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Sample records for local antiinflammatory effect

  1. No antiinflammatory effect of short-term topical and subcutaneous administration of local anesthetics on postburn inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Brennum, J

    1993-01-01

    , development of blister and ulcerations, or the intensity of inflammation after burn injury between the control legs and EMLA- or bupivacaine-treated legs, respectively. CONCLUSION. No antiinflammatory effect of short-term preinjury and postinjury topical 5% EMLA or subcutaneous 0.5% bupivacaine could...... and left calves with a 15 x 25 mm rectangular thermode. Eight subjects had topical 5% EMLA applied before and after burn injury, and another eight subjects were administered subcutaneous 0.5% bupivacaine infiltration before burn injury on the right or left leg. No treatment was applied to the contralateral...... leg in either group because this served as the control. The dermal response after burn injury in test areas with EMLA or bupivacaine and without treatment was compared 24 hours, 72 hours, 168 hours, and 14 days after burn injury. RESULTS. No significant difference was found in the area of flare...

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance....... In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic...

  3. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Paresh; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Mohanty, Priya; Ghanim, Husam

    2007-07-01

    This review deals with the recent observations on the pro-inflammatory effects of glucose and the anti-inflammatory actions of insulin. Apart from being novel, they are central to our understanding of why hyperglycemia is a prognosticator of bad clinical outcomes including patients with acute coronary syndromes, stroke and in patients in the intensive care unit. The pro-inflammatory effect of glucose as well as that of other macronutrients including fast food meals provides the basis of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation in the obese and their propensity to atherosclerotic disease. The anti-inflammatory action of insulin provides a neutralizing effect to balance macronutrient induced inflammation on the one hand and the possibility of using insulin as an anti-inflammatory drug on the other. The actions of macronutrients and insulin described above explain why insulin resistant states like obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis. They also suggest that insulin may be antiatherogenic.

  5. radiolabeling of some antiinflammatory agents for inflammation localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.M.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    this work has been carried out to investigate the labeling of pefloxacin. piroxicam with technetium -99 m and indomethacine with iodine-125 . the labeling techniques are effective. as a high labeling yield (98%) was obtained. depending on the data obtained. 99m Tc-pefloxacin shows good differentiation between septic and sterile inflammation . piroxicam was labeled effectively with technetium -99 m due to the presence of electrons donating atoms in its structure such as sulfur- nitrogen -oxygen . the labeling reaction proceeds well at room temperature. 99m Tc-piroxicam shows good localization in inflamed foci at 24 h post injection. indomethacin was successfully labeled with iodine -125 via electrophilic substitution . 125 I-indomethacin was found stable in -vivo as the thyroid gland uptake not exceeds 2% . labeled indomethacin shows a good localization in inflamed muscle either septic or sterile

  6. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  8. Antinociceptive And Antiinflammatory Effects Of Essential Oil Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediated both centrally as well as peripherally, while the antiinflammatory activity may be effective in both early and late phases of inflammation. The results obtained may therefore be used to rationalize the use of the plant in the treatment of pain and fever in traditional medicine. Keywords: Dennettia tripetala, Essential Oil, ...

  9. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac. (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei. Keywords: Anti-inflammatoy activity; Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab; ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ibuprofen in rat pups. Methods: The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by western blotting; the inhibition of these proteins by plant compounds was evaluated.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cajaninstilbene Acid and Its Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Yan; Lin, Jing; Lu, Kuo; Xu, Hong-Gui; Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Ping-Hua; Chen, Wei-Min

    2016-04-13

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) is one of the active components isolated from pigeon pea leaves. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its synthesized derivatives were fully valued with regard to their activities on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro cell model, as well as their impacts on the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in fluorescent protein labeled zebrafish larvae model by live image analysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this type of compounds was clarified by western-blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that CSA, as well as its synthesized derivatives 5c, 5e and 5h, exhibited strong inhibition activity on the release of NO and inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. CSA and 5c greatly inhibited the migration of neutrophils and macrophages in injury zebrafish larvae. CSA and 5c treatment greatly inhibited the phosphorylation of proteins involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Moreover, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 could reverse partly the roles of CSA and 5c, and CSA and 5c treatment greatly resist the decrease of PPARγ mRNA and protein induced by LPS stimulation. Our results identified the promising anti-inflammatory effects of CSA and its derivatives, which may serve as valuable anti-inflammatory lead compound. Additionally, the mechanism studies demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of CSA and its derivative is associated with the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK pathways, relying partly on resisting the LPS-induced decrease of PPARγ through improving its expression.

  13. Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia—Effect of Antiinflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-01-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-α and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-κB, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research highlights: →Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. →It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. →The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  15. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the C-reactive protein level in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Bartels, Else M.; Bliddal, Henning

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs.......To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs....

  16. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  17. Gastrointestinal absorption and anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaka, K.I. Yamada, M.; Kawano, T; Suyama, T [Green Cross Corp., Osaka (Japan). Research Lab.

    1972-08-01

    In intraduodenal administration of /sup 125/I bromelain in the dog, a blood radioactive peak was attained at 4 hr, equivalent to 9.2% of the administered radioactivity, but, over 24 hr after the administration, 0.213 to 0.263% of the dose was found in the high molecular serum fraction, 21% of which was respondible for the absorbed as intact, equivalent to 0.042 to 0.052% of the administered. The gastrointestinal absorption immunologically proved the same. In intragastric administration of enteric-coated capsules containing /sup 125/I-bromelain as much as 1/8 th of the intraduodenal dose, the blood level reached the maximum at 6 hr following a 3 hr lag phase, equivalent to 0.6% of the administered, and 0.013% of the dose was attributed to the radioactivity in the high molecular serum fraction. The presence of bromelain absorbed was not evidenced immunologically. In intravenous administration of /sup 125/I-bromelain, /sup 125/I-bromelain was eliminated from the circulation at 50 min half-life, and low /sup 125/I molecules were detected immediately after the administration; it is indicative of the rapid break-down of /sup 125/I-bromelain by serum proteases. A binding of these low /sup 125/I-molecules to serum proteins was also revealed. A 24 hr urinary collection was found 68% of the dose. As for the anti-inflammatory effect of bromelain on the carrageenin-induced edema in the rat hind paw, bromelain orally administered in enteric-coated form showed 6.6% inhibition of edema at 73.5 mg/kg dose, and 39.0% inhibition at 120 mg/kg dose. This effect highly significant and almost equivalent to that obtained with hydrocortisone given at 10 mg/kg dose, while no powdered bromelain orally administered showed an inhibitory effect on the edema at 20 - 300 mg/kg dose level. The data obtained here indicate that orally administered bromelain is absorbable from the gastrointestinal tract and exhibits fairly potent anti-inflammatory activity on the exudative phases in enteric

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18...336664 Title Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macro

  1. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  2. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of coral reef associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chellaram

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... pharmacologists in 1989 and the potential of the oceans became clear with many unique bioactive substances .... their general behavior. Anti-inflammatory potential of the 100% acetone ... covery from the world's oceans has been accelerated by the chemical uniqueness of marine organisms and by the.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii (Hook

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Key words: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mice, Cyphostemma vogelii, nociception. ... steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the drugs of ..... 44-55. Hughes H, Lang M (1983). Control of pain in dogs and cats In: Kitchell. R, Erickson H (eds.) Animal pain. Baltimore Waverly press. pp. 207-.

  5. Anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 67.05μg/ml (ABTS). Methanol extract was able to inhibit inflammation by in vitro about 85-90% (HRBC stabilization method) and in vivo about 40-45% (Paw oedema method) anti-inflammatory assays compared to standard produced 50.04% at 6h period. In cytotoxicity assay (MTT assay) methanolic extract exhibited IC50 ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2018-05-24

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  7. [Effect of anti-inflammatory therapy on the treatment of dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Rogowska-Godela, Anna; Gierek-Ciaciura, Stanisława

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common chronic disease; agents and strategies for its effective management are still lacking. The syndrome tends to be accompanied by ocular surface inflammation; therefore, the use of anti-inflammatory agents might prove beneficial. The authors present up-to-date guidelines, strategies, and efficacy of dry eye syndrome management, including anti-inflammatory treatment. As no diagnostic tests are now available to assess ocular surface inflammation severity, the right timing to launch an anti-inflammatory agent is difficult to determine. Patients with mild intermittent bouts of symptoms which can be alleviated with ophthalmic lubricants do not typically require anti-inflammatory therapy. The latter should be considered in those who do not respond to lubricating drops, obtain poor results on clinical tests, and show symptoms of ocular surface irritation (eg. conjunctivae redness). Anti-inflammatory treatment of dry eye syndrome may include short-term corticosteroids, cyclosporine A emulsion, oral tetracycline therapy, oral omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and autologous serum eye drops. Anti-inflammatory treatment should be safe and effective; potential benefits should be evaluated for each individual patient. The authors have reviewed the advantages of anti-inflammatory treatment in dry eye syndrome, presented in literature.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Snophia Suresh; Satya Narayana; P Jayakumar; Uma Sudhakar; V Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of De...

  9. Toxic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicosis of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, piroxicam, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and aspirin, which occasionally are locally used in Nigeria as rodenticides have been evaluated in rats using changes in the serum biochemical and haematological parameters as indices of toxicity. In the study, no ...

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  11. Inhibition of the development of myringosclerosis by local administration of fenspiride, an anti-inflammatory drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, C; Hellström, S

    1997-01-01

    Earlier studies have revealed a relationship between the development of myringosclerosis and oxygen-derived free radicals. The latter can be blocked by the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride. The present study was undertaken to test the ability of fenspiride to prevent myringosclerosis from developing during healing of the tympanic membrane. Myringotomized rats were treated with either topical applications or intraperitoneal injections of fenspiride for 12 days, after which the tympanic membranes were examined by otomicroscopy and studied histologically by light microscopy. Topically applied fenspiride was found to inhibit the development of sclerotic lesions, whereas intraperitoneal injections were ineffective.

  12. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  13. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  14. Different activities of Schinus areira L.: anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davicino, R; Mattar, A; Casali, Y; Anesini, C; Micalizzi, B

    2010-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory drugs possess many serious side effects at doses commonly prescribed. It is really important to discover novel regulators of inflammation from natural sources with minimal adverse effects. Schinus areira L. is a plant native from South America and is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory herb. For this study, the activity of aqueous extracts on inflammation and the effect on superoxide anion production in mice macrophages were assayed. Aqueous extracts were prepared by soaking herbs in cold water (cold extract), boiling water (infusion), and simmering water (decoction). Cold extract possess an anti-inflammatory activity. Decoction and infusion showed pro-inflammatory activity. Cold extract increased the production of superoxide anion. It has been proposed to use diverse methods to obtain extracts of S. areira L. with different effects. Cold extract, decoction, and infusion could be utilized as extracts or as pharmacological preparations for topical application.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Sonchus oleraceus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fabiana C; Bitencourt, Andressa D; Cabral, Layla D M; Franqui, Lidiane S; Soncini, Roseli; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-02-17

    Sonchus oleraceus L. has been used to relieve headaches, general pain, hepatitis, infections, inflammation and rheumatism in Brazilian folk medicine. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce; there are no reports related to its possible anti-inflammatory effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the scientific basis for the traditional use of Sonchus oleraceus using in vivo inflammatory models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and febrile response induced by lipopolysaccharide tests, as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Sonchus oleraceus hydroethanolic extract (SoHE) in rats. The SoHE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan, inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and reduced LPS-induced febrile response, and in the model of chronic inflammation using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats, the SoHE significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. The extract administered at 300 mg/kg p.o. had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than indomethacin (10mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg). The hydroethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus markedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory action in rats, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Careya arborea stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Careya arborea (MECA). The effects of MECA on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin) induced paw oedema and cotton ...

  18. Ankle sprain: the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one in 10,000 people per day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extracts of hemp leaf in IL-1β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of some hemp (Canabis sativa) leaf extracts as an antiinflammatory agent on synovitis in vitro. Methods: Synovial fibroblast cell line SW982 was induced with 5 ng/mL of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) to trigger cellular inflammation. The cells were then treated with prepared extracts of hemp ...

  20. Topical glucocorticoid has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Møiniche, S; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical glucocorticoids in human thermal injury. The right and left legs of 12 healthy volunteers were allocated randomly to be treated with either 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream or placebo in a double-blind trial. Thermal...

  1. Effectiveness of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effectiveness of various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with vertebral fractures. Methods: A total of 78 patients (17 males and 61 females) with a mean age of 69.5 years were included. The major inclusion criterion was an osteoporotic vertebral fracture between T7 and L3.

  2. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  3. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay and flow cytometry. The anti-inflammatory effects of OCB were assessed by a nitric oxide (NO) assay ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... officially used at the 11th Winter Olympics Games of 1972 in ... well known for its beneficial properties on body condition ...

  4. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  5. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  6. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Aqueous Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    suggest that the extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, which may be mediated solely by ... were then carefully separated from the stem; air dried for 7 days and pulverized using an electric mill. ... venier caliper, baseline measurement of the right hind .... to the release of mast cell autacoids like histamine.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Effects of apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone from the Brown Alga, Sargassum Muticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt is an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. S. muticum is a traditional Korean food stuff and has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the active ingredients from S. muticum have not been characterized.Methods:Bioguided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of S. muticum, collected from Jeju island, led to the isolation of a norisoprenoid. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of this compound were examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through ELISA assays and Western blot analysis.Results:Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone, belonging to the norisoprenoid family were identified. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone effectively suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production. This compound also exerted their anti-inflammatory actions by down-regulating of NF-κB activation via suppression of IκB-α in macrophages.Conclusions:This is the first report describing effective anti-inflammatory activity for apo-9’-fucoxanthinone′-fucoxanthnone isolated from S. muticum. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone may be a good candidate for delaying the progression of human inflammatory diseases and warrants further studies.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for a number of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. Paradoxically, it also contains nicotine, an anti-inflammatory alkaloid. There is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis, and the protective effect involves the activation of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on immune cells. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Nicotine significantly improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in genetically obese and diet-induced obese mice, which is associated with suppressed adipose tissue inflammation. Inflammation that results in disruption of the epithelial barrier is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, and nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis. This article summarizes current evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Selective agonists for the α7nAChR could represent a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of inflammation in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine could be mediated via the expression of several nAChRs on a particular target cell.

  11. Central and peripheral haemodynamic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennmalm, A; Carlsson, I; Edlund, A; Eriksson, S; Kaijser, L; Nowak, J

    1984-01-01

    The haemodynamic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs can be attributed either to their common property of inhibiting the formation of prostaglandins (PG) in the cardiovascular system, or to direct actions on the tone and sensitivity of the resistance vessels in various regions. Indomethacin (IND) is the most frequently studied NSAI drug, in animals and in man. Its cardiovascular effects differ somewhat from those of other NSAI, due to the fact that, besides inhibiting PG formation, IND acts as a direct vasoconstrictor. The stimulatory effect of IND in vascular smooth muscle results in an increased systemic vascular resistance which, although partially compensated by a decreased cardiac output, gives rise to a moderate increase in systemic blood pressure. The vasoconstrictor effect of IND is of particular interest in patients with ischemic heart disease, since it lowers their already decreased coronary flow, and may thereby accentuate the risk of myocardial infarction. Administration of IND also leads to a decreased blood flow in the splanchnic region, the kidneys, and the brain. The cerebral blood flow is lowered by 25-35%; in addition, IND almost entirely erases the hyperemic flow response to hypercapnia. Of other NSAI drugs, at least aspirin and naproxen are completely devoid of such actions on the cerebral circulation. A common vascular effect of all NSAI drugs is a diminution of reactive hyperemia, the local hyperemia that develops in a tissue subjected to a short period of arterial occlusion. Part of this hyperemic response is dependent on an intact vascular PG formation and consequently it is inhibited when PG formation is blocked. In contrast, NSAI drugs do not affect the functional increase in the blood flow in working skeletal muscle.

  12. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulatory effects of dezocine-propofol, and fentanyl-propofol combinations in colonoscopy. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients who received painless colonoscopy in Eastern Medical District of Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi City, ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond on primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, A E; Witherel, C E; Gogotsi, Y; Spiller, K L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by excessive pro-inflammatory or "M1" activation of macrophages, the primary cells of the innate immune system. Current treatments include delivery of glucocorticoids (e.g. dexamethasone - Dex), which reduce pro-inflammatory M1 behaviour in macrophages. However, these treatments have many off-target effects on cells other than macrophages, resulting in broad immunosuppression. To limit such side effects, drug-incorporated nano- and microparticles may be used to selectively target macrophages via phagocytosis, because of their roles as highly effective phagocytes in the body. In this study, surface-modified nanodiamond (ND) was explored as a platform for the delivery of dexamethasone to macrophages because of ND's rich surface chemistry, which contributes to ND's high potential as a versatile drug delivery platform. After finding that octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND-ODA) enhanced adsorption of Dex compared to carboxylated ND, the effects of Dex, ND-ODA, and Dex-adsorbed ND-ODA on primary human macrophage gene expression were characterized. Surprisingly, even in the absence of Dex, ND-ODA had strong anti-inflammatory effects, as determined by multiplex gene expression via NanoString and by protein secretion analysis via ELISA. ND-ODA also inhibited expression of M2a markers yet increased the expression of M2c markers and phagocytic receptors. Interestingly, the adsorption of Dex to ND-ODA further increased some anti-inflammatory effects, but abrogated the effect on phagocytic receptors, compared to its individual components. Overall, the ability of ND-ODA to promote anti-inflammatory and pro-phagocytic behaviour in macrophages, even in the absence of loaded drugs, suggests its potential for use as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic to directly target macrophages through phagocytosis.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAZIM

    widespread perception that green medicine is safe and dependable than the costly synthetic drugs most of which have adverse effects (Jigna and Sumitra, 2006). This belief and perception led to explore a lot of new. *Corresponding author. E-mail: .... ml/kg was used to create pain sensation. The number of writhing.

  15. The effects of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The direct effects of corticosteroids on coagulation are difficult to separate from ... changes in coagulation which cannot be explained by reduced inflammation.6 ... vessel patency.11 Aspirin for CV prophylaxis is given at a low dose of 80–120 ...

  16. Cardiovascular effects and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, they carry the risk of serious cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients who have a high, pre-existing cardiovascular risk profile. It is imperative that physicians are aware of these risk factors and choose agents that have the best benefit-to-risk profile, while taking into consideration the patient's individual ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis effects of tectorigenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Long Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a common and dynamic disease of the joints, including the articular cartilage, underlying bones and synovium. In particular, OA is considered as the degeneration of the cartilage. Tectorigenin (Tec is known to affect many biological processes; however, its effects on articular chondrocytes remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the effects of Tec on articular cartilage. In vitro, Tec inhibited the expression levels of type X collagen, cyclooxigenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3 and MMP-13, but enhanced the expression of Runx1, type II collagen and aggrecan in the presence of IL-1β. Meanwhile, Tec inhibited apoptosis through the Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway, upregulating p-Bad, downregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activating caspase-3 compared with IL-1β treatment only. Moreover, this process was partially regulated by NF-κB P65. In vivo, the chondroprotective effects of Tec were assessed by establishing a model of surgically induced OA. Tec-treated joints exhibited fewer osteoarthritic changes than saline-treated joints. Meanwhile, 1.5 μg/kg Tec treatment produced a greater protective effect than 0.75 μg/kg Tec. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI scoring system, employed to assess histopathological grading of the models, as well immunohistochemistry for Aggrecan Neoepitope and MMP-3, further confirmed the results. In conclusion, this study showed that Tec plays a chondroprotective role in the OA process by preventing articular cartilage degeneration and chondrocyte apoptosis via the NF-κB P65 pathway.

  18. Effect of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate and anti-inflammatory gel in infusion phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cökmez, Atilla; Gür, Serhat; Genç, Hüdai; Deniz, Sümer; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2003-10-01

    Phlebitis is the commonest complication of intravenous infusion. It has been suggested that it is initiated by venoconstriction at the infusion site, hence treatment with a vasodilator may reduce its incidence. A prospective controlled study was carried out on the effect of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and topical anti-inflammatory gel (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NSAID) on the survival of peripheral intravenous infusion in 386 patients. A total of 34.9% (43 out of 123) of the infusions failed in the control group compared with 14.1% (18 out of 127) in the NSAID group (P NSAI gel and GTN but NSAI gel is more effective than GTN.

  19. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on experimental radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, N.J.; Holloway, N.O.; Narine, K.R. (Medical Radiology Service, Hines VA Hospital, Maywood, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Corticosteroids have previously been found to be protective against the mortality of radiation pneumonitis in mice, even when given well after lethal lung irradiation. The authors explored the possibility that this effect was due to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions by giving various nonsteroidal inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism to groups of mice that had received 19 Gy to the thorax (bilaterally). Treatments of four cyclooxygenase inhibitors, one lipoxygenase inhibitor, and one leukotriene receptor antagonist, given by various routes in various doses, were commenced 10 weeks after irradiation or sham irradiation and continued throughout the period when death from radiation pneumonitis occurs, 11-26 weeks after irradiation. Each of the treatments had the appropriate effect on arachidonate metabolism in the lungs as assessed by LTB4 and PGE2 levels in lung lavage fluid. The principal end point was mortality. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor diethylcarbamazine and the LTD4/LTE4 receptor antagonist LY 171883 markedly reduced mortality in dose-response fashion. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were divergent; piroxicam and ibuprofen were marginally protective, indomethacin in all doses accelerated mortality, and aspirin reduced mortality in a dose-response fashion. These results suggest that the protective effect of corticosteroids in radiation pneumonitis can be tentatively attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, particularly those that affect lipoxygenase products, may offer equal or better protection than corticosteroids against mortality due to radiation pneumonitis.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Melittin on Porphyromonas Gingivalis LPS-Stimulated Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Min-Kyung; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2018-02-05

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to the destruction of the gingiva. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ) can cause periodontitis via its pathogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the role of melittin in the inflammatory response has not been elucidated in periodontitis-like human keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin on a P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-treated HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The cytotoxicity of melittin was measured using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, and a Cell Counting Kit-8. The effect of melittin on PgLPS-induced inflammation was determined with Western blot, real-time quantitative PCT, and immunofluorescence. PgLPS increased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Moreover, PgLPS induced activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B/Akt. Melittin also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, ERK, and Akt. Melittin attenuates the PgLPS-induced inflammatory response and could therefore be applied in the treatment of periodontitis for anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on experimental radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, N.J.; Holloway, N.O.; Narine, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Corticosteroids have previously been found to be protective against the mortality of radiation pneumonitis in mice, even when given well after lethal lung irradiation. The authors explored the possibility that this effect was due to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions by giving various nonsteroidal inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism to groups of mice that had received 19 Gy to the thorax (bilaterally). Treatments of four cyclooxygenase inhibitors, one lipoxygenase inhibitor, and one leukotriene receptor antagonist, given by various routes in various doses, were commenced 10 weeks after irradiation or sham irradiation and continued throughout the period when death from radiation pneumonitis occurs, 11-26 weeks after irradiation. Each of the treatments had the appropriate effect on arachidonate metabolism in the lungs as assessed by LTB4 and PGE2 levels in lung lavage fluid. The principal end point was mortality. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor diethylcarbamazine and the LTD4/LTE4 receptor antagonist LY 171883 markedly reduced mortality in dose-response fashion. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were divergent; piroxicam and ibuprofen were marginally protective, indomethacin in all doses accelerated mortality, and aspirin reduced mortality in a dose-response fashion. These results suggest that the protective effect of corticosteroids in radiation pneumonitis can be tentatively attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, particularly those that affect lipoxygenase products, may offer equal or better protection than corticosteroids against mortality due to radiation pneumonitis

  4. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Curcumin in Microglial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipoteichoic acid (LTA induces neuroinflammatory molecules, contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, suppression of neuroinflammatory molecules could be developed as a therapeutic method. Although previous data supports an immune-modulating effect of curcumin, the underlying signaling pathways are largely unidentified. Here, we investigated curcumin’s anti-neuroinflammatory properties in LTA-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and Nitric Oxide (NO] secretion in LTA-induced microglial cells were inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited LTA-induced inducible NO synthases (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression. Subsequently, our mechanistic studies revealed that curcumin inhibited LTA-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK including ERK, p38, Akt and translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, curcumin induced hemeoxygenase (HO-1HO-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2 expression in microglial cells. Inhibition of HO-1 reversed the inhibition effect of HO-1 on inflammatory mediators release in LTA-stimulated microglial cells. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders via suppressing neuroinflammatory responses.

  5. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  6. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CLOPIDOGREL IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS

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    L. I. Buriachkovskaia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the literary and own data about clopidogrel influence on platelets during inflammation and to reveal particularities of its usage in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients with active inflammation. Material and methods. The platelet morphology and a number of leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LTA were investigated with scanning electron microscopy in 110 patients with stable angina pectoris of I-III functional class and 18 healthy volunteers. Spontaneous and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were assessed with laser aggregatometre manufactured by LLC “BIOLA”. Mean platelet volume (MPV was estimated with the hematological analyzer . All investigations were performed in IHD patients before and after 2 months of clopidogrel treatment 75 mg a day. Results. IHD patients demonstrated appearance of LTA and big reticular platelets in the blood, increase in MPV and spontaneous aggregation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was rarely increased probably due to acetylsalicylic acid therapy in all IHD patients. These platelet activity changes are connected with increased risk of thrombotic events and correlated with inflammation markers levels. After 2 months of clopidogrel treatment LTA number reduced in 4 times and big reticular platelets number decreased in 2.5 times as well as MPV and spontaneous aggregation achieved the normal ranges. Conclusion. Clopidogrel has not only antithrombotic effect but also can diminish platelets morphological and functional changes connected with inflammation.

  7. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-06-25

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam is a large evergreen tree cultivated throughout Southeast Asia for its fruits. Its leaves and roots have been used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone] ( 1), norartocarpetin (5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) ( 2), and oxyresveratrol [ trans-2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene] ( 3) by spectroscopic methods and through comparison with data reported in the literatures. The anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds ( 1- 3) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These three compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity. The results indicated that artocarpesin ( 1) suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Thus, artocarpesin ( 1) may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.

  9. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Narayana, Satya; Jayakumar, P; Sudhakar, Uma; Pramod, V

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of Department of Periodontics, Thaimoogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Thirty patients selected were grouped into two groups, Group-I consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and on statin medication and Group-II consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-1β using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean GCF IL-1β levels in generalized chronic periodontitis patients who are on statin medication (Group-I) were lower than the generalized chronic periodontitis patients without statin medication (Group-II). Reduction of GCF IL-1β levels in statin users indicate that statins have anti-inflammatory effect on periodontal disease.

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, G; González, D; Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Quintero, G; Núñez-Sellés, A J; Morales, M A

    2001-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from elevated stress. To assess its possible analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, the results of a standard extract evaluation are presented. Analgesia was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema. Vimang (50-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against acetic acid test in mice. The mean potency (DE(50)) was 54.5 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition attained was 94.4%. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain but not the first phase. The DE(50) of the second phase was 8.4 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition was 99.5%, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited oedema formation (p Vimang could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions reported here for the first time for M. indica bark aqueous extract. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  12. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  13. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Shirley, Shawna A; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2006-08-24

    Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs) can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in treating asthma may be enhanced through the use of this novel drug delivery

  14. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

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    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  15. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

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    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP and intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

  16. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC 50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC 50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of chronic aspirin on brain arachidonic acid metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Ramadan, Epolia; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) modulate peripheral inflammation and its resolution. Aspirin (ASA) is a unique non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which switches AA metabolism from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and 15-epi-LXA4. However it is unknown whether chronic therapeutic doses of ASA are anti-inflammatory in the brain. We hypothesized that ASA would dampen increases in brain concentrations of AA metabolites in a rat model of neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebroventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In rats infused with LPS (0.5 ng/h) and given ASA-free water to drink, concentrations in high-energy microwaved brain of PGE2, TXB2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were elevated. In rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, 6 weeks of treatment with a low (10 mg/kg/day) or high (100 mg/kg/day) ASA dose in drinking water decreased brain PGE2, but increased LTB4, LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 concentrations. Both doses attenuated the LPS effects on PGE2, and TXB2. The increments in LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 caused by high-dose ASA were significantly greater in LPS-infused rats. The ability of ASA to increase anti-inflammatory LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 and reduce pro-inflammatory PGE2 and TXB2 suggests considering aspirin further for treating clinical neuroinflammation. PMID:20981485

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  19. Toxicological analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff Brait, Débora Regina; Mattos Vaz, Márcia Soares; da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Borges de Carvalho, Luciana Noia; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Vani, Juliana Miron; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2 g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500 mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000 mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000 mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, R A B; Pegoraro, D H; Woisky, R; Penna, S C; Sertié, J A A

    2002-04-01

    Petiveria alliacea L (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely in Brazil. The roots and leaves of P. alliacea have been used in folk medicine for their antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic and antihelminthic actions. We recently described the anti-inflammatory properties of P. alliacea administered topically and orally in different animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of a crude lyophilized extract of P. alliacea roots administered to rats with pleurisy. The oral administration of P. alliacea root extract did not significantly reduce the total number of leukocytes at the doses tested. By contrast, the highest dose of extract tested (43.9 mg/kg body wt.) significantly reduced the number of migrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils; the dose of 31.4 mg/kg body wt. also reduced mononuclear cell migration. The P. alliacea root extract also showed a significant analgesic effect in the experimental model used. The results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. alliacea extracts in popular folk medicine, but further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions.

  1. Biodistribution, cellular localization, and in vivo tolerability of {sup 35}S-labeled antiinflammatory dendritic polyglycerol sulfate amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhausen, Cornelia [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany); Gröger, Dominic [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Mundhenk, Lars [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany); Donat, Cornelius K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Department of Neuroradiopharmaceuticals (Germany); Schnorr, Jörg [Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Radiology (Germany); Haag, Rainer [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Germany); Gruber, Achim D., E-mail: achim.gruber@fu-berlin.de [Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Pathology (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Antiinflammatory dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) holds great potential in the treatment and imaging of inflammatory processes. Here, we studied its biokinetic behavior, biodistribution, target cells, and in vivo toxicology. Following intravenous or subcutaneous application of {sup 35}sulfur-labeled dPGS amine with a molecular weight of 10.05 kDa and a hydrodynamic diameter of 5.7 ± 1.5 nm to mice, tissues were collected at specific time points (2, 15 min; 1, 24 h; 5, 21 days) and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting, autoradiography, radioluminography, and light microscopic autoradiography. The blood half-life of dPGS amine was 12 days. The major route of elimination was via the bile and feces. Elimination via the kidney and urine was only initially observed after i.v., but not after s.c. injection. Regardless of the administration mode, liver and spleen were late target organs where dPGS amine accumulated in phagocytic cells. Despite bioaccumulation, toxicological histopathology failed to identify any adverse effects at any time and in any tissues examined suggesting a high in vivo biocompatibility and encouraging future investigation for biomedical applications.

  2. Renal Side Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gewillig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or indomethacin are commonly prescribed drugs to induce pharmacologic closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Based on a recently published Cochrane meta-analysis, both drugs are equally effective to induce closure. Drug choice can therefore be based on differences in side effects or pharmaco-economic arguments. The current review quantifies the negative impact of either ibuprofen or indomethacin on renal function, including diuresis, glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function. Both ibuprofen and indomethacin have a quantifiable impact on renal function. However, compared to ibuprofen, the negative impact of indomethacin is more pronounced.

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fungal Metabolites in Mouse Intestine as Revealed by In vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schreiber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract or the colonic mucosal layer. Current therapies aiming to suppress the exaggerated immune response in IBD largely rely on compounds with non-satisfying effects or side-effects. Therefore, new therapeutical options are needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin in both an in vitro intestinal inflammation model, as well as in isolated myenteric plexus and enterocyte cells. Administration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine mix through the mesenteric artery of intestinal segments caused an up-regulation of inflammatory marker genes. Treatment of the murine intestinal segments with galiellalactone or dehydrocurvularin by application through the mesenteric artery significantly prevented the expression of pro-inflammatory marker genes on the mRNA and the protein level. Comparable to the results in the perfused intestine model, treatment of primary enteric nervous system (ENS cells from the murine intestine with the fungal compounds reduced expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and inflammatory enzymes such as COX-2 and iNOS on mRNA and protein levels. Similar anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites were observed in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 after stimulation with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml, TNF-α (10 ng/ml, and IL-1β (5 ng/ml. Our results show that the mesenterially perfused intestine model provides a reliable tool for the screening of new therapeutics with limited amounts of test compounds. Furthermore, we could characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of two novel active compounds, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin which are interesting candidates for studies with chronic animal models of IBD.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    OpenAIRE

    Bashkaran, Karuppannan; Zunaina, Embong; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, KNS; Naik, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment ...

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Benfotiamine are Mediated Through the Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent anti-oxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study indicates a novel role of benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of...

  6. The anti-inflammatory effect of Sonchus oleraceus aqueous extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Dong, Dan-Dan; Huang, Qiu-Ping; Li, Jing; Du, Yong-Yong; Li, Bin; Li, Huan-Qing; Huyan, Ting

    2017-12-01

    Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) (SO) is a dietary and traditional medicinal plant in China. However, its underlying mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent is not known. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of SO. The extract of SO was used to treat RAW 264.7 cells (in the working concentrations of 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.3 and 15.6 μg/mL) for 24 h. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators produced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were assessed. Meanwhile, the expression level of TLR-4, COX-2, pSTATs and NF-κB was tested. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract in vivo was assessed using xylene-induced mouse ear oedema model and the anti-inflammatory compounds in the extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS. SO extract significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators at gene and protein levels with the concentration of 31.3 μg/mL, and suppressed the expression of TLR-4, COX-2, NF-κB and pSTAT in RAW 264.7 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of SO in vivo has significant anti-inflammatory effects with the concentration of 250 and 125 mg/kg, and less side effect on the weights of the mice at the concentration of 250 mg/kg. Moreover, HPLC-MS analysis revealed that the anti-inflammatory compounds in the extract were identified as villosol, ferulaic acid, β-sitosterol, ursolic acid and rutin. This study indicated that SO extract has anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, which will be further developed as novel pharmacological strategies in order to defeat inflammatory diseases.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

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    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

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    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Piper attenuatum Methanol Extract in LPS-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses

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    You Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages. Pa-ME suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-, pam3CSK4-, and poly(I:C-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were decreased by Pa-ME. P-ME reduced the translocation of p50/NF-κB and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos, as well as the activity of their upstream enzymes Src, Syk, and TAK1. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed failure of binding between their substrates, phospho- (p- p85 and p-MKK3/6. p-p85 and p-MKK3/6, which were induced by overexpression of Src, Syk, and TAK1, were also reduced by Pa-ME. Therefore, these results suggest that Pa-ME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by targeting Src and Syk in the NF-κB signaling pathway and TAK1 in the AP-1 signaling pathway.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells in uveitis.

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    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Eiro, Noemi; Gonzalez, Francisco; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) in uveitis. To do that, uveitis was induced in rats after footpad injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells after LPS challenge were used to test anti-inflammatory effect of CM-hUCESCs 'ìn vitro'. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interkeukin-6, interkeukin-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the anti-inflammatory interkeukin-10. Leucocytes from aqueous humor (AqH) were quantified in a Neubauer chamber, and eye histopathological analysis was done with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, using a human cytokine antibody array we evaluated CM-hUCESCs to determine mediating proteins. Results showed that administration of CM-hUCESCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines both 'in vitro' and 'in vivo', and decreased leucocytes in AqH and ocular tissues. High levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects were found in CM-hUCESCs, suggesting a possible role of these factors in reducing intraocular inflammation. In summary, treatment with CM-hUCESCs significantly reduces inflammation in uveitis. Our data indicate that CM-hUCESCs could be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for patients suffering from ocular inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory effects of the natural polyphenol curcumin on turbot scuticociliatosis.

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    Mallo, N; DeFelipe, A P; Folgueira, I; Sueiro, R A; Lamas, J; Leiro, J M

    2017-02-01

    The histiophagous scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi is the aetiological agent of scuticociliatosis, a parasitic disease of farmed turbot. Curcumin, a polyphenol from Curcuma longa (turmeric), is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the in vitro effects of curcumin on the growth of P. dicentrarchi and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in turbot leucocytes activated by parasite cysteine proteases. At 100 μm, curcumin had a cytotoxic effect and completely inhibited the growth of the parasite. At 50 μm, curcumin inhibited the protease activity of the parasite and expression of genes encoding two virulence-associated proteases: leishmanolysin-like peptidase and cathepsin L-like. At concentrations between 25 and 50 μm, curcumin inhibited the expression of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. At 100 μm, curcumin inhibited the expression of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced in turbot leucocytes activated by parasite proteases. Results show that curcumin has a dual effect on scuticociliatosis: an antiparasitic effect on the catabolism and anabolism of ciliate proteins, and an anti-inflammatory effect that inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines in the host. The present findings suggest the potential usefulness of this polyphenol in treating scuticociliatosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Farfugium japonicum flower.

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    Kim, Ji-Young; Oh, Tae-Heon; Kim, Byeong Jin; Kim, Sang-Suk; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrodistilled essential oil from Farfugium japonicum were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and included 1-undecene (22.43%), 1-nonene (19.83%), beta-caryophyllene (12.26%), alpha-copaene (3.70%), gamma-curcumene (2.86%), germacrene D (2.69%), and 1-decene (2.08%). The effects of the essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the F. japonicum essential oil is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE(2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. These inhibitory effects of the F. japonicum essential oil were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. In order to determine whether F. japonicum essential oil can safely be applied to human skin, the cytotoxic effects of F. japonicum essential oil were determined by colorimetric MTT assays in human dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte HaCaT cells. F. japonicum essential oil exhibited low cytotoxicity at 100 mug/mL. Based on these results, we suggest that F. japonicum essential oil may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate for topical application.

  13. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Three Fatty Acids from Royal Jelly

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    Yi-Fan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-H2DA, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10-HDAA, and sebacic acid (SEA are the three major fatty acids in royal jelly (RJ. Previous studies have revealed several pharmacological activities of 10-H2DA and 10-HDAA, although the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms by which SEA acts are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated and compared the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of these RJ fatty acids in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that 10-H2DA, 10-HDAA, and SEA had potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the release of the major inflammatory-mediators, nitric oxide, and interleukin-10, and only SEA decreased TNF-α production. Several key inflammatory genes have also been modulated by these RJ fatty acids, with 10-H2DA showing distinct modulating effects as compared to the other two FAs. Furthermore, we found that these three FAs regulated several proteins involved in MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings provide additional references for using RJ against inflammatory diseases.

  14. Are anti-inflammatory agents effective in treating gingivitis as solo or adjunct therapies? A systematic review.

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    Polak, David; Martin, Conchita; Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio; Beyth, Nurit; Shapira, Lior

    2015-04-01

    Systematically review the scientific evidence for efficiency of anti-inflammatory agents against gingivitis, either as solo treatments or adjunctive therapies. A protocol was developed aimed to answer the following focused question: "Are anti-inflammatory agents effective in treating gingivitis as solo or adjunct therapies?" RCTs and cohort studies on anti-inflammatory agents against gingivitis studies were searched electronically. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted. The primary outcome measures were indices of gingival inflammation. A sub-analysis was performed dividing the active agents into anti-inflammatory and other drugs. The search identified 3188 studies, of which 14 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The use of anti-inflammatory or other agents, in general showed a higher reduction in the test than in the control in terms of gingival indexes and bleeding scores. Only two RCTs on inflammatory drugs could be meta-analysed, showing a statistically significant reduction in the GI in the experimental group [WMD = -0.090; 95% CI (-0.105; -0.074); p = 0.000]. However, the contribution of both studies to the global result was unbalanced (% weight: 99.88 and 0.12 respectively). Most of the tested material showed beneficial effect as anti-inflammatory agents against gingivitis, either as a single treatment modality or as an adjunctive therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis

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    Márquez, Lucía; Pérez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Gárate, Icíar; García-Bueno, Borja; Madrigal, José LM; Menchén, Luis; Garrido, Gabino; Leza, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Mangifera indica L. (MIE) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: MIE (150 mg/kg) was administered in two different protocols: (1) rectally, over 7 d at the same time as DSS administration; and (2) once daily over 14 d (by oral gavage, 7 d before starting DSS, and rectally for 7 d during DSS administration). General observations of clinical signs were performed. Anti-inflammatory activity of MIE was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, expression of inflammatory related mediators [inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, respectively] and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF receptors 1 and 2] in colonic tissue were also assessed. Interleukin (IL)-6 and TNF-α serum levels were also measured. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that MIE has anti-inflammatory properties by improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS. In addition, administration of MIE for 14 d resulted in an increase in GSH and reduction of TBARS levels and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α and TNF R-2 expression in colonic tissue, and a decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels. CONCLUSION: MIE has anti-inflammatory activity in a DSS-induced rat colitis model and preventive administration (prior to DSS) seems to be a more effective protocol. PMID:20954278

  16. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

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    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant capacity of Myrathius arboreus (Cecropiaceae) in experimental models.

