Sample records for loblolly pine seed

  1. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.


    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  2. A Southwide Rate Test of Azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for Cone and Seed Insect Control In Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards (United States)

    A.C. Mangini; L.R. Barber; R.S. Cameron; G.L. DeBarr; G.R. Hodge; J.B. Jett; W.L. Lowe; J.L. McConnell; J. Nord; J.W. Taylor


    A southwide efficiency test of reduced rates of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for control of seed and cone insects in loblolly pine seed orchards was conducted in 1992. In each of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed orchards, an untreated (no protection) check and two of five possible rates of Guthion® (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 lb ai/ac/...

  3. Planting nonlocal seed sources of loblolly pine - managing benefits and risks (United States)

    Clem Lambeth; Steve Mckeand; Randy Rousseau; Ron Schmidtling


    Seed source testing of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which began in the 1920s, has allowed large realized genetic gains from using nonlocal seed sources in operational plantations. Seed source testing continues, and deployment guidlines are being refined. some general effects of seed source movement can be described, but there are still gaps in (1)...

  4. Ice Damage in a Georgia Planting of Loblolly Pine from Different Seed Sources (United States)

    Earle P. Jones; Osborn O. Wells


    After a severe ice storm in south-central Georgia, the degree of ice damage in a provenance test planting of 11-year-old loblolly pines varied considerably among the nine widely seperated seed sources represented. Damage was less among tress from the colder, more inland locations than among tress from coastal areas where the climate is more moderate. In terms of...

  5. Yield and financial performance estimates of four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the Western Gulf Region (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley


    Eastern seed sources of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) have been planted in the Western Gulf region for nearly three decades because they often have higher growth rates than local seed sources. However, productivity gains for eastern families are sometimes offset by poorer survival rates relative to local families.

  6. Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr; Julie C. Weatherby; Larry R. Barber; C. Wayne Berisford


    Because Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) is a key pest in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceac), seed orchards in the southeastern United States, improved timing of insecticide applications would be valuable for its control. To time two fenvalerate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC) applications we tested four variations of a degree day model that...

  7. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode


    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  8. Site Index Curves for Direct-Seeded Loblolly and Longleaf Pines in Louisiana (United States)

    Quang V. Cao; V. Clark Baldwin; Richard E. Lohrey


    Site index equations were developed for direct-seeded loblollypine (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) based on data from 148 and 75 permanent plots, respectively. These plots varied from 0.053 to 0.119 ac in size, and were established in broadcast, row, and spot seeded stands throughout Louisiana. The Bailey and Clutter (1974) model was...

  9. Whole-canopy gas exchange among four elite loblolly pine seed sources planted in the western gulf region (United States)

    Bradley S. Osbon; Michael A. Blazier; Michael C. Tyree; Mary Anne Sword-Sayer


    Planting of artificially selected, improved seedlings has led to large increases in productivity of intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests in the southeastern United States. However, more data are needed to give a deeper understanding of how physiology and crown architecture affect productivity of diverse genotypes. The objective...

  10. Risk Analysis of Loblolly Pine Controlled Mass Pollination Program (United States)

    T.D. Byram; F.E. Bridgwater


    The economic success of controlled mass pollination (CMP) depends both upon the value of the genetic gain obtained and the cost per seed. Crossing the best six loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parents currently available in each deployment region of the Western Gulf Forest Tree Improvement Program will produce seed with an average additional gain in mean...

  11. Allozyme diversity of selected and natural loblolly pine populations (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling; E. Carroll; T. LaFarge


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagametophytes and embryos were examined electrophoretically to compare the extent and distribution of genetic variability in allozymes of selected and wild populations. Range-wide collections of three different types were investigated in this study. These consisted of seed sampled from (1) a provenance test...

  12. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker


    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  13. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson


    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  14. Risk assessment with current deployment strategies for fusiform rust-resistant loblolly and slash pines (United States)

    Floyd Bridgwater; Tom Kubisiak; Tom Byram; Steve Mckeand


    In the southeastern USA, fusiform rust resistant loblolly and slash pines may be deployed as 1) ulked seed orchard mixes. 2) half-sibling (sib) family mixtures. 3) single half-sib families. 4) full-sib cross seeds or as 6) clones of individual genotypes. These deployment types are respectively greater genetic gains from higher selection intensity. Currently, bulked...

  15. Tolerance of Loblolly Pines to Fusiform Rust (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw; James P. Barnett


    Loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that were 8 to 17 yr old tolerated one to three fusiform rust (Cronartium quercuum [Berk.] Miyabe ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme) galls in their stems.Families with four or more galls in their stems lost 2.5% or more of the trees by age 17.In living trees with less than four stem galls, diameter growth was comparable to...

  16. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  17. Regulation of two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) isocitrate lyase genes in megagametophytes of mature and stratified seeds and during postgerminative growth. (United States)

    Mullen, R T; Gifford, D J


    Two full-length cDNAs encoding the glyoxysomal enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) were isolated from a lambda ZAP cDNA library prepared from megagametophyte mRNAs extracted from seeds imbibed at 30 degrees C for 8 days. The cDNAs, designated Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12, have open reading frames of 1740 and 1719 bp, with deduced amino acid sequences of 580 and 573 residues, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 exhibit a 79% identity with each other, and have a greater than 75% identity with ICLs from various angiosperm species. The C-termini of Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 terminate with the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Met and Ala-Arg-Met, respectively, both being conserved variants of the type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal. RNA blot and slot analysis revealed that Ptbs ICL 8 and Ptbs ICL 12 mRNAs were present at low levels in the megagametophyte of the mature and stratified seeds, and that the level of both transcripts increased markedly upon seed germination. Protein blot analysis indicated that the steady-state level of ICL was low in the mature and stratified seed, then increased rapidly upon seed germination, peaking at around 8-10 days after imbibition (DAI). Changes in the level of ICL activity in cell-free extracts was similar to the steady-state protein content with the exception that ICL activity was not detected in megagametophyte extracts of mature or stratified seeds. From 10-12 DAI when the megagametophyte tissue senesced, ICL activity decreased rapidly to near undetectable levels. In contrast, steady-state levels of ICL protein and mRNA remained relatively constant during megagametophyte senescence. In vivo synthesis of ICL protein was measured to shed light on these differences. ICL immunoselected from [(35)S]-methionine labelled proteins indicated that ICL was synthesized at very low levels during megagametophyte senescence. Together, the results show that loblolly pine ICL gene expression is complex. While temporal

  18. Pathogenicity of Leptographium Species Associated with Loblolly Pine Decline (United States)

    L. G. Eckhardt; J. P. Jones; Kier D. Klepzig


    Freshly lifted seedlings and 21-year-old trees of loblolly pine were wound-inoculated with Leptographium species recovered from the soil and/or roots of trees with loblolly decline symptoms in central Alabama. Seedlings inoculated with L. procerum in the greenhouse produced significantly fewer root initials and a smaller root mass than control...

  19. Assessment of Loblolly Pine Decline in Central Alabama (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otrosina; Emily A. Carter; Jim R. Steinman; John P. Jones; Lori G. Eckhardt; Ann M. Weber; Charles H. Walkinshaw


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been prevalent on upland sites of central Alabama since the 1960's. The purpose of this study was to compare Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) standards and protocols with root health evaluations relative to crown, stem, and site measurements. Thirty-nine 1/6 acre plots were established on loblolly decline...

  20. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson


    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  1. Heterogeneity of interflavanoid bond Location in loblolly pine bark procyanidins (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; Joseph J. Karchesy; Gerald W. McGraw; Richard A. Wielesek


    Procyanidins B-1, B-3 and B-7 were obtained from Pinus taeda phloem in yields of 0.076, 0.021 and 0.034% of unextracted dry wt. Procyanidins B-1 and B-7 were produced in relative yields of 2.4:1 by biosynthetically patterned synthesis from catechin and loblolly pine tannins. Partial acid-catalysed thiolytic cleavage of loblolly pine phloem tannins...

  2. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp


    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  3. Microsatellite DNA in genomic survey sequences and UniGenes of loblolly pine (United States)

    Craig S Echt; Surya Saha; Dennis L Deemer; C Dana Nelson


    Genomic DNA sequence databases are a potential and growing resource for simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker development in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine also has many expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available for microsatellite (SSR) marker development. We compared loblolly pine SSR densities in genome survey sequences (GSSs) to those in non-redundant...

  4. Carbon Sequestration in loblolly pine plantations: Methods, limitations, and research needs for estimating storage pools (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Bob Teskey; Lisa Samuelson; John Butnor; David Sampson; Felipe Sanchez; Chris Maier; Steve McKeand


    Globally, the species most widely used for plantation forestry is loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Because loblolly pine plantations are so extensive and grow so rapidly, they provide a great potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Because loblolly pine plantations are relatively simple ecosystems and because such a great volume of...

  5. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff


    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  6. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser


    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  7. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith


    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  8. Management intensity and genetics affect loblolly pine seedling performance (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau; B. Landis Herrin


    Capturing potential genetic gains from tree improvement programs requires selection of the appropriate genetic stock and application of appropriate silvicultural management techniques. Limited information is available on how specific loblolly pine varietal genotypes perform under differing growing environments and management approaches. This study was established in...

  9. Carbon allocation to young loblolly pine roots and stems (United States)

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Clanton C. Black; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    This study of root biomass with loblolly pine was designed with the following objectives: (1) to measure the root biomass for a range of individual trees between the ages of 3 and 10 years on different artificial and natural forest sites and (2) to relate the root biomass to aboveground biomass components.

  10. Identification of a new retrotransposable element in loblolly pine (United States)

    M.N. Islam-Faridi; A.M. Morse; K.E. Smith; J.M. Davis; S. Garcia; H.V. Amerson; M.A. Majid; T.L. Kubisiak; C.D. Nelson


    We initiated a project to locate the genomic position of fusiform rust resistance gene 1 (Fr1) in loblolly pine using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Four random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers previously found to be tightly linked to Fr1 were cloned and sequenced, providing a total coverage of about 2 Kb. In order to obtain discernible signal of...

  11. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith


    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  12. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan


    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  13. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra


    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  14. Comparison of four harvesting systems in a loblolly pine plantation (United States)

    J. Klepac; Dana Mitchell


    Felling and skidding operations were monitored while clearcut harvesting a 12-acre area of a 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. The study area contained 465 trees per acre for trees 2.0 inches Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and larger with a Quadratic Mean Diameter (QMD) of 7.26 inches. Two feller-bunchers (tracked and rubber-tired) and two skidders (...

  15. Inheritance of RFLP loci in a loblolly pine three-generation pedigree (United States)

    M.D. Devey; K.D. Jermstad; C.G. Tauer; D.B. Neale


    A high-density restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) linkage map is being constructed for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine cDNA and genomic DNA clones were used as probes in hybridizations to genomic DNAs prepared from grandparents, parents, and progeny of a three-generation outbred pedigree. Approximately 200 probes were...

  16. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine (United States)

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang


    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  17. Growth and wood properties of genetically improved loblolly pine: propagation type comparison and genetic parameters (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence Schimleck; Lewis Jordan; Benjamin Hornsby; Joseph Dahlen; Richard Daniels; Alexander Clark; Luis Apiolaza; Dudley Huber


    The use of clonal varieties in forestry offers great potential to improve growth traits (quantity) and wood properties (quality) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine trees established via somatic embryogenesis (clones), full-sib zygotic crosses, and half-sib zygotic open-pollinated families were sampled to identify variation in growth and wood properties...

