to counter-flow on the local corrosion potential. - Highlights: • Online corrosion probe measurements in a fixed bed/drop tube reactor. • Development of an empirical corrosion model. • Application of the model in a CFD simulation of flow and heat transfer. • Variation of boundary conditions and their effects on the corrosion potential

  17. Prevention of vocal fold scarring by local application of basic fibroblast growth factor in a rat vocal fold injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kishimoto, Yo; Tateya, Ichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring, which causes severe hoarseness, is intractable. The optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not been established; therefore, prevention of scarring is important. The aim of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for prevention of postsurgical vocal fold scarring. Prospective animal experiments with controls. The vocal folds of Sprague-Dawley rats were injured unilaterally or bilaterally after local application of a 10 μL solution of bFGF. Larynges ware harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination 2 months postoperation and for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis 1 week postoperation. Histological examination showed significantly increased hyaluronic acid and decreased deposition of dense collagen in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. Immunohistochemical examination showed significantly decreased collagen type III deposition in the bFGF-treated group at 100 ng/10 μL compared with the sham-treated group. qRT-PCR revealed that hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), Has3, and hepatocyte growth factor were upregulated in bFGF-treated groups compared with sham-treated group. The current results suggest that local application of bFGF at the time of injury has the potential to prevent vocal fold scarring. Preventive injection of bFGF could be applied at the time of phonomicrosurgery to avoid postoperative scar formation. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:E67-E74, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Significance of the pseudo capsule on MRI of renal neoplasms and its potential application for local staging: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine S.R.; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Lindner, Veronique; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in showing a pseudocapsule for local staging of renal tumors, and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Materials And Methods. Eighty tumors (73 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs] and seven oncocytomas)were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. MRI findings were assessed with a special focus on perinephric fat and pseudocapsule. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. Results. At pathology, a pseudocapsule was recognized in 79 cases. Twenty- three RCC were staged pT3a (21 clear cell; two papillary). MR images exhibited a pseudocapsule in 90% of cases as a hypointense rim surrounding the tumor on T2-weighted images. MRI findings concerning isolated analysis of the pseudocapsule for differentiating stage T1/T2 from T3a were densitivity: 86%, 50%; specificity: 95%, 92%; positive predictive value: 95%, 33%; negative predictive value: 88%, 92%; and accuracy: 93%, 89%, for clear cell and papillary types, respectively. For stage T3a, with both abnormalities of the pseudocapsule and perirenal fat, Results were, for overall RCC sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 95%; positive predictive value: 91%; negative predictive value: 91%; and accuracy: 91%. Conclusion. The identification of the pseudocapsule offers an additional value for local staging by MRI. The presence of an intact pseudocapsule is a sign of lack of perinephric fat invasion. It is more likely to predict that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (author)

  19. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer, incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are amphiphilic

  20. Cold plasma decontamination using flexible jet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2010-04-01

    Arrays of atmospheric discharge cold plasma jets have been used to decontaminate surfaces of a wide range of microorganisms quickly, yet not damage that surface. Its effectiveness in decomposing simulated chemical warfare agents has also been demonstrated, and may also find use in assisting in the cleanup of radiological weapons. Large area jet arrays, with short dwell times, are necessary for practical applications. Realistic situations will also require jet arrays that are flexible to adapt to contoured or irregular surfaces. Various large area jet array prototypes, both planar and flexible, are described, as is the application to atmospheric decontamination.