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    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Ologe, Olufunmilayo; Alabi, Akinyinka; Tunde Yusuf, Ganiyu; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-27

    Inflammation is involved in various diseases; search for safe treatments is warranted. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Myrathius arboreus (EEMa) were studied in carrageenan-induced model, formaldehyde sub-acute-induced model, and in 48 h lipopolysaccharide-induced air pouch model of inflammation. EEMa membrane-stabilizing activities and anti-oxidant capacity were determined in vitro. In the carrageenan model EEMa (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), or vehicle 3 mL/kg was administered orally in rats (n=5). After 1 h, 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was injected into the right hind paw of rats. Change in edema sizes was measured for 3 h with plethysmometer. One-tenth milliliter (0.1 mL) of 2.5% formaldehyde was injected into the rat paw on the first day and the third day to induce sub-acute inflammation; changes in the edema sizes were determined, and percentages of inhibitions were calculated. Anti-inflammatory effects of EEMa were further examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced air-pouch based on leukocytes count, volume of exudates, levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxides, and tumor necrosis factor released into the inflammatory fluids. EEMa-free radicals scavenging activities were studied in DPPH and reducing power tests. Membrane-stabilizing activities of EEMa were evaluated in the red blood cell lysis induced by thermal and hypotonic solution. EEMa (250, 500 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001; p<0.05) inhibition of inflammation when compared with vehicle. Also, EEMa (250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL) significantly stabilized membrane and produced free radical scavenging activities. M. arboreus possesses anti-inflammatory and the anti-oxidant properties that might benefit translational medicine.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of the polyphenol curcumin on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesch, Burkhard; Becker, Tatjana; Dietersdorfer, Elisabeth; Kiener, Hans; Steiner, Guenter

    2013-02-01

    It has recently been reported that the polyphenol curcumin has pronounced anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. This study investigated possible anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin on the human synovial fibroblast cell line MH7A, and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MH7A cells and RA-FLS were stimulated either with interleukin (IL)-1β or phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), and treated simultaneously or sequentially with increasing concentrations of curcumin. Release of interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In MH7A cells, modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38 and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) were analysed by a reporter gene assay and Western blot, respectively. Pro-apoptotic events were monitored by Annexin-V/7-AAD based assay. Cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and -7 was checked with specific antibodies. Curcumin effectively blocked IL-1β and PMA-induced IL-6 expression both in MH7A cells and RA-FLS. VEGF-A expression could only be detected in RA-FLS and was induced by PMA, but not by IL-1β. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited activation of NF-κB and induced dephosphorylation of ERK1/2. Treatment of FLS with high concentrations of curcumin was associated with a decrease in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The natural compound curcumin represents strong anti-inflammatory properties and induces apoptosis in FLS. This study provides an insight into possible molecular mechanisms of this substance and suggests it as a natural remedy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like RA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

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    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti-inflammatory

  20. Dose-dependent antiinflammatory effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moya, Patricia; Romero-Calvo, Isabel; Requena, Pilar; Hernández-Chirlaque, Cristina; Aranda, Carlos J; González, Raquel; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Suárez, María Dolores; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Marín, José Juan G; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2013-02-01

    The denomination of inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease being the most important conditions. Bile acids may play a role both in etiology and pharmacology of this disease. Thus, although deoxycholic acid is regarded as a proinflammatory agent ursodeoxycholic acid, which is currently being used to treat certain types of cholestasis and primary biliary cirrhosis, because of their choleretic, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory effects, it has been reported to exert an anti-inflammatory activity. We aim to confirm and characterize the intestinal antiinflammatory activity of ursodeoxycholic acid. The experimental model trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats has been used. Animal status was characterized by a number of macroscopic and biochemical parameters. Oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid was able to ameliorate experimental colonic inflammation. This occurred only at a relatively high dose (50 mg/kg day), whereas ursodeoxycholic acid was without significant effect at doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg day. The therapeutic effect was evidenced, among others, by a higher body weight recovery, a diminished affected to total mucosal area and lower alkaline phosphatase activity in treated vs. control (TNBS treated) animals. These results indicate that, at the appropriate dose, ursodeoxycholic acid is a potentially useful drug to reduce intestinal inflammation and could be envisaged to be incorporated in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

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    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Stress Effects of Oryzanol in Glaucomatous Rabbits

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    Shital S. Panchal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. γ-Oryzanol works by anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging activity as a neuroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunosuppressive agent. The present study was conducted to investigate effect of oryzanol in acute and chronic experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Methods. Effect of oryzanol was evaluated in 5% dextrose induced acute model of ocular hypertension in rabbit eye. Chronic model of glaucoma was induced with subconjunctival injection of 5% of 0.3 ml phenol. Treatment with oryzanol was given for next two weeks after induction of glaucoma. From anterior chamber of rabbit eye aqueous humor was collected to assess various oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitric oxide, and inflammatory parameters like TNF-α and IL-6. Structural damage in eye was examined by histopathological studies. Results. In acute model of ocular hypertension oryzanol did not alter raised intraocular pressure. In chronic model of glaucoma oryzanol exhibited significant reduction in oxidative stress followed by reduction in intraocular pressure. Oryzanol treatment reduced level of TNF-α and IL-6. Histopathological studies revealed decreased structural damage of trabecular meshwork, lamina cribrosa, and retina with oryzanol treatment. Conclusions. Oryzanol showed protective effect against glaucoma by its antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory property. Treatment with oryzanol can reduce optic nerve damage.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of sanguinarine following cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Dai, Peng; Bao, Han; Liang, Ping; Wang, Wei; Xing, An; Sun, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Protective agents that can diminish injuries caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are important in alleviating the harmful outcomes of stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of sanguinarine in cerebral I/R injury. A rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used to assess the clinical effect of sanguinarine, and inflammatory cytokines in the serum were detected by ELISA. Western blotting was performed to examine the change in levels of apoptosis-associated proteins in the injured brains. The results suggested that sanguinarine, an anti-inflammatory agent derived from the roots of Sanguinaria canadensis , improved the state of cerebral ischemia in a rat model. The data demonstrated that when rats were treated with sanguinarine prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion, the infarct volume was reduced significantly. The inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were measured in sanguinarine and vehicle-treated groups using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression levels of the three factors were significantly reduced following treatment with sanguinarine (Pprotective effect in cerebral ischemia, and that this effect is associated with the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties of sanguinarine.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinergic and cytotoxic effects of Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Siau Hui; Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian

    2017-12-01

    Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC 50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC 50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC 50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol. The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of tribulusamide D isolated from Tribulus terrestris in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Hwa; Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Seong-Su; Oh, Joa Sub

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including inflammation, edema and hypertension. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of T. terrestris contain alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, quinines and phenolic compounds. Tribulusamide D is a compound that has been isolated from the ethanol extract of T. terrestris. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of tribulusamide D on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Tribulusamide D inhibited the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, by reducing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, respectively. The expression of these genes associated with inflammation was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Furthermore, tribulusamide D reduced the expression of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α. They were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the present study confirmed that the inhibitory effects of tribulusamide D on the inflammatory response were mediated through inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and inhibition of nuclear localization of nuclear factor-B, which were also determined by western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that tribulusamide D exerts anti-inflammatory activity by altering the expression of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, indicating that tribulusamide D could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. PMID:28849109

  6. Steroids block the anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.; Albertini, Regiane; Lopes-Martins, Patricia Sardinha L.; Iversen, Vegard V.; Bjordal, Jan M.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Concomitant use of multiple therapies is common in musculoskeletal and airway disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is considered a promising therapy in arthritis, tendinopathies and rhinitis. We designed two animal studies to assess if the expected anti-inflammatory effect LLLT could be affected by resection of the adrenal gland or concomitant use of the cortisol antagonist mifepristone. Methods: Two studies were performed, with 40 male Wistar rats and with 40 Balb C male mice respectively.. In both studies, four groups received carrageenan and one control group received saline. At 1, 2, and 3 hours after injections, LLLT irradiation was performed with a dose of 7.5 J/cm2. In the rat study, two of the carrageenan groups had the adrenal gland dissected. In the mice study, two of the carrageenan-injected groups were in addition pre-treated with orally administered mifepristone. Results: In the rat paw study, LLLT reduced edema significantly compared to the carrageenan only group (1.5 vs 0.9 ml, peffect of LLLT could be totally blocked by adding the cortisol antagonist mifepristone ( pSteroid therapy should not be used concomitantly with LLLT, as the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT is lost if cortisol receptors are downregulated.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  9. Fractionation and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.

  10. Antiinflammatory effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S; Anim, J T; Khan, I

    2001-05-01

    Products of certain species of Cordia are reported to have antiinflammatory properties. In the present study we examined the effects of Cordia myxa fruit on experimentally induced colitis in rats. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Colitic, normal, and corresponding control animals were included. Body weight was recorded daily. All the animals were sacrificed 4 days after the fruit treatment. Colitis was monitored histologically and by activity of myeloperoxidase. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, as well as total antioxidant status and concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and iron were assayed in plasma, liver, and colon using standard methods. Histology of the colon of colitic rats showed acute colitis that was confirmed by a significant increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Colitis was associated with significant decreases in the tissue activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and lower concentrations of trace elements. Histologic examination and myeloperoxidase activity showed that the fruit treatment reversed the above findings in the inflamed colon, and in liver and plasma of colitic rats. The present results suggest that the observed antiinflammatory effect of the Cordia myxa may be attributed partly to its antioxidant property and to restoration of the levels of trace elements in the inflamed colon, liver, and plasma.

  11. Studies on the pharmacological action of cactus: identification of its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Paek, E A

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica fructus (EEOF) and Opuntia ficus-indica stem (EEOS) were prepared and used to evaluate the pharmacological effects of cactus. Both the extracts inhibited the writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid, indicating that they contains analgesic effect. The oral administrations of EEOF and EEOS suppressed carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and also showed potent inhibition in the leukocyte migration of CMC-pouch model in rats. Moreover, the extracts suppressed the release of beta-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme in rat neutrophils. It was also noted that the extracts showed the protective effect on gastric mucosal layers. From the results it is suggested that the cactus extracts contain anti-inflammatory action having protective effect against gastric lesions.

  12. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  13. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  14. Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone: An Overview on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bahareh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    For many centuries, seeds of Nigella sativa (black cumin), a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used as a seasoning spice and food additive in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas. Traditionally, the plant is used for asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness, and gastrointestinal disturbances. The literature regarding the biological activities of seeds of this plant is extensive, citing bronchodilative, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. The active ingredients of N. sativa are mainly concentrated in the fixed or essential oil of seeds, which are responsible for most health benefits. This review will provide all updated reported activities of this plant with an emphasis on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results of various studies have demonstrated that the oil, extracts, and their active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, supporting the common folk perception of N. Sativa as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Many protective properties are attributed to reproducible radical scavenging activity as well as an interaction with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation, including proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines. However, there is a need for further investigations to find out the precise mechanisms responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and its active constituents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Lantana camara L. extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.C. SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:he Lantana camara L. belongs to the family Verbenaceae, which contains several active compounds in leaves and roots and which are reported to have medicinal and insecticidal properties. Studies of plants within the same family show the existence of anti-inflammatory activity in paw edema induced by carrageenan, serotonin and histamine and analgesic activity in the acetic acid writhing and tail-flick tests. The present study investigated whether the L. camara extract (ACE also exerts these effects. The ACE toxicity was studied in male mice, and the percentage of mortality recorded 7 days after treatment was assessed. The ACE was evaluated as an antinociceptive agent in the hot plate, tail-flick and acetic acid writhing tests at a nontoxic dose of 1.0 g/Kg. The results showed that 1.5 g/Kg of ACE was not able to cause death, and doses of 3.0 and 4.0 g/Kg caused 50% and 60% death, respectively, in male mice. In all of the antinociceptive tests, 1 g/Kg of ACE markedly reduced responses to pain. Our findings suggest that ACE may have active anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in much smaller doses than toxic.

  16. Gasdermin D Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects by Promoting Neutrophil Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Kambara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gasdermin D (GSDMD is considered a proinflammatory factor that mediates pyroptosis in macrophages to protect hosts from intracellular bacteria. Here, we reveal that GSDMD deficiency paradoxically augmented host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, which established GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. In contrast to its activation in macrophages, in which activated inflammatory caspases cleave GSDMD to produce an N-terminal fragment (GSDMD-cNT to trigger pyroptosis, GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils was caspase independent. It was mediated by a neutrophil-specific serine protease, neutrophil elastase (ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. ELANE-mediated GSDMD cleavage was upstream of the caspase cleavage site and produced a fully active ELANE-derived NT fragment (GSDMD-eNT that induced lytic cell death as efficiently as GSDMD-cNT. Thus, GSDMD is pleiotropic, exerting both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects that make it a potential target for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapies. : Kambara et al. find that GSDMD deficiency augments host responses to extracellular Escherichia coli, mainly by delaying neutrophil death, establishing GSDMD as a negative regulator of innate immunity. GSDMD cleavage and activation in neutrophils is mediated by ELANE, released from cytoplasmic granules into the cytosol in aging neutrophils. Keywords: GSDMD, neutrophil death, neutrophil elastase, innate immunity, host defense

  17. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Total Alkaloid Extract from Fumaria capreolata

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    Noureddine Bribi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria capreolata is used in traditional medicine in North Africa for its gastrointestinal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigates the effects of total alkaloids extracted from the aerial parts of Fumaria capreolata (AFC on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, COX-2, and MIP-2 in RAW264.7 cells. AFC significantly reduced the inflammatory response inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the viability of cells, and downregulated mRNA expression of proinflammatory key players: IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, and COX-2. AFC antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties were also evaluated on the acetic acid- and formalin-induced pain models in mice. AFC oral administration significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhes and reduced formalin-induced paw licking time. Therefore, AFC may be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as colitis and arthritis.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of Boletus edulis polysaccharide on asthma pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songquan; Wang, Guangli; Yang, Ruhui; Cui, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease common around the world. The burden of this disease could be reduced with new and effective treatments. Here, the efficacy of a polysaccharide extract from the Boletus edulis (BEP) mushroom, which has demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, was tested in a mouse model of asthma. Five groups of BaLB/C mice were developed; one group served as a control and did not have asthma induction. The other four groups of mice were sensitized by ovalbumin challenge. FinePointe™ RC animal airway resistance and pulmonary compliance was used to assess airway function in asthma models. Three of the 4 model groups received treatments: one received pravastatin, one received dexamethasone, and one received BEP. Histopathology of lung tissues was performed using H&E and AB-PAS staining. Levels of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-g were detected using ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting. Cyclophilin A was measured by Western blot, and flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + Treg cells. BEP treatment resulted in improvements in lung pathology, IL-4 level (PBoletus edulis polysaccharide reduces pro-inflammatory responses and increases anti-inflammatory responses in mouse models of asthma, suggesting this may be a novel treatment method.

  19. Mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Spiranthera odoratissima (Manacá

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    Daniela B. M. Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, formalin-induced pain, croton oil-induced ear edema, vascular permeability tests and phospholipase A2 activity assay were used to study the analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activity of the hydromethanolic fraction of ethanolic extract from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, leaves (HMF and its subfraction (sub-Fr10-28. HMF and sub-Fr10-28 reduced the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test; sub-Fr10-28 reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin-induced pain, as well as the ear edema and vascular permeability. Both HMF and sub-Fr10-28 inhibited the phospholipase A2 activity. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of this plant could be, in part, due to an anti-inflammatory action produced by the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects and corresponding mechanisms of cirsimaritin extracted from Cirsium japonicum var. maackii Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoung-Sook; Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Jaemin; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Cheon; Lee, Sanghyun; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Jung, Kiwon; Kang, Ki Sung

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of cirsimaritin isolated from an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Cirsium japonicum var. maackii Maxim. using RAW264.7 cells. The extract and its flavonoid cirsimaritin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW264.7 cells. Cirsimaritin inhibited interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. From a western blot study, pretreatment with cirsimaritin inhibited phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, cirsimaritin suppressed activation of LPS-induced transcription factors, such as c-fos and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, these results show that cirsimaritin possesses anti-inflammatory activity, which is regulated by inhibition of c-fos and STAT3 phosphorylation in RAW264.7 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemicals Boost Anti-inflammatory Effect Against Gamma Radiation: Activities of Ginger and Coriander Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, H.S.; Hassan, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemicals are known to modulate immune function, and possess antitumor and antimicrobial properties. The present study is conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of ginger and coriander extracts against tumor cells (MTT), anti-fungal and antioxidant activities of Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) seed were evaluated. Essential oil of both plants showed 100% inhibition against Alternaria Alternata pathogen. The antioxidant activity showed the highest activities for ginger ( methanol extract), where as the lowest activity was for Coriander (water extract). To study the antioxidant and radio-protective effect of Ginger and Coriander, Swiss albino mice were exposed to shot dose 4 Gy γ radiation after 14 days oral administration of ginger (100 mg/Kg b.wt) and coriander extracts ( 600 mg/kg b.wt). After irradiation, anti-inflammatory mediators and phospholipase A2 were examined. In conclusion, Ginger and Coriander showed significant antioxidant and radio-protective effects

  2. Repeated Excessive Exercise Attenuates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Exercise in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahl, Ronni E.; Andersen, Peter R.; Gronbaek, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: A number of studies have investigated the effect of training with a moderate exercise dose (3–6 h/weekly) on the inflammatory profile in blood, and the data are inconsistent. Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive effect of physical activity level on inflammation levels...... inflammation, but the higher plasma IL-6 concentration concurrent with a trend toward higher insulin resistance and decreased VO2peak implies that the excessive amount of exercise probably attenuated the possible potential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise....... and risk of metabolic disease. However, it is not clear whether this may be dose dependent and if very prolonged repeated exercise therefore may be beneficial for low-grade inflammation. Based on this we studied how excessive repeated prolonged exercise influenced low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue...

  3. Amphiphilic Peptide Interactions with Complex Biological Membranes : Effect of peptide properties on antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    With increasing problem of resistance development in bacteria against conventional antibiotics, as well as problems associated with diseases either triggered or enhanced by infection, there is an urgent need to identify new types of effective therapeutics for the treatment of infectious diseases and its consequences. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory peptides have attracted considerable interest as potential new antibiotics in this context. While antimicrobial function of such peptides is b...

  4. HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Middleton, Kellie K.; Fu, Freddie H.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. PMID:23840657

  5. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2.

  6. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically administered curcumin modulate periodontal disease in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M R; Coimbra, L S; de Aquino, S G; Spolidorio, L C; Kirkwood, K L; Rossa, C

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression, but no studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats by the intragastric route daily at two dosages (30 and 100 mg/kg) for 15 d. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage, and no treatment-negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography, and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. Both RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and prostaglandin E(2) synthase in the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-κB activation were assessed by western blotting. Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at both the mRNA and the protein level and produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-κB in the gingival tissues. Activation of p38 MAPK was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction of the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests that it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  9. Effects of anti-inflammatory (NSAID) treatment on human tendinopathic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Ohlenschlaeger, Tommy F.; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

    2017-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat tendinopathy, but evidence for this treatment is lacking, and little is known regarding effects of NSAIDs on human tendinopathic tendon. This study investigated the effects of NSAID treatment (ibuprofen) on human tendinopathic...... tendon, with changes in gene expression as the primary outcome, and tendon pain, function, and blood flow as secondary outcomes. Twenty-six adults (16 men, 10 women), diagnosed with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, were randomized to 1-wk treatment with ibuprofen (600 mg ×3/day) (n = 13) or placebo (n = 13......) (double-blinded). Ibuprofen content in blood, visual analog scale score for tendon pain at rest and activity, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) scores for tendon function, tendon thickness (with ultrasonography), and color Doppler were measured before and 1 h after treatment...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Agrimoniin-Enriched Fractions of Potentilla erecta

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    Julia Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla erecta (PE is a small herbaceous plant with four yellow petals belonging to the Rosaceae family. The rhizome of PE has traditionally been used as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic and antihemorrhoidal remedy. PE contains up to 20% tannins and 5% ellagitannins, mainly agrimoniin. Agrimoniin is a hydrolyzable tannin that is a potent radical scavenger. In this study we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of four PE fractions with increasing amounts of agrimoniin obtained by Sephadex column separation. First, we analyzed in HaCaT keratinocytes the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB irradiation. As COX-2 catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostanoids such as PGE2, we also measured the PGE2 concentration in cell culture supernatants. PE inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression in HaCaT cells and dose-dependently reduced PGE2. The PE fraction with the highest agrimoniin amount (PE4 was the most effective in this experiment, whereas fraction PE1 containing mainly sugars had no effect. PE4 also dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR which plays a crucial role in UVB-mediated COX-2 upregulation. A placebo-controlled UV-erythema study with increasing concentrations of PE4 demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation in vivo. Similarly, PE4 significantly reduced UVB-induced PGE2 production in suction blister fluid in vivo. In summary, PE fractions with a high agrimoniin content display anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo in models of UVB-induced inflammation.

  11. The anti-inflammatory effects of matrix metalloproteinase-3 on irreversible pulpitis of mature erupted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba, Hisanori; Murasawa, Yusuke; Iohara, Koichiro; Isogai, Zenzo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Misako

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA) complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of longan seed extract in carrageenan stimulated Sprague-Dawley rats

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    Ching-Hsiao Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Longan seeds have been used as a folk medicine in China. Longan seed extract (LSE is known for antioxidative, antiproliferative, hypoglycemic, and hypouremic effects. However, its anti-inflammatory effect has not been shown. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were given LSE orally (vehicle, 10, and 30 mg/kg for 3 days to its test anti-inflammatory effect by injecting λ-carrageenan (CARR in the right hind paw or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, IP. For the positive control, animals were given aspirin (20 mg/kg orally and treated likewise. Serum or tissue samples from treated rats were collected after 3 hr of stimulation. Regarding the in vitro study, BV2 microglial cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of LSE or normal saline for 10 min or 24 hr for Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. Results: LSE reduced CARR-induced edema in the experimental animals. LSE also reduced LPS/CARR-induced nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL1β, IL6, and COX2 productions. These inflammatory factors were also reduced dose dependently by LSE in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that LSE inhibited LPS activated c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, and p38 MAP kinases signaling pathways, caspase-3, inducible NO synthase, and COX2 expressions. Conclusion: LSE pretreatment suppressed CARR- and LPS-induced inflammations and these effects might be through the inhibition of MAP kinases signaling pathways and inflammatory factors.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of royal jelly on ethylene glycol induced renal inflammation in rats

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    Zeyneb Aslan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Royal Jelly were investigated by inducing renal inflammation in rats with the use of ethylene glycol. For this purpose, the calcium oxalate urolithiasis model was obtained by feeding rats with ethylene glycol in drinking water. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided in five study groups. The 1st group was determined as the control group. The rats in the 2nd group received ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water. The rats in the 3rd group were daily fed with Royal Jelly by using oral gavage. The 4th group was determined as the preventive group and the rats were fed with ethylene glycol (1% in drinking water while receiving Royal Jelly via oral gavage. The 5th group was determined as the therapeutic group and received ethylene glycol in drinking water during the first 2 weeks of the study and Royal Jelly via oral gavage during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results: At the end of the study, proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in blood and renal tissue samples from the rats used in the application were measured. Conclusion: The results have shown that ethylene glycol does induce inflammation and renal damage. This can cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. Royal Jelly is also considered to have anti-inflammatory effects due to its possible antiradical and antioxidative effects. It can have positive effects on both the prevention of urolithiasis and possible inflammation during the existing urolithiasis and support the medical treatment.

  14. The anti-inflammatory effects of matrix metalloproteinase-3 on irreversible pulpitis of mature erupted teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisanori Eba

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are involved in extracellular matrix degradation and the modulation of cell behavior. These proteinases have also been implicated in tissue repair and regeneration. Our previous studies have demonstrated that MMP-3 elicits stimulatory effects on the proliferation and the migration of endothelial cells as well as anti-apoptotic effects on these cells in vitro. In addition, we found that MMP-3 enhanced the regeneration of lost pulp tissue in a rat incisor pulp injury model. However, continuously erupting rodent incisors exhibit significantly different pulp organization compared with mature erupted teeth. Therefore, we have further extended these studies using a canine irreversible pulpitis model to investigate the effects of MMP-3. In this study, the crowns of the canine mature premolars were removed and the pulp tissues were amputated. The amputated pulp tissues remained exposed for 24 or 72 hours to induce mild or severe irreversible pulpitis, respectively, followed by sealing of the cavities. In both models, the whole pulp tissues became necrotic by day 14. In this mild pulpitis model, the regeneration of pulp tissue with vasculature and nerves was observed until 14 days after sealing with MMP-3, followed by extracellular matrix formation in the regenerated pulp tissues until day 28. The treatment with MMP-3 resulted in a decrease in the number of macrophage and antigen-presenting cells and a significant inhibition of IL-6 expression on day 3. The inhibition of MMP-3 activity abolished these anti-inflammatory effects. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that MMP-3 was involved in the modification of serum-derived hyaluronan-associated proteins and hyaluronan (SHAP-HA complexes possibly through the degradation of versican. These results demonstrate that MMP-3 can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and suggest that MMP-3 might represent a useful therapy for the treatment of mild irreversible pulpitis.

  15. Potent anti-inflammatory effects of systemically-administered curcumin modulates periodontal disease in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Morgana R.; Coimbra, Leila S.; de Aquino, Sabrina Garcia; Spolidorio, Luis C.; Kirkwood, Keith L.; Junior, Carlos Rossa

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a plant-derived dietary spice with various biological activities, including anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory. Its therapeutic applications have been studied in a variety of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer and depression; but no studies evaluated the effects of curcumin on periodontal disease in vivo. Methods Experimental periodontal disease was induced in rats by placing cotton ligatures around both lower first molars. Curcumin was given to the rats intragastrically daily in two doses (30 and 100 mg/Kg) during 15 days. Control animals received ligatures but only the corn oil vehicle by gavage and no treatment negative control animals were included. Bone resorption was assessed by microcomputer tomography and the inflammatory status was evaluated by stereometric analysis. RT-qPCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase on the gingival tissues. Modulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NK-kB activation was assessed by western blot. Results Bone resorption was effectively induced in the experimental period, but it was not affected by either dose of curcumin. Curcumin effectively inhibited cytokine gene expression at mRNA and protein levels and dose-dependently inhibited activation of NF-kB in the gingival tissues. p38 MAPK activation was not inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin-treated animals also presented a marked reduction on the inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased collagen content and fibroblastic cell numbers. Conclusions Curcumin did not prevent alveolar bone resorption, but its potent anti-inflammatory effect suggests it may have a therapeutic potential in periodontal diseases. PMID:21306385

  16. Repeated Excessive Exercise Attenuates the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Exercise in Older Men

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    Ronni E. Sahl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Purpose: A number of studies have investigated the effect of training with a moderate exercise dose (3–6 h/weekly on the inflammatory profile in blood, and the data are inconsistent. Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive effect of physical activity level on inflammation levels and risk of metabolic disease. However, it is not clear whether this may be dose dependent and if very prolonged repeated exercise therefore may be beneficial for low-grade inflammation. Based on this we studied how excessive repeated prolonged exercise influenced low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue anti-inflammatory macrophage content in six older male recreationally trained cyclists. Low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue macrophage content were investigated in six older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2peak: 48 ± 2 mL kg−1 min−1 following repeated prolonged exercise.Methods: Cycling was performed daily for 14 days covering in total 2,706 km (1,681 miles. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak was measured before and after the cycling. Duration and intensity of the exercise were determined from heart rates sampled during cycling. An adipose tissue biopsy from subcutaneous abdominal fat and a blood sample were obtained at rest in the overnight fasted state before and after the cycling. Anti-inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM were immunohistochemically stained in cross sectional sections using a CD163 binding antibody. The ATM and adipocyte sizes were analyzed blindly.Results: The cyclists exercised daily for 10 h and 31 ± 37 min and average intensity was 53 ± 1% of VO2peak. Body weight remained unchanged and VO2peak decreased by 6 ± 2% (P = 0.04. Plasma inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-18 remained unchanged, as did hsCRP, but plasma IL-6 increased significantly. CD163 macrophage content remained unchanged, as did adipocyte cell size. The HbA1c was not significantly decreased, but there was a trend (P < 0.07 toward an

  17. Insulinotropic and anti-inflammatory effects of rosiglitazone in experimental autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Wageh M; el-Sisi, Alaa E; el-Refaei, Mohamed; el-Naa, Mona M; el-Desoky, Karima

    2005-01-01

    Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes mellitus (DM). Rosiglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing drug that is a ligand for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of PPAR-gamma have been documented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of rosiglitazone in autoimmune DM and to clarify the possible mechanism(s) involved. Autoimmune DM was induced in adult male Balb/c mice by co-administration of cyclosporin A and multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated daily with rosiglitazone (7 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days. Blood glucose level (BGL), serum insulin level and pancreatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and NO were measured. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical determination of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the pancreatic islets were performed. In addition, analysis of pancreatic protein expression was carried out. The results showed that rosiglitazone treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the BGL and the pancreatic levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and NO compared to diabetic mice. The serum insulin level was significantly increased after rosiglitazone treatment compared to diabetic mice. The destroyed pancreatic islets were regenerated and became free from both CD4 and CD8 T cells after treatment. Furthermore, many changes in pancreatic protein expression were observed. These results suggest that rosiglitazone has a beneficial effect in the treatment of autoimmune diabetes, an effect that seemed to be a secondary consequence of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties and might be reflected at the level of protein expression.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylthiouracil in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang [Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Moon-Chang, E-mail: mcbaek@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, CMRI, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong-Sup, E-mail: baejs@knu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, CMRI, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new treatments for human diseases. Here, methylthiouracil (MTU), an antithyroid drug, was examined for its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activities of MTU were determined by measuring permeability, human neutrophil adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in LPS-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mice. We found that post-treatment with MTU inhibited LPS-induced barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and adhesion/transendothelial migration of human neutrophils to human endothelial cells. MTU induced potent inhibition of LPS-induced endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) shedding. It also suppressed LPS-induced hyperpermeability and neutrophil migration in vivo. Furthermore, MTU suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 by LPS. Moreover, post-treatment with MTU resulted in reduced LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. These results suggest that MTU exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, and adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • MTU reduced LPS-mediated hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. • MTU inhibited LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and migration. • MTU inhibited LPS-mediated production of IL-6 and TNF-α. • MTU reduced LPS-mediated mortality and lung injury.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown.To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR activation.We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation.Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05 in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05. The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05.This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of methylthiouracil in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Baek, Moon-Chang; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new treatments for human diseases. Here, methylthiouracil (MTU), an antithyroid drug, was examined for its effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated vascular inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory activities of MTU were determined by measuring permeability, human neutrophil adhesion and migration, and activation of pro-inflammatory proteins in LPS-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mice. We found that post-treatment with MTU inhibited LPS-induced barrier disruption, expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and adhesion/transendothelial migration of human neutrophils to human endothelial cells. MTU induced potent inhibition of LPS-induced endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) shedding. It also suppressed LPS-induced hyperpermeability and neutrophil migration in vivo. Furthermore, MTU suppressed the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6, and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 by LPS. Moreover, post-treatment with MTU resulted in reduced LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. These results suggest that MTU exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting hyperpermeability, expression of CAMs, and adhesion and migration of leukocytes, thereby endorsing its usefulness as a therapy for vascular inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • MTU reduced LPS-mediated hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. • MTU inhibited LPS-mediated leukocyte adhesion and migration. • MTU inhibited LPS-mediated production of IL-6 and TNF-α. • MTU reduced LPS-mediated mortality and lung injury.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of herbal preparation EM 1201 in adjuvant arthritic rats

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    Laimis Akramas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that EM 1201 has protective activity against arthritis and demonstrated its potential beneficiary effect analogical to diclofenac. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of EM 1201 in rats with AA support the need of further investigations by using it as supplementary agent alone or together with other anti-arthritic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Assessment of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative effects of the dichloromethanol extract of Schinus molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Oyedeji, O O; Aremu, O; Oyemitan, I; Gwebu, E T; Oyedeji, A O; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the active fraction and compounds of the dichloromethanol extract of Schinus molle seeds and evaluation of their biological effects. Dried seeds of Schinus molle were sequentially extracted in hexane, acetyl acetate and dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract was separated into two fractions (1 and 2) by column chromatography. Fraction 2 was further separated into its two constituent compounds which were characterized as belonging to the lanosteroid group of compounds. Both factions were tested for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sedative effects. The two fractions significantly increased (p<0.05) the tail flick latency though fraction 2 provided better and more long lasting protection against thermal pain. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen, though inferior to the anti-inflammatory effect of fraction 2 was better than the effects of fraction 1. Fraction 2 significantly (p<0.01) reduced rat paw oedema compared to the saline treatment group throughout the experiments while fraction 2 compared to fraction 1 showed significantly (p<0.01) greater inflammatory effects. On the other hand both fractions lacked significant sedative effects. Given that fraction 2 had only two constituent compounds (isomasticadienonic and Masticatrienonate), one or both of these compounds should be contributing to the observed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Photoreactivity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids with photosensitizing side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, F; Marín, M L; Miranda, M A

    2001-11-01

    The photoreactivity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids benoxaprofen, carprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, tiaprofenic acid, and suprofen is reviewed with special emphasis on fundamental photophysical and photochemical properties. The absorption and emission properties of the excited states of these drugs as well as their main photodegradation routes are summarized. The photochemical mechanisms are discussed on the basis of product studies and detection of short-lived intermediates by means of laser flash photolysis. After dealing with the unimolecular processes, attention is focused on the photosensitized reactions of key biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins or nucleic acids. Finally, a short section on the photobiological effects on simple biological models is also included. Although some earlier citations are included, the literature coverage is in general limited to the last decade.

  5. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF NONSTEROID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICATIONS IN TREATMENT OF ENT-DISEASES IN CHILDREN

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    M.M. Sergeev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This trial included 97 children with acute tonsillopharyngitis (angina, acute pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media. Ibubrofen suspension (Nurofen for Children was administrated in standard dose. Good and excellent analgetic and antipyretic result was registered in 75% of patients after 1 day, and satisfactory – in 25% of children. 44 children with different diseases of throat were treated with flurbiprofen as symptomatic anesthetic medication combined with other ones. Pain in throat and deglutitive problems were lessened after 2-3 hours after 1 administration of medication, and further reduction of symptoms was registered every 3 hours. Pain in throat was stopped in 38 children after 3 days of treatment. Thus, ibuprofen suspension and resorption tablets with flurbiprofen provide significant anesthetic effect in children, and they can be used in practice of children’s ENT specialist.Key words: children, ENT diseases, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory medications.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:81-84

  6. Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2016-07-27

    Three novel carbon skeleton alkaloids, named oleracimine (1), oleracimine A (2), and oleracone A (3), with one novel azulene carbon skeleton compound, oleracone B (4), and one known compound, β-carboline (5), were first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. In addition, oleracimine (1) was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that oleracimine (1) remarkably inhibited nitric oxide production and could dose-dependently decrease the secretions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 in cell culture supernatants as well as the mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  7. Dietary Intake of Carotenoids and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Cardiovascular Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis represents nowadays the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis, several studies had been conducted in order to search for substances with anti-inflammatory activity on arterial walls, able to exert beneficial roles on health. Researches investigated the role of dietary carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular disease, due to their free radicals scavenger properties and their skills in improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol resistance to oxidation. Nevertheless, literature data are conflicting: although some studies found a positive relationship between carotenoids supplementation and cardiovascular risk reduction, others did not find any positive effects or even prooxidant actions. This paper aimed at defining the role of carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular risk profile by reviewing literature data, paying attention to those carotenoids more present in our diet (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Mechanisms of Fatsia polycarpa Hayata and Its Constituents

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    Hsueh-Ling Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatsia polycarpa, a plant endemic to Taiwan, is an herbal medicine known for treating several inflammation-related diseases, but its biological function needs scientific support. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of the methanolic crude extract (MCE of F. polycarpa and its feature constituents, that is, brassicasterol (a phytosterol, triterpenoids 3α-hydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oic acid (HODA, 3α-hydroxyolean-11-en-28,13β-olide (HOEO, fatsicarpain D, and fatsicarpain F, were investigated. MCE and HOEO, but not brassicasterol, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in RAW 264.7 macrophage line, whereas HODA, fatsicarpain D and fatsicarpain F were toxic to RAW cells. Additionally, MCE and HOEO suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-1β and interfered with LPS-promoted activation of the inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway, and that of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38. In animal tests, MCE and HOEO effectively ameliorated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobol-13 acetate- (TPA-induced ear edema of mice. Thus, MCE of F. polycarpa exhibited an obvious anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro that likely involved the inhibition of the IKK/NF-κB pathway and the MAPKs, which may be attributed by triterpenoids such as HOEO.

  9. Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs onFlexor Tendon Rehabilitation after Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rouhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Peritendinous adhesions after repairing an injury to the digital flexor tendons are a major problem in hand surgery. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may affect tendon healing and the development of peritendinous adhesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate ibuprofen effect in patients function after flexor tendon surgical repair.   Method: Thirty-five patients, who had sharp-edge lacerations of hand-zone II requiring flexor tendons repair, participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial study. The patients were randomly classified into two parallel and matched groups (21 patients in the intervention group and 14 patients in the control group. The groups were matched considering age, gender, and laceration size. The control group received a placebo with the same appearance and dosage. In the intervention group, ibuprofen was prescribed at a high dosage (2400 mg/day. The range of motion improvement rate of the involved fingers and the patients’ performance after their follow-up period were compared. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for range of motion of the involved finger joints (P=0.03. According to the DASH score, there was a statistically significant difference between the final performance of the patients, such that it was 11±2.4 and 18.4±6.3 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=0.01. There was not any case of re-tear or need to re-operate in the intervention and control groups. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that ibuprofen with an anti-inflammatory dose was effective in improving the range of motion of the involved fingers joints after flexor tendon injury.

  10. Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs onFlexor Tendon Rehabilitation after Repair

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    Alireza Rouhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritendinous adhesions after repairing an injury to the digital flexor tendons are a major problem in hand surgery. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may affect tendon healing and the development of peritendinous adhesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate ibuprofen effect in patients function after flexor tendon surgical repair.   Method: Thirty-five patients, who had sharp-edge lacerations of hand-zone II requiring flexor tendons repair, participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial study. The patients were randomly classified into two parallel and matched groups (21 patients in the intervention group and 14 patients in the control group. The groups were matched considering age, gender, and laceration size. The control group received a placebo with the same appearance and dosage. In the intervention group, ibuprofen was prescribed at a high dosage (2400 mg/day. The range of motion improvement rate of the involved fingers and the patients’ performance after their follow-up period were compared. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for range of motion of the involved finger joints (P=0.03. According to the DASH score, there was a statistically significant difference between the final performance of the patients, such that it was 11±2.4 and 18.4±6.3 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=0.01. There was not any case of re-tear or need to re-operate in the intervention and control groups. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that ibuprofen with an anti-inflammatory dose was effective in improving the range of motion of the involved fingers joints after flexor tendon injury.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of paeonia lactiflora pall., a traditional chinese herbal medicine.

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    He, Dong-Yi; Dai, Sheng-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In China, Korea, and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of peony (TGP), which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

  12. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

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    John L. McDonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP, and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1 after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.