  18. Reassessment of Loblolly Pine Decline on the Oakmulgee Ranger District, Talladega National Forest, Alabama (United States)

    Nolan J. Hess; William J. Otroana; John P. Jones; Arthur J. Goddard; Charles H. Walkinshaw


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) decline has been a management concern on the Oakmulgee Ranger District since the 1960's. The symptoms include sparse crowns, reduced radial growth, deterioration of fine roots, decline, and mortality of loblolly pine by age 50.

  19. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.). (United States)

    O'malley, D M; Porter, S; Sederoff, R R


    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (K(m) = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (K(m) in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the lambdaCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme.

  20. Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) 1 (United States)

    O'Malley, David M.; Porter, Stephanie; Sederoff, Ronald R.


    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1. 195) has been purified to homogeneity from differentiating xylem tissue and developing seeds of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The enzyme is a dimer with a native molecular weight of 82,000 and a subunit molecular weight of 44,000, and is the only form of CAD involved in lignification in differentiating xylem. High levels of loblolly pine CAD enzyme were found in nonlignifying seed tissue. Characterization of the enzyme from both seeds and xylem demonstrated that the enzyme is the same in both tissues. The enzyme has a high affinity for coniferaldehyde (Km = 1.7 micromolar) compared with sinapaldehyde (Km in excess of 100 micromolar). Kinetic data strongly suggest that coniferin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of CAD enzyme activity. Protein sequences were obtained for the N-terminus (28 amino acids) and for two other peptides. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the protein sequences were used to amplify by polymerase chain reaction a 1050 base pair DNA fragment from xylem cDNA. Nucleotide sequence from the cloned DNA fragment coded for the N-terminal protein sequence and an internal peptide of CAD. The N-terminal protein sequence has little similarity with the λCAD4 clone isolated from bean (MH Walter, J Grima-Pettenati, C Grand, AM Boudet, CJ Lamb [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:5546-5550), which has homology with malic enzyme. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668801

  1. Status of fusiform rust incidence in slash and loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern United States (United States)

    KaDonna C. Randolph


    Southern pine tree improvement programs have been in operation in the southeastern United States since the 1950s. Their goal has been to improve volume growth, tree form, disease resistance, and wood quality in southern pines, particularly slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda). The disease of focus has been...

  2. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  3. Impact of Early Pruning and Thinning on Lumber Grade Yield From Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Mike Strub; Larry R. Anderson; H. Gwynne Lloyd; Richard F. Daniels; James H. Scarborough


    The Sudden Sawlog Study was established in 1954 near Crossett, AR, in a 9-year-old loblolly pine plantation to test the hypothesis that loblolly plantations can produce sawtimber in 30 years. To stimulate diameter and height growth and clear wood production, study plots were heavily thinned, trees pruned to 33 feet by age 24 years, under-story mowed, and growth of...

  4. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger


    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  5. Relationships between stem CO2 efflux, substrate supply, and growth in young loblolly pine trees (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Barton D. Clinton; Kim H. Ludovici


    We examined the relationships between stem CO2 efflux (Es), diametergrowth, and nonstructural carbohydrate concentration in loblolly pine trees. Carbohydratesupply was altered via stem girdling during rapid stem growth in the

  6. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan


    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  7. Pine growth and plant community response to chemical vs. mechanical site preparation for establishing loblolly and slash pine (United States)

    James H. Miller; Zhijuan Qiu


    Chemical and mechanical site preparation methods were studied for establishing loblolly (Pinus taeda L) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) pine following both integrated fuelwood-pulpwood harvesting and conventional whole-tree harvesting of pines and hardwoods in southem Alabama's Middle Coastal...

  8. Prescribed burning and mastication effects on surface fuels in southern pine beetle-killed loblolly pine plantations (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; Thomas A. Waldrop; G. Geoff Wang


    Surface fuels were characterized in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations severely impacted by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) (SPB) outbreaks in the upper South Carolina Piedmont. Prescribed burning and mastication were then tested as fuel reduction treatments in these areas. Prescribed burning reduced...

  9. Specific gravity responses of slash and loblolly pine following mid-rotation fertilization (United States)

    Kimberly R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark III; Laurence R. Schimleck; Eric J. Jokela; Richard F. Daniels


    Wood quality attributes were examined in six stands of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the lower Coastal Plain of Georgia and Florida. Several plots comprised each stand, and each plot was divided so that it received three fertilizer treatments: a control treatment with herbaceous weed control at planting...

  10. Timber, Browse, and Herbage on Selected Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine-Hardwood Forest Stands (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Alton Martin; Warren P. Clary


    A thorough vegetation inventory was made on loblolly-shortleaf pine-hardwood stands scheduled by forest industry for clearcutting, site preparation, and planting to pine in north central Louisiana and southern Arkansas. Overstory timber, on the average, contained about equal proportions of softwood and hardwood basal area. Browse plants ranged from 5,500 to over 70,...

  11. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks


    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  12. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery after Fertilization of Young Loblolly Pines (United States)

    J. B. Baker; G. L. Switzer; L. E. Nelson


    Ammonium nitrate applied at rates of 112 and 224 kg of N/ha in successive years to different areas of a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation increased aboveground biomass by 25% and N accumulation by 30%. Fertilization at plantation age 3 resulted in significantly greater biomass and N accumulations in the pine; fertilization at age 4...

  13. Effects of the silvicultural intensity on the 4-years growth and leaf-level physiology of loblolly pine varieties (United States)

    Marco Yanez; John Seiler; Thomas Fox


    The role that genetic improvement plays in the increase of productivity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the South has been recognized (McKeand and others 2003). Varietal forestry has the potential to improve the productivity and quality of loblolly pine stands, and higher genetic gains can be achieved in volume and stand uniformity (Zobel and Talbert 1984).

  14. Influence of establishment timing and planting stock on early rotational growth of loblolly pine plantations in Texas (United States)

    M. A. Blazier; E. L. Taylor; A. G. Holley


    Planting container seedlings, which have relatively fully formed root systems encased in a soil-filled plug, may improve loblolly pine plantation productivity by increasing early survival and growth relative to that of conventionally planted bareroot seedlings. Planting seedlings in fall may also confer productivity increases to loblolly pine plantations by giving...

  15. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams


    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  16. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance. (United States)

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B


    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  17. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp


    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  18. Bulked fusiform rust inocula and Fr gene interactions in loblolly pine (United States)

    Fikret Isik; Henry Amerson; Saul Garcia; Ross Whetten; Steve. McKeand


    Fusiform rust disease in loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) pine plantations in the southern United States causes multi-million dollar annual losses. The disease is endemic to the region. The fusiform rust fungus (Cronartium quercuum sp.

  19. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; Surya Saha; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; Kokulapalan Wimalanathan; John E. Erpelding; Chun Liang; C Dana Nelson


    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety...

  20. The effects of irrigation and fertilization on specific gravity of loblolly pine (United States)

    K. R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark; L. R. Schimleck; P. M. Dougherty; R. F. Daniels


    The effects of two treatments, irrigation and fertilization, were examined on specific gravity (SG)-related wood properties of loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) grown in Scotland County, North Carolina. The effects on the core as a whole, on the juvenile core, on the mature core, and from year to year were all analyzed. The results indicate that fertilization...

  1. Effect of midrotation fertilization on growth and specific gravity of loblolly pine (United States)

    Finto Antony; Lewis Jordan; Richard F. Daniels; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark III; Daniel B. Hall


    Wood properties and growth were measured on breast-height cores and on disks collected at different heights from a thinned and fertilized midrotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The study was laid out in a randomized complete-block design receiving four levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer: unfertilized...

  2. Effects of a Commercial Chitosan Formulation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Resistance Parameters in Loblolly Pine (United States)

    K. D. Klepzig; B. L. Strom


    A commercially available chitosan product, Beyond™, was evaluated for its effects on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., responses believed related to bark beetle resistance. Treatments were applied 4 times at approx. 6-wk intervals between May and November 2008. Five treatments were evaluated: ground application (soil drench), foliar application, ground...

  3. Ice damage in loblolly pine: understanding the factors that influence susceptibility (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; Mark D. Coleman; David R. Coyle


    Winter ice storms frequently occur in the southeastern United States and can severely damage softwood plantations. In January 2004, a severe storm deposited approximately 2 cm of ice on an intensively managed 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in South Carolina. Existing irrigation and fertilization treatments presented an...

  4. Mapping fusiform rust resistance genes within a complex mating design of loblolly pine (United States)

    Tania Quesada; Marcio F.R. Resende Jr.; Patricio Munoz; Jill L. Wegrzyn; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Gary F. Peter; Salvador A. Gezan; C.Dana Nelson; John M. Davis


    Fusiform rust resistance can involve gene-for-gene interactions where resistance (Fr) genes in the host interact with corresponding avirulence genes in the pathogen, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf). Here, we identify trees with Fr genes in a loblolly pine population derived from a complex mating design challenged with two Cqf inocula (one gall and 10 gall...

  5. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization (United States)

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett


    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  6. Modeling corewood-outerwood transition in loblolly pine using wood specific gravity (United States)

    Christian R. Mora; H. Lee Allen; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark


    A modified logistic function was used for modeling specific-gravity profiles obtained from X-ray densitometry analysis in 675 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in four regeneration trials. Trees were 21 or 22 years old at the time of the study. The function was used for demarcating corewood, transitional, and outerwood zones. Site and silvicultural effects were...

  7. Effects of fertilization and three years of throughfall reduction on leaf physiology of loblolly pine (United States)

    Charles J. Pell; Lisa J. Samuelson


    Climate models project decreased soil water availability in the southeastern United States, which may impact loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity. In conjunction with an interdisciplinary project known as PINEMAP, the objective of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of fertilization and a 30 percent reduction in throughfall on physiological...

  8. Guying to prevent wind sway influences loblolly pine growth and wood properties (United States)

    James D. Burton; Diana M. Smith


    Restraining young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from normal swaying in the wind markedly reduced radial growth in the immobilized portion of the bole and accelerated it in the upper, free-swaying portion. Guying also reduced specific gravity, number of earlywood and latewood tracheids, latewood tracheid diameter, and amount of compression wood...

  9. Compacting coastal plain soils changes midrotation loblolly pine allometry by reducing root biomass (United States)

    Kim H. Ludovici


    Factorial combinations of soil compaction and organic matter removal were replicated at the Long Term Site Productivity study in the Croatan National Forest, near New Bern, North Carolina, USA. Ten years after planting, 18 preselected loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees were destructively harvested to quantify treatment effects on total above- and...

  10. Relationship of Aboveground Biomass Production Site Index and Soil Characteristics in a Loblolly Pine Stand (United States)

    Minyi Zhou; Thomas J. Dean


    As a part of the continuing studies of the Cooperative Research in Sustainable Silviculture and Soil Productivity (CRiSSSP), 24 experimental plots in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand have recently been installed near Natchitoches, LA. The plots were uniformly assigned to 3 blocks based on topography (i.e., up slope, midslope, and down slope)....

  11. Inoculation of Loblolly Pine Seedlings at Planting with Basidiospores of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Chip Form (United States)

    Peter R. Beckjord; Marla S. McIntosh; Edward Hacskaylo; John H. Jr. Melhuish; John H. Jr. Melhuish


    Basidiospores of the ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma auranteum incorporated into an organic hydrocolloid can be used successfully in field inoculation. Containerized loblolly pine seedlings were inoculated during outplanting by this method. This study showed that basidiospore chips were effective inocula in this investigation.

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale


    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  13. Seasonal photosynthesis and water relations of juvenile loblolly pine relative to stand density and canopy position (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword Sayer; James P. Barnett


    To assess the effects of stand density and canopy environment on tree physiology, we measured gas exchange responses of the same needle age class of 16-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in thinned (512 trees ha-1) and non-thinned treatment plots (2,863 trees ha-1) in central Louisiana....

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of loblolly pine: effects of cellulose crystallinity and delignification (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; J.Y. Zhu; Sally A. Ralph


    Hydrolysis experiments with commercial cellulases have been performed to understand the effects of cell wall crystallinity and lignin on the process. In the focus of the paper are loblolly pine wood samples, which were systematically delignified and partly ball-milled, and, for comparison, Whatman CC31 cellulose samples with different crystallinities. In pure cellulose...

  15. Reapplication of Silvicultural Treatments Impacts Phenology and Photosynthetic Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett


    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, established in 1981, was thinned and fertilized in 1988. Thinning and fertilization treatments were applied again in early 1995. The morphology of current flushes and needles were measured between March and October in 1995 through 1997. Physiological responses were monitored in the upper and lower crowns....

  16. A Strategy for the Third Breeding Cycle of Loblolly Pine in the Southeastern U.S. (United States)

    S.E. McKeand; F.E. Bridgwater


    A strategy for the North Carolina State University - Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program's third-cycle breeding for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was developed to provide genetic gain in the short-term as well as to maintain genetic diversity so that long-term genetic gains will also be possible. Our strategy will be to manage a...

  17. The influence of nutrient and water availability on carbohydrate storage in loblolly pine (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; H.L. Allen; T.J. Albaugh; P.M. Dougherty


    We quantified the effects of nutrient and water availability on monthly whole-tree carbohydrate budgets and determined allocation patterns of storage carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) to test site resource impacts on internal carbon (C) storage. A factorial combination of two nutrient and two irrigation treatments were imposed on a 7-year...

  18. Water availability and genetic effects on wood properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (United States)

    C. A. Gonzalez-Benecke; T. A. Martin; Alexander Clark; G. F. Peter


    We studied the effect of water availability on basal area growth and wood properties of 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees from contrasting Florida (FL) (a mix of half-sib families) and South Carolina coastal plain (SC) (a single, half-sib family) genetic material. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased average wholecore specific...

  19. Nitrogen availability alters macrofungal basidiomycete Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. community structure in optimally fertilized loblolly pine forests (United States)

    Ivan P. Edwards; Jennifer L. Cripliver; Andrew R. Gillespie; Kurt H. Johnsen; M. Scholler; Ronald F. Turco


    We investigated the effect of an optimal nutrition strategy designed to maximize loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) growth on the rank abundance structure and diversity of associated basidiomycete communities.We conducted both small- and large-scale below-ground surveys 10 years after the initiation of optimal...

  20. Selecting a sampling method to aid in vegetation management decisions in loblolly pine plantations (United States)

    David R. Weise; Glenn R. Glover


    Objective methods to evaluate hardwood competition in young loblolly pine (Pinustaeda L.) plantations are not widely used in the southeastern United States. Ability of common sampling rules to accurately estimate hardwood rootstock attributes at low sampling intensities and across varying rootstock spatial distributions is unknown. Fixed area plot...

  1. Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) affects above- and belowground processes in commercial loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) stands (United States)

    Adam N. Trautwig; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Jason D. Hoeksema; Emily A. Carter; Ryan L. Nadel


    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), an invasive grass species native to Asia, has been shown to reduce tree vigor in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations, which comprise more than 50% of growing stock in commercial forests of the United States. I. cylindrica produces exudates with possible allelopathic effects that may influence abundance of P. taeda symbionts, such...

  2. Assessment of loblolly pine decline and site conditions on Fort Benning Military Reservation, GA (United States)

    Roger D. Menard; Lori G. Eckhardt; Nolan J. Hess


    A decline of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), characterized by expanding areas of declining and dead trees, has become prevalent at Fort Benning, GA. A 3-year study was conducted to determine the kinds of fungi, insects, and site disturbances associated with this problem. The insects Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes salebrosus, H. tenuis, Pachylobius picivorus...

  3. Harvest intensity and competition control impacts on loblolly pine fusiform rust incidence (United States)

    Robert J. Eaton; Paula Spaine; Felipe G. Sanchez


    The Long Term Soil Productivity experiment tests the effects of soil compaction, surface organic matter removal, and understory control on net primary productivity. An unintended consequence of these treatments may be an effect on the incidence of fusiform rust [Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miy. ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme Burdsall et Snow]. Loblolly pine (Pinus...

  4. Loblolly pine needle decomposition and nutrient dynamics as affected by irrigation, fertilization, and substrate quality (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez


    This study examined the effects of initial litter quality and irrigation and fertilization treatments on litter decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics (N, Ca, K, Mg, and P) of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine needles in the North Carolina Sand Hills over 3 years. Litter quality was based on the initial C/N ratios, with the high-quality litter having...

  5. Irrigation, fertilization and initial substrate quality effects on decomposing Loblolly pine litter chemistry (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez


    Changes in carbon chemistry (i.e., carbon compound classes such as aromatics, phenolics, etc.) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) litter were examined during three years of decomposition under factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization treatments. Cross polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance...

  6. Screening Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) families for physical and mechanical properties using vibrational spectroscopy (United States)

    Gifty E. Acquah; Brian K. Via; Lori G. Eckhardt


    In a bid to control the loblolly pine decline complex, stakeholders are using the selection and deployment of genetically superior families that are disease tolerant. It is vital that we do not compromise other important properties while breeding for disease tolerance. In this preliminary study, near infrared spectroscopy was utilized in conjunction with data collected...

  7. Regional calibration models for predicting loblolly pine tracheid properties using near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Mohamad Nabavi; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Cristian Montes


    This study developed regional calibration models for the prediction of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) tracheid properties using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. A total of 1842 pith-to-bark radial strips, aged 19–31 years, were acquired from 268 trees from 109 stands across the southeastern USA. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra were collected at 10-mm...

  8. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers (United States)

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective o...

  9. Post-fertilization physiology and growth performance of loblolly pine clones (United States)

    N.T. King; J.R. Seiler; T.R. Fox; KurtH. Johnsen


    The physiological processes leading to enhanced growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) following fertilization are not clearly understood. Part of the debate revolves around the temporal response of net photosynthetic rate (An) to fertilization and whether the An response is always positive. We measured light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), dark respiration...

  10. Disking and Prescribed Burning: Sixth-Year Residual Effects on Loblolly Pine and Competing Vegetation (United States)

    Kenneth E. Trousdell


    In the Virginia Coastal Plain, the effects of disking and of three series of prescribed burns on crown coverage and height of regenerating loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and competing hardwoods and shrubs were compared after 6 years. One winter burn followed by three annual summer burns just before harvesting was the site preparation most effective...

  11. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle


    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  12. Whole-tree bark and wood properties of loblolly pine from intensively managed plantations (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Bruce E. Borders; Michael B. Kane; Harold E. Burkhart


    A study was conducted to identify geographical variation in loblolly pine bark and wood properties at the whole-tree level and to quantify the responses in whole-tree bark and wood properties following contrasting silvicultural practices that included planting density, weed control, and fertilization. Trees were destructively sampled from both conventionally managed...

  13. The effects of planting density and cultural intensity on loblolly pine crown characteristics at age twelve (United States)

    Madison Akers; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Dehai Zhao; Santosh Subedi


    Twelve-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were analyzed for the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree and crown attributes. Four study installations were located in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the U.S. South. The treatments included six planting densities (740, 1480, 2220, 2960, 3700, 4440 trees...

  14. Litter Decomposition and Soil Respiration Responses to Fuel-Reduction Treatments in Piedmond Loblolly Pine Forests (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Peter H. Anderson; Thomas A. Waldrop; Darren J. Lione; Victor B. Shelburne


    As part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study, we measured the short-term effects of different fuel-management practices on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration in loblolly pine stands on the upper Piedmont of South Carolina. These stands had been subjected to a factorial arrangement of experimental fuel-management treatments that included prescribed...

  15. Soil organic matter fractions in loblolly pine forests of Coastal North Carolina managed for bioenergy production (United States)

    Kevan J. Minick; Brian D. Strahm; Thomas R. Fox; Eric B. Surce; Zakiya H. Leggett


    Dependence on foreign oil continues to increase, and concern over rising atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases has intensified research into sustainable biofuel production. Intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between planted rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) offers an opportunity to utilize inter-row space that typically contains herbaceous and...

  16. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell


    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  17. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities. (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Miller, Darren A; Martin, James A


    Intensively-managed pine ( Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine ( P. taeda ) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3-4 year old pine plantations and 9-10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  18. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will


    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  19. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas (United States)

    John A. Pitcher


    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  20. Diameter Growth of Loblolly Pine Trees as Affected by Soil-Moisture Availibility (United States)

    John R. Bassett


    In a 30-year-old even-aged stand of loblolly pine on a site 90 loessial soil in southeast Arkansas during foul growing seasons, most trees on plots thinned to 125 square feet of basal area per acre increased in basal area continuously when, under the crown canopy, available water in the surface foot remained above 65 percent. Measurable diameter growth ceased when...

  1. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart


    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  2. The effect of pile size on moisture content of loblolly pine while field drying (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason. and Thompson


    A 14-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation approximately 5 acres in size was cut during August 2013 with a tracked feller-buncher. A grapple skidder transported trees from one-half of the tract to a landing where they were piled whole-tree. Remaining trees were left whole-tree in skidder bundles (small piles) in the stand. All trees were left on-site and...

  3. Effects of first thinning on growth of loblolly pine plantations in the West Coastal Plain (United States)

    Dean W. Coble; Jason B. Grogan


    The purpose of this research is to analyze thinning response in basal area and height growth of residual loblolly pine trees growing in plantations located in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Thinning is a well-known silvicultural practice that increases the growing space available to desirable trees by removing competing trees.

  4. Responses of two genetically superior loblolly pine clonal ideotypes to a severe ice storm (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; Christopher A. Maier; G. Geoff Wang; Dapao Yu; Tim M. Shearman


    An increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as major ice storms, can have severe impacts on southern forests. We investigated the damage inflicted by a severe ice storm that occurred in February 2014 on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ideotypes in Cross, South Carolina located in the southeastern coastal plain. The ‘‘narrow crown”...

  5. Impact of initial spacing on yield per acre and wood quality of unthinned loblolly pine at age 21 (United States)

    Alexander, III Clark; Richard F. Daniels; Lewis Jordan; Laurie Schimleck


    The market for southern pine first thinnings is soft. Thus, forest managers are planting at wider spacings, and using weed control and fertilization to grow chipping-saw and sawtimber trees in shorter rotations. A 21-year-old unthinned spacing study was sampled to determine the effect of initial spacing on wood quality and yield per acre of planted loblolly pine (

  6. From loblolly to longleaf: fifth-year results of a longleaf pine restoration study at two ecologically distinct sites (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu


    Historical land-use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the widespread conversion of many upland sites from dominance of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) in the time following European settlement. Given the ecological, economic, and cultural...

  7. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - II. Development of Intermediate and Suppressed Trees Following Release in Natural Stands (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton


    Development of 86 intermediate and suppressed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, that had been recently released from overtopping pines and hardwoods, was monitored over a 15 year period. The trees were growing in natural stands on good sites (site index = 90 ft at 50 years) that had been recently cut to stocking levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent. At time of...