  13. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine exert anti-inflammatory effects on inflammation-reactive astrocytes

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    Block, Linda; Jörneberg, Per; Björklund, Ulrika; Westerlund, Anna; Biber, Björn; Hansson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a widely used, local anesthetic agent that blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels when used for neuro-axial blockades. Much lower concentrations of bupivacaine than in normal clinical use, bupivacaine exerts an influence on the Ca2+ signaling and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in inflammation-reactive astrocytes when used at ultralow concentrations, bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-hydroxytryptamine- (5-HT) and glutamate-receptor systems. With respect to the μ-opioid- and 5-HT-receptor systems, bupivacaine restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. With respect to the glutamate-receptor system, bupivacaine, in combination with an ultralow concentration of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and μ-opioid receptor agonists, restored the inflammation-reactive astrocytes to their normal non-inflammatory levels. Ultralow concentrations of bupivacaine attenuated the inflammation-induced upregulation of IL-1β secretion. The results indicate that bupivacaine interacts with the opioid-, 5-HT- and glutamate-receptor systems by affecting Ca2+ signaling and IL-1β release in inflammation-reactive astrocytes. These results suggest that bupivacaine may be used at ultralow concentrations as an anti-inflammatory drug, either alone or in combination with opioid agonists and ultralow concentrations of an opioid antagonist. PMID:24083665

  14. Steroid resistance in COPD? Overlap and differential anti-inflammatory effects in smokers and ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan J. M.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Vonk, Judith M.; Timens, Wim; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Lapperre, Thérèse S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and improve health status but can increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD. The GLUCOLD study, investigating patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, has shown that long-term (2.5-year) ICS therapy induces anti-inflammatory effects. The literature

  15. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Dimethyl Fumarate in Astrocytes Involve Glutathione and Haem Oxygenase-1

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    Shao Xia Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available DMF (dimethyl fumarate exerts anti-inflammatory and prometabolic effects in a variety of cell types, and a formulation (BG-12 is being evaluated for monotherapy in multiple sclerosis patients. DMF modifies glutathione (GSH levels that can induce expression of the anti-inflammatory protein HO-1 (haem oxygenase-1. In primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells, BG-12 dose-dependently suppressed nitrite production induced by either LI [LPS (lipopolysaccharide at 1 μg/ml plus IFNγ (interferon γ at 20 units/ml] or a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines, with greater efficacy in C6 cells. BG-12 reduced NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase 2 mRNA levels and activation of a NOS2 promoter, reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB p65 subunit and attenuated loss of |κBα (inhibitory κBα in both cell types, although with greater effects in astrocytes. In astrocytes, LI decreased mRNA levels for GSHr (GSH reductase and GCL (c-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and slightly suppressed GSHs (GSH synthetase mRNAs. Co-treatment with BG-12 prevented those decreased and increased levels above control values. In contrast, LI reduced GSHp (GSH peroxidase and GCL in C6 cells, and BG-12 had no effect on those levels. BG-12 increased nuclear levels of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, an inducer of GSH-related enzymes, in astrocytes but not C6 cells. In astrocytes, GSH was decreased by BG-12 at 2 h and increased at 24 h. Prior depletion of GSH using buthionine-sulfoximine increased the ability of BG-12 to reduce nitrites. In astrocytes, BG-12 increased HO-1 mRNA levels and effects on nitrite levels were blocked by an HO-1 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that BG-12 suppresses inflammatory activation in astrocytes and C6 glioma cells, but with distinct mechanisms, different dependence on GSH and different effects on transcription factor activation.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of combined tetramethylpyrazine, resveratrol and curcumin in vivo.

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    Chen, Long; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Qiangsong; Liu, Juan

    2017-04-27

    Resveratrol and curcumin, as natural flavones products, have good therapeutic effect in acute and chronic inflammation; on the other hand, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has angiogenesis and vessel protection effect as well as anti-inflammatory function. In this paper, the anti-inflammatory effect of the tetramethylpyrazine, resveratrol and curcumin (TRC) combination in acute and chronic inflammation was reported in vivo. The dose of the combined three natural products was optimized based on the acute paw swelling mouse model with a Uniform Design methodology. The therapeutic effect of TRC combination on chronic inflammation was investigated by using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model based upon the following indexes: the volume of paw swelling, arthritis score, serum mediators and histological examination as well as immunohistochemical staining. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum were measured and the pathological sections of liver and kidney were analysed. LD 50 was measured based on the acute oral toxicity (AOT) standard method. The best formulation was the three components combined at the same mass proportion revealed by the Uniform Design methodology. This combination could significantly reduce the paw swelling in acute paw swelling mouse model, could reduce paw swelling and alleviate the damage in joint structural of ankle, cartilages and fibrous tissue in CIA rat model. The dose relationship was clear in both cases. Immunohistochemical staining of ankle tissue revealed that TRC combination was able to inhibit the expression of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α which were closely related to the inflammatory process. Analysis of serum mediators revealed TRC combination could inhibit the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the serum. Toxic study revealed this formulation was low toxic, LD 50 was larger than 5 g/kg, both the level of ALT and AST and histopathology in the liver and kidney exhibited no

  18. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, I A; Sule, M I; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, M I; Abdulkadir, M F; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1), i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100 mg kg(-1), 200 mg kg(-1), and 400 mg kg(-1) significantly (Pacetic acid induced writhes by 1.50 ± 0.43, 3.0 ± 0.82 and 1.0 ± 0.82 respectively. It also exhibited significantly (Pscreening of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins while the effect of flavonoids, steroids and tannins on analgesic and inflammatory has been reported. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD(50)) value of the extract was found to be 3807.8 mgkg(-1) body weights. The result obtained from this study shows that the extract of Ficus iteophylla contained phytochemical constituents with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore the leaf part of the plant could be used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  1. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract in rat hepatocytes.

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    Ryota Yamanishi

    Full Text Available Flavanol (flavan-3-ol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE is a mixture of oligomerized polyphenols primarily derived from lychee fruit and is rich in flavanol monomers, dimers, and trimers. Supplementation with this functional food has been shown to suppress inflammation and tissue damage caused by high-intensity exercise training. However, it is unclear whether FRLFE has in vitro anti-inflammatory effects, such as suppressing the production of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and the proinflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, which is synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Here, we analyzed the effects of FRLFE and its constituents on the expression of inflammatory genes in interleukin 1β (IL-1β-treated rat hepatocytes. FRLFE decreased the mRNA and protein expression of the iNOS gene, leading to the suppression of IL-1β-induced NO production. FRLFE also decreased the levels of the iNOS antisense transcript, which stabilizes iNOS mRNA. By contrast, unprocessed lychee fruit extract, which is rich in flavanol polymers, and flavanol monomers had little effect on NO production. When a construct harboring the iNOS promoter fused to the firefly luciferase gene was used, FRLFE decreased the luciferase activity in the presence of IL-1β, suggesting that FRLFE suppresses the promoter activity of the iNOS gene at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FRLFE reduced the nuclear transport of a key regulator, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Furthermore, FRLFE inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α. FRLFE also reduced the mRNA levels of NF-κB target genes encoding cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α. Therefore, FRLFE inhibited NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation to suppress the expression of these inflammatory genes. Our results suggest that flavanols may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of FRLFE and may be

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of nitric oxide-releasing hydrocortisone NCX 1022, in a murine model of contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eric; Bolla, Manlio; Steinhoff, Martin; Wallace, John L; Soldato, Piero Del; Vergnolle, Nathalie

    2004-11-01

    1 The concept that nitric oxide (NO) release can be beneficial in inflammatory conditions has raised more attention in the recent years, particularly with the development of nitric oxide-releasing anti-inflammatory drugs. There is considerable evidence that NO is capable of enhancing the anti-inflammatory benefits of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs. 2 Since hydrocortisone is the most widely used anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of skin inflammation, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects of hydrocortisone to an NO-releasing derivative of hydrocortisone, NCX 1022, in a murine model of irritant contact dermatitis, induced by epidermal application of benzalkonium chloride. 3 Topical pre- and post-treatment with NCX 1022 (3 nmol) in C57BL6 mice not only reduced ear oedema formation in a dose-dependent manner, but also was significantly more effective than the parent compound during the initial stages of inflammation (from 1 to 5 h). NCX 1022, but not hydrocortisone, significantly inhibited granulocyte recruitment (tissue myeloperoxidase activity). Histological samples of mouse ears treated with NCX 1022 showed significant reduction in both the number of infiltrated cells and disruption of the tissue architecture compared to hydrocortisone-treated tissues. 4 With intravital microscopy, we observed that both pre- and post-treatments with NCX 1022 were more effective than hydrocortisone in terms of inhibiting benzalkonium chloride-induced leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium, without affecting the flux of rolling leukocytes or venule diameter. 5 These results suggest that by releasing NO, NCX 1022 modulates one of the early events of skin inflammation: the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Overall, we have shown that NO-hydrocortisone provided faster and greater protective effects, reducing major inflammatory parameters (leukocyte adhesion and recruitment, oedema formation, tissue disruption) compared to its parental compound.

  3. A novel pleiotropic effect of aspirin: Beneficial regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kata, Diana; Földesi, Imre; Feher, Liliana Z; Hackler, Laszlo; Puskas, Laszlo G; Gulya, Karoly

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin, one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, has extensively studied effects on the cardiovascular system. To reveal further pleiotropic, beneficial effects of aspirin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial mechanisms, we performed morphometric and functional studies relating to phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-10, respectively) and analyzed the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above functions, in pure microglial cells. We examined the effects of aspirin (0.1mM and 1mM) in unchallenged (control) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged secondary microglial cultures. Aspirin affected microglial morphology and functions in a dose-dependent manner as it inhibited LPS-elicited microglial activation by promoting ramification and the inhibition of phagocytosis in both concentrations. Remarkably, aspirin strongly reduced the pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α production, while it increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 level in LPS-challenged cells. Moreover, aspirin differentially regulated the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes as it downregulated such pro-inflammatory genes as Nos2, Kng1, IL1β, Ptgs2 or Ccr1, while it upregulated some anti-inflammatory genes such as IL10, Csf2, Cxcl1, Ccl5 or Tgfb1. Thus, the use of aspirin could be beneficial for the prophylaxis of certain neurodegenerative disorders as it effectively ameliorates inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of α-galactosylceramide analogs in activated microglia: involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

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    Yeon-Hui Jeong

    Full Text Available Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activities.

  5. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

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    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of an Edible Red Macroalgae Sarcodia ceylanica

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    Chieh-Chih Shih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research so far has only shown that edible red macroalgae, Sarcodia ceylanica has the ability to eliminate free radicals and anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial properties. This study was conducted both in vitro and in vivo on the ethyl acetate extract (PD1 of farmed red macroalgae in order to explore its anti-inflammatory properties. In order to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PD1, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS to induce inflammatory responses in murine macrophages. For evaluating the potential in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of PD1, we used carrageenan-induced rat paw edema to produce inflammatory pain. The in vitro results indicated that PD1 inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in macrophages. Oral PD1 can reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and inflammatory nociception. PD1 can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced leukocyte infiltration, as well as the protein expression of inflammatory mediators (iNOS, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase in inflammatory tissue. The above results indicated that PD1 has great potential to be turned into a functional food or used in the development of new anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive agents. The results from this study are expected to help scientists in the continued development of Sarcodia ceylanica for other biomedical applications.

  7. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L

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    Kang Se-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. Methods This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and nuclear factor (NF-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Results We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  8. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Seon-A; Joo, Haemi; Park, Sulkyoung; Kang, Se-Chan; Lee, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Sun-Young

    2011-02-08

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE) had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL) suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  9. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.

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    Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2008-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application.

  10. Concurrent administration effect of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs on the immunotoxicity of bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amir, Azza M; Tanious, Dalia G; Mansour, Hanaa A

    2017-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a gram-negative bacterium that causes a variety of diseases in compromised hosts. Bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the major outer surface membrane components that are present in almost all gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate immunity and inflammation of the airway. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of combined administration of Gentamicin (GENT) as an antibiotic and Dexamethasone (DEXA) as an anti-inflammatory drug on some immunological and histological parameters. After determination of LD 50 of P. aeruginosa, mice groups were injected with DEXA, GENT and lipopolysaccharide alone or in combination. Lipopolysaccharide single injection caused a significant increase of total leukocyte count, lymphocytes, neutrophils and levels of IgM and IgG. DEXA induced an increase of neutrophilia and lymphopenia. Immunological examination demonstrated that combined treatment has a significant effect of decreasing lymphocytes and IgG levels than single treatment does. Histological examination demonstrated that the inflammation of thymus, spleen, lymph node and liver decreases in mice that received combined treatment than those that received individual treatment. Concurrent administration of DEXA and GENT has a great effect on protecting organs against damage in case of endotoxemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsic Immunomodulatory Effects of Low-Digestible Carbohydrates Selectively Extend Their Anti-Inflammatory Prebiotic Potentials

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    Jérôme Breton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline conditions. However, only one from all fibers almost completely inhibited the production of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines induced by bacteria. Secondly, the impact of short- (five days and long-term (three weeks oral treatments with selected fibers was assessed in the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid colitis model in mice. The immunosuppressive fiber significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers over both treatment periods, whereas a nonimmunomodulatory fiber had no effect. The two fibers did not differ in terms of the observed fermentation products and colonic microbiota after three weeks of treatment, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory action was not related to prebiotic properties. Hence, we observed a direct effect of a specific fiber on the murine immune system. This intrinsic, fiber-dependent immunomodulatory potential may extend prebiotic-mediated protection in inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract and its constituents in hepatocytes

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    Mikio Nishizawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Asparagus (Asparagus officinalisL. is one of the most ancient vegetablesin the world, andis rich in asparagine. Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS™; Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan is the final product of enzyme-treatment of asparagus stems and subsequent extraction. Two constituents were purified from ETAS and identified: 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF, an abundant constituent, and (S-asfural, a novel constituent, which is a derivative of HMF. ETAS has been reported to increase the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs, which are essential for the repair or removal of defective proteins. The expression of Hspfamily genes is regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1. It is unknown whether ETAS and its constituents elicit anti-inflammatory effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide (NO, an inflammatory mediator synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in interleukin (IL-1β-treated hepatocytes. Objective:To examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ETAS, we treated rat hepatocytes with ETAS, or its constituents (S-asfural or HMF, and IL-1β, beforethen analyzingthe expression of the iNOSgene and other genes involved in inflammation.Methods:Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were prepared by collagenase perfusion. ETAS, (S-asfural, or HMF was added to the medium with IL-1β and incubated at 37 °C. When necessary, an inhibitor of HSF1 was added. NO in the medium was measured by the Griess method, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values were determined. To analyze the mRNA expression, a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Antibody arrays were used to determine the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the medium.Results:ETAS suppressed NO production in IL-1β-treated hepatocytes without causing cytotoxicity. ETAS decreased the levels of both iNOS mRNA and the antisense transcript, whereas it increased the levels of Hsf1 m

  13. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., a traditional Chinese herbal medicine

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    Dong-Yi eHe

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In China, Korea and Japan, a decoction of the dried root without bark of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis, dysmenorrhea, muscle cramping and spasms, and fever for more than 1200 years. A water/ethanol extract of the root is now known as total glucosides of paeony (TGP, which contains more than 15 components. Paeoniflorin is the most abundant ingredient and accounts for the pharmacological effects observed with TGP in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The analgesic effect of TGP was confirmed in various animal models of pain, which may be mediated partly by adenosine A1 receptor. The direct anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were observed in animal models of both acute and subacute inflammation, by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotrience B4, and nitric oxide, and by suppressing the increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration. TGP was also reported to have protective effects of cells against oxidative stress. In vitro, dual effects of TGP were noted on the proliferation of lymphocytes, differentiation of Th/Ts lymphocytes, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies. In vivo, TGP inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-activated mice, and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity in immuno-suppressed mice. In adjuvant arthritis rats, paeoniflorin exerted immunosuppressive effects. The beneficial effects of TGP in treating rheumatoid arthritis were verified by randomized controlled trials. The adverse events of TGP were mainly gastrointestinal tract disturbances, mostly mild diarrhea.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Conjugated Silicon Quantum Dots: Their Cytotoxicity and Biological Effect

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    Kenji Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs have great potential for biomedical applications, including their use as biological fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery systems. Biologically inert Si-QDs are less toxic than conventional cadmium-based QDs, and can modify the surface of the Si-QD with covalent bond. We synthesized water-soluble alminoprofen-conjugated Si-QDs (Ap-Si. Alminoprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used as an analgesic for rheumatism. Our results showed that the “silicon drug” is less toxic than the control Si-QD and the original drug. These phenomena indicate that the condensed surface integration of ligand/receptor-type drugs might reduce the adverse interaction between the cells and drug molecules. In addition, the medicinal effect of the Si-QDs (i.e., the inhibition of COX-2 enzyme was maintained compared to that of the original drug. The same drug effect is related to the integration ratio of original drugs, which might control the binding interaction between COX-2 and the silicon drug. We conclude that drug conjugation with biocompatible Si-QDs is a potential method for functional pharmaceutical drug development.

  15. MULTIMODAL ANALGESIC EFFECT ON PROINFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES SERUM

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    Muhammad Ramli Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of combination epidural bupivacaine and intravenous parecoxib analgesia on immune response in patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the lower limb under epidural anesthesia. Methods: This research was conducted using the randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial method on 52 patients who were randomly divided into 2 groups: the Parecoxib group which received 40 mg intravenous parecoxib for 30 minutes before incision and the control group which received an equal volume of 0.9% normal saline. Both groups received epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural 0.125% bupivacaine analgesia continously. Venous blood samples were obtained before parecoxib administration, 2 and 24 hours after the surgery. The data were analyzed using Mann Whitney U and independent t tests (p<0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05 in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 levels and proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory ratio, 2 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Multimodal analgesic combination of 40 mg IV parecoxib and 0.125% bupivacaine epidural analgesia have the effect to alter and stabilize the systemic immune response.

  16. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

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    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  17. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guixiang; Etherton, Terry D.; Martin, Keith R.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; Gillies, Peter J.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were compared to that of palmitic acid (PA), on inflammatory responses in human monocytic THP-1 cells. When cells were pre-incubated with fatty acids for 2-h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24-h in the presence of fatty acids, secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) was significantly decreased after treatment with LA, ALA, and DHA versus PA (P 12,14 -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and were dose-dependent. In addition, LA, ALA, and DHA decreased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα gene expression (P < 0.05 for all) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB DNA-binding activity, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) DNA-binding activity was increased. The results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be, in part, due to the inhibition of NF-κB activation via activation of PPARγ

  19. The effects of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory medications on fertility, pregnancy, and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, N M; Genta, M S

    2000-03-13

    Many rheumatic diseases affect women of childbearing age, and the medications used to treat these diseases may affect conception, pregnancy, fetal development, and lactation. Physicians who care for these women need to be aware of the potential adverse effects of these medications, and which medications can be used safely prior to conception and during pregnancy and lactation. Although reviews of individual classes of medications are available, there is no practical and comprehensive review that summarizes all of this information, and includes anticoagulant drugs and 2 recently approved drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Women who take cytotoxic drugs should be informed of the risks of impaired fertility and congenital malformations, and must use effective methods of contraception. During pregnancy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents may be used until the last 6 weeks, and low to moderate doses of corticosteroids are safe throughout pregnancy. Among the disease-modifying agents, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine treatment may be maintained. Cytotoxic drugs may be used after the first trimester to treat life-threatening disease. During lactation, prednisone, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine may be used cautiously. Women using heparin for treatment of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome should take measures to prevent bone loss. Men taking methotrexate, sulfasalazine, cyclosporine, azathioprine, or leflunomide should be apprised of the possibilities of infertility and teratogenicity.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Michel Leandro; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Stremel, Dile Pontarolo; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-11-03

    The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris , and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens . These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE₂, PGD₂, PGF 2α , and thromboxane B₂ (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA₂) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia , leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent.

  1. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S S; Bomfim, R R; Jesus, H C R; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Estevam, C S; Antoniolli, A R; Thomazzi, S M

    2010-06-16

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) leaves to support the medicinal uses claimed by folklore practitioners in the caatinga region (semi-arid) of Northeastern Brazil. The chemical composition and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves (50-200 mg/kg) were investigated. Antinociceptive activity of the EO was evaluated by writhing test. Anti-inflammatory activity of the EO was evaluated using paw oedema and peritonitis methods. Oral treatment with the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves elicited inhibitory activity on acetic acid effect at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (30.33+/-2.36, 25.20+/-1.48, and 21.00+/-1.54 abdominal writhes, respectively, Pleaves at 200 mg/kg (0.72+/-0.06 mL h, Pleaves at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (13.81+/-0.61, 11.77+/-0.91, and 10.30+/-0.60 leukocytes x 10(6)/mL, respectively, Pessential oil allowed the identification of Lippia gracilis as a thymol-p-cymene chemotype (32.68% and 17.82%, respectively). The EO of Lippia gracilis leaves shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms

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    Mahaveer Golechha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO. Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001 inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700 mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P<0.001 increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of extract and fractions from the leaves of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lucimara Q; Vilela, Fabiana C; Orlandi, Lidiane; Dias, Danielle F; Santos, Ana Laura A; da Silva, Marcelo A; Paiva, Renato; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-11-18

    Byrsonima intermedia is commonly used for its antiseptic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in Brazilian folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia leaves. Rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth, which was induced by subcutaneous implantation of a cotton pellet, were used as acute and chronic animal models of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract and the individual ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions of Byrsonima intermedia and catechin. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the aqueous extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia. The crude aqueous extract at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reducing carrageenan-induced paw edema, as did the ethyl acetate (100mg/kg) and aqueous fractions (30-100mg/kg). In the chronic inflammation rat animal model with fibrovascular tissue growth, the aqueous extract of Byrsonima intermedia (BiAE) at doses of 30-300 mg/kg and the individual EtOAc and aqueous fractions at doses of 30-100mg/kg and catechin significantly reduced the formation of granulomatous tissue. The presence of catechin and phenolic compounds in the extract and fractions of Byrsonima intermedia was confirmed using HPLC. BiAE and the individual EtOAc and aqueous fractions of Byrsonima intermedia exhibited chronic and acute anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats, which supports previous claims of its use in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi; Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de; Bannach, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  5. Involvement of the Retinoid X Receptor Ligand in the Anti-Inflammatory Effect Induced by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist In Vivo

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    Atsuki Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ forms a heterodimeric DNA-binding complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs. It has been reported that the effect of the PPAR agonist is reduced in hepatocyte RXR-deficient mice. Therefore, it is suggested that the endogenous RXR ligand is involved in the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect. However, the participation of the RXR ligand in the PPARγ-induced anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of RXR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect of PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in carrageenan test. In addition, we also examined the influence of PPAR antagonist on the anti-inflammatory effect induced by RXR agonist NEt-3IP. The RXR antagonist suppressed the antiedema effect of PPARγ agonist. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of RXR agonist was suppressed by PPARγ antagonist. PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effects were reversed by the RXR antagonist. Thus, we showed that the endogenous RXR ligand might contribute to the PPARγ agonist-induced anti-inflammatory effect.

  6. Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.A. Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment and chronic (10 days inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8. The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this

  7. Association of terpinolene and diclofenac presents antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory synergistic effects in a model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E M A; Santos, W C; Sousa, B P; Lopes, E M; Piauilino, C A; Cunha, F V M; Sousa, D P; Oliveira, F A; Almeida, F R C

    2016-06-20

    Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association.

  8. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. Methods The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were...

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect with high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated pulsatile delivery of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2012-02-01

    A pulsatile ultrasound controlled drug release platform with diclofenac-loaded alginate microcapsules (fabricated with a home-made electrostatic device, 75% embedded rate) was established to evaluate anti-inflammation efficiency. Better anti-inflammation efficiency was found using the ultrasound system and the drug delivery can be adjusted based on the programmed ultrasound cycle. The results of the in vitro study show that an approx. 30% higher drug release rate was obtained by using continuous ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 180 min), and an approx. 16% higher drug release rate was obtained by using pulsatile ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) compared to without ultrasound activation. For the in vivo study, the anti-inflammatory test with carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema shows that diclofenac-loaded microcapsules followed by ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) contributed to an 81% inhibition rate, which was significantly higher than diclofenac only (approx. 60% higher). In addition, because of their heat conducting properties, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the diclofenac-loaded microcapsules resulted in better drug release efficiency, but tended to depress the anti-inflammation effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Fargesin on Chemically Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Mice

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    Bei Yue

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fargesin is a bioactive lignan from Flos Magnoliae, an herb widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and headache in Asia. We sought to investigate whether fargesin ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in mice. Oral administration of fargesin significantly attenuated the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice by decreasing the inflammatory infiltration and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion, and inhibiting nitric oxide (NO production in colitis mice. The degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα, phosphorylation of p65, and mRNA expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB target genes were inhibited by fargesin treatment in the colon of the colitis mice. In vitro, fargesin blocked the nuclear translocation of p-p65, downregulated the protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and dose-dependently inhibited the activity of NF-κB-luciferase in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Taken together, for the first time, the current study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of fargesin on chemically induced IBD might be associated with NF-κB signaling suppression. The findings may contribute to the development of therapies for human IBD by using fargesin or its derivatives.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of topical administration of tofacitinib on corneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, Tohru; Ishimori, Akiko

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated an anti-inflammatory effect of topical administration of tofacitinib, janus kinase (JAK) blocker, on corneal inflammation. Topical instillation of either tofacitinib or PBS was applied after wounding BALB/c mice corneas with alkali burn. Topical instillation was performed until day 14 after injury and injured eye was analyzed. The vascularized area in the alkali burned cornea was significantly reduced in the tofacitinib group compared with that in the PBS group. The immunoreactivity of Gr-1, F4/80, IFN-γ, and phosphorylated STAT(signal transducer and activator of transcription)1 in corneal stroma was diminished significantly in the tofacitinib group. Using laser capture microdissection system and quantitative PCR array analysis, the expression levels of CXCL9, CXCL5, CCL7, CCL2, MMP(matrix metalloproteinase)-9, and STAT1 in corneal stroma were down-regulated in the tofacitinib group. In in vitro study, human fibroblast pretreated by IFN-γ showed phosphorylation of STAT1, and this phosphorylation was down-regulated by adding tofacitinib to the culture medium. These results indicate the topical application of JAK inhibitor causes down-regulation of JAK- or IFN-γ-related molecules. Therefore, we deduce that application of JAK inhibitor for topical instillation may contribute to the treatment of corneal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Substituted galacturonan from starfruit: Chemical structure and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Carolina L; Nascimento, Leandro F; Barros, Wellinghton M; Santos, Adair R S; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-03-01

    Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) is an edible tropical fruit, which is usually consumed as a fresh table fruit or as fruit juice. It also exhibits various pharmacological activities. In this study, polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water and purified by freeze-thawing and Fehling treatments. After purification steps, a homogenous fraction was obtained. It was analyzed by sugar composition, gel permeation chromatography, methylation, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy analyses. It comprised arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and galacturonic acid (GalA) in a molar ratio of 12.3:1.7:86.0. Methylation and NMR spectroscopy analyses showed that it contained a substituted galacturonan composed of (1→4)-linked α-D-Galp A units branched at O-2 by (1→5)-linked α-L-Araf and terminal α-L-Araf and α-D-Galp A units. The effect of PFSCW (10-300mg/kg, i.p.) on nocifensive behavior induced by intraplantar injection of formalin in mice was evaluated. The fraction demonstrated antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that it may be useful in therapeutic intervention for the management of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Samir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Propofol has been suggested as a useful adjunct to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB because of its potential protective effect on the heart mediated by a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation at clinically relevant concentrations. In view of these potentially protective properties, which modulate many of the deleterious mechanism of inflammation attributable to reperfusion injury and CPB, we sought to determine whether starting a low dose of propofol infusion at the beginning of CPB would decrease inflammation as measured by pro-inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 24 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. The study group received propofol at rate of 120 mcg/kg/min immediately after starting CPB and was maintained throughout the surgery and for the following 6 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU. The control group received propofol dose of 30-50 mcg/kg/min which was started at the time of chest closure with wires and continued for the next 6 hours in the ICU. Interleukins (IL -6, -8 and -10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha were assayed. Result: The most significant difference was in the level of IL-6 which had a P value of less than 0.06. Starting a low dose propofol early during the CPB was not associated with significant hemodynamic instability in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that propofol may be suitable as an anti-inflammatory adjunct for patients undergoing CABG.

  14. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and topical thalidomide on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Büchele; Passos, Giselle Fazzioni; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Grumman, Astor; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of systemic or topical treatment with thalidomide, a compound that possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties, in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). The effects of thalidomide were evaluated on endotoxin-induced leucocyte and protein infiltration and also on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rat aqueous humour (AqH). Moreover, the actions of thalidomide were assessed on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in retinal tissue. EIU was produced by a hindpaw injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in male Wistar rats. Thalidomide (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered orally 1 h before LPS injection. In another set of experiments, to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, 5% thalidomide was applied topically to both eyes at 6, 12 and 18 h after LPS administration. The oral pre-treatment with thalidomide decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the AqH. Similar results were found in the AqH of rats that received a topical application of thalidomide. Furthermore, oral (50 mg/kg) and local (5%) thalidomide treatment also reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS in the posterior segment of the eye. Thalidomide exhibited marked preventive and curative ocular effects in EIU in rats, a property that might be associated with its ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. This assembly of data provides additional molecular and functional insights into beneficial effects of thalidomide as an agent for the management of ocular inflammation.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytosteryl ferulates in colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Murata, T; Fujisawa, M; Nagasaka, R; Ushio, H; Bari, A M; Hori, M; Ozaki, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have recently reported that phytosteryl ferulates isolated from rice bran inhibit nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the effect of γ-oryzanol (γ-ORZ), a mixture of phytosteryl ferulates, cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF), one of the components of γ-ORZ, and ferulic acid (FA), a possible metabolite of γ-ORZ in vivo, on a model of colitis in mice. Experimental approach: We induced colitis with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in mice and monitored disease activity index (DAI), histopathology score, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mRNA expressions of cytokines and COX-2, colon length, antioxidant potency and NF-κB activity in colitis tissue. Key results: Both DAI and histopathology score revealed that DSS induced a severe mucosal colitis, with a marked increase in the thickness of the muscle layer, distortion and loss of crypts, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes. MPO activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 levels, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and inhibitory protein of nuclear factor-κB-α degradation levels were significantly increased in DSS-induced colitis tissues. γ-ORZ (50 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) markedly inhibited these inflammatory reactions and CAF had a similar potency. In vitro assay demonstrated that γ-ORZ and CAF had strong antioxidant effects comparable to those of α-tocopherol. Conclusions and implications: Phytosteryl ferulates could be new potential therapeutic and/or preventive agents for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. Their anti-inflammatory effect could be mediated by inhibition of NF-κB activity, which was at least partly due to the antioxidant effect of the FA moiety in the structure of phytosteryl ferulates. PMID:18536734

  16. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate.

  17. Phytochemical, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethylacetate extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Y M; Haruna, A K; Ilyas, M; Yaro, A H; Ahmadu, A A; Usman, H

    2007-10-27

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids were not dictated in the extract. The ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p) exhibited significant activity (pacetic acid-induced writhing in a dose dependent manner. In the anti-inflammatory activity the ethylacetate extract (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) caused a slight effect against the raw egg albumin-induced oedema. The effect was however observed not to be dose dependent. All these effects were compared with standard drug piroxicam (20 mg/kg i.p.).

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chanyong; Jung, Youngchul; Chun, Wonjoo; Yang, Beodeul; Ryu, Junghyun; Lim, Chiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyungwoo; Cho, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE) using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB). Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN-) gamma (γ), tumour necrosis factor- (TNF-) alpha (α), and interleukin- (IL-) 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia Leaf Extract in Mice with Contact Dermatitis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects on production levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO and expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated in Raw 264.7 cells. Topical application of ALE effectively prevented ear swelling induced by repeated DNFB application. ALE prevented epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of immune cells and lowered the production of interferon- (IFN- gamma (γ, tumour necrosis factor- (TNF- alpha (α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 in inflamed tissues. In addition, ALE inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS and production of NO and PGE2 in Raw 264.7 cells. These results indicate that Artemisia leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases and that its anti-inflammatory effects are closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory mediator release from macrophages and inflammatory cytokine production in inflamed tissues.

  20. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Lei

    Full Text Available Female sex is associated with improved outcome in experimental brain injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. This implies female gonadal steroids may be neuroprotective. A mechanism for this may involve modulation of post-injury neuroinflammation. As the resident immunomodulatory cells in central nervous system, microglia are activated during acute brain injury and produce inflammatory mediators which contribute to secondary injury including proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, mediated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively. We hypothesized that female gonadal steroids reduce microglia mediated neuroinflammation. In this study, the progesterone's effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Further, investigation included nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. LPS (30 ng/ml upregulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in BV-2 cells. Progesterone pretreatment attenuated LPS-stimulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Progesterone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation by decreasing inhibitory κBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Progesterone decreased LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular regulated kinase MAPKs. These progesterone effects were inhibited by its antagonist mifepristone. In conclusion, progesterone exhibits pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia by down-regulating proinflammatory mediators corresponding to suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. This suggests progesterone may be used as a potential neurotherapeutic to treat inflammatory components of acute brain injury.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and organ protective effect of insulin in scalded MODS rats without controlling hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongzhen; Hu, Tian; Wang, Zhanke; Wang, Jin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Qianyong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Insulin, as an anti-inflammatory drug, could not be freely used in patients who experienced trauma according to the degree of inflammation, because of the side effect of hypoglycemia. In vivo experimental evidence is lacking concerning whether the effect is dosage dependent and whether it relies on controlling hyperglycemia. By adjusting the dosage ratio of glucose and insulin, different dosages of insulin were used to treat severely scalded MODS rats to achieve uncontrolled or controlled hyperglycemia. One hundred forty rats with severe scalded were randomly divided into a hyperglycemia-controlled group, hyperglycemia-uncontrolled group, and control group. The levels of inflammation response indexes and major organ dysfunction indexes were measured and compared between groups. The blood indexes of inflammatory response and major organ dysfunction did not show statistical difference between hyperglycemia-controlled groups (A) and uncontrolled groups (B) in the same dosage of insulin (all P>0.05). The blood indexes of inflammatory response and major organ dysfunction demonstrated statistical difference in different dosages of insulin with hyperglycemia-controlled groups (A1-A3 groups) and hyperglycemia-uncontrolled groups (B1-B3 groups) (all Pcontrolling hyperglycemia. The effect of anti-inflammation and organ protection of insulin is dosage dependent in vivo; it does not rely on controlling hyperglycemia. Temporary traumatic hyperglycemia itself might not be detrimental to the body. Adjusting the ratio of insulin and glucose could provide a novel train of thought for freely treating patients with severe traumatic injury with different dosages of insulin according to the degree of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracted leaves of selected medicinal plants in animal model

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    Mohammad M. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was carried out to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Desmodium pauciflorum, Mangifera indica and Andrographis paniculata leaves. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects acetic acid induced writhing response model and carrageenan induced paw edema model were used in Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats, respectively. In both cases, leaves extract were administered (2gm/kg body weight and the obtained effects were compared with commercially available analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug Dclofenac sodium (40mg/kg body weight. Distilled water (2ml/kg body weight was used as a control for the study. Results: In analgesic bioassay, oral administration of the ethanol extract of leaves were significantly (p<0.01 reduced the writhing response. The efficacy of leaves extract were almost 35% in Desmodium pauciflorum, 56% in Mangifera indica and 34% in Andrographis paniculata which is found comparable to the effect of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium (76%. Leaves extract reduced paw edema in variable percentages but they did not show any significant difference among the leaves. Conclusion: We recommend further research on these plant leaves for possible isolation and characterization of the various active chemical substances which has the toxic and medicinal values. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 68-71

  4. Antiinflammatory effects of Viola tricolor gel in a model of sunburn in rats and the gel stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Mariana; Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Silva, Cássia Regina; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Zadra, Marina; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Tonello, Raquel; Laporta, Luciane Varini; de Freitas, Robson Borba; Belke, Bianca Vargas; Jesus, Roberta da Silva; Ferreira, Juliano; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-11-25

    Viola tricolor, popularly known as heartsease has been empirically used in several skin disorders, including burns. The objective of this study was investigate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect of a gel containing extract of Viola tricolor flowers on thermal burn induced by UVB irradiation and to perform gel stability study. The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect were evaluated by static and dynamic mechanical allodynia model, paw edema, and neutrophilic cell infiltration. Metabolites compounds were quantified by HPLC. The gel stability study was performed analyzing organoleptical aspects, besides pH, viscosity, and quantification of rutin by HPLC. In the results were evidenced changes in threshold in statical and dynamic mechanical allodynia (I(max)=100 ± 10% and 49 ± 10%, respectively), paw edema (I(max)=61 ± 6%), and myeloperoxidase activity (I(max)=89 ± 5%). Such effects may be attributed, in part, to rutin, salicylic and chlorogenic acids, and others compounds found in this species. No important changes were detected in the stability study, in all aspects analyzed in temperature below 25 °C. These findings suggest that Viola tricolor gel has an antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effect in the ultraviolet-B-induced burn, since maintain the temperature below 25 °C. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on colonic lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities from patients with colonic neoplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, G; Franchi, A; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Farina, M; Fernández de Gimeno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with good gastrointestinal tolerance. Treatment with LC at levels equivalent to those found in plasma following therapeutic doses resulted in significant inhibition of both cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and production of 5 hydroxy-eicosatetraeonic acid (5-HETE) and slightly affected levels of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) in in vitro studies carried out on human tissues. This study deals with the in vivo effect of the drug on human colon segments. Experiment 1: Five patients about to undergo hemicholectomy due to colon neoplasia were treated preoperatively with a continuous infusion of LC, to achieve a steady-state concentration between 4 and 6 mg/ml. Human colon segments from the five patients and from another five control patients receiving no treatment with [14C]-arachidonic acid were incubated. Human colon segments treated with LC showed significant inhibition of PGE2, the only prostaglandin (PG) synthesised by the tissue, as well as of 5-HETE. Experiment 2: Fifteen patients received an i.v. bolus of LC 100 mg (n1 = 5); LC 200 mg (n2 = 5) or indomethacin (INDO) 50 mg (n3 = 5). Both doses of LC showed greater inhibition of PGE2 synthesis than the INDO bolus. Both NSAIDs studied proved to have different effects on the production of 5-HETE; while treatment with LC elicited significant inhibition, levels with INDO remained unchanged. Western blotting analysis showed expression of both COX isoforms in colon segments, COX-2 levels being 20% higher. Both types of in vivo studies conducted continuous infusion and i.v. bolus, revealed that LC exerted significant inhibition of basal synthesis of PGE2 and 5-HETE.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Novel Standardized Solid Lipid Curcumin Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Pragati P; Slitt, Angela L; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with numerous chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. An overwhelming amount of data indicates that curcumin, a polyphenol obtained from the Indian spice turmeric, Curcuma longa, is a potential chemopreventive agent for treating certain cancers and other chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the low bioavailability of curcumin, partly due to its low solubility and stability in the digestive tract, limits its therapeutic applications. Recent studies have demonstrated increased bioavailability and health-promoting effects of a novel solid lipid particle formulation of curcumin (Curcumin SLCP, Longvida(®)). The goal of this study was to evaluate the aqueous solubility and in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of solid lipid curcumin particle (SLCP) formulations using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cultured murine macrophages. SLCPs treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) levels at concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 μg/mL, and reduced interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Transient transfection experiments using a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reporter construct indicate that SLCPs significantly inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in macrophages. Taken together, these results show that in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, SLCPs have improved solubility over unformulated curcumin, and significantly decrease the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators NO, PGE2, and IL-6 by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  7. Antiperoxidative and antiinflammatory effect of Sida cordifolia Linn. on quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathy, S S; Panicker, Seema; Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Rejitha, S; Indira, M

    2010-09-01

    Sida cordifolia is a plant belonging to the Malvaceae family used in many ayurvedic preparations. This study aimed at assessing the effects of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia root on quinolinic acid (QUIN) induced neurotoxicity and to compare its effect with the standard drug deprenyl in rat brain. Rats were divided into six groups: (1) control group (2) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) (3) 50% ethanolic plant extract treated group (50 mg/100 g bwt/day) (4) Deprenyl (100 microg/100 g bwt/day) (5) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) + 50% ethanolic plant extract treated group (50 mg/100 g bwt/day) (6) QUIN (55 microg/100 g bwt/day) + Deprenyl (100 microg/100 g bwt/day). At the end of the experimental period a status of lipid peroxidation products, protein peroxidation product, activities of the scavenging enzymes and the activities of the inflammatory markers were analyzed. Results revealed that the lipid peroxidation products decreased and the activities of the scavenging enzymes increased significantly in the brain of the plant extract treated group, deprenyl treated group and also in the coadminstered groups. The activities of markers of inflammatory responses such as cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase were found to be significantly increased in the QUIN treated rats and this was decreased upon the administration of plant extract and deprenyl. In short, the study revealed that 50% ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia has got potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity and the activity is comparable with the standard drug deprenyl.