  8. Soil CO2 efflux in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the virginia Piedmond and South Carolina coastal plain over a rotation-length chronosequence (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; P. Eric Wiseman; Christopher A. Maier


    We measured soil surface CO2 efflux (Fx) in loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L.) located on the Virginia Piedmont (VA) and South Carolina Coastal Plain (SC) in efforts to assess the impact climate, productivity, and cultural practices have on Fs in the managed loblolly pine...

  9. Determination of Fertility Rating (FR in the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Southeastern United States Based on Site Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi


    Full Text Available Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystems, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. We hypothesized that the fertility rating (FR used in the model 3-PG could be predicted from site index (SI for loblolly pine in the southeastern US and then developed a method to predict FR from SI to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that FR values derived from SI when used in 3-PG explain 89% of the variation in loblolly pine yield. The USDA SSURGO dataset contains SI values for loblolly pine for the major soil series in most of the counties in the southeastern US. The potential of using SI from SSURGO data to predict regional productivity of loblolly pine was assessed by comparing SI values from SSURGO with field inventory data in the study sites. When the 3-PG model was used with FR values derived using SI values from SSURGO database to predict loblolly pine productivity across the broader regions, the model provided realistic outputs of loblolly pine productivity. The results of this study show that FR values can be estimated from SI and used in 3-PG to predict loblolly pine productivity in the southeastern US.

  10. Importance of Coarse Woody Debris to Avian Communities in Loblolly Pine Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr, S.M.; Gauthreaux, S.A.; Kilgo, J.C.


    Investigates the importance of standing and down coarse woody debris to bird communities in loblolly pine forests, researchers compared breeding and nonbreeding responses of birds among two coarse woody debris removal and control treatments. Quantification of vegetation layers to determine their effects on the experimental outcome coarse woody debris removal had no effect on the nonbreeding bird community. Most breeding and nonbreeding species used habitats with sparse midstory and well-developed understory, where as sparse canopy cover and dense midstory were important to some nonbreeding species. Snag and down coarse woody debris practices that maintain a dense understory, sparse midstory and canopy will create favorable breeding habitat.

  11. The effects of decreased water availability on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity and the interaction between fertilizer and drought (United States)

    Adam O. Maggard; Rodney E. Will; Duncan S. Wilson; Cassandra R. Meek


    As part of the regional PINEMAP (Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project) funded by the NIFA - USDA, we established a factorial study in McCurtain County, OK near Broken Bow. This study examined the effects of fertilization and ~30 percent reduction in throughfall on an seven-yearold loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. The...

  12. Relative Fusiform Rust Resistance of Loblolly and Slash Pine Sources and Families in Georgia and South Carolina (United States)

    E. George Kuhlman; Harry R. Powers; William D. Pepper


    Loblolly and slash pine seedlings from the fusiform rust resistant orchards developed cooperatively by the USDA Forest Service and the Georgia Forestry Commission had significantly less rust 7 to 8 years after planting on four of five sites in the Southeastern United States than seedlings of the same species from orchard sources developed primarily for silvicultural...

  13. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia


    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  14. Hydrological Components of a Young Loblolly Pine Plantation on a Sandy Soil with Estimates of Water Use and Loss (United States)

    Deborah A. Abrahamson; Phillip M. Dougherty; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to l0-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2...

  15. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold


    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  16. Genetic Analysis of earl field growth of loblolly pine clones and seedlings from the same full-sib families (United States)

    Brian Baltunis; Dudley Huber; Tim Wite


    The Forest Biology Research Cooperative recently established a series of loblolly pine clonal trials known as CCLONES (Comparing Clonal Lines on Experimental Sites). There are three primary levels of genetic structure in this study (parental, full-sib family, clone) that strengthen the power of CCLONES for examining genetic mechanisms and interactions with cultural...

  17. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States (United States)

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  18. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings (United States)

    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg


    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  19. Loblolly pine growth following operational vegetation management treatments compares favorably to that achieved in complete vegetation control research trials (United States)

    Dwight K. Lauer; Harold E. Quicke


    Different combinations of chemical site prep and post-plant herbaceous weed control installed at three Upper Coastal Plain locations were compared in terms of year 3 loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine response to determine the better vegetation management regimes. Site prep treatments were different herbicide rates applied in either July or October. Site...

  20. Maximum growth potential in loblolly pine: results from a 47-year-old spacing study in Hawaii (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas L. Eberhardt; John R. Butnor; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Growth, allocation to woody root biomass, wood properties, leaf physiology, and shoot morphology were examined in a 47-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) density trial located in Maui, Hawaii, to determine if stands continued to carry the high density, basal area, and volume reported at younger ages and to identify potential factors controlling...

  1. Mid-rotation silviculture timing influences nitrogen mineralization of loblolly pine plantations in the mid-south USA (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; D. Andrew Scott; Ryan Coleman


    Intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations often develop nutrient deficiencies near mid-rotation. Common silvicultural treatments for improving stand nutrition at this stage include thinning, fertilization, and vegetation control. It is important to better understand the influence of timing fertilization and vegetation control...

  2. Applying 3-PG, a simple process-based model designed to produce practical results, to data from loblolly pine experiments (United States)

    Joe J. Landsberg; Kurt H. Johnsen; Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Steven E. McKeand


    3-PG is a simple process-based model that requires few parameter values and only readily available input data. We tested the structure of the model by calibrating it against loblolly pine data from the control treatment of the SETRES experiment in Scotland County, NC, then altered the fertility rating to simulate the effects of fertilization. There was excellent...

  3. Morphological characteristics of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate and distance from pith (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    Earlywood and latewood tracheid length and transverse cellular dimensions of wood removed from stems of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and factorially aegregated by specific gravity, rings from the pith, and growth rate were determined from sample chips. The independent relationships of each factor with fiber morphology are described.

  4. The Effect of Large Applications of Nutrients From Organic Waste on Biomass Allocation and Allometric Relations in Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Patrick D. Gerard


    We applied broiler litter to an 8-year-old precommercially thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand at 0, 5.6, and 23 Mg ha-1 , supplying 0, 200, and 800 kg N ha-1. A destructive harvest was implemented two growing seasons following litter application to evaluate treatment impacts on patterns of...

  5. Tandem selection for fusiform rust sisease resistance to develop a clonal elite breeding population of loblolly pine (United States)

    Steve McKeand; Saul Garcia; Josh Steiger; Jim Grissom; Ross Whetten; Fikret. Isik


    The elite breeding populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program are intensively managed for short-term genetic gain. Fusiform rust disease, caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme, is the most economically...

  6. Soil incorporation of logging residue affects fine-root and mycorrhizal root-tip dynamics of young loblolly pine clones (United States)

    Seth G. Pritchard; Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Andrea J. Grabman; Anne P. Chalmers


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations cover a large geographic area of the southeastern USA and supply a large proportion of the nation’s wood products. Research on management strategies designed to maximize wood production while also optimizing nutrient use efficiency and soil C sequestration is needed. We used minirhizotrons to quantify the effects of...

  7. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand (United States)

    Woo-Jung Choi; Scott X. Chang; H. Lee Allen; Daniel L. Kelting; Hee-Myong Ro


    We examined 813C and 815N in needle (current and 1-year-old) and soil samples collected on two occasions (July and September 1999) from a 15-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand in an irrigation and fertilization experiment to investigate whether these treatments leave specific isotope signals in...

  8. Determination of loblolly pine response to cultural treatments based on soil class, base productivity, and competition level (United States)

    David Garrett; Michael Kane; Daniel Markewitz; Dehai Zhao


    The objective of this research is to better understand what factors drive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth response to intensive culture in the University of Georgia Plantation Management Research Cooperative’s Culture x Density study in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain. Twenty study sites were established ranging from southern Alabama to South Carolina in...

  9. Planting density and silvicultural intensity impacts on loblolly pine stand development in the western gulf coastal plain through age 8 (United States)

    Michael B. Kane; Dehai Zhao; John W. Rheney; Michael G. Messina; Mohd S. Rahman; Nicholas Chappell


    Commercial plantation growers need to know how planting density and cultural regime intensity affect loblolly pine plantation productivity, development and value to make sound management decisions. This knowledge is especially important given the diversity of traditional products, such as pulpwood, chip-n-saw, and sawtimber, and potential products, such as bioenergy...

  10. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD


    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  11. Impacts of water and nutrient availability on loblolly pine function (United States)

    Maxwell Wightman; Timothy Martin; Eric Jokela; Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke


    The impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation patterns in the southeastern United States are likely to have important effects on southern pine systems. A 2009 summary from the U.S. Global Change Research Program indicated that the southeastern U.S. will experience an increase in average temperature of 2.5 to 5 °C by the 2080s.

  12. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela


    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  13. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.


    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35 S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35 S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO 4 2- -S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO 4 2- -S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO 2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35 S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35 S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  14. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences


    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Decoupling the influence of leaf and root hydraulic conductances on stomatal conductance and its sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit as soil dries in a drained loblolly pine plantation (United States)

    J.-C. Domec; A. Noormets; Ge Sun; J. King; Steven McNulty; Michael Gavazzi; Johnny Boggs; Emrys Treasure


    The study examined the relationships between whole tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and the conductance in roots (Kroot) and leaves (Kleaf) in loblolly pine trees. In addition, the role of seasonal variations in Kroot and Kleaf in mediating stomatal...

  16. Modeling loblolly pine aboveground live biomass in a mature pine-hardwood stand: a cautionary tale (United States)

    D. C. Bragg


    Carbon sequestration in forests is a growing area of interest for researchers and land managers. Calculating the quantity of carbon stored in forest biomass seems to be a straightforward task, but it is highly dependent on the function(s) used to construct the stand. For instance, there are a number of possible equations to predict aboveground live biomass for loblolly...

  17. Simulated Summer Rainfall Variability Effects on Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Seedling Physiology and Susceptibility to Root-Infecting Ophiostomatoid Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Chieppa


    Full Text Available Seedlings from four families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. were grown in capped open-top chambers and exposed to three different weekly moisture regimes for 13 weeks. Moisture regimes varied in intensity and frequency of simulated rainfall (irrigation events; however, the total amounts were comparable. These simulated treatments were chosen to simulate expected changes in rainfall variability associated with climate change. Seedlings were inoculated with two root-infecting ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Southern Pine Decline. We found susceptibility of loblolly pine was not affected by water stress; however, one family that was most sensitive to inoculation was also most sensitive to changes in moisture availability. Many studies have examined the effects of drought (well-watered vs. dry conditions on pine physiology and host-pathogen interactions but little is known about variability in moisture supply. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of variability in water availability, pathogen inoculation and their interaction on physiology of loblolly pine seedlings.

  18. Controlled mass pollination in loblolly pine to increase genetic gains (United States)

    F.E. Bridgwater; D.L. Bramlett; T.D. Byram; W.J. Lowe


    Controlled mass pollination (CMP) is one way to increase genetic gains from traditional wind-pollinated seed orchards. Methodology is under development by several forestry companies in the southern USA. Costs of CMP depend on the efficient installation, pollination, and removal of inexpensive paper bags. Even in pilot-scale studies these costs seem reasonable. Net...

  19. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide) (United States)


    longleaf pine forests (Figure 1) for the diverse values they provide. These forests afford abundant recreational opportunities like hiking , bird...combined herbicide-fertilizer treatments that might benefit planted longleaf pine seedlings after planting. In addition to measuring longleaf pine

  20. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  1. Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hou-Min; Kadia, John F.; Li, Bailian; Sederoff, Ron


    In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem

  2. Water and Energy Balances of Loblolly Pine Plantation Forests during a Full Stand Rotation (United States)

    Sun, G.; Mitra, B.; Domec, J. C.; Gavazi, M.; Yang, Y.; Tian, S.; Zietlow, D.; McNulty, S.; King, J.; Noormets, A.