  8. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Birgitte; Struve, Casper; Friis, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. Covalent linkage of naproxen to human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to target it efficiently to the liver and this may potentially be exploited for liver-selective inhibition of angiogenesis. With the aim...... effect on endothelial cells at or above the level of the non-conjugated NSAIDs in an in vitro angiogenesis assay....

  9. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    , but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration....... These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties....

  10. No evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram intervention in healthy individuals with a family history of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Eva; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Erikstrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to patients with depression randomised to a single daily dose of either 10mg escitalopram or placebo for four weeks. No significant differences were found in any of the cytokine levels between the participants treated with escitalopram (n=21) or placebo (n=23). Our data does thus not support the hypothesis...... of a global anti-inflammatory effect of escitalopram on cytokines in healthy subjects....

  11. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dmytriyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by its ability to decrease TNF release from activated AMJ2-C8 macrophages and rat primary microglia. When administered systemically Epobis is detectable in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating that the peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier. Importantly, Epobis is not erythropoietic, but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration. These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties.

  12. Overview of the anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacies of arctigenin and arctiin from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Yang, Mengbi; Zuo, Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Arctigenin (AR) and its glycoside, arctiin, are two major active ingredients of Arctium lappa L (A lappa), a popular medicinal herb and health supplement frequently used in Asia. In the past several decades, bioactive components from A lappa have attracted the attention of researchers due to their promising therapeutic effects. In the current article, we aimed to provide an overview of the pharmacology of AR and arctiin, focusing on their anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetics properties and clinical efficacies. Compared to acrtiin, AR was reported as the most potent bioactive component of A lappa in the majority of studies. AR exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) via modulation of several cytokines. Due to its potent anti-inflammatory effects, AR may serve as a potential therapeutic compound against both acute inflammation and various chronic diseases. However, pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated the extensive glucuronidation and hydrolysis of AR in liver, intestine and plasma, which might hinder its in vivo and clinical efficacy after oral administration. Based on the reviewed pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AR, further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of AR via alternative administration routes are suggested to promote its ability to serve as a therapeutic agent as well as an ideal bioactive marker for A lappa.

  13. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial triclocarban in a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junyan; Qiu Hong; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Ulu, Arzu; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) in personal care products (PCPs) has resulted in concern regarding environmental pollution. TCC is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Inhibitors of sEH (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and cardio-protective in multiple animal models. However, the in vivo effects anticipated from a sEHI have not been reported for TCC. Here we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo of TCC in a murine model. TCC was employed in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. Systolic blood pressure, plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, and metabolomic profile of plasma oxylipins were determined. TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. TCC significantly repressed the increased release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine caused by LPS. Furthermore, TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo in a time-dependent manner towards resolution of inflammation as expected from a sEHI. These results demonstrated that at the doses used TCC is anti-inflammatory in the murine model. This study suggests that TCC may provide some benefits in humans in addition to its antimicrobial activities due to its potent inhibition of sEH. It may be a promising starting point for developing new low volume high value applications of TCC. However these biological effects also caution against the general over use of TCC in PCPs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: → Anti-microbial triclocarban (TCC) is anti-inflammatory in a murine model. → TCC significantly shifted the oxylipin profile in vivo as expected from a sEHI. → TCC significantly reversed LPS-induced morbid hypotension in a time-dependent manner. → TCC significantly repressed LPS-induced increased release of inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron (a Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats. Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of ...

  15. Effects of heat treatment on antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of orange by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in functional components, antioxidative activities, antibacterial activities, anti-inflammatory activities of orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by-products (OBP) by heat treatment at 50 and 100 degrees C (hereafter, 50D and 100D extracts, respectively). Optimal...

  16. Negative effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin, a second generation fluoroquinolone is often co-administered with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in life threatening situations in which Staphylococcus aureus infections are accompanied with pain and inflammation. This study was carried out to investigate possible in vitro interactions in co ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics and their use in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Swetalina Pradhan; Bhushan Madke; Poonam Kabra; Adarsh Lata Singh

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics (antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic) are class of drugs which result in either killing or inhibiting growth and multiplication of infectious organisms. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed by all specialties for treatment of infections. However, antibiotics have hitherto immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties and can be exploited for various noninfectious dermatoses. Dermatologists routinely prescribe antibiotics in treatment of various noninfectious disorders. ...

  18. Radioprotective effect of local hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Higano, Shuichi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Fumihiko

    1985-01-01

    We attempted local hypothermia to prevent radiation dermatitis and stomatitis. With regard to parasternal skin reactions postoperatively irradiated breast cancer, dry and moist desquamation, which occasionally occurred with conventional irradiation was not observed in combination with local cooling. As for head and neck tumors, patients who complained of stomatitis decreased with the local cooling, and no one wanted a pause in irradiation before 40 Gy. As local hypothermia is free from danger and does not require special equipment, it was considered to be widely applicable. (author)

  19. Polymer based microspheres of aceclofenac as sustained release parenterals for prolonged anti-inflammatory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Sinha, VR, E-mail: sinha_vr@rediffmail.com

    2017-03-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75:25) and polycaprolactone (PCL) microspheres were fabricated for prolonged release of aceclofenac by parenteral administration. Microspheres encapsulating aceclofenac were designed to release the drug at controlled rate for around one month. Biodegradable microspheres were prepared by solvent emulsification evaporation method in different polymer:drug ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). After drug loading, PLGA and PCL microspheres showed a controlled size distribution with an average size of 11.75 μm and 3.81 μm respectively and entrapment efficiency in the range of 90 ± 0.72% to 91.06 ± 4.01% with PLGA and 83.01 ± 2.13% to 90.4 ± 2.11% with PCL. Scanning electron microscopy has confirmed good spherical structures of microspheres. The percent yield of biodegradable polymeric microspheres ranged between 30.95 ± 10.14% to 92.84 ± 3.15% and 47.33 ± 4.72% to 80 ± 3.60% for PLGA and PCL microspheres respectively. PLGA microspheres followed Higuchi release pattern while Korsmeyer-Peppas explained the release pattern of PCL microspheres. Stability studies of microspheres were also carried out by storing the preparations at 2-8 °C for 30, 60 and 90 days and evaluating them for entrapment efficiency, residual drug content and polymer drug compatability. In-vivo studies showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of microspheres upto 48 hours using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model. - Highlights: • PLGA and PCL polymeric microspheres for parenteral prolonged drug delivery system were formulated. • Polymeric microspheres were characterized physically and drug excipient incompatability. • Three months accelerated stability studies were carried for drug loaded polymeric microspheres. • Pharmacodynamic studies prove the rationality of sustained therapeutic effect of designed drug delivery system.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract.

  1. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-08-20

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases.

  2. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dugo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  3. Anti-Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Macrolide Antibiotic Roxithromycin in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao1, Radharaman Ray2, Yan Xiao3, Peter E. Barker3 and Prab, Xiugong

    2006-01-01

    .... In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE...

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA in macrophage-like cells from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammes Fabian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial Atlantic salmon is fed diets with high fat levels to promote fast and cost-effective growth. To avoid negative impact of obesity, food additives that stimulate fat metabolism and immune function are of high interest. TTA, tetradecylthioacetic acid, is a synthetic fatty acid that stimulates mitochondrial β-oxidation most likely by activation of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are important transcription factors regulating multiple functions including fat metabolism and immune responses. Atlantic salmon experiments have shown that TTA supplemented diets significantly reduce mortality during natural outbreaks of viral diseases, suggesting a modulatory role of the immune system. Results To gain new insights into TTA effects on the Atlantic salmon immune system, a factorial, high-throughput microarray experiment was conducted using a 44K oligo nucleotide salmon microarray SIQ2.0 and the Atlantic salmon macrophage-like cell line ASK. The experiment was used to determine the transcriptional effects of TTA, the effects of TTA in poly(I:C elicited cells and the effects of pretreating the cells with TTA. The expression patterns revealed that a large proportion of genes regulated by TTA were related to lipid metabolism and increased mitochondrial β-oxidation. In addition we found that for a subset of genes TTA antagonized the transcriptional effects of poly(I:C. This, together with the results from qRT-PCR showing an increased transcription of anti-inflammatory IL10 by TTA, indicates anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusions We demonstrate that TTA has significant effects on macrophage-like salmon cells that are challenged by the artificial dsRNA poly(I:C. The immune stimulatory effect of TTA in macrophages involves increased lipid metabolism and suppressed inflammatory status. Thus, suggesting that TTA directs the macrophage-like cells towards alternative, anti-inflammatory, activation. This has

  5. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-06-01

    Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil (LEO), which has citral as its main component, has exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in both animal and human cells. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a commercially available LEO in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. We first studied the impact of LEO on 17 protein biomarkers that are critically associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. LEO significantly inhibited production of the inflammatory biomarkers vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG); decreased levels of the tissue remodeling biomarkers collagen-I and III, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1); and inhibited the immunomodulatory biomarker macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Furthermore, we studied the impact of LEO on genome-wide gene expression profiles. LEO significantly modulated global gene expression and robustly impacted signaling pathways, many of which are critical for inflammation and tissue remodeling processes. This study provides the first evidence of the anti-inflammatory activity of LEO in human skin cells and indicates that it is a good therapeutic candidate for treating inflammatory conditions of the skin.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Gallic Acid-Eluting Stent in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seob Lim, Kyung; Park, Jun-Kyu; Ho Jeong, Myung; Ho Bae, In; Sung Park, Dae; Won Shim, Jae; Ha Kim, Jung; Kuk Kim, Hyun; Soo Kim, Sung; Sun Sim, Doo; Joon Hong, Young; Han Kim, Ju; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2018-01-01

    Background Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a natural polyphenol and strong natural antioxidant found abundantly in red wine and green tea. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel gallic acid-eluting stent in a porcine coronary restenosis model. Methods Fifteen pigs were randomized into three groups; in which a total of 30 coronary arteries (10 in each group) were implanted with gallic acid-eluting stents (GESs, n = 10), gallic acid and sirolimus-eluting stents (GSESs, n = 10), or sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs, n = 10). Histopathologic analysis was performed 28 days after stenting. Results There were no significant differences in injury score and fibrin score among the groups, however there were significant differences in the internal elastic lamina (4.0 ± 0.83 mm2 in GES vs. 3.0 ± 0.53 mm2 in GSES vs. 4.6 ± 1.43 mm2 in SES, p < 0.0001), lumen area (2.3 ± 0.49 mm2 in GES vs. 1.9 ± 0.67 mm2 in GSES vs. 2.9 ± 0.56 mm2 in SES, p < 0.0001), neointimal area (1.7 ± 0.63 mm2 in GES vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 mm2 in GSES vs. 1.7 ± 1.17 mm2 in SES, p < 0.05), and percent area of stenosis (42.4% ± 9.22% in GES vs. 38.2% ± 12.77% in GSES vs. 33.9% ± 15.64% in SES, p < 0.05). The inflammation score was significantly lower in the GES and GSES groups compared to that in the SES group [1.0 (range: 1.0 to 2.0) in GES vs. 1.0 (range: 1.0 to 1.0) in GSES vs. 1.5 (range: 1.0 to 3.0) in SES, p < 0.05]. Conclusions The GES group had a greater percent area of stenosis than the SES group. Although gallic acid in the GES and GSES groups did not show a synergistic effect in suppressing neointimal hyperplasia, it resulted in greater inhibition of the inflammatory reaction in the porcine coronary restenosis model than in the SES group. PMID:29844643

  7. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kazunaga; Suga, Katsumi; Honma, Atsushi; Shirosaki, Miyuki; Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of seeds of the tropical fruit camu-camu was screened for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema model mice. The extract significantly suppressed both the formation of edema in mice by oral administration and the release of nitric oxide from macrophage-derived RAW 264.7 cells in vitro. Based on the results of a spectroscopic analysis, the active compound was identified by in vivo bioassay-guided fractionation to be 3β-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, known as an anti-inflammatory triterpenoid. These findings suggest that camu-camu seed extract is a potentially useful material as a source of betulinic acid and as a functional food for prevention of immune-related diseases.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kyu Ko

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages using LPS. The anti-inflammatory effects of UDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways and nuclear factor kappa-light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα signaling pathways were evaluated by western blot assays.UDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated release of the inflammatory mediator NO. UDCA also decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1-α (IL-1α, interleukin 1-β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, UDCA increased an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10 in the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA inhibited the expression of inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, UDCA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 signals related to inflammatory pathways. In addition, the phosphorylation of IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited by UDCA.UDCA inhibits the pro-inflammatory responses by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. UDCA also suppresses the phosphorylation by LPS on ERK, JNK, and p38 in MAPKs and NF-κB pathway. These results suggest that UDCA can serve as a useful anti-inflammatory drug.

  10. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were measured using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and transwell migration assay. Cell damage was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Cell viability and median lethal time (LT₅₀) were measured by 7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry analysis. Cellular effects after exposure of HCECs to the four anti-inflammatory eye drops were concentration dependent. The differences of cellular toxicity on cell proliferation became significant at lower concentrations (Eye Drops showed significant increasing effects on cell damage and viability when compared with the other three solutions. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops inhibited the migration of HCECs significantly. Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops showed the quickest effect on cell viability: the LT₅₀ was 3.28, 9.23, 10.38, and 23.80 min for Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, and Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, respectively. However, the comparisons of cellular toxicity revealed significant differences between the eye drops and their active components under the same concentration. The corneal epithelial toxicity differences among the active components of the four eye drops became significant as higher concentration (>0.020%). The four anti-inflammatory eye drops showed different cellular effects on HCECs, and the toxicity was not related with their active components, which provides new reference for the clinical application and drug

  11. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  12. Proliferative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol and Silymarin on Human Gingival Fibroblasts: A View to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Shahidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been demonstrated that polyphenol components such as silymarin and resveratrol have anti-inflammatory properties. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to the breakdown of dental supporting tissues and tooth loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin and resveratrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs.Materials and Methods: HGFs were treated with different concentrations of silymarin and/or resveratrol (25, 50, 100 and 200μg/ml. The effects of silymarin and resveratrol on cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT assay and cell cycle analysis, respectively. Also, HGFs were treated with silymarin and/or resveratrol and were stimulated with LPS. The levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and IL-8 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.  Results: After treatment with silymarin, the viability of fibroblasts significantly increased, whereas treatment with resveratrol did not have any significant effect on cell viability. However, the combination of these flavonoids (50µg/ml silymarin and 100µg/ml resveratrol significantly increased the viability of fibroblasts. Resveratrol significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by HGFs, but silymarin did not show such a significant effect.   Conclusions: The findings of the present study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol and its combination with silymarin. Therefore, the combination of silymarin and resveratrol may be useful as a therapeutic agent for treatment of periodontal diseases.

  13. Antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of fermented food paste in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-challenged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkawi, Noraisyah; Ng, Kam Heng; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Yeap, Swee Keong; Satharasinghe, Dilan A; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Abd Rashid, Nur Yuhasliza; Md Lazim, Mohd Izwan; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2018-01-01

    Background Fermented food has been widely consumed as health food to ameliorate or prevent several chronic diseases including diabetes. Xeniji™, a fermented food paste (FFP), has been previously reported with various bioactivities, which may be caused by the presence of several metabolites including polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and vitamins. In this study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP were assessed. Methods In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet (HFD) and used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP. Mice were fed with HFD and challenged with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) of streptozotocin for 1 month followed by 6 weeks of supplementation with 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg BW of FFP. Metformin was used as positive control treatment. Results Xeniji™-supplemented hyperglycemic mice were recorded with lower glucose level after 6 weeks of duration. This effect was contributed by the improvement of insulin sensitivity in the hyperglycemic mice indicated by the oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and end point insulin level. In addition, gene expression study has shown that the antihyperglycemic effect of FFP is related to the improvement of lipid and glucose metabolism in the mice. Furthermore, both 0.1 and 1 g/kg BW of FFP was able to reduce hyperglycemia-related inflammation indicated by the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB and iNOS gene expression and nitric oxide level. Conclusion FFP potentially demonstrated in vivo antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects on HFD and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PMID:29872261

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of Tripterygium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Wu, Tao; Li, Ji; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xue-jun; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yang, Shu-yu

    2012-08-15

    Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHF) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects and its clinical use was restricted to some extent due to some toxic effects on the digestive, urogenital, and blood circulatory systems, especially the male reproductive system. In the previous study, we had confirmed that TWHF-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have protective effects on male reproductive toxicity in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of TWHF-SLN remain to be unidentified. The present study was focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats treated with TWHF-SLN as well as the effects of SLN delivery system on decreasing the hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium. Sixty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats each. From day 18 after FCA injection, TWHF-SLN group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) and TWHF group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage for 24 consecutive days. The control group was with saline and model control group was without any treatment. The volume of the right hind paws was evaluated at 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 42 days post-injection of FCA by a home-made connected device. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated by an autoanalyzer. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels were determined using commercial kits. The PG level in sera was examined by double antibody sandwich method. Tissue histopathology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The results show that TWHF-SLN can significantly reduce rat paw volume at 60 mg/kg (psystem can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of TWHF, and meanwhile has a protective effect against TWHF

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-stimulated-J774A.1 macrophages.

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    Rabe, Shahrzad Zamani Taghizadeh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Siadat, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Rabe, Shahin Zamani Taghizadeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.

  16. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and phytochemical screening of Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae aqueous extracts

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    Carla de Agostino Biella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla extracts are used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases as well as inflammation and fever. In this work, the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and potential toxic effects of cold (CAE and hot (HAE aqueous extracts of A. tenella were investigated in vivo. In addition, we analyzed the phytochemical properties of both extracts. BALB/c mice were immunized in vivo with sheep red blood cells and concomitantly inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. with each extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg. Specific antibody-producing cells were enumerated using plaque-forming cell assays (PFC and anti-SRBC IgG and IgM serum levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body and lymphoid organ weights were determined after treatments in order to evaluate toxic effects. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was employed to investigate anti-inflammatory activity in mice inoculated i.p. with CAE or HAE (200 or 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening was performed using spectrometric and chromatographic approaches and revealed that CAE possessed higher tannin and flavonoid levels than HAE. PFC numbers were increased after treatment with CAE (100 mg/kg four days after immunization, as were the serum antibody titers after four and seven days, suggesting immunostimulatory activity through modulation of B lymphocyte functions. Body and organ weights did not show major changes, suggesting that extracts administered to mice did not induce significant toxicity. Both extracts had significant anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema assay. These results suggested that aqueous extracts from A. tenella contained several chemical compounds that possess positive and/or negative modulator effects on the immune system, which appeared to correlate with tannin and flavonoid levels in those extracts. In summary, these studies provide important insight into the biological activities of A. tenella.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide

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    Young-Jin Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW. The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT, Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1, first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS, and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2 in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05. Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

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    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  19. Improved anti-inflammatory effects in rabbit eye model using biodegradable poly beta-amino ester nanoparticles of triamcinolone acetonide.

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    Sabzevari, Araz; Adibkia, Khosro; Hashemi, Hassan; De Geest, Bruno G; Mohsenzadeh, Navid; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Khoshayand, Mohammad-Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-08-15

    Results of previous studies on the benefits of ocular drug delivery using polymeric mucoadhesive nanoparticles suggested longer presence and better penetration of nanoparticles, and, thus, increased effect and bioavailability of drugs entrapped in nanoparticles. In this study, a novel polymer, poly β-amino ester, was used for the preparation of triamcinolone acetonide-loaded nanoparticles using a modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method. Mucoadhesiveness studies, in vitro drug release, x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy were used for physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles. Thirty-six hours after inducing uveitis by intravitreal injection of a lipopolysaccharide, sampling from the aqueous humor was done and inflammatory factors, such as cell, protein, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2, were compared. Nanoparticles with a mean size of 178 nm and drug loading of 5.3% were prepared and used for in vivo studies in rabbits with uveitis. Higher anti-inflammatory effect was observed for polymeric nanoparticles of triamcinolone acetonide compared with microparticles of prednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide, and an equal effect compared with subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide in terms of inhibiting inflammation and inflammatory mediators. It can be concluded that polymeric nanoparticles of triamcinolone acetonide will provide as good an anti-inflammatory effect as the subconjunctival injection method and are better compared with other drug delivery systems.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects

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    Gihyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

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    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-05-11

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin.

  2. Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation

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    Anika Eva Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high intake of brassica vegetables may be associated with a decreased chronic disease risk. Health promoting effects of Brassicaceae have been partly attributed to glucosinolates and in particular to their hydrolyzation products including isothiocyanates. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest a chemopreventive activity of isothiocyanates through the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Furthermore, studies in cultured cells, in laboratory rodents, and also in humans support an anti-inflammatory effect of brassica-derived phytochemicals. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these compounds mediate their health promoting effects are yet not fully understood. Recent findings suggest that brassica-derived compounds are regulators of epigenetic mechanisms. It has been shown that isothiocyanates may inhibit histone deacetylase transferases and DNA-methyltransferases in cultured cells. Only a few papers have dealt with the effect of brassica-derived compounds on epigenetic mechanisms in laboratory animals, whereas data in humans are currently lacking. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the biological activities of brassica-derived phytochemicals regarding chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, and epigenetic pathways.

  3. Role of human gut microbiota metabolism in the anti-inflammatory effect of traditionally used ellagitannin-rich plant materials.

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    Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Zwierzyńska, Marta; Stefańska, Joanna; Schopohl, Patrick; Melzig, Matthias F; Kiss, Anna K

    2014-08-08

    Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are widely used in traditional medicine as effective, internally used anti-inflammatory agents. Due to the not well-established bioavailability of ellagitannins, the mechanisms of observed therapeutic effects following oral administration still remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate if selected ellagitannin-rich plant materials could be the source of bioavailable gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, together with determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of the metabolites produced on the THP-1 cell line derived macrophages model. The formation of urolithins was determined by ex vivo incubation of human fecal samples with aqueous extracts from selected plant materials. The anti-inflammatory activity study of metabolites was determined on PMA differentiated, IFN-γ and LPS stimulated, human THP-1 cell line-derived macrophages. The formation of urolithin A, B and C by human gut microbiota was established for aqueous extracts from Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. herb (Ph. Eur.), Geranium pratense L. herb, Geranium robertianum L. herb, Geum urbanum L. root and rhizome, Lythrum salicaria L. herb (Ph. Eur.), Potentilla anserina L. herb, Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch rhizome (Ph. Eur.), Quercus robur L. bark (Ph. Eur.), Rubus idaeus L. leaf, Rubus fruticosus L. and pure ellagitannin vescalagin. Significant inhibition of TNF-α production was determined for all urolithins, while for the most potent urolithin A inhibition was observed at nanomolar concentrations (at 0.625 μM 29.2±6.4% of inhibition). Urolithin C was the only compound inhibiting IL-6 production (at 0.625 μM 13.9±2.2% of inhibition). The data obtained clearly indicate that in the case of peroral use of the examined ellagitannin-rich plant materials the bioactivity of gut microbiota metabolites, i.e. urolithins, has to be taken under consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Aquaphilus dolomiae extract on in vitro models

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    Aries MF

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Françoise Aries,1 Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon,1 Clémence Vaissière,1 Hélène Delga,1 Antony Caruana,1 Marguerite Lévêque,1 Muriel Bourrain,1,2 Katia Ravard Helffer,1 Bertrand Chol,3 Thien Nguyen,1 Sandrine Bessou-Touya,1 Nathalie Castex-Rizzi1 1Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, Centre de Recherche & Développement Pierre Fabre, Toulouse, 2Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Microbiennes (LBBM, Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls/Mer, France; 3Centre d’Immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, France Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease characterized by recurrent pruritic inflammatory skin lesions resulting from structural and immune defects of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown the clinical efficacy of Avène thermal spring water in AD, and a new microorganism, Aquaphilus dolomiae was suspected to contribute to these unique properties. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and immunomodulatory properties of ES0, an original biological extract of A. dolomiae, in immune and inflammatory cell models in order to assess its potential use in the treatment of AD.Materials and methods: An ES0 extract containing periplasmic and membrane proteins, peptides, lipopolysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides was obtained from A. dolomiae. The effects of the extract on pruritus and inflammatory mediators and immune mechanisms were evaluated by using various AD cell models and assays.Results: In a keratinocyte model, ES0 inhibited the expression of the inflammatory mediators, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin (IL-18, IL-4R, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, and macrophage-derived chemokine and induced the expression of involucrin, which is involved in skin barrier keratinocyte terminal differentiation. In addition, ES0 inhibited protease-activated receptor-2 activation in

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

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    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P acetic acid-induced writhing with the highest activity observed at the highest dose, 250 mg/kg (76.89%) comparable to that of piroxicam (83.16%) the standard agent used. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation assay, the extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (P screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose was found to be 3807.9 mg/kg in mice and > 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Autoimmune Prostatitis: Evaluation in Animal Model

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    Carlos Pérez-Alvarado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract (DLE in a murine model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS. Methods. Histopathological characterization, prostatein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and immunohistochemical analysis for CD45, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-4 molecules were done in prostatic Wistar rats treated with DLE, placebo, or Dexamethasone. Results. Histopathological analysis of animals induced to prostatitis showed inflammatory infiltrate, mainly constituted by leucocytes and mast cells as well as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Serum prostatein concentrations were 14 times higher than those displayed by healthy animals. After DLE and Dexamethasone treatments, the inflammatory infiltrate decreased; the tissue morphology was similar to that of a normal prostate, and the prostatein decreased to the basal levels of healthy animals. DLE treatment produced a decreased expression of the cell surface marker CD45 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-17. On the other hand, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 increased in both the Dexamethasone and DLE groups. Conclusion. DLE is able to modulate the inflammatory response in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP.

  7. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract from Acer tegmentosum.

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    Yu, Tao; Lee, Jaehwi; Lee, Yong Gyu; Byeon, Se Eun; Kim, Min Ho; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Sun Gu; Cho, Jae Youl

    2010-03-02

    Acer tegmentosum has been traditionally used for folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders such as hepatitis, hepatic cancer, and hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, we demonstrate the ethno-pharmacological activity of Acer tegmentosum in in vitro and in vivo inflammatory conditions. The 70% ethanol extract (At-EE) of Acer tegmentosum dose-dependently diminished the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)E(2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages, by a transcriptional mechanism. At-EE also suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activator protein (AP)-1, and cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB), and simultaneously blocked their upstream inflammatory signalling cascades, including Akt, p38, and JNK. Furthermore, At-EE protected against LPS-induced cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and neutralized reactive species generation. In agreement with the in vitro results, orally administered At-EE strongly ameliorated ear oedema formation induced by arachidonic acid. At-EE displays strong anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, contributing to its major ethno-pharmacological role such as anti-hepatitis remedy and may be applicable to novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects of Campomanesia adamantium microencapsulated pulp

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    Danieli Z. Viscardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Guavira fruits have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities. Spray drying has been widely used in the food industry presenting good retention in bioactive compounds used to transform the pulp/fruit juice into powder form. Therefore, the present study has evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the microencapsulated pulp of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, by spray drying. Different groups of mice were treated with the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg of microencapsulated "guavira" pulp and inflammatory parameters were assessed in a carrageenan paw edema-model and leukocyte migration with pleurisy model, while the antinociceptive activity was assessed using the formalin method and CFA-induced hyperalgesia model. A significant reduction in leukocyte migration and in paw edema was observed in rodents in all time after carrageenan injection for both doses of microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium when compared with control group. Microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium also reduced licking time at the first (nociceptive and second (inflammatory phases in the formalin model. In CFA-induced cold and mechanical hyperalgesia, depressive behavior, and knee edema, all parameters analyzed were significantly inhibited by microencapsulated pulp of C. adamantium. Microencapsulation by spray drying proved to be a technique that promotes bioavailability and the preservation of bioactive components in guavira pulp.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages Stimulated with Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid

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    Wansu Park

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Myristicin (1-allyl-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene is an active aromatic compound found in nutmeg (the seed of Myristica fragrans, carrot, basil, cinnamon, and parsley. Myristicin has been known to have anti-cholinergic, antibacterial, and hepatoprotective effects, however, the effects of myristicin on virus-stimulated macrophages are not fully reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-stimulated macrophages was examined. Myristicin did not reduce the cell viability of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages at concentrations of up to 50 µM. Myristicin significantly inhibited the production of calcium, nitric oxide (NO, interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, interferon inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, MCP-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and leukemia inhibitory factor in dsRNA [polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid]-induced RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.05. In conclusion, myristicin has anti-inflammatory properties related with its inhibition of NO, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA-stimulated macrophages via the calcium pathway.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

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    Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2017-11-02

    A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and CVDs has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of CVDs, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese/overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of CVD risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in CVDs and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Ceftriaxone and clavulanic acid induce antiallodynia and anti-inflammatory effects in rats using the carrageenan model

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    Ochoa-Aguilar A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Ochoa-Aguilar,1,2 Rosa Ventura-Martinez,1 Marco Antonio Sotomayor-Sobrino,1 Ruth Jaimez,1 Ulises Coffeen,3 Ariadna Jiménez-González,2 Luis Gerardo Balcázar-Ochoa,1 Rafael Pérez-Medina-Carballo,2 Rodolfo Rodriguez,1 Ricardo Plancarte-Sánchez4 1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, México; 2Research Department, Mexican Faculty of Medicine, La Salle University, Mexico City, México; 3Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, México; 4Pain Clinic, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Mexico City, México Introduction: Ceftriaxone (CFX and clavulanic acid (CA are 2 β-lactam molecules widely used as antibiotics. However, several reports of their antiallodynic properties have been published in recent years. Although this effect has been considered mostly due to a GLT1 overexpression, these molecules have also been proven to induce direct immunomodulation. In this work, we determine the acute analgesic effect of CFX and CA in an inflammatory pain model and assess if their administration may induce anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: The carrageenan (Carr test was used as an inflammatory pain model. Both mechanical and thermal responses were analyzed after CFX and CA administration at different times. A plethysmometer was used to determine inflammation. Also, TNF-α and IL-10 serum concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Both CFX and CA induced a significant thermal antiallodynic effect 3 and 24 h after administration. Furthermore, CA induced a mechanical antiallodynic effect 30, 60, and 90 min after administration. Moreover, a significant anti-inflammatory effect was found for both molecules 24 h after Carr injection. Also, both CA and CFX modulated TNF-α and IL-10 serum concentrations at different times. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that both CFX and CA cause an analgesic effect on a Carr

  12. Bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects of ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand, developed for the treatment of asthma.

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    Assayag, Evelyne Israël; Beaulieu, Marie-Josée; Cormier, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Conventional asthma and COPD treatments include the use of bronchodilators, mainly β2-adrenergic agonists, muscarinic receptor antagonists and corticosteroids or leukotriene antagonists as anti-inflammatory agents. These active drugs are administered either separately or given as a fixed-dose combination medication into a single inhaler. ASM-024, a homopiperazinium compound, derived from the structural modification of diphenylmethylpiperazinium (DMPP), has been developed to offer an alternative mechanism of action that could provide symptomatic control through combined anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties in a single entity. A dose-dependent inhibition of cellular inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was observed in ovalbumin-sensitized mice, subsequently treated for 3 days by nose-only exposure with aerosolized ASM-024 at doses up to 3.8 mg/kg (ED50 = 0.03 mg/kg). The methacholine ED250 values indicated that airway hyperresponsivenness (AHR) to methacholine decreased following ASM-024 administration by inhalation at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg, with a value of 0.145 ± 0.032 mg/kg for ASM 024-treated group as compared to 0.088 ± 0.023 mg/kg for untreated mice. In in vitro isometric studies, ASM-024 elicited dose-dependent relaxation of isolated mouse tracheal, human, and dog bronchial preparations contracted with methacholine and guinea pig tracheas contracted with histamine. ASM-024 showed also a dose and time dependant protective effect on methacholine-induced contraction. Overall, with its combined anti-inflammatory, bronchodilating and bronchoprotective properties, ASM-024 may represent a new class of drugs with a novel pharmacological approach that could prove useful for the chronic maintenance treatment of asthma and, possibly, COPD.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine are mediated through the regulation of the arachidonic acid pathway in macrophages.

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    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2012-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent antioxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study (U.C. Yadav et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 48:1423-1434, 2010) indicates a novel role for benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating arachidonic acid (AA) pathway-generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane 2 (TXB2), and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expression of AA-metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase, and PGI2 synthase was significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-κB and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adduct formation. Most importantly, compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented LPS-induced macrophage death and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of the COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Benfotiamine are Mediated Through the Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Mohammad; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Benfotiamine, a lipid-soluble analogue of vitamin B1, is a potent anti-oxidant that is used as a food supplement for the treatment of diabetic complications. Our recent study indicates a novel role of benfotiamine in the prevention of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory response in murine macrophages. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how benfotiamine mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory role of benfotiamine in regulating the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway generated inflammatory lipid mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 and release of AA metabolites such as leukotrienes (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxanes 2 (TXB2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in macrophages. Further, LPS-induced expressions of AA metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2, LOX-5, TXB synthase and PGI2 synthase were significantly blocked by benfotiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine prevented the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of transcription factors NF-kB, and Egr-1. Benfotiamine also prevented the LPS-induced oxidative stress and protein-HNE adducts formation. Most importantly, as compared to specific COX-2 and LOX-5 inhibitors, benfotiamine significantly prevented the LPS-induced macrophage death and monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells. Thus, our studies indicate that the dual regulation of COX and LOX pathways in AA metabolism could be a novel mechanism by which benfotiamine exhibits its potential anti-inflammatory response. PMID:22067901

  15. A Polysaccharide Virulence Factor from Aspergillus fumigatus Elicits Anti-inflammatory Effects through Induction of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Mark S.; Bozza, Silvia; Becker, Katharina L.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; van der Berg, Wim B.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Netea, Mihai G.; Fontaine, Thierry; De Luca, Antonella; Moretti, Silvia; Romani, Luigina; Latge, Jean-Paul; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.

    2014-01-01

    The galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is a cell wall component of Aspergillus fumigatus that has potent anti-inflammatory effects in mice. However, the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of GAG remain to be elucidated. In the present study we used in vitro PBMC stimulation assays to demonstrate, that GAG inhibits proinflammatory T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cytokine production in human PBMCs by inducing Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that blocks IL-1 signalling. GAG cannot suppress human T-helper cytokine production in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against IL-1Ra. In a mouse model of invasive aspergillosis, GAG induces IL-1Ra in vivo, and the increased susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis in the presence of GAG in wild type mice is not observed in mice deficient for IL-1Ra. Additionally, we demonstrate that the capacity of GAG to induce IL-1Ra could also be used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, as GAG was able to reduce severity of an experimental model of allergic aspergillosis, and in a murine DSS-induced colitis model. In the setting of invasive aspergillosis, GAG has a significant immunomodulatory function by inducing IL-1Ra and notably IL-1Ra knockout mice are completely protected to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. This opens new treatment strategies that target IL-1Ra in the setting of acute invasive fungal infection. However, the observation that GAG can also protect mice from allergy and colitis makes GAG or a derivative structure of GAG a potential treatment compound for IL-1 driven inflammatory diseases. PMID:24603878

  16. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  17. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Essential Oil Exerts Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Macrophage Mediated Immune Response to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, D; Gismondi, A; Basso, A; Canuti, L; Braglia, R; Canini, A; Mariani, F; Cappelli, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies described the antibacterial properties of Lavandula angustifolia (Mill.) essential oil and its anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, no data exist on its ability to activate human macrophages during the innate response against Staphylococcus aureus. The discovery of promising regulators of macrophage-mediated inflammatory response, without side effects, could be useful for the prevention of, or as therapeutic remedy for, various inflammation-mediated diseases. This study investigated, by transcriptional analysis, how a L. angustifolia essential oil treatment influences the macrophage response to Staphylococcus aureus infection. The results showed that the treatment increases the phagocytic rate and stimulates the containment of intracellular bacterial replication by macrophages. Our data showed that this stimulation is coupled with expression of genes involved in reactive oxygen species production (i.e., CYBB and NCF4). Moreover, the essential oil treatment balanced the inflammatory signaling induced by S. aureus by repressing the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors and inducing the heme oxygenase-1 gene transcription. These data showed that the L. angustifolia essential oil can stimulate the human innate macrophage response to a bacterium which is responsible for one of the most important nosocomial infection and might suggest the potential development of this plant extract as an anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory coadjutant drug.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei, Samuel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ramkissoon, Paul; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Asiamah, Emmanuel Akomanin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg), prednisolone (30 mg/kg), or normal saline (10 mL/kg). The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001) both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits) and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001). Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  19. Semisynthesis, an Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Derivatives of 1β-Hydroxy Alantolactone from Inula britannica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 1β-hydroxy alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone mainly isolated from Inula genus plants, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this work, 1β-hydroxy alantolactone was isolated and five derivatives were prepared through different reactions at the C1-OH and C13-methylene motifs. The structure–activity relationships (SAR of anti-inflammatory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 cells showed that the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone motif was essential for NO production suppression and that retaining the C1-OH group can remarkably improve this effect. The NF-κB signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the regulation of NO expression. Moreover, the levels of p65 and p50 phosphorylation were investigated and active compound 1 inhibited phosphorylation of p65 and p50 in TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling. Further molecular docking suggested that 1 may target the p65 of NF-κB.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Inhibitors Targeting Jak and Ikk Have An Anabolic Effect on Type II Collagen Turnover ex Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Petersen, Cecilie Freja; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    be beneficial for the selection of novel anti-inflammatory treatments for RA and iOA. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of the anti-inflammatory inhibitors R406 (the active metabolite of Fostamatinib), Tofacitinib, TPCA-1 and SB203580 on the cartilage ECM turnover. Methods...... Full depth bovine cartilage ex vivo cultures were cultured for 3 weeks with OSM [10 ng/mL] and TNFα [2 ng/mL] (O+T) or together with R406, Tofacitinib or TPCA-1 at 10 μM and a two-fold dilution to 0.16 μM. SB203580 was tested at 3 μM, 1 μM and 0.3 μM. As negative control, untreated explants were...... R406, the Jak inhibitor Tofacitinib, and the IKK inhibitor TPCA-1 inhibited the release of ARGS or AGNx1, while the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, had no effect. The turnover of type II collagen was measured by the formation of type II collagen (ProC2) and MMP-mediated degradation of type II collagen (C2M...

  1. The effect of feed supplementation with effective microorganisms (EM) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Ewa; Jarosz, Łukasz; Grądzki, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Effective microorganisms (EM) are used in numerous fields associated with agriculture. The beneficial effects of EM on the general health of pigs and on production parameters are also determined by the influence of these microbes on immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feed supplementation with EM on the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in a culture of PBMCs with and without ConA stimulation in pigs. ELISA kits were used to determine the cytokine levels in the porcine serum and the PBMC culture supernatants. Evaluation of the serum concentration of cytokines revealed statistically significantly higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the pigs receiving EM Bokashi. The highest concentration of TGF-β in the experimental group was noted on the final test day. Evaluation of cytokine concentrations in the PBMC cultures revealed statistically significantly higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 from the third day of the experiment. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α were obtained in the unstimulated PBMC culture on the second test day and in the culture treated with ConA on the second and the third test days. The results of our study indicate that supplementation of pig feed with EM Bokashi activates the cell-mediated and humoral immune response, ensuring that Th1/Th2 balance is maintained and enhancing immune processes protecting the body against infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of phonophoresis on skin permeation of commercial anti-inflammatory gels: sodium diclofenac and ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jaqueline; Meira, Alianise; Volpato, Nadia Maria; Mayorga, Paulo; Gottfried, Carmem

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of ultrasound in combination with the commercial anti-inflammatory drugs ketoprofen and sodium diclofenac, according to the parameters used in physiotherapy. Ketoprofen and sodium diclofenac were used in the Franz diffusion cell model adapted to an ultrasound transducer in three conditions: no ultrasound, one application of ultrasound and two applications of ultrasound. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the total amount of drug permeating skin per unit area, as well as flux and latency. The results showed that for ketoprofen, the amount of drug permeating skin and flux increased with two ultrasound applications. Permeation of sodium diclofenac decreased in the presence of ultrasound. Ultrasound parameters and drug properties must be considered in the use of phonophoresis. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory effect of rauvolfian, a pectic polysaccharide of Rauvolfia callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V; Vinter, V G; Patova, O A; Markov, P A; Nikitina, I R; Ovodova, R G; Popova, G Yu; Shashkov, A S; Ovodov, Yu S

    2007-07-01

    The pectic polysaccharide named rauvolfian RS was obtained from the dried callus of Rauvolfia serpentina L. by extraction with 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate. Crude rauvolfian RS was purified using membrane ultrafiltration to yield the purified rauvolfian RSP in addition to glucan as admixture from the callus, with molecular weights 300 and 100-300 kD, respectively. A peroral pretreatment of mice with the crude and purified samples of rauvolfian (RS and RSP) was found to decrease colonic macroscopic scores, the total area of damage, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons as compared with a colitis group. RS and RSP were shown to stimulate production of mucus by colons of the colitis mice. RSP appeared to be an active constituent of the parent RS. The glucan failed to possess anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenjuan; Li, Taihui; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Cordyceps guangdongensis T. H. Li, Q. Y. Lin & B. Song (Cordycipitaceae) is a novel food approved by the Ministry of Public Health of China in 2013. Preliminary studies revealed that this novel food has multiple pharmacological activities such as anti-fatigue effect, antioxidant ability, prolonging life, anti-avian influenza virus activity, and therapeutic effect on chronic renal failure. However, the anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis and the effective constituent are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate both the anti-inflammatory effect of the edible fungus on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking, and the pilot effective constituent. Test rats were intragastrically administered with 3 doses of hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis (0.325, 0.65 and 1.30 g kg(-1) bw daily for low, middle and high dose, respectively) for 26 days. Biochemical indices and histological examinations in rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking were determined. The content and molecular weights of the polysaccharide from the hot-water extract were detected by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Biochemical indices in the low, middle and high-dose groups with the hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis were only 53.4%, 46.0% and 40.4% of those in the model control group (total leukocytes), respectively; 70.7%, 60.3% and 58.1% (macrophages); 33.0%, 26.8% and 16.1% (neutrophils); and 22.2%, 23.5% and 13.6% (lymphocytes) of those in the model control group. The bronchial lesions and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly alleviated in all groups with hot-water extract of C. guangdongensis. This study indicates that the hot-water extract from C. guangdongensis has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on chronic bronchitis. The content of the polysaccharide was 6.92%; the molecular weights of the 3 polysaccharide components were respectively 1.28 × 10

  5. Localization effects in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radial and angular localization in heavy ion reactions on deformed nuclei is discussed. A theoretical method appropriate to study these localization effects is briefly described and then applied to the determination of deformed heavy ion potentials from inclastic scattering data. It is argued that one-and two-nucleon transfer reactions on deformed nuclei can provide a probe of nuclear structure in high angular momentum states and be at least qualitatively analyzed in the light of these localization concepts. (Author) [pt

  6. "Smart tattoo" glucose biosensors and effect of coencapsulated anti-inflammatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rohit; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Chaudhary, Ayesha; McShane, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive glucose biosensors with increased functional longevity form one of the most promising techniques for continuous glucose monitoring. In the present study, we developed a novel nanoengineered microsphere formulation comprising alginate microsphere glucose sensors and anti-inflammatory-drug-loaded alginate microspheres. The formulation was prepared and characterized for size, shape, in vitro drug release, biocompatibility, and in vivo acceptability. Glucose oxidase (GOx)- and Apo-GOx-based glucose sensors were prepared and characterized. Sensing was performed both in distilled water and simulated interstitial body fluid. Layer-by-layer self-assembly techniques were used for preventing drug and sensing chemistry release. Finally, in vivo studies, involving histopathologic examination of subcutaneous tissue surrounding the implanted sensors using Sprague-Dawley rats, were performed to test the suppression of inflammation and fibrosis associated with glucose sensor implantation. The drug formulation showed 100% drug release with in 30 days with zero-order release kinetics. The GOx-based sensors showed good enzyme retention and enzyme activity over a period of 1 month. Apo-GOx-based visible and near-infrared sensors showed good sensitivity and analytical response range of 0-50 mM glucose, with linear range up to 12 mM glucose concentration. In vitro cell line studies proved biocompatibility of the material used. Finally, both anti-inflammatory drugs were successful in controlling the implant-tissue interface by suppressing inflammation at the implant site. The incorporation of anti-inflammatory drug with glucose biosensors shows promise in improving sensor biocompatibility, thereby suggesting potential application of alginate microspheres as "smart tattoo" glucose sensors with increased functional longevity. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Berberine Hydrochloride in an LPS-Induced Murine Model of Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichun Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine hydrochloride is an isoquinoline type alkaloid extracted from Berberidaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants. Previous reports have shown that berberine hydrochloride has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced murine model of mastitis was established to explore the anti-inflammatory action of berberine hydrochloride. Sixty mice that had been lactating for 5–7 days were randomly divided into six groups, including control, LPS, three berberine hydrochloride treatment groups (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, and a dexamethasone (DEX (5 mg/kg group. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before and 12 h after LPS-induced mastitis, and all mice were sacrificed 24 h after LPS induction. The pathological and histopathological changes of the mammary glands were observed. The concentrations and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. The activation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways was analyzed by Western blot. Results indicated that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and dose-dependently decreased the secretion and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 within a certain range. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of I-κB. Berberine hydrochloride can provide mice robust protection from LPS-induced mastitis, potentially via the TLR4 and NF-κB pathway.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Berberine Hydrochloride in an LPS-Induced Murine Model of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shibin; Ding, Nana; He, Yanting; Li, Cheng; Li, Manman; Ding, Xuedong; Ding, Hongyan; Li, Jinchun

    2018-01-01

    Berberine hydrochloride is an isoquinoline type alkaloid extracted from Berberidaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants. Previous reports have shown that berberine hydrochloride has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced murine model of mastitis was established to explore the anti-inflammatory action of berberine hydrochloride. Sixty mice that had been lactating for 5–7 days were randomly divided into six groups, including control, LPS, three berberine hydrochloride treatment groups (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and a dexamethasone (DEX) (5 mg/kg) group. Berberine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before and 12 h after LPS-induced mastitis, and all mice were sacrificed 24 h after LPS induction. The pathological and histopathological changes of the mammary glands were observed. The concentrations and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. The activation of TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways was analyzed by Western blot. Results indicated that berberine hydrochloride significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration and dose-dependently decreased the secretion and mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 within a certain range. Furthermore, berberine hydrochloride suppressed LPS-induced TLR4 and NF-κB p65 activation and the phosphorylation of I-κB. Berberine hydrochloride can provide mice robust protection from LPS-induced mastitis, potentially via the TLR4 and NF-κB pathway.

  9. Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Participates in Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ling; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Wang-Ching; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis (AHT) were used in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and carrageenan (Carr-)induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AHT together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that AHT blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), significantly. In the animal test, AHT decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated AHT decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level at the 5th h after the Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHT decreased Carr-induced iNOS, and COX-2, and increased HO-1 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that AHT has excellent anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and thus it has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  10. Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Participates in Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ling Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis (AHT were used in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and carrageenan (Carr-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AHT together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that AHT blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, significantly. In the animal test, AHT decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated AHT decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level at the 5th h after the Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHT decreased Carr-induced iNOS, and COX-2, and increased HO-1 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that AHT has excellent anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and thus it has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicines against Ischemic Injury in In Vivo Models of Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. In the ischemic cascade, resident microglia are rapidly activated in the brain parenchyma and subsequently trigger inflammatory mediator release, which facilitates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in inflammation. Activated leukocytes invade the endothelial cell junctions and destroy the blood-brain barrier integrity, leading to brain edema. Toll-like receptors (TLRs stimulation in microglia/macrophages through the activation of intercellular signaling pathways secretes various proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes and then aggravates cerebral ischemic injury. The secreted cytokines activate the proinflammatory transcription factors, which subsequently regulate cytokine expression, leading to the amplification of the inflammatory response and exacerbation of the secondary brain injury. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, including TCM-derived active compounds, Chinese herbs, and TCM formulations, exert neuroprotective effects against inflammatory responses by downregulating the following: ischemia-induced microglial activation, microglia/macrophage-mediated cytokine production, proinflammatory enzyme production, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinases, TLR expression, and deleterious transcription factor activation. TCMs also aid in upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and neuroprotective transcription factor activation in the ischemic lesion in the inflammatory cascade during the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Thus, TCMs exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in ischemic stroke and warrant further investigation.

  12. PRGF exerts more potent proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on a cell culture inflammatory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; de la Fuente, M; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2016-10-01

    Ocular graft versus host disease (oGVHD) is part of a systemic inflammatory disease that usually affects ocular surface tissues manifesting as a dry eye syndrome. Current treatments provide unsatisfactory results. Blood-derived products, like plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) emerge as a potential therapy for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue regeneration and anti-inflammatory capability of PRGF, an autologous platelet enriched plasma eye-drop, compared to autologous serum (AS) obtained from oGVHD patients on ocular surface cells cultured in a pro-inflammatory environment. PRGF and AS were obtained from four GVHD patients. Cell proliferation and inflammation markers, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were measured in corneal and conjunctival fibroblastic cells cultured under pro-inflammatory conditions and after treatment with PRGF or AS eye drops. Moreover, cell proliferation increased after treatment with PRGF and AS, though this enhancement in the case of keratocytes was significantly higher with PRGF. PRGF eye drops showed a significant reduction of both inflammatory markers with respect to the initial inflammatory situation and to the AS treatment. Our results concluded that PRGF exerts more potent regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects than autologous serum on ocular surface fibroblasts treated with pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNFα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Myrcia pubiflora in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara S. Andrade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to investigate the chemical composition and possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Myrcia pubiflora DC., Myrtaceae (EOMP, through different experimental tests. The essential oil of M. pubiflora (EOMP was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS, and tested at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (i.p. in three different tests of nociception (acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin test, and hot plate test and one test of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in order to evaluate the motor activity in mice treated with EOMP. The major component of EOMP was caryophyllene oxide (22.16%. This oil significantly reduced the number of writhes in an acetic acid test and the time spent licking the paw at the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, EOMP inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. However, administration of EOMP did not alter reaction time in the hot plate test, and did not affect the motor coordination test. These results indicate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of EOMP probably mediated via inhibition of inflammatory mediator synthesis or other peripheral pathway.

  14. Phytochemical screening, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Myrcia pubiflora in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara S. Andrade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This report aimed to investigate the chemical composition and possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Myrcia pubiflora DC., Myrtaceae (EOMP, through different experimental tests. The essential oil of M. pubiflora (EOMP was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS, and tested at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (i.p. in three different tests of nociception (acetic acid-induced writhing test, formalin test, and hot plate test and one test of inflammation (leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity in order to evaluate the motor activity in mice treated with EOMP. The major component of EOMP was caryophyllene oxide (22.16%. This oil significantly reduced the number of writhes in an acetic acid test and the time spent licking the paw at the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, EOMP inhibited the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. However, administration of EOMP did not alter reaction time in the hot plate test, and did not affect the motor coordination test. These results indicate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of EOMP probably mediated via inhibition of inflammatory mediator synthesis or other peripheral pathway.

  15. Local effects of living windbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, L.F.M.A.R.; Meneses, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of living windbreaks is the reduction of the wind speed. Changes in the velocity and direction of airflow lead to changes in the microclimate. Microclimate is the result of various interacting factors, most of which can be affected by shelter at detectable levels. The effectiveness of windbreaks depends upon their internal and external structure. The most important structural feature is porosity. Maximum wind reductions are closely related to low porosity. However, barriers with low porosity generate more turbulence to leeward then medium or high ones. The horizontal extent of windbreak effects is proportional to windbreak height (h). Wind reductions are detectable on the windward side of the barrier from 2 h to 5 h, and extend to leeward about 20 h, if significant reductions of the normal wind speed (10% - 30%) occur. The principal effects of natural windbreaks on microclimate are reviewed. These are: wind speed, turbulence and their dependence on the porosity and height of the barrier; solar and thermal radiation around the windbreak; air temperature during the day and at night; humidity and snow deposition. Complementary effects of windbreaks are discussed, such as wind and hydraulic erosion, crop protection and plant growth, livestock protection of buildings and people. Disadvantages of windbreaks result from tree-crop competition and pests. Windbreaks allow the practice of agriculture in many regions of the world, namely on island and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive due to the high wind speeds and salt content of the wind. Windbreaks contribute to sustainable agricultural systems by maintaining biological diversity and improving the aesthetic value of the landscape. A better understanding of their dynamics will certainly contribute to the improvement of sheltered areas and to the establishment of more efficient windbreaks, with less negative impacts to the countryside

  16. Site-specific effects of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug lysine clonixinate on rat brain opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortí, E; Coirini, H; Pico, J C

    1999-04-01

    In addition to effects in the periphery through inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, several lines of evidence suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act in the central nervous system. The possibility that the central action of NSAIDs involves regulation of opioid receptors was investigated by quantitative autoradiography of mu, delta, and kappa sites in rat brain slices. Increased (p lysine clonixinate. Labeling of delta receptors was lower in the lateral septum, and kappa sites decreased in thalamic nuclei. These effects were not mediated through direct interaction with opioid-binding sites, since receptor-binding assays using rat brain membranes confirmed that clonixinate up to 1 x 10(-4) mol/l does not inhibit mu, delta, and kappa receptor specific binding. Central effects of NSAIDs might, therefore, involve interaction with the opioid receptor system through indirect mechanisms.

  17. Anti-inflammatory role of GLP-1 and the effect of gastric bypass on diabetes- and obesity-associated inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard

    with a set of metabolic abnormalities comprising the metabolic syndrome, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Although the exact causes for the onset of clinical disease remain largely unknown, emerging evidence seems to suggest that obesity-induced inflammation, especially...... in the adipose tissue, is involved in the metabolic dysregulation and therefore plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this deteriorating disease.Bariatric surgery, including the Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB), is one of the most effective treatments for severe obesity. In addition to weight loss...... body of literature reports antiinflammatory and other immunological effects of GLP-1 in animals and in humans suggesting that GLP-1 acts beyond purely glucoregulatory mechanisms. The exaggerated postprandial GLP-1 secretion following RYGB may thus be involved in the beneficial metabolic effects both...

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Yun; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2018-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P essential oil, which was 0.9 mg/kg and 5.2 mg/kg, respectively, showed similar or slightly less inhibitory activity for most of these inflammatory parameters compared with that of the leaf essential oil. Our data confirmed the potential use of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira as an anti-inflammatory natural product and provide evidence for cinnamaldehyde and linalool as two potent agents for prophylactic use

  19. The antimicrobial effect of CEN1HC-Br against Propionibacterium acnes and its therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects on acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Cheng, Hao; Li, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo. The antimicrobial activity of CEN1HC-Br was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays using the broth dilution method. To elucidate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect, HaCaT cells and human monocytes were treated with different concentration of CEN1HC-Br after stimulation by P. acnes. The expression of TLR2 and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, respectively, were measured by enzyme immunoassays. An evaluation of P. acnes-induced ear edema in rat ear was conducted to compare the in vivo antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of CEN1HC-Br, the expression of IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. CEN1HC-Br showed stronger antimicrobial activity against P. acnes than clindamycin. CEN1HC-Br significantly reduced the expression of interleukin IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and TLR2 in monocytes, but they were not influenced by clindamycin. Both CEN1HC-Br and Clindamycin attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling in rat along with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2 and TLR2. Our data demonstrates that CEN1HC-Br is bactericidal against P. acnes and that it has an anti-inflammatory effect on monocytes. The anti-inflammatory effect may partially occur through TLR2 down-regulation, triggering an innate immune response and the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 The

  20. Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with γ-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNFα; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20  h). In human membranes, the IKKβ inhibitor TPCA-1 (7  μM) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20  μM) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10  mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10  μM) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB.

  1. Antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of fermented food paste in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-challenged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkawi N

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Noraisyah Zulkawi,1 Kam Heng Ng,1 Nur Rizi Zamberi,2,3 Swee Keong Yeap,4 Dilan A Satharasinghe,5 Sheau Wei Tan,2 Wan Yong Ho,6 Nur Yuhasliza Abd Rashid,3 Mohd Izwan Md Lazim,3 Anisah Jamaluddin,3 Noorjahan Banu Alitheen,2,7 Kamariah Long3 1Technical Research – Product Development Department, Elken Global Sdn. Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine & Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 6School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia; 7Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Fermented food has been widely consumed as health food to ameliorate or prevent several chronic diseases including diabetes. Xeniji™, a fermented food paste (FFP, has been previously reported with various bioactivities, which may be caused by the presence of several metabolites including polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and vitamins. In this study, the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP were assessed. Methods: In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet (HFD and used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of FFP. Mice were fed with HFD and challenged with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW of streptozotocin for 1 month followed by 6 weeks of supplementation with 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg BW of FFP. Metformin was used as positive control treatment. Results: Xeniji™-supplemented hyperglycemic mice were recorded with lower glucose level after 6 weeks of duration

  2. Anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective activity of a retroviral-derived peptide, homologous to human endogenous retroviruses: endothelial cell effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Cianciolo

    Full Text Available Malignant and inflammatory tissues sometimes express endogenous retroviruses or their proteins. A highly-conserved sequence from retroviral transmembrane (TM proteins, termed the "immunosuppressive domain (ID", is associated with inhibition of immune and inflammatory functions. An octadecapeptide (MN10021 from the ID of retroviral TM protein p15E inhibits in vitro release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases synthesis of anti-inflammatory IL-10. We sought to determine if MN10021 has significant in vivo effects. MN10021, prepared by solid-phase synthesis, was dimerized through a naturally-occurring, carboxy-terminal cysteine. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was determined using a murine model of sodium periodate (NaIO(4-induced peritonitis. In vivo vasoprotective effects were determined using: (1 a carrageenan-induced model of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in mice; (2 a reverse passive Arthus model in guinea pigs; and (3 vasoregulatory effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. In vitro studies included: (1 binding/uptake of MN10021 using human monocytes, cultured fibroblasts, and vascular endothelial cells (VEC; (2 gene expression by RT-PCR of MN10021-treated VEC; and (3 apoptosis of MN10021-treated VEC exposed to staurosporine or TNF-α. One-tenth nmol MN10021 inhibits 50 percent of the inflammatory response in the mouse peritonitis model. Furthermore, 73 nmol MN10021 completely protects mice in a lethal model of carrageenan-induced DIC and inhibits vascular leak in both the mouse DIC model and a guinea pig reverse passive Arthus reaction. MN10021 binds to and is taken up in a specific manner by both human monocytes and VEC but not by cultured human fibroblasts. Surprisingly, orally-administered MN10021 lowers blood pressure in SHR rats by 10-15% within 1 h suggesting a direct or indirect effect on the vascular endothelium. MN10021 and derived octapeptides induce iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in VEC

  3. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the sucralfate in diversion colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sucralfate enemas present good results in the treatment of colitis, however the mechanism of action of the drug is not yet fully clarified. Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of sucralfate enemas in diversion colitis model. Method: Thirty-six Wistar rats underwent intestinal bypass by end colostomy in the descending colon and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into 3 experimental groups according to the daily dose of enemas received containing 0.9% SF, sucralfate enemas or sucralfate enemas 1 g/kg/day or 2 g/kg/day. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to euthanasia to be performed 2–4 weeks after derivation. The tissue grade of inflammation was assessed histologically, and neutrophil infiltration by the tissue expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO identified by immunohistochemistry and quantified by computerized morphometry. Oxidative stress was measured by tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. To compare the results the Student's t test variance was used, and also the variance by ANOVA test, establishing a level of significance of 5% (p < 0.05 for both. Results: The intervention with sucralfate enemas showed improvement in the intensity of tissue inflammation related to the concentration used and the duration of the intervention. Intervention with sucralfate enemas reduced the tissue levels of MPO, independent of concentration or time of intervention (p < 0.01. There was a reduction of MDA levels in animals irrigated with sucralfate enemas, independent of concentration or duration of the intervention (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Enemas with sucralfate enemas reduce inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the excluded colon suggesting topical application of the substance to be a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of diversion colitis. Resumen: A aplicação de clisteres com sucralfato (SCF apresenta bons resultados no tratamento de colites, entretanto

  4. Anti-angiogenesis effect of the novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiping; Arita, Makoto; Zhang, Qiang; Saban, Daniel R; Chauhan, Sunil K; Chiang, Nan; Serhan, Charles N; Dana, Reza

    2009-10-01

    Resolvins and lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from essential polyunsaturated fatty acids that are the first dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals identified in the resolution phase of inflammation. Here the authors investigated the potential of aspirin-triggered lipoxin (LX) A4 analog (ATLa), resolving (Rv) D1, and RvE1, in regulating angiogenesis in a murine model. ATLa and RvE1 receptor expression was tested in different corneal cell populations by RT-PCR. Corneal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by suture or micropellet (IL-1 beta, VEGF-A) placement. Mice were then treated with ATLa, RvD1, RvE1, or vehicle, subconjunctivally at 48-hour intervals. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages was quantified after immunofluorescence staining. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, VEGFs, and VEGFRs were analyzed by real-time PCR. CNV was evaluated intravitally and morphometrically. The receptors for LXA4, ALX/Fpr-rs-2 and for RvE1, ChemR23 were each expressed by epithelium, stromal keratocytes, and infiltrated CD11b(+) cells in corneas. Compared to the vehicle-treated eye, ATLa-, RvD1-, and RvE1-treated eyes had reduced numbers of infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages and reduced mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and VEGFR2. Animals treated with these mediators had significantly suppressed suture-induced or IL-1 beta-induced hemangiogenesis (HA) but not lymphangiogenesis. Interestingly, only the application of ATLa significantly suppressed VEGF-A-induced HA. ATLa, RvE1, and RvD1 all reduce inflammatory corneal HA by early regulation of resolution mechanisms in innate immune responses. In addition, ATLa directly inhibits VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis and is the most potent inhibitor of NV among this new genus of dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators.

  5. Gender difference in hipolipemic and anti-inflammatory effects of statins in diabetics with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Boris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Statins produce hipolipemic and pleotropic effects on markers of inflammation with stabilization of atheromatous plaque. The aim of this paper was to examine gender difference in hipolipemic and antiinflammatory effects of statins in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 with coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. Sixty dyslipidemic patients with DM type 2 were analyzed. Lifestyle modification and hipolipemic diet were applied in all patients divided into two groups: 30 patients with statins therapy (20 mg of simvastatin or equivalent dose of some other statins, during 3 months and 30 patients without statins therapy. Estimation of obesity, quality of glicoregulation, and determination of inflammatory parameters: Creactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, total and differential leukocyte count, intracellular adhesive molecules (ICAM-1, vascular adhesive molecule-(VCAM-1 and lipid profile (total cholesterol - TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglicerides - TG were done. Results. Women with DM type 2 were more obese and had significant disturbances in lipid profiles, glicoregulation and inflammatory markers compared to men. Statins therapy significantly improved all lipid parameters and quality of glicoregulation in women, while there were only significant reduction of LDL-C and nonHDL-C in males. There were more significant reductions of inflammatory markers in women as compared to men with statins therapy. In the group without statins there was not such significant reduction. Concentration of ICAM-1 was the lowest in men on statins therapy, while there were no significant variability of VCAM-1 values between groups and genders. Conclusion. Women with DM type 2 and CAD have more prominent lipoprotein disorders and impaired glicoregulation with expression of enhanced proinflamatory state which could not be seen in men. Statins therapy exerts more favorable effects in women leading to stabilization of lipoprotein profiles, improvement of

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajudeen KNS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05 between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade. There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: experimental animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkaran, Karuppannan; Zunaina, Embong; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Sirajudeen, Kns; Naik, Venkatesh

    2011-10-09

    Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous humour (p = 0.117, p = 0

  8. Involvement of PKA and HO-1 signaling in anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin in BV-2 microglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Keumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Joon [Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Keumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, YoungHee, E-mail: yheekim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Keumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Surfactin, one of the most powerful biosurfactants, is a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of surfactin in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Surfactin significantly inhibited excessive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that surfactin inhibited LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) activation. However, surfactin increases the phosphorylation of the STAT-3, a component of the homeostatic mechanism causing anti-inflammatory events. We also demonstrated that surfactin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-regulated factor-2 (Nrf-2) activation, and that the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin are abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 or Nrf-2. Interestingly, we found that surfactin increased the level of cAMP and induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in microglial cells. Furthermore, treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, blocked HO-1 induction by surfactin and abolished surfactin's suppressive effects on ROS and NO production. These results indicate that HO-1 and its upstream effector, PKA, play a pivotal role in the anti-neuroinflammatory response of surfactin in LTA-stimulated microglia. Therefore, surfactin might have therapeutic potential for neuroprotective agents to treat inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: ► Surfactin inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in LTA-activated BV-2 cells. ► Surfactin suppresses NF-κB and STAT-1, but potentiates

  9. Involvement of PKA and HO-1 signaling in anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin in BV-2 microglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2013-01-01

    Surfactin, one of the most powerful biosurfactants, is a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of surfactin in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Surfactin significantly inhibited excessive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that surfactin inhibited LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) activation. However, surfactin increases the phosphorylation of the STAT-3, a component of the homeostatic mechanism causing anti-inflammatory events. We also demonstrated that surfactin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-regulated factor-2 (Nrf-2) activation, and that the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin are abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 or Nrf-2. Interestingly, we found that surfactin increased the level of cAMP and induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in microglial cells. Furthermore, treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, blocked HO-1 induction by surfactin and abolished surfactin's suppressive effects on ROS and NO production. These results indicate that HO-1 and its upstream effector, PKA, play a pivotal role in the anti-neuroinflammatory response of surfactin in LTA-stimulated microglia. Therefore, surfactin might have therapeutic potential for neuroprotective agents to treat inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: ► Surfactin inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in LTA-activated BV-2 cells. ► Surfactin suppresses NF-κB and STAT-1, but potentiates phosphorylation

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory profiling of the Chinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT in myocardial infarction (MI rats. SNT, a decoction consisting of four herbs: Aconitum carmichaelii, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinale, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, was characterized as a remedy to treat syndromes corresponding to heart failure and MI in China. Potential biomarkers, which reflect the extent of myocardial necrosis and correlate with cardiac outcomes following MI, such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were determined in plasma, serum, and in myocardial tissue of MI rats after treatment with SNT. Our data indicate that SNT decreased significantly the levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in MI rats. SNT decreased the expression of ANP levels in plasma and increased the vascular active marker nitric oxide, which limits vascular inflammation. In addition, SNT could decrease the expression of endothelin-1 levels in rat plasma post-MI. Our data suggest that the Chinese herbal formula SNT has the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. SNT may be a candidate for treating MI and its associated inflammatory responses.

  12. Radiation proctitis in the rat. Sequential changes and effects of anti-inflammatory agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were treated with single exposure irradiation to 2 cm of distal colon to cause radiation proctitis. All animals were evaluated by examination, colonoscopy and histologic evaluation for changes post-irradiation. Exposures of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy caused dose-related clinical and histologic changes peaking at 7 to 15 days post-exposure. Rats treated with 20 Gy were colonoscoped and biopsied daily and showed sequential post-irradiation endoscopic changes ranging from mucosal edema and mild inflammatory changes to erosion and ulcers. Histologically, crypt abscess and mural wall necrosis similar to changes found in the human rectum after radiotherapy were noted. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin, indomethacin, piroxicam), misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analogue), or sucralfate (an anti-ulcer agent) did not ameliorate nor exacerbate radiation proctitis in rats exposed to 22.5 Gy. We conclude from these data that the female Wistar rat is a good model for studying radiation proctitis because endoscopic, histologic, and clinical changes seen post-exposure closely resemble those found in man.

  13. Radiation proctitis in the rat. Sequential changes and effects of anti-inflammatory agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Geisinger, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Female Wistar rats were treated with single exposure irradiation to 2 cm of distal colon to cause radiation proctitis. All animals were evaluated by examination, colonoscopy and histologic evaluation for changes post-irradiation. Exposures of 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30 Gy caused dose-related clinical and histologic changes peaking at 7 to 15 days post-exposure. Rats treated with 20 Gy were colonoscoped and biopsied daily and showed sequential post-irradiation endoscopic changes ranging from mucosal edema and mild inflammatory changes to erosion and ulcers. Histologically, crypt abscess and mural wall necrosis similar to changes found in the human rectum after radiotherapy were noted. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, (aspirin, indomethacin, piroxicam), misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analogue), or sucralfate (an anti-ulcer agent) did not ameliorate nor exacerbate radiation proctitis in rats exposed to 22.5 Gy. We conclude from these data that the female Wistar rat is a good model for studying radiation proctitis because endoscopic, histologic, and clinical changes seen post-exposure closely resemble those found in man

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Antipruritic Effects of Luteolin from Perilla (P. frutescens L. Leaves

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    In Hwa Jeon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perilla (Perilla frutescens L. leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1 β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α from human mast cells (HMC-1 stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases.

  15. Probucol plus cilostazol attenuate hypercholesterolemia‑induced exacerbation in ischemic brain injury via anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hong, Ki Whan; Bae, Sun Sik; Shin, Yong-Il; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    Probucol, a lipid-lowering agent with anti-oxidant properties, is involved in protection against atherosclerosis, while cilostazol, an antiplatelet agent, has diverse neuroprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of probucol and cilostazol on focal cerebral ischemia with hypercholesterolemia. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0.3% probucol and/or 0.2% cilostazol for 10 weeks. To assess the protective effects of the combined therapy of probucol and cilostazol on ischemic injury, the mice received 40 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volumes, neurobehavioral deficits and neuroinflammatory mediators were subsequently evaluated 48 h after reperfusion. Probucol alone and probucol plus cilostazol significantly decreased total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in ApoE KO with HFD. MCAO resulted in significantly larger infarct volumes in ApoE KO mice provided with HFD compared to those fed a regular diet, although these volumes were significantly reduced in the probucol plus cilostazol group. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, probucol alone and the combined treatment of probucol and cilostazol improved neurological and motor function. In addition, probucol alone and probucol plus cilostazol decreased MCP-1 expression and CD11b and GFAP immuno-reactivity in the ischemic cortex. These findings suggested that the inhibitory effects of probucol plus cilostazol in MCP-1 expression in the ischemic brain with hypercholesterolemia allowed the identification of one of the mechanisms responsible for anti-inflammatory action. Probucol plus cilostazol may therefore serve as a therapeutic strategy for reducing the impact of stroke in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  16. GanedenBC30™ cell wall and metabolites: anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects in vitro

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    Carter Steve G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of the probiotic, spore-forming bacterial strain: Bacillus coagulans: GBI-30, (PTA-6086, GanedenBC30TM. In addition, cell wall and metabolite fractions were assayed separately to address whether biological effects were due to cell wall components only, or whether secreted compounds from live bacteria had additional biological properties. The spores were heat-activated, and bacterial cultures were grown. The culture supernatant was harvested as a source of metabolites (MTB, and the bacteria were used to isolate cell wall fragments (CW. Both of these fractions were compared in a series of in vitro assays. Results Both MTB and CW inhibited spontaneous and oxidative stress-induced ROS formation in human PMN cells and increased the phagocytic activity of PMN cells in response to bacteria-like carboxylated fluorospheres. Both fractions supported random PMN and f-MLP-directed PMN cell migration, indicating a support of immune surveillance and antibacterial defense mechanisms. In contrast, low doses of both fractions inhibited PMN cell migration towards the inflammatory mediators IL-8 and LTB4. The anti-inflammatory activity was strongest for CW, where the PMN migration towards IL-8 was inhibited down to dilutions of 1010. Both MTB and CW induced the expression of the CD69 activation marker on human CD3- CD56+ NK cells, and enhanced the expression of CD107a when exposed to K562 tumor cells in vitro. The fractions directly modulated cytokine production, inducing production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and inhibiting production of IL-2. Both fractions further modulated mitogen-induced cytokine production in the following manner: Both fractions enhanced the PHA-induced production of IL-6 and reduced the PHA-induced production of TNF-alpha. Both fractions enhanced the PWM-induced production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In addition, MTB

  17. GanedenBC30™ cell wall and metabolites: anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of the probiotic, spore-forming bacterial strain: Bacillus coagulans: GBI-30, (PTA-6086, GanedenBC30TM). In addition, cell wall and metabolite fractions were assayed separately to address whether biological effects were due to cell wall components only, or whether secreted compounds from live bacteria had additional biological properties. The spores were heat-activated, and bacterial cultures were grown. The culture supernatant was harvested as a source of metabolites (MTB), and the bacteria were used to isolate cell wall fragments (CW). Both of these fractions were compared in a series of in vitro assays. Results Both MTB and CW inhibited spontaneous and oxidative stress-induced ROS formation in human PMN cells and increased the phagocytic activity of PMN cells in response to bacteria-like carboxylated fluorospheres. Both fractions supported random PMN and f-MLP-directed PMN cell migration, indicating a support of immune surveillance and antibacterial defense mechanisms. In contrast, low doses of both fractions inhibited PMN cell migration towards the inflammatory mediators IL-8 and LTB4. The anti-inflammatory activity was strongest for CW, where the PMN migration towards IL-8 was inhibited down to dilutions of 1010. Both MTB and CW induced the expression of the CD69 activation marker on human CD3- CD56+ NK cells, and enhanced the expression of CD107a when exposed to K562 tumor cells in vitro. The fractions directly modulated cytokine production, inducing production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and inhibiting production of IL-2. Both fractions further modulated mitogen-induced cytokine production in the following manner: Both fractions enhanced the PHA-induced production of IL-6 and reduced the PHA-induced production of TNF-alpha. Both fractions enhanced the PWM-induced production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In addition, MTB also enhanced both the PHA

  18. GanedenBC30 cell wall and metabolites: anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Benson, Kathleen F; Carter, Steve G; Endres, John R

    2010-03-24

    This study was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of the probiotic, spore-forming bacterial strain: Bacillus coagulans: GBI-30, (PTA-6086, GanedenBC30TM). In addition, cell wall and metabolite fractions were assayed separately to address whether biological effects were due to cell wall components only, or whether secreted compounds from live bacteria had additional biological properties. The spores were heat-activated, and bacterial cultures were grown. The culture supernatant was harvested as a source of metabolites (MTB), and the bacteria were used to isolate cell wall fragments (CW). Both of these fractions were compared in a series of in vitro assays. Both MTB and CW inhibited spontaneous and oxidative stress-induced ROS formation in human PMN cells and increased the phagocytic activity of PMN cells in response to bacteria-like carboxylated fluorospheres. Both fractions supported random PMN and f-MLP-directed PMN cell migration, indicating a support of immune surveillance and antibacterial defense mechanisms. In contrast, low doses of both fractions inhibited PMN cell migration towards the inflammatory mediators IL-8 and LTB4. The anti-inflammatory activity was strongest for CW, where the PMN migration towards IL-8 was inhibited down to dilutions of 1010.Both MTB and CW induced the expression of the CD69 activation marker on human CD3- CD56+ NK cells, and enhanced the expression of CD107a when exposed to K562 tumor cells in vitro.The fractions directly modulated cytokine production, inducing production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and inhibiting production of IL-2.Both fractions further modulated mitogen-induced cytokine production in the following manner: Both fractions enhanced the PHA-induced production of IL-6 and reduced the PHA-induced production of TNF-alpha. Both fractions enhanced the PWM-induced production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. In addition, MTB also enhanced both the PHA- and the PWM

  19. Effects of alpha-mangostin on the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Szu-Hsiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-Mangostin (α-MG is a main constituent of the fruit hull of the mangosteen. Previous studies have shown that α-MG has pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory molecular action of α-MG on gene expression profiles. Methods U937 and EL4 cells were treated with different concentrations of α-MG in the presence of 0.1 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS for 4 h. The anti-inflammatory effects of α-MG were measured by the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-4 in cell culture media, which were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The gene expression profiles of all samples were analyzed with a whole human genome microarray, Illumina BeadChip WG-6 version 3, containing 48804 probes. The protein levels were determined by Western blotting analyses. Results α-MG decreased the LPS induction of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (P = 0.038 and IL-4 (P = 0.04. α-MG decreased the gene expressions in oncostatin M signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (P = 0.016, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P = 0.01 , and p38 (P = 0.008. α-MG treatment of U937 cells reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 3 / MAPK kinase 6 (P = 0.0441, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P = 0.0453, signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT1 (P = 0.0012, c-Fos (P = 0.04, c-Jun (P = 0.019 and Ets-like molecule 1 (Elk-1 (P = 0.038. Conclusion This study demonstrates that α-MG attenuates LPS-mediated activation of MAPK, STAT1, c-Fos, c-Jun and EIK-1, inhibiting TNF-α and IL-4 production in U937 cells.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Morrison, M.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Polyphenols such as quercetin may exert several beneficial effects, including those resulting from anti-inflammatory activities, but their impact on cardiovascular health is debated. We investigated the effect of quercetin on cardiovascular risk markers including human C-reactive protein

  1. Comparison of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Ginger powder and Ibuprofen in postsurgical pain model: A randomized, double-blind, case–control clinical trial

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    Farshid Rayati

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can ban be concluded that gingerpowder is as effective as ibuprofenin the management of postsurgical sequelae. Furthermore, CRP levels alone are not suggested for the assessment of anti-inflammatory effects of drugs.

  2. [Effects of lysine clonixinate on platelet function. Comparison with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E H; Sassetti, B; Kaminker, A J; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of action of non steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consists of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This explains many of the pharmacological effects and adverse events observed in medical practice. Administration of NSAIDs to patients with hemostatic disorders or perioperative conditions entails the risk of bleeding due to inhibition of platelet function. This study deals with platelet changes induced by lysine clonixinate vs diclofenac, ibuprofen and aspirin in classical tests such as platelet count, platelet factor 3 (PF3) activity and platelet aggregation with various inductors and more recent procedures such as P-selectin measurement by flow cytometry. Unlike control drugs, lysine clonixinate did not induce changes in platelet count or function when administered to healthy volunteers at the commonly used therapeutic doses.

  3. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effects of Intermediates between Vitamins K2 and K3 on Mammalian DNA Polymerase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Takeshi Azuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that vitamin K3 (VK3, but not VK1 or VK2 (=MK-4, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ. In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK2 and VK3, namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK3 was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC50 value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK2 and VK3 intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.

  5. No beneficial effect of general and specific anti-inflammatory therapies on aortic dilatation in Marfan mice.

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    Romy Franken

    Full Text Available AIMS: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. In the FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mouse model, losartan decreases aortic root dilatation. We recently confirmed this beneficial effect of losartan in adult patients with Marfan syndrome. The straightforward translation of this mouse model to man is reassuring to test novel treatment strategies. A number of studies have shown signs of inflammation in aortic tissue of Marfan patients. This study examined the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapies in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the main preventative agent, losartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: To inhibit inflammation in FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mice, we treated the mice with losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 inhibitor, methylprednisolone (corticosteroid or abatacept (T-cell-specific inhibitor. Treatment was initiated in adult Marfan mice with already existing aortic root dilatation, and applied for eight weeks. Methylprednisolone- or abatacept-treated mice did not reveal a reduction in aortic root dilatation. In this short time frame, losartan was the only treatment that significantly reduced aorta inflammation, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling and aortic root dilatation rate in these adult Marfan mice. Moreover, the methylprednisolone-treated mice had significantly more aortic alcian blue staining as a marker for aortic damage. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory agents do not reduce the aortic dilatation rate in Marfan mice, but possibly increase aortic damage. Currently, the most promising therapeutic drug in Marfan syndrome is losartan, by blocking the angiotensin II receptor type 1 and thereby inhibiting pSmad2 signaling.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

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    Wu-Yang Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05. In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01 and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits

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    Samuel Kyei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS: Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg, prednisolone (30 mg/kg, or normal saline (10 mL/kg. The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1 in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. RESULTS: The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001 both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001. Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of topical anti-inflammatory effects of lipoxin A(4) in endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Gustavo Büchele; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Grumman, Astor; Menezes-de-Lima, Octavio; Passos, Giselle Fazzioni; Calixto, João Batista

    2008-07-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in inflammation resolution. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of LXA(4) on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. The inflammatory cell number and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and protein, as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the anterior chamber of the eye were determined 24 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 mug/paw) intradermal injection. The immunohistochemical reactivities of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and c-Jun were also examined. Topical LXA(4) (1-10 ng/eye) pretreatment decreased the number of inflammatory cells and the protein leakage into the aqueous humor (AqH). In addition, topical LXA(4) (10 ng/eye) inhibited the LPS-induced production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and PGE(2), and expression of COX-2 and VEGF. A decreased activation of NF-kappaB and c-Jun was also found in LXA(4)-treated eyes. It is very interesting that an anti-inflammatory effect was achieved even when LXA(4) (10 ng/eye) was applied topically after LPS challenge, as indicated by the reduction in the cellular and protein extravasations into the AqH. Moreover, topical treatment of corticosteroid prednisolone (200 mug/eye) beginning before or after LPS injection reduced all of the molecular and biochemical alterations promoted on EIU rats in an efficacy similar to that of LXA(4). Together, the present results provide clear evidence that pharmacological activation of LXA(4) signaling pathway potently reduces the EIU in rats. Therefore, LXA(4) stable analogs could represent promising agents for the management of ocular inflammatory diseases.