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in the southern U.S. are well recognized for their ecosystem services in supplying clean and stable water and mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and solar energy partitioning. Since 2004, we have monitored energy, water, and carbon fluxes in a chronosequence of three drained loblolly pine plantations using integrated methods that include eddy covariance, sap flux, watershed hydrometeorology, remote sensing, and process-based simulation modeling. Study sites were located on the eastern North Carolina coastal plain, representing highly productive ecosystems with high groundwater table, and designated in the Ameriflux network as NC1 (0-10 year old), NC2 (12-25 year old) and NC3 (0-3 years old). The 13-year study spanned a wide range of annual precipitation (900-1600 mm/yr) including two exceptionally dry years during 2007-2008. We found that the mature stand (NC2) had higher net radiation (Rn) flux due to its lower albedo (α =0.11-12), compared with the young stands (NC1, NC3) (α=0.15-0.18). Annually about 75%-80% of net radiation was converted to latent heat in the pine plantations. In general, the mature stand had higher latent heat flux (LE) (i.e. evapotranspiration (ET)) rates than the young stands, but ET rates were similar during wet years when the groundwater table was at or near the soil surface. During a historic drought period (i.e., 2007-2008), total stand annual ET exceeded precipitation, but decreased about 30% at NC2 when compared to a normal year (e.g., 2006). Field measurements and remote sensing-based modeling suggested that annual ET rates increased linearly from planting age (about 800 mm) to age 15 (about 1050 mm) and then stabilized as stand leaf area index leveled-off. Over a full stand rotation, approximately 70% (young stand) to 90% (mature stand) of precipitation was returned to the atmosphere through ET. We conclude that both climatic variability and canopy structure controlled the

  3. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud. (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Yingchuan


    A synthetic version of the CRY1Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis has been used for the transformation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using particle bombardment. Mature zygotic embryos were used to be bombarded and to generate organogenic callus and transgenic regenerated plants. Expression vector pB48.215 DNA contained a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) CRY1Ac coding sequence flanked by the double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator sequences, and the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene controlled by the promoter of the nopaline synthase gene was introduced into loblolly pine tissues by particle bombardment. The transformed tissues were proliferated and selected on media with kanamycin. Shoot regeneration was induced from the kanamycin-resistant calli, and transgenic plantlets were then produced. More than 60 transformed plants from independent transformation events were obtained for each loblolly pine genotype tested. The integration and expression of the introduced genes in the transgenic loblolly pine plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) analysis, by Southern hybridization, by Northern blot analysis, and by Western blot analysis. Effective resistance of transgenic plants against Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud was verified in feeding bioassays with the insects. The transgenic plants recovered could represent a good opportunity to analyse the impact of genetic engineering of pine for sustainable resistance to pests using a B. thuringiensis insecticidal protein. This protocol enabled the routine transformation of loblolly pine plants that were previously difficult to transform.

  4. Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina, USA (United States)

    G. Sun; A. Noormets; M.J. Gavazzi; S.G. McNulty; J. Chen; J.-C. King Domec; D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs


    During 2005–2007, we used the eddy covariance and associated hydrometric methods to construct energy and water budgets along a chronosequence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations that included a mid-rotation stand (LP) (i.e., 13–15 years old) and a recently established stand on a clearcut site (CC) (i.e., 4–6 years old) in Eastern...

  5. Simulating the effects of site index variation within loblolly pine plantations using an individual tree growth and yield model (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart


    Site index is the most common metric of site productivity in loblolly pine plantations. Generally applied as a constant for a particular stand, it provides an overall measure of a site’s ability to grow trees. It is well known, however, that even the most uniform stands can have considerable variation in site index due to soil factors that influence microsite,...

  6. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood


    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  7. Visual Basic Growth-and-Yield Models With A Merchandising Optimizer For Planted Slash and Loblolly Pine in the West Gulf Region (United States)

    R.L. Busby; S.J. Chang; P.R. Pasala; J.C.G. Goelz


    We developed two growth-and-yield models for thinned and unthinned plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.). The models, VB Merch-Slash and VB Merch-Lob, can be used to forecast product volumes and stand values for stands partitioned into 1-inch diameter-at...

  8. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research project is to develop a novel approach that fully utilized the current breeding materials and genetic test information available from the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program to identify major genes that are segregating for growth and disease resistance in loblolly pine. If major genes can be identified in the existing breeding population, they can be utilized directly in the conventional loblolly pine breeding program. With the putative genotypes of parents identified, tree breeders can make effective decisions on management of breeding populations and operational deployment of genetically superior trees. Forest productivity will be significantly enhanced if genetically superior genotypes with major genes for economically important traits could be deployed in an operational plantation program. The overall objective of the project is to develop genetic model and analytical methods for major gene detection with progeny test data and accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Specifically, there are three main tasks: (1) Develop genetic models for major gene detection and implement statistical methods and develop computer software for screening progeny test data; (2) Confirm major gene segregation with molecular markers; and (3) Develop strategies for using major genes for tree breeding.

  9. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuskan, G.A.


    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  10. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.


    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  11. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes


    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  12. Snag characteristics and dynamics following natural and artificially induced mortality in a managed loblolly pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoch, Stanley J.; Vukovich, Mark A.; Kilgo, John C.; Blake, John I.


    A 14-year study of snag characteristics was established in 41- to 44-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands in southeastern USA. During the initial 5.5 years, no stand manipulation or unusually high-mortality events occurred. Afterwards, three treatments were applied consisting of trees thinned and removed, trees felled and not removed, and artificial creation of snags produced by girdling and herbicide injection. The thinned treatments were designed to maintain the same live canopy density as the snag-created treatment, disregarding snags that remained standing.We monitored snag height, diameter, density, volume, and bark percentage; the number of cavities was monitored in natural snags only. During the first 5.5 years, recruitment and loss rates were stable, resulting in a stable snag population. Large snags (≥25 cm diameter) were common, but subcanopy small snags (10 to <25 cm diameter) dominated numerically. Large natural snags survived (90% quantile) significantly longer (6.0–9.4 years) than smaller snags (4.4–6.9 years). Large artificial snags persisted the longest (11.8 years). Cavities in natural snags developed within 3 years following tree death. The mean number of cavities per snag was five times greater in large versus small snags and large snags were more likely to have multiple cavities, emphasizing the importance of mature pine stands for cavity-dependent wildlife species.

  13. Development of an integrated approach for α-pinene recovery and sugar production from loblolly pine using ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, Gabriella; Kirby, James; Murthy Konda, N. V. S. N.


    perspective for the production of advanced cellulosic biofuels. To date, there have been very few examples where a single conversion process has enabled recovery of both terpenes and fermentable sugars in an integrated fashion. We have used the ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im......][OAc] at 120 °C and 160 °C in conjunction with analytical protocols using GC-MS, to extract α-pinene and simultaneously pretreat the pine to generate high yields of fermentable sugars after saccharification. Compared to solvent extraction, the IL process enabled higher recovery rates for α-pinene, from three...... tissues type of loblolly pine, i.e. pine chips from forest residues (FC), stems from young pine (YW) and lighter wood (LW), while also generating high yields of fermentable sugars following saccharification. We propose that this combined terpene extraction/lignocellulose pretreatment approach may provide...

  14. Effects of Nantucket pine tip moth insecticide spray schedules on loblolly pine seedlings (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Kenneth W. McCravy; C. Wayne Berisford


    Frequent and prolonged insecticide applications to control the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera:Torticidae) (NPTM), although effective, may be impractical and uneconomica1, for commercial timber production. Timed insecticide sprays of permethrin (Polmce 3.2® EC) were applied to all possible combinations of spray...

  15. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon


    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  16. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimalanathan Kokulapalan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats, also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs. Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped

  17. Soil Co2 Efflux and Soil Carbon Content as Influenced by Thinning in Loblolly Pine Plantations on the Piedmont of Virginia


    Selig, Marcus Franklin


    The thinning of loblolly pine plantations has a great potential to influence the fluxes and storage of carbon within managed stands. This study looked at the effects of thinning on aboveground carbon and mineral soil carbon storage, 14-years after the thinning of an 8-year-old loblolly pine plantation on the piedmont of Virginia. The study also examined soil respiration for one year following the second thinning of the same stand at age twenty-two. The study was conducted using three repli...

  18. Culture and Density Effects on Tree Quality in Midrotation Non-Thinned Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Corey Green


    Full Text Available Six non-thinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. culture × density study sites in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast U.S. were used to examine the effects of two cultural intensities and three planting densities on solid wood potential as well as the proportion and position of product-defining defects (forks, crooks, broken tops. A tree quality index (TQI was used to grade stems for solid wood potential. The results show that an operational management regime exhibited a higher proportion of trees with solid wood product potential than did a very intensive management regime. Trees subject to operational management exhibited product-defining defects higher on the stem; however, the proportion of stems with defects was not significantly different from the intensive management. Planting densities of 741, 1482, and 2223 trees per hectare (TPH exhibited a relatively narrow range of the proportion of trees with solid wood product potential that were not significantly different. Density did not have a significant effect on the heights of the product-defining defects. These results show that management intensity and less so planting density, affect the solid wood product potential indicators evaluated and should be considered when making management decisions.

  19. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd. (Scion Research.)


    A sustained supply of low-cost, high quality raw materials is essential for the future success of the U.S. forest products industry. To maximize stem (trunk) growth, a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell divisions within the cambial meristem is essential. We hypothesize that auxin levels within the cambial meristem regulate cyclin gene expression and this in turn controls cell cycle progression as occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Work with model plant species has shown that ectopic overexpression of cyclins promotes cell division thereby increasing root growth > five times. We intended to test whether ectopic overexpression of cambial cyclins in the cambial zone of loblolly pine also promotes cell division rates that enhance stem growth rates. Results generated in model annual angiosperm systems cannot be reliably extrapolated to perennial gymnosperms, thus while the generation and development of transgenic pine is time consuming, this is the necessary approach for meaningful data. We succeeded in isolating a cyclin D gene and Clustal analysis to the Arabidopsis cyclin D gene family indicates that it is more closely related to cyclin D2 than D1 or D3 Using this gene as a probe we observed a small stimulation of cyclin D expression in somatic embryo culture upon addition of auxin. We hypothesized that trees with more cells in the vascular cambial and expansion zones will have higher cyclin mRNA levels. We demonstrated that in trees under compressive stress where the rates of cambial divisions are increased on the underside of the stem relative to the top or opposite side, there was a 20 fold increase in the level of PtcyclinD1 mRNA on the compressed side of the stem relative to the opposite. This suggests that higher secondary growth rates correlate with PtcyclinD1 expression. We showed that larger diameter trees show more growth during each year and that the increased growth in loblolly pine trees correlates with more cell

  20. Alternative Parameterization of the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine: A Regional Validation and Climate Change Assessment on Stand Productivity (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Teskey, R. O.; Martin, T.; Jokela, E. J.