  9. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methods Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. Results MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective

  10. A randomized controlled cross-over trial investigating the effect of anti-inflammatory diet on disease activity and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: the Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkvist, Anna; Bärebring, Linnea; Gjertsson, Inger; Ellegård, Lars; Lindqvist, Helen M

    2018-04-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects 0.5-1.0% of the population, and where many patients in spite of modern pharmacological treatment fail to reach remission. This affects physical as well as mental wellbeing and leads to severely reduced quality of life and reduced work capacity, thus yielding high individual as well as societal costs. As a complement to modern pharmacological treatment, lifestyle intervention should be evaluated as a treatment option. Scientific evidence exists for anti-inflammatory effects by single foods on RA, but no study exists where these foods have been combined to obtain maximum effect and thus offer a substantial improvement in patient life quality. The main goal of the randomized cross-over trial ADIRA (Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis) is to test the hypothesis that an anti-inflammatory diet intervention, compared to a regular diet, will decrease disease activity and improve quality of life in patients with stable established RA. In total, 50 RA patients with moderate disease activity are randomized to receive initially either a portfolio diet based on several food items with suggested anti-inflammatory effects or a control diet during 2 × 10 weeks with 3 months wash-out between diets. Food bags are delivered weekly by a home food delivery chain and referred to as the fiber bag and the protein bag, respectively, to partially blind participants. Both groups continue with regular pharmacological treatment. Known food biomarkers will be analyzed to measure intervention compliance. Impact on disease severity (measured by DAS28, a composite score which predicts disability and progression of RA), risk markers for cardiovascular disease and quality of life are evaluated after each diet regimen. Metabolomics will be used to evaluate the potential to predict responders to dietary treatment. A health economic evaluation is also included. The nutritional status of patients with RA often is

  11. Therapeutic effect of aripiprazole in chronic schizophrenia is accompanied by anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiś, Jarosław; Rykaczewska-Czerwińska, Monika; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Gorczyca, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities occur in chronic schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4, and IL-10) after switching to aripiprazole. Cytokine, hsCRP and insulin measurements were performed in patients (n=17) on day 0 and day 28 of the study using standard ELISA assays. The psychopathological status was assessed using PANSS. WC and BMI were measured and calculated, respectively. We observed high clinical efficacy in aripiprazole linked to a 2.7% weight loss. There were statistically significant reductions in PANSS scores and body parameters (p<0.001). After 28 days we detected a significant reduction in hsCRP (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.001), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, sTNF-R1, IL-12, IL-23, IL-1Ra, TGF-β1, IL-4 (p<0.001), IFN-γ (p<0.05) and a significant elevation of IL-10 (p<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between IL-10 levels and PANSS positive, negative and total scores after the study (p=0.022, p=0.003, p=0.008, respectively). Aripiprazole limits inflammatory processes by enhancing anti-inflammatory signaling. Aripiprazole also reduces the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Release-Active Dilutions of Diclofenac Enhance Anti-inflammatory Effect of Diclofenac in Carrageenan-Induced Rat Paw Edema Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sakat, Sachin S.; Mani, Kamaraj; Demidchenko, Yulia O.; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A.; Tarasov, Sergey A.; Mathur, Archna; Epstein, Oleg I.

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of technologically treated diclofenac (release-active dilutions of diclofenac (RAD of diclofenac)) on anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Ninety male Wistar albino rats (6–8 weeks) divided into nine groups (n = 10) were used. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 ml of a 1 % solution in normal saline). Diclofenac alone was studi...

  13. [Effects of an additional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy with carprofen (Rimadyl Rind) in cases of severe mastitis of high yielding cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Volker; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Abograra, Ismail; Zinke, Claudia; Friedrich, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This field study focuses on the possible effects of a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory treatment (carprofen) and a local and parenteral antibiotic on cure rates, survival rate and return to milk production of severe clinical mastitis cases. 69 cows in 3 herds (blocked by parity) with severe clinical mastitis during the first 120 d of lactation (median = 28 d) were treated with antibiotics and one-half of these cows were treated with 1.4 mg/kg bodyweight carprofen (Rimadyl Rind, Pfizer GmbH Tiergesundheit, Germany). Double milk samples for bacteriology were collected from clinically affected udder quarters before treatment and at 14 (+/- 3) and 21 (+/- 3) days after commencement of treatment for cytomicro-temperature, clinical, bacteriological, cytobacteriological cure rate and in the number of cows that were defined as treatment failures (i.e., died, re-treated, relapse). Six (22.2%) vs. seven (19.4%) cows in the carprofen and control groups failed, respectively. The milk yield was significantly higher in the carprofen-treated group compared with the control group after treatment. The present work gives first indications that treatment of cows with severe clinical mastitis with a combination of carprofen and antibiotics could result in a faster return to milk production compared to treatment with antibiotics alone. If this effect can be affiliated to the administration of carprofen alone has to be examined in further studies.

  14. A study of the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on experimental animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sarmistha; Das, Swarnamoni

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim is to study the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava(PGE) on experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves were collected, air-dried, powdered, and percolated in 95% ethanol. Acute toxicity test was done according to OECD guidelines. Four groups of animals of either sex, weighing 150–200g of the species Rattus norvegicus were taken for the study (n = 6). Group A was taken as control (3% gum acacia in 10 mL/kg body weight), Group B as test group (PGE 250 mg/kg body weight), Group C as test group (PGE 500 mg/kg body weight), and Group D as standard (Aspirin 100 mg/kg body weight). The animals were studied for acute inflammation by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, subacute inflammation by Granuloma pouch method, and chronic inflammation by Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis method. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison tests. Results: In acute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). In subacute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of exudate formation in Groups B, C, and D in comparison to Group A (P < 0.05). In chronic inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema and inhibition of weight reduction in Groups B, C, and D compared with Group A. Downregulation of arthritis index was also significant in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of PGE has significant anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21589759

  15. Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Lectin-Like Substance from Clitoria fairchildiana R. Howard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Santi-Gadelha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins that have the ability to bind specifically and reversibly to carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, without altering the structure of the glycosyl ligand. They are found in organisms such as viruses, plants and humans, and they have been shown to possess important biological activities. The objective of this study was to purify and characterize lectins in the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana, as well as to verify their biological activities. The results indicated the presence of a lectin (CFAL in the glutelin acid protein fraction, which agglutinated native rabbit erythrocytes. CFAL was purified by column chromatography ion-exchange, DEAE-Sephacel, which was obtained from a peak of protein retained in the matrix by applying 0.5 M NaCl using the step-wise method. Electrophoretic analysis of this lectin in SDS-PAGE indicated a two band pattern protein molecular mass of approximately 100 and 116 kDa. CFAL proved to be unspecific to all carbohydrates/glycoconjugates in common use for the sugar inhibition test. This lectin showed no significant cytotoxicity to human red blood cells. It was observed that CFAL has anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema induced by carrageenan model, in which a 64% diminution in edema was observed. Antinociceptive effects were observed for CFAL in the abdominal writhing test (induced by acetic acid, in which increasing doses of the lectin caused reduction in the number of contortions by up to 72%. It was concluded that the purified and characterized lectin from the seeds of Clitoria fairchildiana has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, and is not cytotoxic to human erythrocytes.

  16. Protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal adenomas is modified by a polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, C.L.E.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kram, N.R.; Soest, van E.M.; Jong, de D.J.; Fodde, R.; Kranen, H.J.; Kampman, E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal tumors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in target genes of NSAID action, and their haplotypes, might modulate this protective effect. METHODS: A case-control study including 724 cases

  17. FFAR4 (GPR120) signaling is not required for anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Simone Isling; Andersen, Marianne Agerholm; Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation...

  18. Stereoselectivity at the B2-adrenoceptor on macrophages is a major determinant of the anti-inflammatory effects of B2-agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeboud, C.A.; Vermeulen, R.M.; Zwart, A.; Vos, H.P.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Witkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has shown that β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) agonists have potent anti-inflammatory capabilities, e.g. represented by suppression of release of the proinflammatory cytokines. Aim of this research was to determine whether the effects of β-agonists on LPS-induced TNFα and IL-10 release are

  19. Chemical composition, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents of the essential oil of Peperomia serpens (Sw.) Loud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, B G; Silva, A S B; Souza, G E P; Figueiredo, J G; Cunha, F Q; Lahlou, S; da Silva, J K R; Maia, J G S; Sousa, P J C

    2011-11-18

    Peperomia serpens (Piperaceae), popularly known as "carrapatinho", is an epiphyte herbaceous liana grown wild on different host trees in the Amazon rainforest. Its leaves are largely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain and asthma. This study investigated the effects of essential oil of Peperomia serpens (EOPs) in standard rodent models of pain and inflammation. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using chemical (acetic acid and formalin) and thermal (hot plate) models of nociception in mice whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edema tests in rats croton oil-induced ear edema, as well as cell migration, rolling and adhesion induced by carrageenan in mice. Additionally, phytochemical analysis of the EOPs has been also performed. Chemical composition of the EOPs was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-four compounds, representing 89.6% of total oil, were identified. (E)-Nerolidol (38.0%), ledol (27.1%), α-humulene (11.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.0%) and α-eudesmol (2.7%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with EOPs (62.5-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection, with an ED(50) value of 188.8 mg/kg that was used thereafter in all tests. EOPs had no significant effect on hot plate test but reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test, an effect that was not significantly altered by naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). EOPs inhibited the edema formation induced by carrageenan and dextran in rats. In mice, EOPs inhibited the edema formation by croton oil as well as the leukocyte and neutrophil migration, the rolling and the adhesion of leukocytes. These data show for the first time that EOPs has a significant and peripheral antinociceptive effect that seems unrelated to interaction with the opioid system. EOPs also displays a significant anti-inflammatory effect in

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin: Role of the Methoxy Group in Anti-inflammatory and Anticolitis Effects of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Weicang; Song, Mingyue; Sanidad, Katherine; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zheng, Jennifer; Tian, Li; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-07

    Curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Most previous studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, so little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogues with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO 2 -, CH 3 -, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, Cur-OH, and Cur-Br (25 μM) suppressed 74.91 ± 0.88, 77.75 ± 0.89, and 71.75 ± 0.90% of LPS-induced NO production, respectively (P 0.05). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, the Cur-Br analogue also showed a beneficial effect the same as curcumin (P 0.05). Together, the analogues have dramatically different effects on inflammation, supporting that the substitution group on the methoxy position plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. The methoxy group is a potential structural candidate for modification to design curcumin-based drugs for inflammatory diseases.

  1. Screening of analgesic and anti-inflammatory active component in Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet based on spectrum-effect relationship and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui-Yao; Wu, Ling-Jing; Hong, Xiao-Xiao; Tao, Ling; Luo, Peng; Shen, Xiang-Chun

    2018-03-01

    Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet is widely used in Guizhou province as a miao folk herb with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, protection against cardiovascular diseases, antihypertension and antioxidant activities. To further investigate the chemical material basis, the spectrum-effect relationship was established using gray relational analysis between the chromatographic fingerprint and its bioactivities. Herein, the fingerprints of essential oils from Fructus Alpiniae zerumbet (EOFAZ) from various sources were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and the analgesic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities were investigated using the mouse model of acetic acid-induced writhing test and dimethylbenzene-induced mouse ear edema test. Finally, 17 common peaks were identified from nine batches of A. zerumbet, by comparison with the standard mass spectra in Nist2005, Wiley275 library. Meanwhile, the results showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in all of the different sources of EOFAZ. In particularly, peak 1 (α-pipene), peak 3 (β-pinene), peak 9 (camphor) and peak 16 (α-cadinol) might be the main bioactive ingredients for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The model of the spectrum-effect relationships of EOFAZ was successfully discovered, which provided a novel platform for finding the bioactive components, a theoretical foundation for its further study and helping to establish quality control of Fructus A. zerumbet. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects, nuclear magnetic resonance identification, and high-performance liquid chromatography isolation of the total flavonoids from Artemisia frigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Time course of anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose radiotherapy: Correlation with TGF-β1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Meritxell; Gil, Felix; Gironella, Meritxell; Hernandez, Victor; Biete, Albert; Pique, Josep M.; Panes, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Low-dose radiotherapy (LD-RT) has a potent anti-inflammatory effect, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 is a potential mediator of this effect. The objectives of this study were to characterize the in vivo effects of LD-RT on leukocyte recruitment over time, and its relationship with TGF-β 1 production. Materials and methods: Mice were submitted to abdominal irradiation with a dose of 0.3 Gy, or to sham radiation and studied 5, 24, 48 or 72 h after irradiation. Four hours before the study a proinflammatory stimulus consisting of LPS or placebo was administered. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in intestinal venules were assessed using intravital microscopy. Circulating levels and intestinal tissue production of TGF-β 1 were determined. Results: Compared to non-irradiated LPS-challenged group, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly reduced 5, 24 and 48 h, but not 72 h after irradiation in LPS-challenged mice. Rolling leukocytes were significantly decreased at all time points analyzed. Plasma TGF-β 1 levels were increased 5 and 24 h after irradiation. Increased intestinal production during this period was corroborated by in vitro culture experiments. Conclusions: LD-RT has a sustained inhibitory effect on leukocyte recruitment for 48 h, which is initially associated with an increase in TGF-β 1 intestinal production

  4. Single Intravenous Dose of Novel Flurbiprofen-Loaded Proniosome Formulations Provides Prolonged Systemic Exposure and Anti-inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Preeti; Prajapati, Sunil K; Yadav, Rajbharan; Senyschyn, Danielle; Shea, Peter R; Trevaskis, Natalie L

    2016-11-07

    Vesicular and colloidal delivery systems can be designed to control drug release spatially and temporally to improve drug efficacy and side effect profiles. Niosomes (vesicles prepared from nonionic surfactants in aqueous media) are gaining interest as an alternative vesicular delivery system as they offer advantages such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, low cost, high purity, and versatility. However, the physical stability of niosomes, like other vesicular systems, is limited by vesicle fusion, aggregation, and leakage. Proniosomes (dehydrated powder or gel formulations that spontaneously form niosomes on hydration with aqueous media) can overcome these physical stability problems and are more convenient for sterilization, storage, transport, distribution, and dosing. Proniosomes have mostly been explored for their potential to enhance transdermal and oral absorption. In this study we assess, for the first time, the potential for hydrated proniosomes to sustain systemic exposure and therapeutic effect after intravenous delivery. Proniosomes carrying the anti-inflammatory drug, flurbiprofen, were prepared by spraying different nonionic surfactants (span 20, span 40, and span 60 in varying ratios with span 80) and cholesterol onto a sorbitol carrier. The proniosome powders were characterized for surface morphology and flow properties. Niosome formation was assessed at three different hydration temperatures (25, 37, and 45 °C), and the niosomes were assessed for vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, and sterility. OLP proniosomes prepared with a high ratio of span 80 to span 20 were found to spontaneously form vesicles of small size and high drug loading on hydration with aqueous media. The OLP derived niosomes successfully sustained in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and the anti-inflammatory effect of flurbiprofen in an acute (rat paw edema) model of inflammation when compared to a control solution formulation. The study demonstrates that

  5. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milatovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan.milatovic@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [Murray State University, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Hopkinsville, KY (United States); Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Aschner, Michael [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Pharmacology and the Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 {mu}M) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F{sub 2}-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 {mu}g/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F{sub 2}-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi hydroalcoholic extract on neutrophil migration in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Elaine Cruz; Correa, Luana Barbosa; Pádua, Tatiana de Almeida; Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Mazzei, José Luiz; Heringer, Alan Patrick; Bizarro, Carlos Alberto; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Henriques, Maria G

    2015-12-04

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a species of plant from the Anacardiaceae family, which can be found in different regions of Brazil. Schinus is popularly known as aroeirinha, aroeira-vermelha, or Brazilian pepper. In folk medicine, S. terebinthifolius is used for several disorders, including inflammatory conditions, skin wounds, mucosal membrane ulcers, respiratory problems, gout, tumors, diarrhea and arthritis. According to chemical analyses, gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucose are the main components of hydroalcoholic extracts from S. terebinthifolius leaves. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of a hydroalcoholic extract to inhibit cell migration in arthritis and investigated the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The anti-inflammatory effect of S. terebinthifolius hydroalcoholic leaf extract (ST-70) was investigated in a zymosan-induced experimental model of inflammation. Male Swiss and C57Bl/6 mice received zymosan (100 µg/cavity) via intra-thoracic (i.t.) or intra-articular (i.a.) injection after oral pre-treatment with ST-70. The direct action of ST-70 on neutrophils was evaluated via chemotaxis. ST-70 exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the pleurisy model. The median effective dose (ED50) was 100mg/kg, which inhibited 70% of neutrophil accumulation when compared with the control group. ST-70 reduced joint diameter and neutrophil influx for synovial tissues at 6h and 24h in zymosan-induced arthritis. Additionally, ST-70 inhibited synovial interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α production at 6h and CXCL1/KC and IL-1β production at 24h. The direct activity of ST-70 on neutrophils was observed via the impairment of CXCL1/KC-induced chemotaxis in neutrophils. Oral administration of ST-70 did not induce gastric damage. Daily administration for twenty days did not kill any animals. In contrast, similar administrations of diclofenac induced gastric damage and killed

  7. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (p 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs), as well as the depletion of ATP in primary rat cortical neurons following exposure to Mn (500 μM) for 2 h. These effects were protected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F 2 -IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c.) 24 h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 μg/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F 2 -IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative

  8. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain OLL2712 Culture Conditions on the Anti-inflammatory Activities for Murine Immune Cells and Obese and Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, T; Ozaki, S; Mochizuki, J; Furuichi, K; Asami, Y

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the health-promoting effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are numerous, but few provide examples of the relationship between LAB function and culture conditions. We verified the effect of differences in culture conditions on Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 functionality; this strain exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and preventive effects against metabolic disorders. We measured interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12 production in murine immune cells treated with OLL2712 cells prepared under various culture conditions. The results showed that the IL-10-inducing activities of OLL2712 cells on murine immune cells differed dramatically between OLL2712 groups at different culture phases and using different culture medium components, temperatures, and neutralizing pHs. In particular, exponential-phase cells had much more IL-10-inducing activity than stationary-phase cells. We confirmed that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation activity of OLL2712 cells depended on culture conditions in conjunction with IL-10-inducing activity. We also demonstrated functional differences by culture phases in vivo ; OLL2712 cells at exponential phase had more anti-inflammatory activity and anti-metabolic-disorder effects on obese and diabetic mice than those by their stationary-phase counterparts. These results suggest that culture conditions affect the functionality of anti-inflammatory LAB. IMPORTANCE While previous studies demonstrated that culture conditions affected the immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), few have comprehensively investigated the relationship between culture conditions and LAB functionality. In this study, we demonstrated several culture conditions of Lactobacillus plantarum OLL2712 for higher anti-inflammatory activity. We also showed that culture conditions concretely influenced the health-promoting functions of OLL2712 in vivo , particularly against metabolic disorders. Further, we characterized a novel mechanism by which

  9. Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Callejas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastroschisis (GS is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients. Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol (CBD has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases. Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS. Pregnant rats were treated over 3 days with CBD (30 mg/kg after the surgical induction of GS (day 18.5 of gestation and compared to controls. Fetuses were divided into 4 groups: 1 control (C; 2 C+CBD (CCBD; 3 gastroschisis (G, and 4 G+CBD (GCBD. On day 21.5 of gestation, the fetuses were harvested and evaluated for: a body weight (BW, intestinal weight (IW, and IW/BW ratio; b histometric analysis of the intestinal wall; c immunohistochemically analysis of inflammation (iNOS and nitrite/nitrate level. BW: GCBD was lower than CCBD (P<0.005, IW and IW/BW ratio: GCBD was smaller than G (P<0.005, GCBD presented lower thickness in all parameters compared to G (P<0.005, iNOS and nitrite/nitrate were lower concentration in GCBD than to G (P<0.005. Maternal use of CBD had a beneficial effect on the intestinal loops of GS with decreased nitrite/nitrate and iNOS expression.

  10. The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on severity of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K A; Pucher, P H; Berry, D P; Elberm, H; Abu-Hilal, M; Marangoni, G; Hamady, Zzr

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common emergency presentation and can be disabling. There is significant morbidity and mortality associated with AP, and it places a considerable burden on the healthcare system. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to have a protective effect in some elective contexts. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on the course of AP and the severity of the disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out of 324 patients admitted as an emergency with a diagnosis of AP to two UK hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups: those already taking NSAIDs for other co-morbidities and those not taking NSAIDs. Variables compared included: admission to a high dependency or intensive care unit; pancreatic necrosis; pseudocyst development; need for surgery; serum inflammatory markers; modified early warning scores on days 1, 3 and 5; length of stay; and mortality. Results Patients not taking NSAIDs were more likely to have a C-reactive protein level of ≥150mg/l (p=0.007). Patients in the NSAID group experienced less pancreatic necrosis (p=0.019) and lower rates of pseudocyst formation (p=0.010). Other variables showed no difference between the two groups, specifically length of stay and mortality. Conclusions Routine NSAID use may exert a protective effect on the development of AP, its severity, and complications. Therapeutic use of NSAIDs in acute presentations with pancreatitis should be further evaluated.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of infliximab in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergel, Ahmet; Kanter, Mehmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Aydin, Ibrahim; Erboga, Mustafa; Guzel, Ahmet

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of infliximab on oxidative stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the rat intestinal mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R and I/R+ infliximab; each group comprised 10 animals. Sham group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. I/R groups after undergoing laparotomy, 1 hour of superior mesenteric artery ligation occurred, which was followed by 1 hour of reperfusion. In the infliximab group, 3 days before I/R, infliximab (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. All animals were killed at the end of reperfusion and intestinal tissues samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no biochemical and histopathological changes have been reported regarding intestinal I/R injury in rats due to infliximab treatment. Infliximab treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in intestinal tissues samples. I/R caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Infliximab treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury, inhibiting I/R-induced apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, infliximab pretreatment may have protective effects on the experimental intestinal I/R model of rats.

  12. A report of a galactan from marine alga Gelidium crinale with in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Albertina A S; Benevides, Norma M B; de Freitas Pires, Alana; Fiúza, Felipe P; Queiroz, Maria G R; Morais, Thamires M F; Pereira, Maria G; Assreuy, Ana M S

    2013-04-01

    The sulfated galactan of the red marine alga Gelidium crinale (SG-Gc) was purified by ion exchange chromatography and tested by intravenous (i.v.) route in rodent experimental models of inflammation and nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of SG-Gc (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg) was evaluated in the model of rat paw edema induced by different inflammatory stimuli, while SG-Gc (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg) antinociceptive effect was assessed in models of nociception/hyperalgesia elicited by chemical (formalin test), thermal (hot plate), and mechanical (von Frey) stimuli in mice. In addition, the toxicity was evaluated after rat treatment with SG-Gc (1 mg/kg; i.v.) during 10 days, followed by analysis of the wet weight of animal's body/organs and hematological/biochemical parameters. Sulfated galactan of G. crinale inhibited the time course of dextran-induced paw edema, at all doses, showing maximal effect at 1 mg/kg (42%) and that induced by carrageenan at 0.01 (18%) and 1 mg/kg (20%), but was ineffective on the edema elicited by zymosan. At the highest dose, SG-Gc also inhibited the paw edema induced by histamine (49%), compound 48/80 (32%), and phospholipase A(2) (44%). Sulfated galactan of G. crinale inhibited both neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the formalin test, at all doses, and at 10 mg/kg, the animals flinch reaction in the von Frey test in the 1st and 3rd h by 19 and 26%, respectively. Additionally, SG-Gc treatment was well tolerated by animals. In conclusion, SG-Gc presents anti-inflammatory effect involving the inhibition of histamine and arachidonic acid metabolites and also antinociceptive activity, especially the inflammatory pain with participation of the opioid system. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease

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    Yang Yufeng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common movement disorder. Extrapyramidal motor symptoms stem from the degeneration of the dopaminergic pathways in patient brain. Current treatments for PD are symptomatic, alleviating disease symptoms without reversing or retarding disease progression. Although the cause of PD remains unknown, several pathogenic factors have been identified, which cause dopaminergic neuron (DN death in the substantia nigra (SN. These include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and excitotoxicity. Manipulation of these factors may allow the development of disease-modifying treatment strategies to slow neuronal death. Inhibition of DJ-1A, the Drosophila homologue of the familial PD gene DJ-1, leads to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and DN loss, making fly DJ-1A model an excellent in vivo system to test for compounds with therapeutic potential. Results In the present study, a Drosophila DJ-1A model of PD was used to test potential neuroprotective drugs. The drugs applied are the Chinese herb celastrol, the antibiotic minocycline, the bioenergetic amine coenzyme Q10 (coQ10, and the glutamate antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzo[f]-quinoxaline (NBQX. All of these drugs target pathogenic processes implicated in PD, thus constitute mechanism-based treatment strategies. We show that celastrol and minocycline, both having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, confer potent dopaminergic neuroprotection in Drosophila DJ-1A model, while coQ10 shows no protective effect. NBQX exerts differential effects on cell survival and brain dopamine content: it protects against DN loss but fails to restore brain dopamine level. Conclusion The present study further validates Drosophila as a valuable model for preclinical testing of drugs with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. The lower cost and amenability to high throughput testing make Drosophila PD

  14. Local environment effects in disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic moment of an atom in a ferromagnetic disordered alloy depends on the local environment of that atom. This is particularly true for Ni and Pd based alloys for which neutron diffuse scattering measurements of the range and magnitude of the moment disturbances indicate that both magnetic and chemical environment are important in determining the moment distribution. In this paper we review recent neutron studies of local environment effects in Ni based alloys. These are discussed in terms of a phenomenological model that allows a separation of the total moment disturbance at a Ni site into its chemical and magnetic components

  15. Scandoside Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effect Via Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages

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    Jingyu He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The iridoids of Hedyotis diffusa Willd play an important role in the anti-inflammatory process, but the specific iridoid with anti-inflammatory effect and its mechanism has not be thoroughly studied. An iridoid compound named scandoside (SCA was isolated from H. diffusa and its anti-inflammatory effect was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory mechanism was confirmed by in intro experiments and molecular docking analyses. As results, SCA significantly decreased the productions of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and inhibited the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCA treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B alpaha (IκB-α, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. The docking data suggested that SCA had great binding abilities to COX-2, iNOS and IκB. Taken together, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effect of SCA is due to inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators via suppressing the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, which provided useful information for its application and development.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and essential fatty acids in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, D; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Primi, R; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2018-01-09

    Fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses, in particular, n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids and CLA have received particular attention for their ability to modulate inflammation. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of CLA and essential fatty acids on the expression of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines and their protective efficacy against inflammatory status in mammary gland by an in vitro model based on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME-UV1). Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with complete medium containing either 50 µM of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) or (α)-linolenic acid (aLnA) or (γ)-linolenic acid (gLnA) or linoleic acid (LA). After 48 h by fatty acids administration the cells were treated for 3 h with 20 µM of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory stimulus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after treatments was assessed to verify and to compare the potential protection of different fatty acids against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The messenger RNA abundance of bovine pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-10 (IL-10)) and peroxisome proliferator receptor-α/γ (PPARγ/α) were determined in BME-UV1 by real-time PCR. The results showed that cells treated with fatty acids and LPS increased ROS production compared with control cells. Among treatments, cells treated with c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA isomers revealed significant lower levels of ROS production compared with other fatty acids. All fatty acids reduced the gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Among fatty acids, t10,c12 CLA, LA and gLnA showed an homogeneous reduction of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines and this may correspond to more balanced and efficient physiological activity and may trigger a better protective effect. The PPARγ gene expression was

  17. Antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of hydroethanolic extract from Macrosiphonia velame (A. St.-Hil. M. Arg. in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Vicente Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "velame-branco", is mainly used for treating inflammatory conditions. The antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium from M. velame (HEMv were evaluated using several animal models. HEMv showed low acute oral toxicity with LD50 of 4.176 ± 218.5 mg/kg in mice. In tests of carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, and croton oil-induced cutaneous dermatitis in mice, HEMv presented systemic and topical antiinflammatory activities. In experiments of nociception induced by acetic acid, formalin and capsaicin in mice, the HEMv evidenced an antinociceptive effect, being active against both inflammatory and neurogenic pain. Additionally, the HEMv prevented brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. It is likely that the pharmacologic mechanism of HEMv may involve the inhibition of different mediators of the inflammatory response, such as histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A preliminary phytochemical study was also undertaken on HEMv, which revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, pentacyclic triterpenoids, saponins, coumarins, catechins, tannins, and alkaloids. Taken together, these results suggest that M. velame extract has antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic properties and further validate the traditional use of this plant in inflammatory conditions.Macrosiphonia velame (Apocynaceae, conhecida popularmente como velame-branco, é utilizada no tratamento de inflamações. Avaliou-se nesse estudo, os efeitos antiinflamatório, antinociceptivo e antipirético do extrato hidroetanólico do xilopódio de M. velame (HEMv em modelos animais. O HEMv apresentou baixa toxicidade aguda oral, com DL50= 4.176 ± 218,5 mg/kg nos camundongos. Nos testes de edema de pata por carragenina e dextrana e pleurisia por carragenina em ratos e dermatite cutânea por

  18. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  19. Effects on growth of human osteoblast-like cells of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: metamizole, dexketoprofen, and ketorolac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco Javier; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have adverse effects on bone tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of dexketoprofen, ketorolac, and metamizole on growth of the osteoblast MG63 cell line. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry results showed that MG63 cell growth was significantly inhibited after 24 hr of culture with doses of 10, 20, 100, or 1,000 µM of each NSAID and with doses of 0.1, 1, or 5 µM of dexketoprofen and ketorolac but not metamizole. Cell-cycle studies revealed that dexketoprofen and ketorolac treatments significantly arrested the cell cycle in phase G0/G1, increasing the percentage of cells in this phase. Apoptosis/necrosis studies showed significant changes versus control cells, with an increased percentage of cells in apoptosis after treatment with 10, 100, or 1,000 µM of metamizole and after treatment with 1, 10, 100, or 1,000 µM of dexketoprofen or ketorolac. In conclusion, treatment of osteoblast-like cells with high doses of the NSAIDs tested increased not only the percentage of cells in apoptosis but also the percentage of necrotic cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  1. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

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    Frederick Wasinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways.

  2. New potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with antileukotrienic effects: influence on model proteins with catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netopilová, Miloslava; Drsata, Jaroslav; Beránek, Martin; Palicka, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Unspecific and side effects caused by interaction with proteins belong to common problems of many structures synthesized as potential medicaments. Possible in vitro interactions with proteins of a group of phenylsulfonyl benzoic acid derivatives (VUFB 19363, 19369, 19370, 19371, and 19760) as new potential anti-inflammatory compounds with anti-leukotrienic activities were studied in the present work. Three purified enzymes were used as model proteins with catalytic activities: Pig heart aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) from E. coli. Catalytic activities during incubation of individual compounds (6 x 10(-5) M solution to 5 x 10(-2) M suspension) at 37 degrees C with enzymes served as criteria of stability and function of the proteins. No immediate influence of any compound studied on enzyme activities was found. Aminotransferase activities were not affected even during incubation up to 20 d. In the case of GAD, the compounds VUFB 19369, 19370, 19371, and 19760 had stabilizing influence on GAD activity during incubation at enzyme concentrations of 11.25 and 5.62 mg prot/l. The lack of an immediate effect of compounds and the stability of enzymes during incubation them are favorable and support the prospective of the compounds as potential drugs.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhei Rhizoma and Coptidis Rhizoma Mixture on Reflux Esophagitis in Rats

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    O Jun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the combined extract of Rhei rhizoma and Coptidis rhizoma (RC-mix in experimental model of acute reflux esophagitis. The antioxidant activity was assessed by in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. RC-mix was given at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight 2 h prior to induction of reflux esophagitis (RE. After 5 h, the effects of RC-mix treated rats were compared with those of normal and control rats. The representative flavonoid contents of RC-mix, such as sennoside A, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and berberine, were detected using HPLC. The elevated esophageal mucosa damage was markedly ameliorated by RC-mix treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the administration of RC-mix reduced the increase of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite (ONOO−. The improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels were marked in the group given RC-mix. Moreover, the elevation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in control rats decreased by RC-mix pretreatment. These results indicate that RC-mix treatment reduces the pathological states of esophagitis via regulating NF-κB mediated inflammation related to oxidative stress.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Effects of Covalently Attached Biomembrane-Mimic Polymer Grafts on Gore-Tex Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young Ju; Kang, Sunah; Park, Pona; Choi, Dongkil; Kim, Dae Woo; Jung, Dongwook; Koh, Jaemoon; Jeon, Joohee; Lee, Myoungjin; Ham, Jiyeon; Seo, Ji-Hun; Jin, Hong-Ryul; Lee, Yan

    2017-06-07

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), also known as Gore-Tex, is widely used as an implantable biomaterial in biomedical applications because of its favorable mechanical properties and biochemical inertness. However, infection and inflammation are two major complications with ePTFE implantations, because pathogenic bacteria can inhabit the microsized pores, without clearance by host immune cells, and the limited biocompatibility can induce foreign body reactions. To minimize these complications, we covalently grafted a biomembrane-mimic polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxylethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), by partial defluorination followed by UV-induced polymerization with cross-linkers on the ePTFE surface. PMPC grafting greatly reduced serum protein adsorption as well as fibroblast adhesion on the ePTFE surface. Moreover, the PMPC-grafted ePTFE surface exhibited a dramatic inhibition of the adhesion and growth of Staphylococcus aureus, a typical pathogenic bacterium in ePTFE implants, in the porous network. On the basis of an analysis of immune cells and inflammation-related factors, i.e., transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), we confirmed that inflammation was efficiently alleviated in tissues around PMPC-grafted ePTFE plates implanted in the backs of rats. Covalent PMPC may be an effective strategy for promoting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions in ePTFE implants and to reduce side effects in biomedical applications of ePTFE.

  5. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Woo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.

  6. Radical Scavenging Activity-Based and AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lutein in Macrophage-Like and Skin Keratinocytic Cells

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    Jueun Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL- 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX- 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF- α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP- 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.

  7. Curcuma longa extract exerts a myorelaxant effect on the ileum and colon in a mouse experimental colitis model, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldini, Rita; Budriesi, Roberta; Roda, Giulia; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Sartini, Alessandro; Guidetti, Elena; Marocchi, Margherita; Cevenini, Monica; Rosini, Francesca; Montagnani, Marco; Chiarini, Alberto; Mazzella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma has long been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel disease. Since gastrointestinal motility is impaired in inflammatory states, the aim of this work was to evaluate if Curcuma Longa had any effect on intestinal motility. The biological activity of Curcuma extract was evaluated against Carbachol induced contraction in isolated mice intestine. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in Balb/c mice by Dextran Sulphate Sodium administration (5% and 2.5% respectively) and either Curcuma extract (200 mg/kg/day) or placebo was thereafter administered for 7 and 21 days respectively. Spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol and Atropine of ileum and colon were studied after colitis induction and Curcuma administration. Curcuma extract reduced the spontaneous contractions in the ileum and colon; the maximal response to Carbachol was inhibited in a non-competitive and reversible manner. Similar results were obtained in ileum and colon from Curcuma fed mice. DSS administration decreased the motility, mainly in the colon and Curcuma almost restored both the spontaneous contractions and the response to Carbachol after 14 days assumption, compared to standard diet, but a prolonged assumption of Curcuma decreased the spontaneous and Carbachol-induced contractions. Curcuma extract has a direct and indirect myorelaxant effect on mouse ileum and colon, independent of the anti-inflammatory effect. The indirect effect is reversible and non-competitive with the cholinergic agent. These results suggest the use of curcuma extract as a spasmolytic agent.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of Rhodiola crenulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Rhodiola crenulata on injured spinal cord tissue ... Methods: Effect of R. crenulata extract (RCE) at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg kg-1 was .... as a set to compare identically processed tissue. .... hippocampal region of the brain [13]. .... apoptosis by downregulating tumor necrosis factor-a-.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of Rhodiola crenulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Rhodiola crenulata on injured spinal cord tissue recovery due to the presence of neuroprotective constituents such as salidroside, tyrosol, rosavins, and crenulatanoside. Methods: Effect of R. crenulata extract (RCE) at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg kg-1 was investigated for spinal cord ...

  10. Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects to prevent memory deficits in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazir, Yusufhan; Utkan, Tijen; Gacar, Nejat; Aricioglu, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have recently focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. In prior studies, we described its beneficial effects on scopolamine-induced learning deficits in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on emotional and spatial cognitive functions, neurotropic factor expression, and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which is known to induce cognitive deficits. Resveratrol (5 or 20mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 35 days. Rats in the CUMS group and in the 5mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group performed poorly in tasks designed to assess emotional and spatial learning and memory. The 20mg/kg resveratrol+CUMS group showed improved performance compared to the CUMS group. In addition, the CUMS procedure induced lower expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 and in the amygdala of stressed rats. These effects were reversed by chronic administration of resveratrol (20mg/kg). In addition, plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were increased by CUMS, but were restored to normal by resveratrol. These results indicate that resveratrol significantly attenuates the deficits in emotional learning and spatial memory seen in chronically stressed rats. These effects may be related to resveratrol-mediated changes in neurotrophin factor expression in hippocampus and in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhus coriaria Extract in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Khalilpour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 for DPPH, ABTS and β–carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6.25 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of R. coriaria (ERC and linoleic acid (LA on ocular ischemia was monitored using Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT. Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity respectively. The results of this study provide strong scientific evidence for the neuroprotective activity of the ERC, identifying LA as one of the main components responsible for the effect. ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy.

  12. Effect of fenspiride, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, on neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, A M; Liu, Y C; Rogers, D F

    1999-01-01

    Neural mechanisms contribute to control of mucus secretion in the airways. Fenspiride is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent which has a variety of actions, including inhibition of neurogenic bronchoconstriction. The effect of fenspiride on neurally-mediated mucus secretion was investigated in vitro in electrically-stimulated ferret trachea, using(35)SO(4)as a mucus marker. Cholinergic secretory responses were isolated using adrenoceptor and tachykinin receptor antagonists. Tachykinin responses were isolated using cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor antagonists. Electrical stimulation increased cholinergic secretion by;90% and tachykininergic secretion by;40%. Fenspiride (1 microM-1 mM) tended to inhibit cholinergic secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, although only at 1 mM was inhibition (by 87%) significant. Inhibition by fenspiride of tachykininergic secretion was not concentration-dependent, and again significant inhibition (by 85%) was only at 1 mM. Inhibition was not due to loss of tissue viability, as assessed by restitution of secretory response after washout. Fenspiride also inhibited secretion induced by acetylcholine, but did not inhibit substance P-induced secretion. Histamine receptor antagonists increased basal secretion by 164%, whereas fenspiride did not affect basal secretion. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, fenspiride inhibits neurally-mediated mucus secretion, with antimuscarinic action the most plausible mechanism of action, but not necessarily the only mechanism. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Huiwen [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Wang, Lei [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A., E-mail: velazque@ualberta.ca [Chemistry Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis and Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wu, Shiyong, E-mail: wus1@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Easter Joy Sajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

  15. [Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastropathy and preventive effects of teprenone on the gastropathy in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Juan; Yuan, Gang; Chen, Min-hu

    2006-10-31

    To construct the model of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy and observe the preventive effects of Teprenone on it in rats. Ninety-one male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal saline group, model group (I) and prophylaxis group (II). Group I includes four subgroups (Ia, Ib, Ic, Id) treated by indomethacin (5 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)), combination of indomethacin (5 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) and prednisone (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)), celecoxib (100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) and combination of celecoxib (100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) and prednisone (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) respectively. Group II also includes four subgroups (IIa, IIb, IIc, IId) pretreated by teprenone (12 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) compared with group I. Lesion index (LI), pathohistology index, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA detected by RT-PCR were observed after 4 days. Compared with normal saline group, LI (11.00 (1.00 - 22.5), 8.50 (0.75 - 14.50), 11.00 (3.50 - 14.75), P NSAID. Prednisone could promote the risk in NSAID induced gastropathy. In addition to COX-1 inhibition, other factors might also involved in NSAID induced gastropathy. Teprenone could prevented from NSAID induced gastropathy but the actions might be not associated with COXs.