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is one of the fastest growing pine species. It has been planted on more than 10 million ha in the southeastern U.S., and also been introduced into many countries. Using data from the literature and long-term productivity studies, we re-parameterized the 3-PG model for loblolly pine stands. We developed new functions for estimating NPP allocation dynamics, canopy cover and needlefall dynamics, effects of frost on production, density-independent and density-dependent tree mortality, biomass pools at variable starting ages, and the fertility rating. New functions to estimate merchantable volume partitioning were also included, allowing for economic analyses. The fertility rating was determined as a function of site index (mean height of dominant trees at age=25 years). We used the largest and most geographically extensive validation dataset for this species ever used (91 pots in 12 states in U.S. and 10 plots in Uruguay). Comparison of modeled to measured data showed robust agreement across the natural range in the U.S., as well as in Uruguay, where the species is grown as an exotic. Using the new set of functions and parameters with downscaled projections from twenty different climate models, the model was applied to assess the impact of future climate change scenarios on stand productivity in the southeastern U.S.

  1. A novel multifunctional O-methyltransferase implicated in a dual methylation pathway associated with lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine. (United States)

    Li, L; Popko, J L; Zhang, X H; Osakabe, K; Tsai, C J; Joshi, C P; Chiang, V L


    S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) catalyze the methylation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives for the synthesis of methylated plant polyphenolics, including lignin. The distinction in the extent of methylation of lignins in angiosperms and gymnosperms, mediated by substrate-specific OMTs, represents one of the fundamental differences in lignin biosynthesis between these two classes of plants. In angiosperms, two types of structurally and functionally distinct lignin pathway OMTs, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (CAOMTs) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs), have been reported and extensively studied. However, little is known about lignin pathway OMTs in gymnosperms. We report here the first cloning of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) xylem cDNA encoding a multifunctional enzyme, SAM:hydroxycinnamic Acids/hydroxycinnamoyl CoA Esters OMT (AEOMT). The deduced protein sequence of AEOMT is partially similar to, but clearly distinguishable from, that of CAOMTs and does not exhibit any significant similarity with CCoAOMT protein sequences. However, functionally, yeast-expressed AEOMT enzyme catalyzed the methylation of CAOMT substrates, caffeic and 5-hydroxyferulic acids, as well as CCoAOMT substrates, caffeoyl CoA and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA esters, with similar specific activities and was completely inactive with substrates associated with flavonoid synthesis. The lignin-related substrates were also efficiently methylated in crude extracts of loblolly pine secondary xylem. Our results support the notion that, in the context of amino acid sequence and biochemical function, AEOMT represents a novel SAM-dependent OMT, with both CAOMT and CCoAOMT activities and thus the potential to mediate a dual methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine xylem.

  2. Detection of severe storm signatures in loblolly pine using seven-year periodic standardized averages and standard deviations (United States)

    Stevenson Douglas; Thomas Hennessey; Thomas Lynch; Giulia Caterina; Rodolfo Mota; Robert Heineman; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson


    A loblolly pine plantation near Eagletown, Oklahoma was used to test standardized tree ring widths in detecting snow and ice storms. Widths of two rings immediately following suspected storms were standardized against widths of seven rings following the storm (Stan1 and Stan2). Values of Stan1 less than -0.900 predict a severe (usually ice) storm when Stan 2 is less...

  3. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines. (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B


    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  4. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  5. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation (United States)

    Michael J. Aspinwall; John S. King; Steven E. McKeand; Jean-Christophe Domec


    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis...

  6. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller


    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  7. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels


    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  8. Evapotranspiration of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Plantation and a Recently Harvested Stands on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. (United States)

    W. Cao; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Chen; A. Noormets; R. W. Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the primary component of the forest hydrologic cycle, which includes plant transpiration, canopy rainfall interception, and soil evaporation. Quantifying ET processes and potential biophysical regulations is needed for assessing forest water management options. Loblolly pines are widely planted in the coastal plain of the Southeastern US, but...

  9. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure (United States)

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain


    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  10. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene


    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  11. Seasonal sucrose metabolism in individual first-order lateral roots of nine-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black


    Loblolly pine seedlings have distinctive temporal and spatial patterns of sucrose metabolism and growth with stems and roots as the major sucrose sinks, respectively, from spring to mid-fall and from mid-fall to early winter. Both nursery-grown and outplanted seedlings up to the age of 3 years followed this pattern. However, there have been no reports on the seasonal...

  12. Effects of cultural intensity and density regime treatment on post-thinning loblolly pine individual tree DBH increment in the lower coastal plain of the southeastern United States (United States)

    John T. Perren; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Richard Daniels


    Thinning is a well understood concept used to manage density dependent factors at the stand level. This study evaluates the effect of planting density, cultural intensity, and thinning treatment on loblolly pine post-thinning individual tree development. The Lower Coastal Plain Culture/Density Study, has four initial densities, in combination with two cultural...

  13. Long-term simulations of forest management impacts on carbon storage from loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S. (United States)

    Huei-Jin Wang; Philip J. Radtke; Stephen P. Prisley


    Accounting for forest components in carbon accounting systems may be insufficient when substantial amounts of sequestered carbon are harvested and converted to wood products in use and in landfill. The potential of forest offset – in-woods aboveground carbon storage, carbon stored in harvested wood, and energy offset by burning harvested wood – from loblolly pine...

  14. Soil CO2 Efflux Trends Following the Thinning of a 22-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Plantation on the Piedmont of Virginia (United States)

    M.F. Selig; J.R. Seiler


    Due to the growing concern over increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it has become increasingly important to understand the influence forest practices have on the global carbon cycle. The thinning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in the Southeastern United States is a common silvicultural practice and has great...

  15. Delineating pMDI model reactions with loblolly pine via solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Part 1, Catalyzed reactions with wood models and wood polymers (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart


    To better understand adhesive interactions with wood, reactions between model compounds of wood and a model compound of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) were characterized by solution-state NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, finely ground loblolly pine sapwood, milled-wood lignin and holocellulose from the same wood were isolated and derivatized with...

  16. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane


    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  17. VB merch-lob: A growth-and-yield prediction system with a merchandising optimizer for planted loblolly pine in the west Gulf region (United States)

    S.J. Chang; Rodney L. Busby; P.R. Pasala; Daniel J. Leduc


    A Visual Basic computer model that can be used to estimate the harvestvalue of loblolly pine plantations in the west gulf region is presented. Themodel uses a dynamic programming algorithm to convert stand tablespredicted by COMPUTE_P-LOB into a listing of seven products thatmaximizes the harvested value of the stand.

  18. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty


    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  19. Initial mortality rates and extent of damage to loblolly and longleaf pine plantations affected by an ice storm in South Carolina (United States)

    Don C. Bragg


    A major ice storm struck Georgia and the Carolinas in February of 2014, damaging or destroying hundreds of thousands of hectares of timber worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Losses were particularly severe in pine plantations in west-central South Carolina, including many on the Savannah River Site (SRS). An array of paired, mid-rotation loblolly (Pinus...

  20. Branch growth and gas exchange in 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration and fertilization (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; John Butnor; Lance W. Kress; Peter H. Anderson


    Summary We used whole-tree, open-top chambers to expose 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees, growing in soil with high or low nutrient availability, to either ambient or elevated (ambient + 200 µmol mol-1 ) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 28 months. Branch growth...

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Amber; Felix, Larry; Farthing, William


    Highlights: • Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass was conducted continuously in a TSE-based reactor system. • The fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system produces hydrochar in higher yields than a batch reactor system. • Severity factor (SF) is a useful metric for characterizing reaction conditions in different reactor systems. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has become an accepted means of converting a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into solid hydrochars, which have improved physical and chemical properties compared to raw biomass. To date, HTC applications have involved batch or semi-continuous process systems, which has limited their economic viability. The work presented here describes a fully-continuous HTC process, made possible by use of a specially modified twin-screw extruder (TSE). The reaction time within this fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system is very short (20–30 sec) as compared to a typical batch reactor. Therefore, the concept of reaction ‘severity factor’ is used when comparing the FHTC products with those produced in other reactor systems. While solid hydrochar produced in the FHTC system has different physical properties than hydrochar from batch reactor systems, these materials exhibit similar energy densification and pelletization behavior, when produced under comparable severity conditions. However, total hydrochar yields are considerably higher from the FHTC reactor compared to batch reactor systems. This is a consequence of the de-pressurization process in the FHTC system, whereby most water-soluble organic products are retained in the hydrochar, rather than exiting the process in a separate aqueous product stream. FHTC treatment of loblolly pine at a severity factor of 5.3 (290 °C) produced a hydrochar yield of nearly 85% (based on dry feedstock mass). Condensation of the flashed vapor products provided a relatively clean water stream, containing only 1.2% organics – primarily furfural and acetic acid

  2. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.


    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  3. Are mice eating up all the pine seeds? (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Kerry Foresman; Elizabeth Crone; Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega


    Wildlife, even miniscule mice, can play an important role in forest regeneration and composition by consuming seeds, seedlings, and saplings. Mice can, through sheer numbers, consume a tremendous number of seeds. We wanted to learn if deer mice could affect how ponderosa pine forests regenerate after fire.

  4. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)


    Lestander, Torbjörn


    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  5. Inhibiting effect of ponderosa pine seed trees on seedling growth (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    Ponderosa pine seed trees, numbering 4, 8, and 12 per acre, were left standing for 9 years after harvest cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif. Seedling heights were measured at ages 5, 9, and 14, and for all ages were poorest if within 20 feet of a seed tree. Seedlings 20 feet or less from a seed tree at the ages given lost the equivalent in years of...

  6. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  7. Estimating Cone and Seed Production and Monitoring Pest Damage in Southern Pine Seed Orchards (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; H. David Muse; Thomas Miller; Helen T. Bhattacharyya


    Field sampling procedures and computer programs are described for monitoring seed production and pest damage in southern pine seed orchards. The system estimates total orchard yields of female strobili and seeds, quantifies pest damage, determines times of year when losses occur, and produces life tables for female strobili. An example is included to illustrate the...

  8. Storage Potential of Local Brazilian Pine Seed Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pine seeds (Araucaria angustifolia are recalcitrant, and there are no studies evaluating the longevity of their different varieties. Our objective was to evaluate the capacity of different varieties of Brazilian pine seeds to maintain their physiological quality during storage. Seeds of the varieties: sancti josephi (I, angustifolia (II, caiova (III and indehiscens (IV were collected from two populations located in Santa Catarina, and stored under laboratory conditions and in a cold room for 90 days. On average, freshly harvested seeds showed 88% viability, and varieties II and III maintained the greatest viability (with the greatest vigor for variety II after 90 days in storage. Varieties I and II maintained their pre-germinative metabolism for a longer period than the other varieties during storage. Therefore, seeds from the angustifolia variety (II have higher storage potential than the other varieties, maintaining approximately 61% viability at 90 days of storage.

  9. Pine seed predation by mice: an experimental assessment of preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Peredo, R.; BolIvar Cime, B.S.