  16. Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent, Effective and Safe against Influenza and Common Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Keppel Hesselink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is a food component known since 1957. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and exerts a multitude of physiological functions related to metabolic homeostasis. Research on PEA has been conducted for more than 50 years, and over 350 papers are referenced in PubMed describing the physiological properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacological and therapeutical profile. The major focus of PEA research, since the work of the Nobel laureate Levi-Montalcini in 1993, has been neuropathic pain states and mast cell related disorders. However, it is less known that 6 clinical trials in a total of nearly 4000 people were performed and published last century, specifically studying PEA as a therapy for influenza and the common cold. This was done before Levi-Montalcini’s clarification of PEA’s mechanism of action, analyzing the role of PEA as an anti-inflammatory agent. We will review in depth these studies, as the results support the effectiveness and safety of PEA in flu and respiratory infections.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Khouzani, Omid; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine-induced liver damage is a cause of chronic liver disease. In the present study the hepatoprotective effects of gallic acid against fluoxetine-induced liver damage were examined. Forty-eight male rats were divided into six groups as follow: group 1, the control group; group 2, rats receiving fluoxetine (24mg/kg bw daily, po) without treatment; group 3, rats receiving 24mg/kg bw fluoxetine, treated with 50mg/kg bw silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 in which gallic acid (50, 100, and 200mg/kg bw, po, respectively) was prescribed after the consumption of fluoxetine. The histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were checked out. Fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lipid profiles, urea, fasting blood sugar (FBS), creatinine (Cr), protein carbonyl (PC) content, malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver TNF-α as an inflammatory element. Also, the obtained results of group 2 revealed a significant decline in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C levels. The treatment with gallic acid showed significant ameliorations in abnormalities of fluoxetine-induced liver injury as represented by the improvement of hepatic CAT, SOD activities, vitamin C levels, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes, in addition to the recovery of antioxidant defense system status. Gallic acid has inhibitory effects on fluoxetine-induced liver damage. The effect of gallic acid is derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effect related to TNF-α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  18. Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of long termcalcium administrationduring adjuvant-induced arthritisin rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Khashaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation and edema Symptoms are physiological response to triggers that can be induced by different mediators such as cytokines. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of arthritis which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane, severe and debilitating pain and progressive cartilage injury. It is clear that cytokines are involved in different stages of inflammation by inducing pro-inflammatory effects; TNF-α as a cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we attempted to investigate the role of prescription of calcium to reduce inflammatory edema and serum TNF-α level during different stages of arthritic inflammation induced by Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA injection in male Wistar rats.Methods:In this Applicable-Fundamental study, we used male Wistar rats and adjuvant arthritis was created by once subcutaneous injection of CFA in the right hindpaw of animals on day zero in experimental groups. Various doses of calcium were prepared and injected within 21 days of study. Hyperalgesia and paw volume changes wereassessed byradiant heat andplethysmometer over several days, respectively. The serum levels of TNF-α were studied by ELISA standard kit of rat during various phases and were measured according to the kit.Results:The results indicated dose related effects of long term calcium administration on edema, hyperalgesia and serum TNF-α level reduction. Daily treatment with effective dose of calcium (5 mg/kg in AA+ Ca group significantly decreased paw edema, hyperalgesia and serum TNF-α level incomparison to AA and AA+ Vehicle groups on days 7, 14 and 21 of study.Conclusions:Findings of this study showed;long term administration of calcium in the proper dosage can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and pain modulator during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a part of those effects may conducted by decreasing of serum TNF-α level.

  19. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antiulcer effect of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Polygonum minus Huds. (Polygonaceae in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parayil Varghese Christapher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polygonum minus (Kesum is an annual plant that grows throughout South East Asian countries. The Leaf of P. minus is commonly used as diet ingredient in Malaysia. Traditionally the decoction of leaves of this plant is used to treat stomach ache and digestive problems. The plant has known antioxidant activity, and its pharmacological properties are remaining unclear. Hence the study is planned to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antipyretic activity of kesum. Materials and methods: P. minus leaves was extracted with methanol and distilled water by simple maceration. The dried extract was used for further phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. The analgesic effect of methanol and aqueous extract of P. minus was studied using acetic acid, tail immersion and formalin induced pain in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect of both extracts was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The pyloric ligation model was used to study the antiulcer effect. The antipyretic effect was studied using Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. Results: The percentage yield of aqueous and methanol extract of P. minus leaves were 1.15 and 2.57% w/w respectively. Both the extract showed significant analgesic effect against acetic acid writing, tail immersion and formalin induced pain methods, but the effect was not equivalent to that of standard. Aqueous extract showed significant anti-inflammatory action and methanol extract showed significant anti-ulcer effect. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of the P. minus has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory action, whereas methanolic extract showed presence of analgesic and anti-ulcer activity. Both aqueous and methanolic extract did not show any significant antipyretic activity.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of By-Products from Haliotis discus hannai in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seok Rho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several reports promoted the potential of shellfish due to their ability to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai viscera is, reported to possess bioactivities such as antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of mucus-secreting glands from shell-shucking waste of H. discus hannai was evaluated using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell model. Results indicated that presence of H. discus hannai mucosubstance by-products (AM significantly lowered the nitric oxide (NO production along the expressional suppression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and enzymes iNOS and COX-2. Also, AM was shown to increase expression of anti-inflammatory response mediator HO-1. Presence of AM also scavenged the free radicals in vitro. In conclusion, by-products of H. discus hannai are suggested to possess notable anti-inflammatory potential which promotes the possibility of utilization as functional food ingredient.

  1. Effectiveness of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18. Gajraj NM, The effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors on bone healing. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003; 28(5): 456-. 465. 19. Fracon RN, Teófilo JM, Moris IC, Lamano T. Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats. J Appl. Oral Sci. 2010; 18(6): 630-634.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 80% Methanol Extract of Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f. Iwarsson Leaves in Rodent Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnakech Alemu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method. The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels. Acute toxicity test was also done. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The extract did not produce mortality up to 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the extract showed significant analgesic effect with maximum latency response of 62.8% and inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing. Maximum anti-inflammatory effect was recorded at 6 h after induction, with 75.88% reduction in carrageenan induced paw edema. Moreover, all tested doses of extract significantly inhibited the formation of inflammatory exudates and granuloma formation (p<0.001. Conclusion. The study indicated that the extract was safe in mice and it has both analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodent models.

  3. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Hamblin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM also known as low-level level laser therapy is the use of red and near-infrared light to stimulate healing, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. The primary chromophores have been identified as cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria, and calcium ion channels (possibly mediated by light absorption by opsins. Secondary effects of photon absorption include increases in ATP, a brief burst of reactive oxygen species, an increase in nitric oxide, and modulation of calcium levels. Tertiary effects include activation of a wide range of transcription factors leading to improved cell survival, increased proliferation and migration, and new protein synthesis. There is a pronounced biphasic dose response whereby low levels of light have stimulating effects, while high levels of light have inhibitory effects. It has been found that PBM can produce ROS in normal cells, but when used in oxidatively stressed cells or in animal models of disease, ROS levels are lowered. PBM is able to up-regulate anti-oxidant defenses and reduce oxidative stress. It was shown that PBM can activate NF-kB in normal quiescent cells, however in activated inflammatory cells, inflammatory markers were decreased. One of the most reproducible effects of PBM is an overall reduction in inflammation, which is particularly important for disorders of the joints, traumatic injuries, lung disorders, and in the brain. PBM has been shown to reduce markers of M1 phenotype in activated macrophages. Many reports have shown reductions in reactive nitrogen species and prostaglandins in various animal models. PBM can reduce inflammation in the brain, abdominal fat, wounds, lungs, spinal cord.

  4. Effects of intrathecal or intracerebroventricular administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on a C-fiber reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, D; Paeile, C; Willer, J C; Le Bars, D

    1997-06-01

    A C-fiber reflex elicited by electrical stimulation within the territory of the sural nerve was recorded from the ipsilateral biceps femoris muscle in anesthetized rats. The temporal evolution of the response was studied using a constant stimulus intensity (3 times threshold), and recruitment curves were built by varying the stimulus intensity from 0 to 7 times threshold. The intrathecal (i.t.) but not i.c.v. administration of aspirin, indomethacin, ketoprofen and lysine clonixinate resulted in dose-dependent depressions of the C-fiber reflex. In contrast, saline was ineffective. Regardless of the route of administration, the drugs never produced disturbances in heart rate and/or acid-base equilibrium. When a constant level of stimulation was used, 500 microg of aspirin i.t. induced a blockade of the reflex immediately after the injection, followed by a partial recovery. Indomethacin produced a stable depression, which reached 80 to 90% with an i.t. dose of 500 microg. Ketoprofen and lysine clonixinate produced a more stable effect; the highest doses (500 microg) produced a steady-state depression of approximately 50% for approximately 30 min. When the recruitment curves were built with a range of nociceptive stimulus intensities, all of the drugs except for indomethacin produced a dose-dependent decrease in the slopes and the areas under the recruitment curves without major modifications in the thresholds; indomethacin also induced a significant dose-related increase in the threshold. The orders of potency for both stimulation paradigms with the i.t. route were the same, namely aspirin > indomethacin > lysine clonixinate > or = ketoprofen. It is concluded that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs elicit significant antinociceptive effects at a spinal level, which do not depend on the existence of a hyperalgesic or inflammatory state. Such effects were not seen after injections within the lateral ventricle.

  5. An antiinflammatory actions of exenatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Chaudhuri A, Ghanim H, Vora M, Sia CL, Korzeniewski K, Dhindsa S, Makdissi A, Dandona P. Exenatide exerts a potent antiinflammatory effect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan; 97(1: 198-207.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of spine, skin and rind of Jack fruit peel - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M; Ruckmani, A; Saravanan, R; Lakshmipathy Prabhu, R

    2017-10-09

    The present study was conducted to identify the chemical constituents and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extracts of spine, skin and rind of jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) peel. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents were assessed using Folin's Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods which revealed 316, 355 and 382 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of polyphenol and 96.7, 131.6 and 164.6 mg quercetin equivalent/g of flavonoid in spine, skin and rind, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was comparable to diclofenac in vitro and in vivo studies. Skin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, rind had preferential inhibition on Cyclooxygenase-2 and spine and skin inhibited both Cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 in vitro.

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING THE EFFECT OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Honceriu C.; Hagiu B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the effects of using Diclofenac ointment for delayed onset muscle soreness. The research has been conducted on two groups of junior football players, males, the number of 9 each (control and treated), which has been induced by this type of muscle soreness with specific exercises. The treated group used Diclofenac gel for the relief of musculoskeletal pain. The evaluation of values of muscular strength (Squat Jump, Jump Countermovement, Free Jump,...

  8. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of sanguinarine following cerebral ischemia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qin; Dai, Peng; Bao, Han; Liang, Ping; Wang, Wei; Xing, An; Sun, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Protective agents that can diminish injuries caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are important in alleviating the harmful outcomes of stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of sanguinarine in cerebral I/R injury. A rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used to assess the clinical effect of sanguinarine, and inflammatory cytokines in the serum were detected by ELISA. Western blot...

  9. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Guti?rrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Mart?nez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Sald?var, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  10. Recent development in antihyperalgesic effect of phytochemicals: anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Vinayak, Manjula

    2018-05-16

    Pain is an unpleasant sensation triggered by noxious stimulation. It is one of the most prevalent conditions, limiting productivity and diminishing quality of life. Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used as pain relievers in present day practice as pain is mostly initiated due to inflammation. However, due to potentially serious side effects, long term use of these antihyperalgesic drugs raises concern. Therefore there is a demand to search novel medicines with least side effects. Herbal products have been used for centuries to reduce pain and inflammation, and phytochemicals are known to cause fewer side effects. However, identification of active phytochemicals of herbal medicines and clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of their action is needed for clinical acceptance. In this review, we have briefly discussed the cellular and molecular changes during hyperalgesia via inflammatory mediators and neuro-modulatory action involved therein. The review includes 54 recently reported phytochemicals with antihyperalgesic action, as per the literature available with PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus. Compounds of high interest as potential antihyperalgesic agents are: curcumin, resveratrol, capsaicin, quercetin, eugenol, naringenin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Current knowledge about molecular targets of pain and their regulation by these phytochemicals is elaborated and the scope of further research is discussed.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Salbutamol on Acute and Chronic Models of Inflammation in Rats: Involvement of an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Uzkeser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of β-2 adrenergic receptors in modulation of inflammatory and nociceptive conditions suggests that the β-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, salbutamol, may have beneficial anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Therefore, in this study, we induced inflammatory and nociceptive responses with carrageenan-induced paw edema or cotton-pellet-induced granuloma models, both of which result in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that salbutamol would prevent inflammatory and nociceptive responses by stimulating β-2 adrenergic receptors and the prevention of generation of ROS during the acute inflammation process in rats. Both doses of salbutamol used in the study (1 and 2 mg/kg effectively blocked the acute inflammation and inflammatory nociception induced by carrageenan. In the cotton-pellet-induced granuloma test, both doses of salbutamol also significantly decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on the cotton pellets when compared to the control. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of salbutamol were found to be comparable with those of indomethacin. Salbutamol decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO level and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and level of glutathione (GSH during the acute phase of inflammation. In conclusion, salbutamol can decrease acute and chronic inflammation, possibly through the stimulation of β-2 adrenergic receptors. This anti-inflammatory effect may be of significance in asthma treatment, where inflammation also takes part in the etiopathology. This study reveals that salbutamol has significant antioxidative effects, which at least partially explain its anti-inflammatory capabilities. These findings presented here may also shed light on the roles of β-2 adrenergic receptors in inflammatory and hyperalgesic conditions.

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-12-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities.

  13. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames including PPN effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid-Saless, B.

    1986-01-01

    In this dissertation they use the concept of a generalized Fermi frame to describe the relativistic effects on a body placed in a local inertial frame of reference due to local and distant sources of gravitation. They have considered, in particular, a model, consisted of two spherically symmetric gravitating sources, moving in circular orbits around a common barycenter where one of the bodies is chosen to be the local and the other the distant one. This has been done in the Parametrized-Post-Newtonian formalism using the slow motion, weak field approximation. The PPN parameters used are γ, β, zeta 1 and zeta 2 . They show that the main relativistic effect on a local satellite is described by the Schwarzchild field of the local body and the nonlinear term corresponding to the self-interaction of the local source itself. There are also much smaller terms that are proportional to the product of the potentials of local and distant bodies and distant body's self interactions. The spatial axis of the local frame undergoes Geodetic precession. Effects involving the parameters zeta 1 and zeta 2 seem to be slightly too small to be observable at the present time. In addition they have found accelerations that vanish in the general relativity limit

  14. Modeling of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effect within signaling pathways and miRNA-regulation pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available To date, it is widely recognized that Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs can exert considerable anti-tumor effects regarding many types of cancers. The prolonged use of NSAIDs is highly associated with diverse side effects. Therefore, tailoring down the NSAID application onto individual patients has become a necessary and relevant step towards personalized medicine. This study conducts the systemsbiological approach to construct a molecular model (NSAID model containing a cyclooxygenase (COX-pathway and its related signaling pathways. Four cancer hallmarks are integrated into the model to reflect different developmental aspects of tumorigenesis. In addition, a Flux-Comparative-Analysis (FCA based on Petri net is developed to transfer the dynamic properties (including drug responsiveness of individual cellular system into the model. The gene expression profiles of different tumor-types with available drug-response information are applied to validate the predictive ability of the NSAID model. Moreover, two therapeutic developmental strategies, synthetic lethality and microRNA (miRNA biomarker discovery, are investigated based on the COX-pathway. In conclusion, the result of this study demonstrates that the NSAID model involving gene expression, gene regulation, signal transduction, protein interaction and other cellular processes, is able to predict the individual cellular responses for different therapeutic interventions (such as NS-398 and COX-2 specific siRNA inhibition. This strongly indicates that this type of model is able to reflect the physiological, developmental and pathological processes of an individual. The approach of miRNA biomarker discovery is demonstrated for identifying miRNAs with oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions for individual cell lines of breast-, colon- and lung-tumor. The achieved results are in line with different independent studies that investigated miRNA biomarker related to diagnostics of cancer

  15. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Rahman Sarker

    Full Text Available Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR, a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i a base diet (Ain93M fed ad libitum (AL, (ii the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR or (iii the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL. Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP, as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio, were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance. The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions.

  16. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  17. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hua; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    LPS is associated with adverse developmental outcomes, including preterm delivery, fetal death, teratogenicity, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Previous reports showed that zinc protected against LPS-induced teratogenicity. In the current study, we investigated the effects of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on LPS-induced preterm delivery, fetal death and IUGR. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (75 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were administered zinc sulfate through drinking water (75 mg elemental Zn per liter) throughout the pregnancy. As expected, an i.p. injection with LPS daily from GD15 to GD17 resulted in 36.4% (4/11) of dams delivered before GD18. In dams that completed the pregnancy, 63.2% of fetuses were dead. Moreover, LPS significantly reduced fetal weight and crown-rump length. Of interest, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. In addition, zinc supplementation significantly alleviated LPS-induced IUGR and skeletal development retardation. Further experiments showed that zinc supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of placental inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Zinc supplementation also significantly attenuated LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in mononuclear sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth zone. It inhibited LPS-induced placental AKT phosphorylation as well. In conclusion, zinc supplementation during pregnancy protects against LPS-induced fetal growth restriction and demise through its anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. Protective effects of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents against manganese-induced oxidative damage and neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Gupta, Ramesh C; Yu, Yingchun; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Aschner, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels leads to neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, which resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Manganism is caused by neuronal injury in both cortical and subcortical regions, particularly in the basal ganglia. The basis for the selective neurotoxicity of Mn is not yet fully understood. However, several studies suggest that oxidative damage and inflammatory processes play prominent roles in the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Results from our in vitro study showed a significant (pprotected when neurons were pretreated for 30 min with 100 of an antioxidant, the hydrophilic vitamin E analog, trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), or an anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Results from our in vivo study confirmed a significant increase in F(2)-IsoPs levels in conjunction with the progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of mice exposed to Mn (100mg/kg, s.c.) 24h. Additionally, pretreatment with vitamin E (100mg/kg, i.p.) or ibuprofen (140 μg/ml in the drinking water for two weeks) attenuated the Mn-induced increase in cerebral F(2)-IsoPs? and protected the MSNs from dendritic atrophy and dendritic spine loss. Our findings suggest that the mediation of oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction and the control of alterations in biomarkers of oxidative injury, neuroinflammation and synaptodendritic degeneration may provide an effective, multi-pronged therapeutic strategy for protecting dysfunctional dopaminergic transmission and slowing of the progression of Mn-induced neurodegenerative processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine on rats with convulsive status epilepticus and association with activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai-Liang; Liu, Xin-Qiu; Yao, Yu-Long; Ye, Ming-Rong; Han, Yao-Guo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Gang; Lei, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a neurological disease with contraction and extension of limbs, leading to damage of hippocampus and cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on the cognitive function and neuroinflammation in CSE rats. All rats were divided into control group, CSE group and DEX group. Morris water maze test was used to measure cognitive function. Acute hippocampal slices were made to detect long-term potentiation (LTP). Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), S-100β and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Our results showed that DEX improved the memory damage caused by CSE. DEX reduced seizure severity and increased the amplitudes and sustainable time of LTP, and also inhibited the hippocampal expression of α7-nAChR and IL-1β in CSE rats. DEX treatment decreased serum IL-1β, TNF-α and S-100β levels and increased BDNF levels. The effects of DEX on seizure severity and LTP could be simulated by nicotine or attenuated by concurrent α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT) treatment. In conclusions, DEX significantly improved spatial cognitive dysfunction, reduced seizure severity and increased LTP in CSE rats. Improvements by DEX were closely related to enhancement of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Beyond local effective material properties for metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri, K.; Khrabustovskyi, A.; Stohrer, C.; Plum, M.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2018-02-01

    To discuss the properties of metamaterials on physical grounds and to consider them in applications, effective material parameters are usually introduced and assigned to a given metamaterial. In most cases, only weak spatial dispersion is considered. It allows to assign local material properties, e.g., a permittivity and a permeability. However, this turned out to be insufficient. To solve this problem, we study here the effective properties of metamaterials with constitutive relations beyond a local response and take strong spatial dispersion into account. This research requires two contributions. First, bulk properties in terms of eigenmodes need to be studied. We particularly investigate the isofrequency surfaces of their dispersion relation are investigated and compared to those of an actual metamaterial. The significant improvement to effectively describe it provides evidence for the necessity to use nonlocal material laws in the effective description of metamaterials. Second, to be able to capitalize on such constitutive relations, also interface conditions need to be known. They are derived in this contribution for our form of the nonlocality using a generalized (weak) formulation of Maxwell's equations. Based on such interface conditions, Fresnel expressions are obtained that predict the amplitude of the reflected and transmitted plane wave upon illuminating a slab of such a nonlocal metamaterial. This all together offers the necessary means for the in-depth analysis of metamaterials characterized by strong spatial dispersion. The general formulation we choose here renders our approach applicable to a wide class of metamaterials.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Myeong-Hyeon; Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Guo, Huifang; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Angelicae Dahuricae Radix has been used for the treatment of headaches, rhinitis, and colds in traditional medicine. Methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix were collected. A statistically significant reduction in the cellular viability of the mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line was noted after treatment with water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 24 h led to a robust increase in nitric oxide production, but Angelicae Dahuricae Radix at 400 μg/mL concentration significantly suppressed nitric oxide produced by the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol, 70% methanol, absolute methanol, and boiling water groups (P ethanol extract of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix suppressed the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, and cycloxygenase-2 expression. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix showed significant cytotoxic effects on the human adenocarcinoma cell line and keratin-forming cell line. (J Oral Sci 58, 125-131, 2016).

  2. GanedenBC30™ cell wall and metabolites: anti-inflammatory and immune modulating effects in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Carter Steve G; Benson Kathleen F; Jensen Gitte S; Endres John R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties of the probiotic, spore-forming bacterial strain: Bacillus coagulans: GBI-30, (PTA-6086, GanedenBC30TM). In addition, cell wall and metabolite fractions were assayed separately to address whether biological effects were due to cell wall components only, or whether secreted compounds from live bacteria had additional biological properties. The spores were heat-activated, and bacterial cu...

  3. Involvement of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Mediated Up-Regulation of IκBα in Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Gemfibrozil in Microglia1

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Malabendu; Jana, Arundhati; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ghosh, Sankar; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    The present study underlines the importance of PI3K in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, a prescribed lipid-lowering drug for humans, in mouse microglia. Gemfibrozil inhibited LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines in mouse BV-2 microglial cells and primary microglia. By overexpressing wild-type and dominant-negative constructs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in microglial cells and isolating primary m...

  4. The anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on early atherosclerosis in high cholesterol fed rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis has been widely accepted as an inflammatory disease of vascular, adhesion molecules play an important role in the early progression of it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on the inflammatory molecules such as E-selectin (E-sel), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesionmolecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis rabbit models. Methods Thirty male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, fenofibrate (12mg/kg) group and kaempferol groups (150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The rabbits were fed with a normal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, serum tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were detected at the end of the sixth and tenth week. Malonaldehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were also determined. Lesion areas of the aorta were measured with morphometry analysis after ten weeks. Gene expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas was determined by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Immunohistochemical staining was employed to measure protein expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1. Results Model rabbits fed with ten weeks of high-cholesterol diet developed significant progression of atherosclerosis. Compared with the control, levels of blood lipids, TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA increased markedly in serum of model rabbits, while SOD levels decreased. Gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in atherosclerotic aortas increased remarkably in model group. However, comparing to the model rabbits, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA decreased significantly and serum SOD activity increased, gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas decreased significantly with the treatment of

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jian; Yong Wei; Wu Xiaohong; Yu Ying; Lv Jinghuan; Liu Cuiping; Mao Xiaodong; Zhu Yunxia; Xu Kuanfeng; Han Xiao; Liu Chao

    2008-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation characterized by adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and abnormal cytokine production is a key feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, induced by cytokines, has been shown to play an essential role in the early events during macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In this study we investigated the effects of resveratrol upon both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced MCP-1 gene expression and its underlying signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipoctyes. Resveratrol was found to inhibit TNF-α-induced MCP-1 secretion and gene transcription, as well as promoter activity, which based on down-regulation of TNF-α-induced MCP-1 transcription. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB was determined to play a major role in the TNF-α-induced MCP-1 expression. Further analysis showed that resveratrol inhibited DNA binding activity of the NF-κB complex and subsequently suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activity in TNF-α-stimulated cells. Finally, the inhibition of MCP-1 may represent a novel mechanism of resveratrol in preventing obesity-related pathologies

  6. Anti-Inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Free Fatty Acid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Junki; Kasubuchi, Mayu; Nakajima, Akira; Kimura, Ikuo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in macrophages and adipose tissues can promote the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acids (FFAs) have important roles in various tissues, acting as both essential energy sources and signaling molecules. FFA receptors (FFARs) can modulate inflammation in various types of cells and tissues; however the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. FFARs are activated by specific FFAs; for example, GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by medium and long chain FFAs, GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by short chain FFAs, and GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs. To date, a number of studies associated with the physiological functions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have reported that these GPCRs are expressed in various tissues and involved in inflammatory and metabolic responses. Thus, the development of selective agonists or antagonists for various GPCRs may facilitate the establishment of novel therapies for the treatment of various diseases. In this review, we summarize current literature describing the potential of GPCRs as therapeutic targets for inflammatory and metabolic disorders.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of Constituents Isolated from Rhodiola rosea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonju Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the biological activity of Rhodiola rosea, the protein expression of iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines was measured after the activation of murine microglial BV2 cells by LPS under the exposure of constituents of Rhodiola rosea: crude extract, rosin, rosarin, and salidroside (each 1–50 μg/mL. The LPS-induced expression of iNOS and cytokines in BV2 cells was suppressed by the constituents of Rhodiola rosea in a concentration-dependent manner. Also the expression of the proinflammatory factors iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the kidney and prefrontal cortex of brain in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of Rhodiola rosea crude extract (500 mg/kg. To determine the neuroprotective effect of constituents of Rhodiola rosea, neuronal cells were activated by L-glutamate, and neurotoxicity was analyzed. The L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity was suppressed by the treatment with rosin but not by rosarin. The level of phosphorylated MAPK, pJNK, and pp38 was increased by L-glutamate treatment but decreased by the treatment with rosin and salidroside. These results indicate that Rhodiola rosea may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammation and neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Lactocepin secreted by Lactobacillus exerts anti-inflammatory effects by selectively degrading proinflammatory chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schillde, Marie-Anne; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Weiher, Monika; Alpert, Carl-Alfred; Hahne, Hannes; Bäuerl, Christine; van Huynegem, Karolien; Steidler, Lothar; Hrncir, Tomas; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk

    2012-04-19

    The intestinal microbiota has been linked to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and oral treatment with specific bacteria can ameliorate IBD. One bacterial mixture, VSL#3, containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus, was clinically shown to reduce inflammation in IBD patients and normalize intestinal levels of IP-10, a lymphocyte-recruiting chemokine, in a murine colitis model. We identified Lactobacillus paracasei prtP-encoded lactocepin as a protease that selectively degrades secreted, cell-associated, and tissue-distributed IP-10, resulting in significantly reduced lymphocyte recruitment after intraperitoneal injection in an ileitis model. A human Lactobacillus casei isolate was also found to encode lactocepin and degrade IP-10. L. casei feeding studies in a murine colitis model (T cell transferred Rag2(-/-) mice) revealed that a prtP-disruption mutant was significantly less potent in reducing IP-10 levels, T cell infiltration and inflammation in cecal tissue compared to the isogenic wild-type strain. Thus, lactocepin-based therapies may be effective treatments for chemokine-mediated diseases like IBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine A2A Receptors Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture on Synovitis in Mice with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist, and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n=10. After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA.

  10. Effects of intratesticular injection of zinc-based solution in rats in combination with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs during chemical sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Regina Barros de Macedo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chemical sterilization is a non-surgical method of contraception based on compounds injected into the testis to induce infertility. However, these injections can cause discomfort and pain able to impair the recovery of animals after this treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate if anti-inflammatories or pain relievers inhibited the sterilizing effect of zinc gluconate-based solution on the testis. Materials and Methods: Adult rats were treated in groups: G1 (control, G2 (dimethyl sulfoxide + dipyrone; G3 (dipyrone/ zinc; G4 (dipyrone + celecoxib/zinc; G5 (dipyrone + meloxicam/zinc, and G6 (dipyrone + dexamethasone/zinc in a single dose per day during 7 days. Animals were analyzed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatments. Results: The zinc-induced a widespread testicular degeneration and decreased testosterone levels even in combination with anti-inflammatories or pain relievers. Testis, epididymis, prostate, and seminal vesicle had a weight reduction. The anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone interfered in the desired action of zinc gluconate in the 1st 15 days and celecoxib up to 7 days. Conclusion: Meloxicam plus dipyrone did not impair the chemical sterilization based on zinc gluconate, and it can be used to reduce nociceptive effects in animals after chemical sterilization.

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antinociceptive Effects of the Essential Oils from Three Species of Mentha Cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogosan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at correlating the chemotype of three Mentha species cultivated in Romania with an in vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oils. The selected species were Mentha piperita L. var. pallescens (white peppermint, Mentha spicata L. subsp. crispata (spearmint, and Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (pineapple mint. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oils isolated from the selected Mentha species was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was determined by the rat paw edema test induced by λ-carrageenan. The antinociceptive effect of the essential oils was evaluated by the writhing test in mice, using 1% (v/v acetic acid solution administered intraperitonealy and by the hot plate test in mice. The results showed a menthol chemotype for M. piperita pallescens, a carvone chemotype for M. spicata, and a piperitenone oxide chemotype for M. suaveolens. The essential oil from M. spicata L. (EOMSP produced statistically significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

  12. Pharmacological assay of Cordia verbenacea V: oral and topical anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic effect and fetus toxicity of a crude leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A A; Woisky, R G; Wiezel, G; Rodrigues, M

    2005-05-01

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Borraginaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for their anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. We have already described the anti-inflammatory properties of C. verbenacea and its low toxicity in different acute animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity in sub-chronic animal models of a crude leaf lyophilized extract when administered by oral route or topically applied, and concomitantly, its analgesic potency and toxicity to the fetus. Topical administration of the extract inhibited nystatin-induced edema proportionally to the doses used, and this effect at a dose of 4.56 mg/kg body wt. was similar to that observed with 6.0 mg/kg body wt. of naproxen. In miconazole-induced edema, the leaf extract at a dose of 1.24 mg/kg body wt., orally administered, has a very similar effect as compared to nimezulide (2.5 mg/kg body wt.) and dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg body wt.). At an oral dose of 2.48 mg/kg body wt. the extract showed a very low analgesic effect, and total absence of fetus toxicity at doses of less than 7.44 mg/kg body wt.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zingiber Officinale in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Low-grade inflammation, a common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2, causes some chronic complications in these patients. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α and the acute phase protein hs-CRP in DM2 patients as a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Methods: A total of 64 DM2 patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups and received 2 tablets/day of each for 2 months. The concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP in blood samples were analyzed before and after the intervention. Results: Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α (P = 0.006, IL-6 (P = 0.02 and hs-CRP (P = 0.012 in ginger group in comparison to baseline. Moreover, the analysis of covariance showed that the group received ginger supplementation significantly lowered TNF- α (15.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.6 ± 5.2; P = 0.005 and hs-CRP (2.42 ± 1.7 vs. 2.56 ± 2.18; P = .016 concentrations in comparison to control group. While there were no significant changes in IL-6 (7.9 ± 2.1 vs. 7.8 ± 2.9; P > .05. Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger supplementation in oral administration reduced inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may be a good remedy to diminish the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  14. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    P.C. Calder

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  15. Low-Intensity Ultrasound-Induced Anti-inflammatory Effects Are Mediated by Several New Mechanisms Including Gene Induction, Immunosuppressor Cell Promotion, and Enhancement of Exosome Biogenesis and Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders.Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS.Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1 LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2 LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells, MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells, B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells; (3 LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4 LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5 Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6 LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways.Conclusions: Our results have provided novel insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS, and have provided guidance for the development of future novel therapeutic LIUS for cancers, inflammatory disorders, tissue regeneration and tissue repair.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats

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    Tuğba Göncü

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of lycopene, a dietary carotenoid and potent antioxidant, against ocular inflammation and oxidative stress in an experimental uveitis model. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Induction of EIU was preceded by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lycopene for three consecutive days (Lycopene + LPS group or equivolume vehicle (Vehicle + LPS group. A positive control group received 1 mg/kg dexamethasone pretreatment (DEX + LPS, and a negative control group received daily vehicle injection but no LPS (Vehicle Control. Twenty-four hours after LPS or final vehicle administration, eyes were enucleated, and aqueous humor was collected for measurement of the number of infiltrating cells, total protein concentration, and levels of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and oxidative stress markers. Inflammatory response severity was compared among groups clinically and histopathologically. Results: Infiltrating cell number, total protein concentration, and NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in the aqueous humor of Vehicle + LPS group rats compared to Vehicle Controls. Compared to the Vehicle + LPS group, lycopene pretreatment significantly reduced aqueous humor concentrations of oxidative stress markers, NO (0.29 ± 0.1 μM vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 μM, p=0.003, TNF-α (71.0 ± 22.3 ng/ml vs. 50.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p=0.043, and IL-6 (121.6 ± 3.0 pg/ml vs. 111.1 ± 5.6 pg/ml, p=0.008. Inflammatory score was also reduced (2.0 ± 0.0 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5, p=0.001. Lycopene reduced the infiltrating cell count and protein concentration, but differences did not reach significance. Most lycopene effects were equivalent to dexamethasone. Conclusions: Lycopene may aid in the clinical management of uveitis by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü, Tuğba; Oğuz, Elif; Sezen, Hatice; Koçarslan, Sezen; Oğuz, Halit; Akal, Ali; Adıbelli, Fatih Mehmet; Çakmak, Sevim; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of lycopene, a dietary carotenoid and potent antioxidant, against ocular inflammation and oxidative stress in an experimental uveitis model. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Induction of EIU was preceded by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lycopene for three consecutive days (Lycopene + LPS group) or equivolume vehicle (Vehicle + LPS group). A positive control group received 1 mg/kg dexamethasone pretreatment (DEX + LPS), and a negative control group received daily vehicle injection but no LPS (Vehicle Control). Twenty-four hours after LPS or final vehicle administration, eyes were enucleated, and aqueous humor was collected for measurement of the number of infiltrating cells, total protein concentration, and levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and oxidative stress markers. Inflammatory response severity was compared among groups clinically and histopathologically. Infiltrating cell number, total protein concentration, and NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in the aqueous humor of Vehicle + LPS group rats compared to Vehicle Controls. Compared to the Vehicle + LPS group, lycopene pretreatment significantly reduced aqueous humor concentrations of oxidative stress markers, NO (0.29 ± 0.1 μM vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 μM, p=0.003), TNF-α (71.0 ± 22.3 ng/ml vs. 50.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p=0.043), and IL-6 (121.6 ± 3.0 pg/ml vs. 111.1 ± 5.6 pg/ml, p=0.008). Inflammatory score was also reduced (2.0 ± 0.0 vs. 0.4 ± 0.5, p=0.001). Lycopene reduced the infiltrating cell count and protein concentration, but differences did not reach significance. Most lycopene effects were equivalent to dexamethasone. Lycopene may aid in the clinical management of uveitis by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.

  18. Time Course of Prostaglandin Analog-related Conjunctival Hyperemia and the Effect of a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Ophthalmic Solution.

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    Sakata, Rei; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Miyata, Kazunori; Aihara, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    It is reported that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ophthalmic solution affected the therapeutic efficacy of prostaglandin (PG) analog by inhibiting endogenous PG production. However, whether NSAID ophthalmic solution interferes with its conjunctival hyperemia is unknown. We investigated the effect of NSAID ophthalmic solution on its hyperemia. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-month trial. Benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost 0.004% was used as a PG analog and administered once daily (08:00) in both eyes. Bromfenac sodium hydrate was assigned randomly to 1 eye twice daily (08:00 and 20:00) (the NSAID side), whereas flavin adenine dinucleotide sodium was applied to the fellow eye of each patient twice daily (08:00 and 20:00) (the control side). Conjunctival photographs of both eyes were taken 3 times (08:00, 14:00, 20:00) on days 1, 2, 7, and 28, and hyperemia was scored from 0 to 5 (H-score). We compared H-scores on the NSAID and control sides. Twenty-eight Japanese normal subjects completed the study. The H-score on the NSAID side was significantly lower than that on the control side on day 1 at 14:00 (P=0.016, paired t test) and day 2 at 14:00 (P=0.016). But there were no differences at 20:00 on each day and after that time. The use of NSAID ophthalmic solution had almost no impact on PG analog-related conjunctival hyperemia. This partly suggests that the action mechanism of endogenous PG after administrating PG analog might be no correlation with conjunctival hyperemia.

  19. Combinatorial effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and NF-κB inhibitors in ovarian cancer therapy.

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    Luiz F Zerbini

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have correlated the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID with reduced risk of ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecological cancer, diagnosed usually in late stages of the disease. We have previously established that the pro-apoptotic cytokine melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/Interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24 is a crucial mediator of NSAID-induced apoptosis in prostate, breast, renal and stomach cancer cells. In this report we evaluated various structurally different NSAIDs for their efficacies to induce apoptosis and mda-7/IL-24 expression in ovarian cancer cells. While several NSAIDs induced apoptosis, Sulindac Sulfide and Diclofenac most potently induced apoptosis and reduced tumor growth. A combination of these agents results in a synergistic effect. Furthermore, mda-7/IL-24 induction by NSAIDs is essential for programmed cell death, since inhibition of mda-7/IL-24 by small interfering RNA abrogates apoptosis. mda-7/IL-24 activation leads to upregulation of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible (GADD 45 α and γ and JNK activation. The NF-κB family of transcription factors has been implicated in ovarian cancer development. We previously established NF-κB/IκB signaling as an essential step for cell survival in cancer cells and hypothesized that targeting NF-κB could potentiate NSAID-mediated apoptosis induction in ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, combining NSAID treatment with NF-κB inhibitors led to enhanced apoptosis induction. Our results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB in combination with activation of mda-7/IL-24 expression may lead to a new combinatorial therapy for ovarian cancer.