    Seed traits are considered an essential factor influencing rodents’ foraging preferences. We evaluated the mouse’s preferences for seeds of four pine species, Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. montezumae, that differ in length, width, nutritional content, and concentrated tannins. In ‘cafeteria experiments’ in the laboratory, we tested six of the nine mice species commonly found in the temperate forest of Southern Mexico. Longer and wider seeds were those of P. teocote and P. montezumae. P. teocote seeds had the highest protein content, P. patula were highest in lipids, and P. montezumae seeds were highest in carbohydrates. In concentrated tannins, gallic acid content was highest in P. patula seeds and tannic acid content was highest in P. teocote seeds. Mice preferred small pine seeds with a high lipid and gallic acid content, a low tannic acid content, and an intermediate protein and carbohydrate content. The foraging behavior of rodents, their energy optimization, and the likely effects on seed fate and plant composition would thus be mediated by combinations of seed traits rather than by single seed traits such as size or tannin contents. (Author)

  10. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeaux John M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes. Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01. Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30 to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in

  11. Microarray analysis and scale-free gene networks identify candidate regulators in drought-stressed roots of loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) (United States)


    Background Global transcriptional analysis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is challenging due to limited molecular tools. PtGen2, a 26,496 feature cDNA microarray, was fabricated and used to assess drought-induced gene expression in loblolly pine propagule roots. Statistical analysis of differential expression and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used to identify drought-responsive genes and further characterize the molecular basis of drought tolerance in loblolly pine. Results Microarrays were used to interrogate root cDNA populations obtained from 12 genotype × treatment combinations (four genotypes, three watering regimes). Comparison of drought-stressed roots with roots from the control treatment identified 2445 genes displaying at least a 1.5-fold expression difference (false discovery rate = 0.01). Genes commonly associated with drought response in pine and other plant species, as well as a number of abiotic and biotic stress-related genes, were up-regulated in drought-stressed roots. Only 76 genes were identified as differentially expressed in drought-recovered roots, indicating that the transcript population can return to the pre-drought state within 48 hours. Gene correlation analysis predicts a scale-free network topology and identifies eleven co-expression modules that ranged in size from 34 to 938 members. Network topological parameters identified a number of central nodes (hubs) including those with significant homology (E-values ≤ 2 × 10-30) to 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, and ABA-responsive protein. Identified hubs also include genes that have been associated previously with osmotic stress, phytohormones, enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species, and several genes of unknown function. Conclusion PtGen2 was used to evaluate transcriptome responses in loblolly pine and was leveraged to identify 2445 differentially expressed genes responding to severe drought stress in roots. Many of the

  12. Variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence according to stand age-related processes in a managed loblolly pine forest. (United States)

    Colombo, Roberto; Celesti, Marco; Bianchi, Remo; Campbell, Petya K E; Cogliati, Sergio; Cook, Bruce D; Corp, Lawrence A; Damm, Alexander; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Guanter, Luis; Julitta, Tommaso; Middleton, Elizabeth M; Noormets, Asko; Panigada, Cinzia; Pinto, Francisco; Rascher, Uwe; Rossini, Micol; Schickling, Anke


    Leaf fluorescence can be used to track plant development and stress, and is considered the most direct measurement of photosynthetic activity available from remote sensing techniques. Red and far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) maps were generated from high spatial resolution images collected with the HyPlant airborne spectrometer over even-aged loblolly pine plantations in North Carolina (United States). Canopy fluorescence yield (i.e., the fluorescence flux normalized by the light absorbed) in the red and far-red peaks was computed. This quantifies the fluorescence emission efficiencies that are more directly linked to canopy function compared to SIF radiances. Fluorescence fluxes and yields were investigated in relation to tree age to infer new insights on the potential of those measurements in better describing ecosystem processes. The results showed that red fluorescence yield varies with stand age. Young stands exhibited a nearly twofold higher red fluorescence yield than mature forest plantations, while the far-red fluorescence yield remained constant. We interpreted this finding in a context of photosynthetic stomatal limitation in aging loblolly pine stands. Current and future satellite missions provide global datasets of SIF at coarse spatial resolution, resulting in intrapixel mixture effects, which could be a confounding factor for fluorescence signal interpretation. To mitigate this effect, we propose a surrogate of the fluorescence yield, namely the Canopy Cover Fluorescence Index (CCFI) that accounts for the spatial variability in canopy structure by exploiting the vegetation fractional cover. It was found that spatial aggregation tended to mask the effective relationships, while the CCFI was still able to maintain this link. This study is a first attempt in interpreting the fluorescence variability in aging forest stands and it may open new perspectives in understanding long-term forest dynamics in response to future climatic

  13. Biological and Economic Productivity of Mixed-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands in the South (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee-Abt


    The financial performance of the 991 sample plots of uneven-aged loblolly-hardwood stands in the Central South FIA database examined in this report depend crucially on real price trends. Equivalent annual income (EAI) is the measure of economic performance. The regional market stumpage price data are from the Timber Mart-South database. For this set of prices, a...

  14. Whole canopy gas exchange among elite loblolly pine families subjected to drought stress (United States)

    Wilson G. Hood; Michael C. Tyree; Dylan N. Dillaway; Michael A. Blazier; Mary Anne Sword Sayer


    Future climate change simulations predict that the southeastern United States will experience hydrologic patterns similar to that currently found in the Western Gulf Region, meaning, that planted elite loblolly families may be subject to drier, hotter summers (Ruosteenoja et al. 2003, Field et al. 2007). Currently, there is little research on how these fast-growing...

  15. Ponderosa pine seed-tree removal reduces stocking only slightly (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    After ponderosa pine seed trees were removed on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, seedling stocking fell by 3.8 percent or about 212 seedlings per acre. This loss is slightly less than that incurred from natural mortality, and one that did not reduce regeneration levels below the minimum standard.

  16. Determination of fertility rating (FR) in the 3-PG model for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southeastern United States


    Subedi, Santosh


    Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystem, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. Phytocentric and geocenctric approaches were used to assess soil fertility in loblolly pine plantations throughout their geographic range in the United States. The model to assess soil fertility using a phytocentric approach was constructed using the relationship between site index and aboveground productivity. Geocentric models used physic...

  17. Long-Term Trends In Loblolly Pine Productivity And Stand Characteristics In Response To Stand Density And Fertilization In The Western Gulf Region (United States)

    M.A. Sword; J. L. Chambers; Z. Tang; T. J. Dean; J. C. Goelz


    Two levels each of fertilization and stand density were established to create four environments in a 7-year-old loblolly pine plantation on a N and P deficient western Gulf Coastal Plain site in Louisiana. Levels of fertilization were no fertilization and application of 120 lb N and 134 lb P/ac. Levels of stand density were the original stocking (1,210 trees/ac), and...

  18. Rotation-length effects of diverse levels of competition control and pre-commercial thinning on stand development and financial performance of loblolly pine in central Louisiana (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; A. Gordon Holley; Shaun M. Tanger; Terry R. Clason; Eric L. Taylor


    Long-term productivity of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations can be increased by early suppression of herbaceous and woody competing vegetation (Zutter and others 1986, Haywood 1994, Miller and others 2003a). The USDA Forest Service’s Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) was designed to isolate influences of two major competition...

  19. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak. (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M


    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  20. Nitrogen uptake and assimilation by two families of loblolly pine under simulated field conditions in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.A.


    While significant success has been achieved in pine tree improvement, comparatively little is known about the physiological strategies employed by superior genotypes. The central hypothesis of this research was that dissimilarities of two families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in absorption, use, and allocation of N and C during and after periods of N stress explain differences in productivity. One group of trees was exposed to NH 4 + -N (100:0 experiment) for 84 d while a second group was grown with a 70% NH 4 + : 30% NO 3 - -N solution (70:30 experiment). Ammonium-N was labelled with 15 N. Half of the seedlings had restricted N supplies from 28 d to 70 d. Results were compared to the unstressed half of each group. Nitrogen stress resulted in significantly lower biomass production and N uptake in both families in the 70:30 experiment. The superior family recovered these losses 14 d after the N stress was removed. No difference in biomass existed in either family following N stress in the 100:0 experiment

  1. Limber pine seed and seedling planting experiment in Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; Graeme Poll; Cameron Gillies; Celina Praymak; Eileen Miranda; Justin Hill


    Limber pine plays an important role in the harsh environments in which it lives, providing numerous ecological services, especially because its large, wingless seeds serve as a high energy food source for many animals. Limber pine populations are declining due to a combination of white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, drought, and fire suppression. Outplanting...

  2. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.


    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period.Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5–25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  3. Soil Profile Characteristics of a 25-Year-Old Windrowed Loblolly Pine Plantation in Louisiana (United States)

    William B. Patterson; John C. Adams; Spencer E. Loe; R. Jarod Patterson


    Windrowing site preparation, the raking and piling of long rows of logging debris, has been reported to displace surface soil, redistribute nutrients, and reduce volume growth of southern pine forests. Many of these studies have reported short-term results, and there are few long-term studies of the effects of windrowing on soil properties and pine growth. A 16.2...

  4. Long-Term Studies of Prescribed Burning in Loblolly Pine Forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; David H. van Lear; F. Thomas Lloyd; William R. Harms


    Prescribed fire provides many benefits in southern pine A study begun in 1946 provides a unique opportunity stands. to observe long-term changes in understory vegetation, soil properties, and overstory tree growth caused by repeated burning.

  5. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (United States)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)


    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  6. The effects of drought and disturbance on the growth and developmental instability of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Graham, John H.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Michelle L.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Emlen, John M.; Malol, Jagadish; Bankstahl, Elizabeth; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Freeman, D. Carl


    Ecological indicators provide early warning of adverse environmental change, helping land managers adaptively manage their resources while minimizing costly remediation. In 1999 and 2000, we studied two such indicators, growth and developmental instability, of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) influenced by mechanized infantry training at Fort Benning, Georgia. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had fewer trees, diminished ground cover, warmer soils in the summer, and more compacted soils with a shallower A-horizon. We hypothesized that disturbance would decrease the growth of needles, branches, and tree rings, increase the complexity of tree rings, and increase the developmental instability of needles. Contrary to our expectations, however, disturbance enhanced growth in the first year of the study, possibly by reducing competition. In the second year, a drought reduced growth of branches and needles, eliminating the stimulatory effect of disturbance. Growth-ring widths increased with growing-season precipitation, and decreased with growing-season temperature over the last 40 years. Disturbance had no effect on tree-ring complexity, as measured by the Hurst exponent. Within-fascicle variation of current-year needle length, a measure of developmental instability, differed among the study populations, but appeared unrelated to mechanical disturbance or drought.

  7. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha


    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  8. Shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands in the Ouachita and Ozark mountains (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Robert F. Wittwer


    Seed production of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) was monitored from 1965 to 1974 to determine the periodicity qf seed crops in both woods-run stands and seed-production areas. One bumper and two good seed crops occurred during the 9-yr period. The two largest crops occurred in successive years, then seed production was low for 4 yr before...

  9. Reproducing pine stands on the eastern shore of Maryland using a seed-tree cutting and preparing seedbeds with machinery and summer fires (United States)

    S. Little; J. J. Mohr


    Pure pine stands are the most profitable forest crop on upland sites of the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The stands have been common in the past, because loblolly pine and pond pine usually made up most of the first forest growth on abandoned farmland. And apparently nearly all upland sites have been tilled at one time or another.

  10. Differential soil water sourcing of managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum revealed by stable isotopes in the Upper Coastal Plain, USA (United States)

    Brockman, L. E.; Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.; McDonnell, J.; Janzen, K. F.


    Stable isotope signatures of stem water can illuminate where in the soil profile different types of trees are accessing soil water and thereby contribute to our understanding of water movement through the soil plant atmosphere continuum. The objective of this study was to use 2H and 18O isotopes to characterize water sources of fourteen-year-old intensively managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum stands in replicated (n=3) paired plots. In order to differentiate the isotopic signatures of tree and soil water, both species and five soil depths were sampled monthly for one year. Tree sap and soil water were extracted cryogenically and their isotopic signatures were determined. Although plant water uptake is generally considered a non-fractionating process, our dataset suggests a source of fractionation in 2H signatures in both species and during most of the thirteen sampling events. As a result, only the 18O isotopic data were used to determine the vertical distribution of soil water contributions to stem water. Statistically, we grouped the five soil sampling depths into three isotopic horizons. Shallow, intermediate and deep soil represent sampling depths of 0-10cm, 30-70cm and 100-125cm, respectively. These isotopic horizons were used in a direct inference approach and Bayesian mixing model analysis to determine the origin of stem water. In this study, Loblolly Pine used more water from intermediate and deep soil while Sweet Gum used more water from shallow and intermediate soil. In the winter months, January through March, Loblolly Pine transpired primarily deep soil where as Sweet Gum mainly utilized shallow soil for transpiration. These results indicate that both species have opportunistic water use patterns with seasonal variation.