  20. Thermal nociception as a measure of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug effectiveness in broiler chickens with articular pain☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplen, Gina; Baker, Laurence; Hothersall, Becky; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.; Sandilands, Victoria; Sparks, Nick H.C.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2013-01-01

    Pain associated with poultry lameness is poorly understood. The anti-nociceptive properties of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were evaluated using threshold testing in combination with an acute inflammatory arthropathy model. Broilers were tested in six groups (n = 8 per group). Each group underwent a treatment (saline, meloxicam (3 or 5 mg/kg) or carprofen (15 or 25 mg/kg)) and a procedure (Induced (arthropathy-induction) or sham (sham-handling)) prior to testing. Induced groups had Freund’s complete adjuvant injected intra-articularly into the left intertarsal joint (hock). A ramped thermal stimulus (1 °C/s) was applied to the skin of the left metatarsal. Data were analysed using random-intercept multi-level models. Saline-induced birds had a significantly higher skin temperature (± SD) than saline-sham birds (37.6 ± 0.8 °C vs. 36.5 ± 0.5 °C; Z = −3.47, P carprofen: Z = 2.58, P = 0.010) in induced birds. Saline-induced birds also had significantly lower TT than saline-sham birds (Z = −2.17, P = 0.030). This study found direct evidence of an association between inflammatory arthropathies and thermal hyperalgesia, and showed that NSAID treatment maintained baseline thermal sensitivity (via anti-nociception). Quantification of nociceptive responsiveness in a predictable broiler pain model identified thermal anti-hyperalgesic properties of two NSAIDs, which suggested that therapeutically effective treatment was provided at the doses administered. Such validation of analgesic strategies will increase the understanding of pain associated with specific natural broiler lameness types. PMID:24129110

  1. The Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Artemisia dracunculus L. Aqueous Extract on Fructose Fed Male Rats

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    Shahraki Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim & Objective. Artemisia dracunculus L. (Tarragon species have been used as a traditional medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract on fructose drinking water (FDW in male rats. Materials & Methods. Forty-eight Wistar-albino male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into control (C, control extract (CE, FDW, and FDWE groups (n=12. Group C did not receive any agents; Group CE did 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract on a daily basis for duration of four weeks. FDW Group received fructose drinking water (10%, weight/volume but did not receive any agents during trial period. FDWE group received 100 mg/kg A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract during trial period. At the end of experiment, a biphasic pain response was induced following interplanetary injection of formalin (50 µL, 1%. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software version 17 and using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SE. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results. Our findings revealed that acute and chronic pain scores in FDW group are significantly higher than other ones and A. dracunculus L. aqueous extract causes significant decreasing of this parameter in FDWE group (P<0.001. Moreover, IL6 and TNF values in this group were significantly decreased compared to FDW group (P<0.05. Conclusion. Results in the present study show that FDW causes the pain response score to increase and cause proinflammatory cytokines in rat model but A. dracunculus L. leaf aqueous extract improves values of these parameters.

  2. Sustained release of piroxicam from solid lipid nanoparticle as an effective anti-inflammatory therapeutics in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Hua; Wei, Wei; Shan, Ying-Hui; Chong, Yee-Song; Yu, Lian; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) as a novel vehicle for the sustained release and transdermal delivery of piroxicam, as well as to determine the anti-inflammation effect of piroxicam-loaded SLN. SLN formulation was optimized and the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency, drug release, and morphological properties were characterized. The transdermal efficiency and mechanism of the piroxicam-loaded SLNs were investigated in vitro. With the inflammation induced edema model in rat, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of piroxicam-enriched SLNs (Pir-SLNs) was evaluated. The SLN formulation was optimized as: lecithin 100 mg, glycerin monostearate 200 mg, and Tween (1%, w/w). The particle size is around 102 ± 5.2 nm with a PDI of 0.262. The ZP is 30.21 ± 2.05 mV. The prepared SLNs showed high entrapment efficiency of 87.5% for piroxicam. There is no interaction between piroxicam and the vehicle components. The presence of polymorphic form of lipid with higher drug content in the optimized Pir-SLNs enables the Pir-SLNs to release the drug with a sustained manner. Pir-SLNs with oleic acid as enhancer can radically diffuse into both the stratum corneum and dermal layer, as well as penetrate through the hair follicles and sebaceous glands with significantly higher density than the other control groups. Pir-SLNs promptly inhibited the inflammation since the 3rd hour after the treatment by decreasing the PGE 2 level. SLN was demonstrated to be a promising carrier for encapsulation and sustained release of piroxicam. Pir-SLN is a novel topical preparation with great potential for anti-inflammation application.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

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    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  4. Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase in phytochemical content was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Minocycline Has Anti-inflammatory Effects and Reduces Cytotoxicity in an Ex Vivo Spinal Cord Slice Culture Model of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Eamon D; Seitz, Scott; Clarke, Penny; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2017-11-15

    . Antiviral inflammatory responses are a crucial component of WNV pathology, and understanding how they are regulated is important for tailoring effective treatments. Proinflammatory responses during WNV infection have been extensively studied, but anti-inflammatory responses (and their potential protective and reparative capabilities) following WNV infection have not been investigated. Minocycline induced the expression of genes associated with the anti-inflammatory (M2) activation of CNS macrophages (microglia) in WNV-infected SCSC while inhibiting the expression of genes associated with proinflammatory (M1) macrophage activation and was protective for multiple CNS cell types, indicating its potential use as a therapeutic reagent. This ex vivo culture system can uniquely address the ability of CNS parenchymal cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) to respond to minocycline and to modulate the inflammatory environment and cytotoxicity in response to WNV infection without peripheral immune cell involvement. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

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    Surached Thitimuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE (Camellia sinensis L.. The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE’s principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl4-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl4 intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  7. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitimuta, Surached; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2017-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE) ( Camellia sinensis L.). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE's principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl₄-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl₄ intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 2 mediates in vivo pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and modulates autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Alessia ePiermattei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll like receptor 2 (Tlr2, by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile. Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific pro-inflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participate directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and Cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted on severity, extent of remission and distribution of the lesions within the Central Nervous System of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses.

  9. Evaluation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the acetone extract from Anacardium occidentale L

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    Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, commonly called cashew, is used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of gastric and inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the acetone extract (AE of the stem bark of A. occidentale. We evaluated the pharmacological activities of this plant material through the analgesic, antiedematogenic and chemotaxic inhibitory effects produced by the AE. The oral administration (p.o. of mice with the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg or positive control indomethacin (10 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing by 18.9, 35.9, 62.9 and 68.9%, respectively (ID50% = 530 mg/kg. The highest dose of the AE was able to inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema formation by 56.8% (indomethacin at 10 mg/kg, p.o. - 57.6% inhibition. When submitted to the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test, the AE (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg, p.o. impaired leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 24.8, 40.5 and 49.6%, respectively. The positive control, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, s.c., inhibited leukocyte migration by 66.9%. These results indicate the presence of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles in the acetone extract of Anacardium occidentale, and reinforce the plant's potential therapeutic use against pain and inflammatory diseases.As cascas do caule do Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, conhecido como cajueiro, são popularmente utilizadas no Brasil para o tratamento de doenças gástricas e inflamatórias. Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação farmacológica in vivo da atividade antiinflamatória do extrato acetônico (AE obtido das cascas do A. occidentale, investigando os efeitos analgésico, antiedematogênico e inibitório sobre a quimiotaxia deste material botânico. A administração oral (p.o. em camundongos com o AE (0,1; 0,3 e 1 g/kg ou o controle positivo indometacina (10 mg/kg inibiu as contor

  10. Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Kugel, Michael J; Baehring, Gina; Ammit, Alaina J

    2017-08-01

    The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. We conduct a series of investigations comparing and contrasting doxofylline with the archetypal xanthine, theophylline, and the specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, cilomilast. We confirm that the xanthine drugs do not have action as PDE inhibitors in ASM cells. Unlike cilomilast, doxofylline (and theophylline) do not increase cAMP production in ASM cells induced by long-acting β 2 -agonist formoterol. Similar to theophylline, and consistent with the lack of cAMP potentiation, doxofylline does not augment formoterol-induced upregulation of the anti-inflammatory protein mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). However, when we examine the effect of doxofylline on secretion of the interleukin 8 from ASM cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (an in vitro surrogate measure of inflammation), there was no repression of inflammation. This is in contrast to the anti-inflammatory impact exerted by theophylline and cilomilast in confirmatory experiments. In summary, our study is the first to examine the effect of doxofylline on ASM cells in vitro and highlights some distinct differences between two key members of xanthine drug family, doxofylline and theophylline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect as a mechanism of effectiveness underlying the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis patients: regulation of the altered inflammatory and stress feedback response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E.; Gálvez, I.; Hinchado, M. D.; Guerrero, J.; Martín-Cordero, L.; Torres-Piles, S.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre `El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. Serum inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β) were evaluated using the Bio-Plex® Luminex® system. Circulating neuroendocrine-stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72), were measured by ELISA. After the cycle of mud therapy, OA patients improved the knee flexion angle and OA-related pain, stiffness and physical function, and they reported a better health-related quality of life. Serum concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TGF-β, as well as eHsp72, were markedly decreased. Besides, systemic levels of cortisol increased significantly. These results confirm that the clinical benefits of mud therapy may well be mediated, at least in part, by its systemic anti-inflammatory effects and neuroendocrine-immune regulation in OA patients. Thus, mud therapy could be an effective alternative treatment in the management of OA.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of zinc finger protein A20 overexpression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J-Y; Bae, W-J; Yi, J-K; Kim, G-T; Kim, E-C

    2016-08-01

    Although overexpression of the nuclear factor κB inhibitory and ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, its function in periodontal disease remains unknown. The aims of the present study were to evaluate A20 expression in patients with periodontitis and to study the effects of A20 overexpression, using a recombinant adenovirus encoding A20 (Ad-A20), on the inflammatory response and on osteoclastic differentiation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The concentration of prostaglandin E2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages using conditioned medium from LPS- and nicotine-treated hPDLCs. A20 was upregulated in the gingival tissues and neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and in LPS- and nicotine-exposed hPDLCs. Pretreatment with A20 overexpression by Ad-A20 markedly attenuated LPS- and nicotine-induced production of prostaglandin E2 , as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, A20 overexpression inhibited the number and size of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, and downregulated osteoclast-specific gene expression. LPS- and nicotine-induced p38 phosphorylation and nuclear factor κB activation were blocked by Ad-A20. Ad-A20 inhibited the effects of nicotine and LPS on the activation of pan-protein kinase C, Akt, GSK-3β and protein kinase Cα. This study is the first to demonstrate that A20 overexpression has anti-inflammatory effects and blocks osteoclastic differentiation in a nicotine- and LPS-stimulated hPDLC model. Thus, A20 overexpression may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as periodontal disease. © 2015 John Wiley

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular pattern of the therapeutic effects of dietary seeds of Adenanthera Pavonina in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Olawole, Tolulope Dorcas; Adams, Khadijat Abiola; Shopeju, Omolola Ashiedu; Ezeaku, Mmaegbunem Chidera

    2018-04-01

    Adenanthera pavonina is a woody specie of Leguminosae-Mimosiodaea that is widely present across the globe. Little attention has been given to the dietary importance of the seeds, which have been linked with the traditional management of inflammatory conditions and several other diseases. This study determines the anti-inflammatory potential and the molecular effects of consuming the seeds compared to the commonly eaten Vigna uniguiculata (cowpea). The control, group administered with 10 g (AP-10), 20 g (AP-20) and 30 g (AP-30) of A. pavonina based diets; and those previously induced with inflammation administered with 20 kg of V. uniguiculata (BK/BM), normal saline (K-Sal), 20 g A. pavonina based diet (K-AP) and indomethacin (K-Ind) were examined for cyclooxygenase (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) levels in the serum and the effect of diets on the integrity of DNA using RAPD PCR analysis for monitoring their anti-inflammatory activity and the molecular effects. AP-30 based diets significantly reduced (Pcowpea. A. pavonina and V. uniguiculata diets exhibited similar ability to significantly reduced (P<0.05) the serum sICAM level of the inflammation induced rats compared with the K-Sal group. Both diet from A. pavonina and V. unguiculata significantly increases (P<0.05) COX-2 activity and the restoration of TNF-α activity. A. pavonina can act as a preventive food for inflammation and other diseases without damaging the DNA integrity in the kidney, liver and the heart.

  14. Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines

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    Susan Costantini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract from pomegranate (Punica granatum L. seed oil (PSO and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116, liver (HepG2 and Huh7, breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and prostate (DU145 cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO.

  15. Analysis of the use and adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A pilot study

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    Perić Aneta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The use and adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in outpatients with rheumatic diseases has not yet been studied enough. The aim of this study was to evaluate the data about the efficacy and safety of NSAIDs obtained from the questionnaires submitted to the outpatients receiving these drugs. Methods. The patients who had been prescribed any of NSAIDs within the period from June to September, 2004 were included in the study. The answers obtained from the questionnaires were statistically analyzed by means of χ2-test. Results. At the time of the study, 150 patients had been prescribed ibuprofen or some other NSAID. Out of the total number of dispensed questionnaires (n = 150, only 45 (30% were shown to be correctly filled-in. Their analysis showed that 64.4% of the patients had suffered from rheumatic diseases for more than five years, and had regularly used NSAIDs. The average age of these patients was about 70 years, and the number of females was double as high as that of the males. The most frequently used NSAIDs were diclofenac and ibuprofen (46.14%, and 23.24%, respectively. According to the answers given by the patients, the most often adverse reactions were gastric complaints such as nausea (11.1%, and stomach pain (8.9%. Due to this, the majority of the patients (64.4% used some of the antiulcer drugs, most often ranitidine (31.1%. Conclusion. The results of this pilot study revealed that among the outpatients suffering from rheumatic diseases, the number of females was double as high as the number of males, that these patients were of the mean age of 70 years, and that their diseases lasted longer than five years. Gastric complains such as nausea and gastric pain of mild intensity were the most often adverse effects of NSAIDs reported by our patients. It could be the consequence of the predominant use of diclofenac and ibuprofen, NSAIDs with mild to moderate ulcerogenic potential, as well as the

  16. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Constituent Analysis of Modified Xiaochaihutang for the Treatment of Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Ulcer

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    Xin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers are prevalent throughout the world and are considered to be a global health problem. Modified Xiaochaihutang (MXCHT prescription is broadly used in traditional medicine hospital for the treatment of gastritis. In order to assess the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori effect of MXCHT, agar diffusion method in vitro and fluid dilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC were established. The anti-inflammatory effects were then evaluated using mouse ear edema model and rat paw edema model. The ethanol-induced gastric ulcer method was employed to verify the gastroprotective effect of active extracts in MXCHT. HPLC-TOF-MS/MS was used for analyzing the possible active constituents after oral administration of effective extracts in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models. MXCHT and 4 different extracts of the bacterial inhibition diameter and MIC were dramatically decreased compared with control group, showing anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. High dose groups of MXCHT, water extract, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract displayed significant anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced mouse ear edema model and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model test. MXCHT and all active extracts exhibited gastroprotective activity and prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. 4 prototype components and 4 metabolites were identified after oral administration of EtOAc extract. In addition, 6 prototype components and 6 metabolites were identified in n-BuOH extract. MXCHT, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract demonstrate gastroprotective effects through anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, this prescription may be a suitable natural source for the prevention and treatment of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers.

  17. Phytochemical, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Pseudocedrella Kotschyii

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Y M; Haruna, A K; Ilyas, M; Yaro, A H; Ahmadu, A A; Usman, H

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening of the ethylacetate partition portion of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins as major chemical constituents. Alkaloids saponins, ca...

  18. Effect of Cyclodextrin Complexation of Curcumin on its Solubility and Antiangiogenic and Anti-inflammatory Activity in Rat Colitis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Vivek R.; Suresh, Sarasija; Devi, Kshama; Yadav, Seema

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of cyclodextrin (CD) complex of curcumin for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in colitis-induced rat model. Inclusion complexes of curcumin were prepared by common solvent and kneading methods. These complexes were further evaluated for increase in solubility of poorly soluble curcumin. The inclusion complexes were characterized for enhancement in solubility, in vitro dissolution, surface morp...

  19. [Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and antiplatelet effect of acetylsalicylic acid. selective approach to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cardiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, N V; Gruzdev, A K

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent class of medicines which is wide concerning chemical structure and mechanism of action. In the light of contradictory data on efficacy and safety of NSAID in cardiovascular patients selection of most appropriate NSAID (basing on profile of efficacy and safety) in patients receiving continuous therapy with low dose aspirin appears to be a problem. In this paper we discuss peculiarities of drug interaction between cyclooxygenase inhibitors and acetylsalicylic acid, and principles of selection of adequate NSAI.

  20. Copaiba oil enhances in vitro/in vivo cutaneous permeability and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Oliesia Gonzalez; Hossy, Bryan Hudson; Padua, Tatiana Almeida; Miguel, Nádia Campos de Oliveira; Rosas, Elaine Cruz; Ramos, Mônica Freiman de Souza; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma

    2018-03-29

    The aim of this article was to use copaiba oil (C.O) to improve skin permeability and topical anti-inflammatory activity of celecoxib (Cxb). Formulations containing C.O (1-50%) were associated with Cxb (2%). In vitro skin permeability studies were conducted using porcine ear skin. Histological analysis of the hairless mice skin samples after application of formulations was achieved with the routine haematoxylin/eosin technique. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the AA-induced ear oedema mice model. The formulation containing 25% C.O promoted the highest levels of in vitro Cxb permeation through pig ear skin, retention in the stratum corneum (SC) and epidermis/dermis of pig ear skin in vitro (~5-fold) and hairless mice skin in vivo (~2.0-fold), as compared with the control formulation. At 25%, C.O caused SC disorganization and increased cell infiltration and induced angiogenesis without clear signs of skin irritation. The formulation added to 25% C.O as adjuvant inhibited ear oedema and protein extravasation by 77.51 and 89.7%, respectively, and that it was, respectively, 2.0- and 3.4-fold more efficient than the commercial diethylammonium diclofenac cream gel to suppress these inflammatory parameters. 25% C.O is a potential penetration enhancer for lipophilic drugs like Cxb that can improve cutaneous drug penetration and its anti-inflammatory activity. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib versus non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis in Spain: A current perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lossada, A; Oteo-Álvaro, Á; Giménez, S; Oyagüez, I; Rejas, J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of celecoxib and non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of osteoarthritis in clinical practice in Spain. A decision-tree model using distribution, doses, treatment duration and incidence of GI and CV events observed in the pragmatic PROBE-designed «GI-Reasons» trial was used for cost-effectiveness. Effectiveness was expressed in terms of event averted and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained. QALY were calculated based on utility decrement in case of any adverse events reported in GI-Reasons trial. The National Health System perspective in Spain was applied; cost calculations included current prices of drugs plus cost of adverse events occurred. The analysis was expressed as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY gained and per event averted. One-way and probabilistic analyses were performed. Compared with non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at current prices, celecoxib treatment had higher overall treatment costs €201 and €157, respectively. However, celecoxib was associated with a slight increase in QALY gain and significantly lower incidence of gastrointestinal events (pcost-effectiveness ratio of €13,286 per QALY gained and €4,471 per event averted. Sensitivity analyses were robust, and confirmed the results of the base case. Celecoxib at current price may be considered as a cost-effective alternative vs. non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis in daily practice in the Spanish NHS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N.; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S.; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  3. Big infrastructures effects on local developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Vendemmia

    2011-10-01

    articulation and of translation between different extensive layers of the multi-scaled urban ‘cake’“ (Read, 2007 it will not be astonishing to discover, in Naples Metropolitan Area, new peripheral commercial centralities on the trucks of an old roman street. This synergy, raised in some urban nodes, is the result of a slow bottom-up process. Meanwhile, as the opposite top-down development, and as a consequence of the industrial sector reorganization, faster global dynamics create “new centralities” producing effects at the local scale and increasing the fragmentation. Moreover, it must be taken into account that these layers and processes are not only restricted to physical networks but they are shaped also by economical and social interactions, and that a network is always global and local in all its points (Latour, Nous n'avons jamais été modernes. Essai d'anthropologie symétrique, 1991.From a methodological point of you, a first interpretation of the city growth has driven to the compilation of thematic maps and photographical reports. The information, learned through the graphical and photographical process, were supported by a theoretical approach about both urban development in general and Naples growth in particular. 

  4. Side-Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Liver in Dogs and Hepatoprotective Effect of Plant Remedies

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    Szweda Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective effect of plant drugs against hepatic tissue injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was assessed on Beagle dogs. The adverse effects of carprofen and robenacoxib on the hepatic tissue were evaluated on the basis of histopathological examination of liver sections. It was demonstrated that the use of NSAIDs with liquorice and composed plant remedy Pectosol¯ caused a reduction of hepatic adverse effects induced by the administration of NSAIDs. This fact indicates a hepatoprotective effect of the tested plant remedies during the treatment with NSAIDs. However, the results require further studies on a larger group of animals. Liquorice and Pectosol¯ reduce the hepatic side effects, which develop after the treatment with carprofen and, to a lesser extent, robenacoxib in young Beagles. Such studies allow to investigate the negative and positive effects of using robenacoxib and carprofen in dogs and, therefore, help to limit the NSAID-induced side effects on the liver in these animals.

  5. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

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    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  6. The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees on pelvic inflammatory disease in rats through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wen, Xiaoke; Luo, Jieying; Chen, Shuqiong; Cheng, Zeneng; Xiang, Daxiong; Hu, Jian; He, Jingyu

    2016-11-25

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (APN), a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. Thirty-six female specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into control group, PID group, APN1 group, APN2 group, APN3 group and prednisone group. Pathogen-induced PID rats were constructed. The APN1, APN2 and APN3 group rats were orally administrated with APN extract at different levels. The prednisone group rats were administrated with prednisone. Eight days after the first infection, the histological examination of upper genital tract was carried out, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out using homogenate of the uterus and fallopian tube. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluations of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α in uterus was conducted. APN obviously suppressed the infiltrations of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and it could significantly reduce the excessive production of cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, APN could block the pathogen-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. APN showed potent anti-inflammatory effect on pathogen-induced PID in rats, with a potential mechanism of inhibiting the NF-κB signal pathway.

  7. [Treatment of ASS-Associated Polyposis (ASSAP) with a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist - a prospective drug study on its antiinflammatory effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, T; Töpfner, M

    2001-10-01

    In a high rate of cases with recurrent polyposis an association with ASS-intolerance is detectable despite missing pulmonary symptoms. New examinations of a disturbed arachidonic acid metabolism lead to the development of new therapeutical options. Treatment with leukotriene-receptor antogonists (LTA) showed primarily good results in therapy of ASS-associated asthma. 18 patients with ASS-intolerance trias - diagnosed by oral provocation - were treated with the LTA Montelukast, after undergoing sinus surgery. Patients underwent a diagnostic pathway of provocation including four groups: recurrent chronic sinusitis, excessive polyposis, polyposis associated with asthma and anaphylactic symptoms after oral ASS-intake. Clinically we examined the following parameters periodically after sinus surgery: nasal and pulmonal symptoms by scoring levels, recurrency of polypoid hyperplasia by endoscopic follow-ups and serum ECP-levels. To evaluate antiinflammatory tissue effects of LTA EG1/EG2 labelled cells and cytokine levels of Interleukin 5 in mucosa samples of the lower turbinate were analysed under LTA-therapy. Under therapy with LTA we saw a beneficial effect on nasal and pulmonary symptoms and a significant reduction of recurrent polyposis in endoscopic examinations in relation to the untreated group. Results were proven by a permanent reduction of serum ECP-level. A reduction of the rate of EG2-positive cells according to decreased Interleukin 5 levels in the nasal mucosa unter LTA-treatment assumed antiinflammatory effects on ASS-associated polyposis. We could demonstrate antiinflammatory effects of Leukotriene-Receptor-Antagonists primarily during postoperative treatment of patients with ASS-associated nasal polyps.

  8. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau extracts: inhibition of cytokine production and Toll-like receptor-4 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wai eMai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans has had a long history of use in folk medicine in Malaysia and Southeast Asia; mostly in the relief of inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of different extracts of C. nutans upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced inflammation in order to identify its mechanism of action. Extracts of leaves and stem bark of C. nutans were prepared using polar and non-polar solvents to produce four extracts, namely polar leaf extract (LP, non-polar leaf extract (LN, polar stem extract (SP and non-polar stem extracts (SN. The extracts were standardized by determining its total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Its anti-inflammatory effects were assessed on LPS induced nitrite release in RAW264.7 macrophages and Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 activation in TLR-4 transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40 and IL-17 in treated RAW264.7 macrophages were quantified to verify its anti-inflammatory effects. Western blotting was used to investigate the effect of the most potent extract (LP on TLR-4 related inflammatory proteins (p65, p38, ERK, JNK, IRF3 in RAW264.7 macrophages. All four extracts produced a significant, concentration-dependent reduction in LPS-stimulated nitric oxide, LPS-induced TLR-4 activation in HEK-BlueTM-hTLR4 cells and LPS-stimulated cytokines production in RAW264.7 macrophages. The most potent extract, LP, also inhibited all LPS-induced TLR-4 inflammatory proteins. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms underlying the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of C. nutans extracts.

  9. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

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    Angélica G. Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  10. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  11. Non-Local Effects in Kaonic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self energy in nuclear matter. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful description is obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. (author)

  12. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

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    Youn-Chul Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1, and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2 and citromycetin (3. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1 also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1 on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1 suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1.

  13. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 3-O-[(6'-O-Palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl Sitosterol] from Agave angustifolia on Ear Edema in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hernández-Valle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico Agave angustifolia has traditionally been used to treat inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract of A. angustifolia, the isolation and identification of active compounds. From the acetone extract two active fractions were obtained, (AsF13 and AaF16. For the characterization of pharmacological activity, the acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema induced with TPA was used. The tissue exposed to TPA and treatments were subjected to two analysis, cytokine quantification (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α and histopathological evaluation. The active fraction (AaF16 consisted principally of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranpsyl] sitosterol. In AaF13 fraction was identified β-sitosteryl glucoside (2 and stigmasterol (3. The three treatments tested showed a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory effect (AaAc Emax = 33.10%, EC50 = 0.126 mg/ear; AaF13 Emax = 54.22%, EC50 = 0.0524 mg/ear; AaF16 Emax = 61.01%, EC50 = 0.050 mg/ear. The application of TPA caused a significant increase on level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα compared with basal condition, which was countered by any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, the experimental treatments induced a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, compared to the level observed when stimulated with TPA. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of Agave angustifolia, is associated with the presence of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] sitosterol.

  15. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kang, Myeong-Suk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1. PMID:23612372

  16. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  17. Non-local effects in kaonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-04-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self-energy in nuclear matter. The optical potentials show strong non-linearities in the nucleon density and sizeable non-local terms. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful fits are obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. We conclude that a microscopic description of kaonic atom data requires further detailed studies of the microscopic K - nuclear dynamics. (orig.)

  18. Progesterone and estradiol exert an inhibitory effect on the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by activated MZ B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommer, I; Muzzio, D O; Zygmunt, M; Jensen, F

    2016-08-01

    The main message of this work is the fact that female sex hormones, progesterone and estradiol, whose levels significantly rise during pregnancy, inhibit the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 with no apparent effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by activated MZ B cells. This is an important piece of information and helps to better understand how the maternal immune system controls the balance between immune tolerance and immune activation during pregnancy leading to the simultaneously acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus and the proper defense of the mother against pathogens during this critical period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius in DSS mouse colitis: impact on microRNAs expression and microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Vezza, Teresa; Utrilla, M Pilar; Chueca, Natalia; Garcia, Federico; Olivares, Mónica; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Gálvez, Julio

    2017-11-01

    To compare the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of two probiotics Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius in mouse colitis, focusing on their impact on selected miRNAs and microbiota composition. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10): non-colitic, DSS colitic and two colitic groups treated with probiotics (5 × 10 8 CFU/mouse/day). Both probiotics ameliorated macroscopic colonic damage. They improved the colonic expression of markers involved in the immune response, and the expression of miR-155 and miR-223. L. fermentum also restored miR-150 and miR-143 expression, also linked to the preservation of the intestinal barrier function. Besides, these beneficial effects were associated with the amelioration of the microbiota dysbiosis and a recovery of the SCFAs- and lactic acid-producing bacterial populations, although only L. fermentum improved Chao richness, Pielou evenness and Shannon diversity. Moreover, L. fermentum also restored the Treg cell population in MLNs and the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Both probiotics exerted intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-mouse colitis, maybe due to their ability to restore the intestinal microbiota homeostasis and modulate the immune response. L. fermentum showed a greater beneficial effect compared to L. salivarius, which makes it more interesting for future studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Campos, Maria M; Pianowski, Luiz F; Calixto, João B

    2007-08-27

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Cordia verbenacea's essential oil, alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Our results revealed that oral treatment with both compounds displayed marked inhibitory effects in different inflammatory experimental models in mice and rats. alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were effective in reducing platelet activating factor-, bradykinin- and ovoalbumin-induced mouse paw oedema, while only alpha-humulene was able to diminish the oedema formation caused by histamine injection. Also, both compounds had important inhibitory effects on the mouse and rat carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Systemic treatment with alpha-humulene largely prevented both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation in carrageenan-injected rats, whereas (-)-trans-caryophyllene diminished only TNFalpha release. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, induced by the intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug. All these findings indicate that alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  1. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Lu; Liu, Ke

    2009-04-21

    Arctigenin, a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) which has been widely used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for dispelling wind and heat included in Chinese Pharmacophere, was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities but its molecular mechanism remains unknown yet. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells were used for the experiments. Griess assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was used to determine the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was tested by colorimetric method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2. Arctigenin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, including TNF-alpha and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also strongly inhibited the expression of iNOS and iNOS enzymatic activity, whereas the expression of COX-2 and COX-2 enzymatic activity were not affected by arctigenin. These results indicated that potent inhibition on NO, TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not COX-2 expression and COX-2 activity, might constitute the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Arctigenin suppressed the overproduction of NO through down-regulation of iNOS expression and iNOS enzymatic activity in LPS-stimulated macrophage.

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a botanical composite containing standardized extracts of Curcuma longa and Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Though the initial etiologies of arthritis are multifactorial, clinically, patients share the prime complaints of the disease, pain. Here the authors assessed the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of UP1304, a composite that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and the root bark of Morus alba, on rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. A plant library was screened for bradykinin receptor antagonists. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the standardized composite, UP1304, were evaluated in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema using oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Ibuprofen, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was used as a reference compound. In vitro, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were performed to evaluate the degree of inflammation. Statistically significant improvements in pain resistance and paw edema suppression were observed in animals treated with UP1304, when compared to vehicle-treated rats. Results from the highest dose of UP1304 (400 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at 200 mg/kg. In vitro, UP1304 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LOX. A half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.6 μg/mL for bradykinin B1 inhibition was calculated for the organic extract of C. longa. Curcumin showed Ki values of 2.73 and 58 μg/mL for bradykinin receptors B1 and B2, respectively. Data presented here suggest that UP1304, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin, acted as a bradykinin receptor B1 and B2 antagonist, and inhibited COX and LOX enzyme activities. This compound should be considered for the management of symptoms associated with arthritis.

  3. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Yvonne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a schedule of an oral anti-inflammatory compared with an antibiotic regimen and another group assigned to receive a placebo. Methods and design A total of 420 patients from 15 to 70 years of age with no associated comorbidity, presenting respiratory tract infection of at least one week of evolution, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of purulent expectoration and at least one other symptom of the respiratory tract (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort or pain, with no alternative explanation such as pneumonia, will be included in a prospective, randomised and controlled, clinical trial with placebo. The patients will be randomised to receive one of three treatments: ibuprofen, amoxycillin and clavulanic acid or placebo for 10 days. The main outcome measure is the number of days with frequent cough defined by the symptom diary with a score of 1 or more. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate the number of days with frequent cough with anti-inflammatory treatment compared with antimicrobial treatment and placebo in previously healthy patients with a clinical picture of acute bronchitis and purulent expectoration. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment is more effective than antibiotic treatment to reduce cough, which is the most disturbing symptom for patients with this infection. Trial registration ISRCTN07852892

  4. Topical piroxicam in vitro release and in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from palm oil esters-based nanocream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthanna F Abdulkarim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Muthanna F Abdulkarim1*, Ghassan Z Abdullah1*, Mallikarjun Chitneni2, Ibrahim M Salman1, Omar Z Ameer1, Mun F Yam1,3, Elrashid S Mahdi1, Munavvar A Sattar1, Mahiran Basri4, Azmin M Noor11School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; *The First and Second Authors have Contributed Equally to this WorkIntroduction: During recent years, there has been growing interest in use of topical vehicle systems to assist in drug permeation through the skin. Drugs of interest are usually those that are problematic when given orally, such as piroxicam, a highly effective anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic, but with the adverse effect of causing gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a newly synthesized palm oil esters (POEs-based nanocream containing piroxicam for topical delivery.Methods: A ratio of 25:37:38 of POEs: external phase: surfactants (Tween 80:Span 20, in a ratio 80:20, respectively was selected as the basic composition for the production of a nanocream with ideal properties. Various nanocreams were prepared using phosphate-buffered saline as the external phase at three different pH values. The abilities of these formulae to deliver piroxicam were assessed in vitro using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with a cellulose acetate membrane and full thickness rat skin. These formulae were also evaluated in vivo by comparing their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities with those of the currently marketed gel.Results: After eight hours, nearly 100% of drug was transferred through the artificial membrane from the prepared formula F3 (phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4 as the external phase and the marketed gel. The steady-state flux

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Yang, Deok Chun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Plant extracts have been used as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Among the numerous traditional medicinal herbs, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), commonly known as guava, has long been used in folk medicines as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases in East Asian and other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava (guava) in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that guava leaf extract (GLE) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner. GLE suppressed the expression and activity of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in part through the downregulation of ERK1/2 activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GLE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in 2 different animal models-Freund's complete adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia in the rat and LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

  6. Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Multiple Applications of S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster (SFPP) in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple applications of S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP), a novel Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch, for the alleviation of inflammatory pain and edema in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model as compared to other NSAID patches. The AIA model was induced by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum and rats were treated with a patch (1.0 cm × 0.88 cm) containing each NSAID (SFP, ketoprofen, loxoprofen, diclofenac, felbinac, flurbiprofen, or indomethacin) applied to the paw for 6 h per day for 5 days. The pain threshold was evaluated using a flexion test of the ankle joint, and the inflamed paw edema was evaluated using a plethysmometer. cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition was evaluated using human recombinant proteins. Multiple applications of SFPP exerted a significant analgesic effect from the first day of application as compared to the other NSAID patches. In terms of paw edema, SFPP decreased edema from the second day after application, Multiple applications of SFPP were superior to those of other NSAID patches, in terms of the analgesic effect with multiple applications. These results suggest that SFPP may be a beneficial patch for providing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects clinically. Drug Dev Res 77 : 206-211, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema

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    Araki Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol. Methods The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography. Results The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides. Conclusions It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2

  9. Effects of aerobic and resistance training of long duration on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in rats

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    C.M.S. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine possible changes in serum concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of eutrophic rats subjected to aerobic or resistance physical training. Methods: This study examined serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1-β in rats that performed aerobic or resistance training for 16 weeks. Thirty-five Wistar rats (male adult were divided into three groups: Control Group (CG, Aerobic Group (AG and Resistance Group (RG. Rats were sacrificed 48 h after the final training session. Serum concentrations of cytokines were analysed by ELISA. Results: TNF-α levels were higher in the RG, followed by the AG and CG groups (p < 0.001. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were not significantly different between groups (p = 0.097 and p = 0.17, respectively. The levels of IL6 and IL1-β were higher in AG compared to RG and CG (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.003, respectively. In general, our results indicate a higher pro-inflammatory profile in AG and probably RG animals. Conclusion: Further studies are required in order to better clarify the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, future studies should address the metabolic and molecular pathways involved in these responses. Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar posibles cambios en las concentraciones séricas de citoquinas pro y antiinflamatorias de ratas eutróficas sometidas a entrenamiento físico aérobico y de resistencia. Método: Se examinaron las concentraciones séricas de TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-1-β en ratas sometidas a entrenamiento aeróbico o de resistencia de 16 semanas de duración. Treinta y cinco ratas Wistar (macho adulto fueron divididas en 3 grupos: Grupo Control (GC, Grupo Aeróbico (GA y Grupo Resistencia (GR. Las ratas se sacrificaron 48 horas después de la sesión de entrenamiento final. Las concentraciones s

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Recreational Exercise in TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats: Role of NOS/HO/MPO System

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    Zita Szalai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are opposite views in the available literature: Whether physical exercise has a protective effect or not on the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Therefore, we investigated the effects of recreational physical exercise before the induction of colitis. After 6 weeks of voluntary physical activity (running wheel, male Wistar rats were treated with TNBS (10 mg. 72 hrs after trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS challenge we measured colonic gene (TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1 and IL-10 and protein (TNF-α expressions of various inflammatory mediators and enzyme activities of heme oxygenase (HO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and myeloperoxidase (MPO enzymes. Wheel running significantly increased the activities of HO, constitutive NOS (cNOS isoform. Furthermore, 6 weeks of running significantly decreased TNBS-induced inflammatory markers, including extent of lesions, severity of mucosal damage, and gene expression of IL-1β, CXCL1, and MPO activity, while IL-10 gene expression and cNOS activity were increased. iNOS activity decreased and the activity of HO enzyme increased, but not significantly, compared to the sedentary TNBS-treated group. In conclusion, recreational physical exercise can play an anti-inflammatory role by downregulating the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators, inducing anti-inflammatory mediators, and modulating the activities of HO and NOS enzymes in a rat model of colitis.

  11. Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats

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    Denise Pereira Müzell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the bioactive properties of an aqueous extract of M. officinalis for its anti-inflammatory activity and its protection against hepatic and renal lesions induced by acetaminophen (APAP. Animals pre-treated with the crude extract in pleurisy induced by carrageenan showed a reduction in the amounts of exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Intragastric administration of the extract for seven days prior to the APAP-induced lesion showed no protective effect on the liver. The treatment with the extract induced an increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase, indicating a rise of toxicity. Contrarily, the same treatment reduced the APAP induced lesion in kidney, with respect to ν-glutamyltransferase. The results suggested that the extract was not hepatoprotective and could lead to an increase in the lesions induced by the APAP. On the other hand, the extract was nephroprotective against the lesions induced by the APAP and showed an anti-inflammatory effect on pleurisy carrageenan-induced.

  12. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of the new generation synthetic surfactant CHF5633 on Ureaplasma-induced cytokine responses in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Fehrholz, Markus; Henrich, Birgit; Claus, Heike; Papsdorf, Michael; Speer, Christian P

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic surfactants represent a promising alternative to animal-derived preparations in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. The synthetic surfactant CHF5633 has proven biophysical effectiveness and, moreover, demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated monocytes. With ureaplasmas being relevant pathogens in preterm lung inflammation, the present study addressed immunomodulatory features on Ureaplasma-induced monocyte cytokine responses. Ureaplasma parvum-stimulated monocytes were exposed to CHF5633. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TLR2 and TLR4 expression were analyzed using qPCR and flow cytometry. CHF5633 did not induce pro-inflammation, and did not aggravate Ureaplasma-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. It suppressed U. parvum-induced intracellular TNF-α (p Ureaplasma-induced TNF-α mRNA (p Ureaplasma-modulated IL-8, IL-10, TLR2 and TLR4 were unaffected. CHF5633 does neither act pro-apoptotic nor pro-inflammatory in native and Ureaplasma-infected monocytes. Suppression of Ureaplasma-induced TNF-α and IL-1β underlines anti-inflammatory features of CHF5633.

  14. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Contrasting Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Mucor Racemosus Secondary Metabolites Compared to Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Samuel M; Muqaku, Besnik; Ullmann, Ronald; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mader, Johanna C; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Gerner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Classical drug assays are often confined to single molecules and targeting single pathways. However, it is also desirable to investigate the effects of complex mixtures on complex systems such as living cells including the natural multitude of signalling pathways. Evidence based on herbal medicine has motivated us to investigate potential beneficial health effects of Mucor racemosus (M rac) extracts. Secondary metabolites of M rac were collected using a good-manufacturing process (GMP) approved production line and a validated manufacturing process, in order to obtain a stable product termed SyCircue (National Drug Code USA: 10424-102). Toxicological studies confirmed that this product does not contain mycotoxins and is non-genotoxic. Potential effects on inflammatory processes were investigated by treating stimulated cells with M rac extracts and the effects were compared to the standard anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone on the levels of the proteome and metabolome. Using 2D-PAGE, slight anti-inflammatory effects were observed in primary white blood mononuclear cells, which were more pronounced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Proteome profiling based on nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests revealed inhibitory effects of M rac extracts on pro-inflammatory cytoplasmic mediators and secreted cytokines and chemokines in these endothelial cells. This finding was confirmed using targeted proteomics, here treatment of stimulated cells with M rac extracts down-regulated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, CXCL5 and GROA significantly. Finally, the modulating effects of M rac on HUVECs were also confirmed on the level of the metabolome. Several metabolites displayed significant concentration changes upon treatment of inflammatory activated HUVECs with the M rac extract, including spermine and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:0 and sphingomyelin C26:1, while the bulk of measured metabolites remained unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of M rac