  11. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids (United States)

    R.W. Hemingway


    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  12. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South


    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  13. Perspectives on site productivity of loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States (United States)

    Eric D. Vance; Felipe G. Sanchez


    Pine plantations in the U.S. South include some of the most intensively managed and productive forests in the world. Studies have been established in recent decades to answer questions about whether the productivity of these plantations is sustainable. While intensive management practices greatly enhance tree growth, their effects on factors controlling growth...

  14. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project (United States)


    ... relatively low tree densities of 25-60% forest cover with understories that are dominated by native grasses... trees exist in the overstory of most of these stands and hardwood sprouts and saplings abound in the... in pine plantations. Other stands are sparse due to poor planting success or to past logging that did...

  15. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO2 (free-air CO2 enrichment) and N-fertilizationpce (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Sari Palmroth; Eric Ward; Chris Maier; M. Therezien; Ram Oren


    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations CO2 a and CO2 e, respectively). We also examined how Kleaf varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (...

  16. Carryover effects of acid rain and ozone on the physiology of multiple flushes of loblolly pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasek, T.W.; Richardson, C.J.; Fendick, E.A.; Bevington, S.R.; Kress, L.W.


    The effects of acid rain and ozone exposure on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in the Piedmont of North Carolina were assessed over two exposure seasons (1987-1988). Direct effects and carryover effects of long-term exposure on the photosynthetic potential and photopigment concentrations of different needle age-classes were studied. Three half-sib families were grown in open-top field chambers and exposed two acid rain treatments and five ozone exposures delivered in proportion to ambient concentrations in a complete factorial design. Ozone significantly affected photosynthesis but there were no statistically significant effects of acid rain nor any ozone x acid rain interactions. In 1987, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush progressively diverged among the ozone treatments except between charcoal-filtered and nonfiltered air (NF). At the end of the first season, photosynthesis was reduced 24% at 1.5x compared to CF and more than 80% at 2.25x and 3.0x. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations were similarly reduced at elevated ozone exposures. In 1988, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush in the elevated ozone treatments remained lower. Early in the second season, the 1988 first-flush had a 25% to 50% lower photosynthetic potential at 2.25x and 3.0x compared to CF. This carryover effect on the photosynthetic potential before significant cumulative exposure was progressively smaller in the later 1988 flushes. In the late season flushes in the highest ozone treatments, photosynthesis was significantly higher than in the lower ozone treatments

  17. Response of Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L. Physiology and Productivity to Sustained, Moderate Drought on the Western Edge of the Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Maggard


    Full Text Available The productivity of the approximately 11 million ha of loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern USA could be threatened by decreased water availability in a future climate. To determine the effects of sustained drought on leaf gas exchange, whole-tree water use, and individual tree growth, we examined the response of loblolly pine trees to 100% throughfall exclusion cumulatively spanning the sixth and seventh growing seasons of a plantation in southeastern Oklahoma. Throughfall exclusion reduced volumetric soil water content for 0–12 cm soil depth from 10.8% to 4.8% and for 12–45 cm soil depth from 24.2% to 15.6%. Compared to ambient throughfall trees, leaf water potential of the throughfall exclusion trees became more negative, −0.9 MPa vs. −1.3 MPa for predawn measurements and −1.5 MPa vs. −1.9 MPa for midday measurements. Throughfall exclusion did not significantly reduce leaf gas exchange or tree water use. However, throughfall exclusion significantly reduced leaf biomass by 21% and stem volume growth by 23%. These results indicate that sustained drought may cause downward shifts in leaf quantity to conserve water rather than reducing leaf-level water use.

  18. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J., L.


    Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.

  19. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus) (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.


    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  20. Point of no return: experimental determination of the lethal hydraulic threshold during drought for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (United States)

    Hammond, W.; Yu, K.; Wilson, L. A.; Will, R.; Anderegg, W.; Adams, H. D.


    The strength of the terrestrial carbon sink—dominated by forests—remains one of the greatest uncertainties in climate change modelling. How forests will respond to increased variability in temperature and precipitation is poorly understood, and experimental study to better inform global vegetation models in this area is needed. Necessary for achieving­­­­ this goal is an understanding of how increased temperatures and drought will affect landscape level distributions of plant species. Quantifying physiological thresholds representing a point of no return from drought stress, including thresholds in hydraulic function, is critical to this end. Recent theoretical, observational, and modelling research has converged upon a threshold of 60 percent loss of hydraulic conductivity at mortality (PLClethal). However, direct experimental determination of lethal points in conductivity and cavitation during drought is lacking. We quantified thresholds in hydraulic function in Loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, a commercially important timber species. In a greenhouse experiment, we exposed saplings (n = 96 total) to drought and rewatered treatment groups at variable levels of increasing water stress determined by pre-selected targets in pre-dawn water potential. Treatments also included a watered control with no drought, and drought with no rewatering. We measured physiological responses to water stress, including hydraulic conductivity, native PLC, water potential, foliar color, canopy die-back, and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence. Following the rewatering treatment, we observed saplings for at least two months to determine which survived and which died. Using these data we calculated lethal physiological thresholds in water potential, directly measured PLC, and PLC inferred from water potential using a hydraulic vulnerability curve. We found that PLClethal inferred from water potential agreed with the 60% threshold suggested by previous research. However, directly

  1. Control of Growth Efficiency in Young Plantation Loblolly Pine and Sweetgum through Irrigation and Fertigation Enhancement of Leaf Carbon Gain; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Samuelson


    The overall objective of this study was to determine if growth efficiency of young plantation loblolly pine and sweetgum can be maintained by intensive forest management and whether increased carbon gain is the mechanism controlling growth efficiency response to resource augmentation. Key leaf physiological processes were examined over two growing seasons in response to irrigation, fertigation (irrigation with a fertilizer solution), and fertigation plus pest control (pine only). Although irrigation improved leaf net photosynthesis in pine and decreased stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit in sweetgum, no consistent physiological responses to fertigation were detected in either species. After 4 years of treatment, a 3-fold increase in woody net primary productivity was observed in both species in response to fertigation. Trees supplemented with fertigation and fertigation plus pest control exhibited the largest increases in growth and biomass. Furthermore, growth efficiency was maintained by fertigation and fertigation plus pest control, despite large increases in crown development and self-shading. Greater growth in response to intensive culture was facilitated by significant gains in leaf mass and whole tree carbon gain rather than detectable increases in leaf level processes. Growth efficiency was not maintained by significant increases in leaf level carbon gain but was possibly influenced by changes in carbon allocation to root versus shoot processes

  2. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries (United States)

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert


    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  3. Spread of dwarf mistletoe from discrete seed sources into young stands of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines (United States)

    J. R. Parmeter Jr.


    The maximum distance of spread of dwarf mistletoes from isolated overstory pines into surrounding reproduction averages 120 feet. The rate of infection in young trees declined as distance from the seed source increased and was generally greatest in the direction of prevailing winds. This pattern of infection was similar to the previously reported pattern of seed...

  4. Effects of overstory retention, herbicides, and fertilization on sub-canopy vegetation structure and functional group composition in loblolly pine forests restored to longleaf pine (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker; G. Geoff Wang; Huifeng Hu; Robert N.  Addington


    The desirable structure of longleaf pine forests, which generally includes a relatively open canopy of pines, very few woody stems in the mid-story, and a well-developed, herbaceous ground layer, provides critical habitat for flora and fauna and contributes to ecosystem function. Current efforts to restore longleaf pine to upland sites dominated by second-growth...

  5. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.


    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  7. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway


    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  8. Repeated Stand-Replacing Crown Fires Affect Seed Morphology and Germination in Aleppo pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Saracino


    Full Text Available Post-fire reproductive niche of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis is deeply interlaced with fire products. Indeed, the high pH and low osmotic potentials of ash beds under burnt crowns constitute the main constraints to seed germination. In this study, we aim to investigate whether fire recurrence, through the physico-chemical constraints imposed by the ash beds, affects the reproduction ability of P. halepensis at the germination stage. To this aim, Aleppo pine seeds were collected in neighboring even-aged stands subjected to 0, 1, or 2 fires (namely fire cohorts, and seed morphology and germination performance, in terms of cumulative germination and germination kinetics, were studied under increasing osmotic potentials (from 0.0 to −1.2 MPa and pH (from 6 to 11. Besides fire history, the role of ontogenetic age of mother plants on seed morphology and germination was also investigated. Differences in seed morphology among the three cohorts have been highlighted in a multivariate context, with anisotropic enlargement of the seeds produced by pine stands experiencing repeated fires. The patterns of seed germination varied primarily in relation to the fire cohort, with seeds from the pine stand experiencing repeated fires exhibiting enhanced tolerance to pH stress. Conversely, germination performances under osmotic constraints mainly depends on tree ontogenetic stage, with an involvement of fire history especially in the timing of seed germination. Our results suggest that, at least in the short term, fire recurrence does not constrain the reproduction ability of Aleppo pine. These results highlight the need for further research to elucidate the mechanisms behind these responses to recurrent fires.

  9. Repeated Stand-Replacing Crown Fires Affect Seed Morphology and Germination in Aleppo pine (United States)

    Saracino, Antonio; Bellino, Alessandro; Allevato, Emilia; Mingo, Antonio; Conti, Stefano; Rossi, Sergio; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Carputo, Domenico; Mazzoleni, Stefano


    Post-fire reproductive niche of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) is deeply interlaced with fire products. Indeed, the high pH and low osmotic potentials of ash beds under burnt crowns constitute the main constraints to seed germination. In this study, we aim to investigate whether fire recurrence, through the physico-chemical constraints imposed by the ash beds, affects the reproduction ability of P. halepensis at the germination stage. To this aim, Aleppo pine seeds were collected in neighboring even-aged stands subjected to 0, 1, or 2 fires (namely fire cohorts), and seed morphology and germination performance, in terms of cumulative germination and germination kinetics, were studied under increasing osmotic potentials (from 0.0 to −1.2 MPa) and pH (from 6 to 11). Besides fire history, the role of ontogenetic age of mother plants on seed morphology and germination was also investigated. Differences in seed morphology among the three cohorts have been highlighted in a multivariate context, with anisotropic enlargement of the seeds produced by pine stands experiencing repeated fires. The patterns of seed germination varied primarily in relation to the fire cohort, with seeds from the pine stand experiencing repeated fires exhibiting enhanced tolerance to pH stress. Conversely, germination performances under osmotic constraints mainly depends on tree ontogenetic stage, with an involvement of fire history especially in the timing of seed germination. Our results suggest that, at least in the short term, fire recurrence does not constrain the reproduction ability of Aleppo pine. These results highlight the need for further research to elucidate the mechanisms behind these responses to recurrent fires. PMID:28713415

  10. Comparison of arthropod prey of red-cockaded woodpeckers on the boles of long-leaf and loblolly pines (United States)

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula


    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of most southern pines. Woodpeckers may select trees based on arthropod availability, yet no published studies have evaluated differences in arthropod abundance on different species of pines. We used knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf (Pinus palustris...

  11. Limonene: attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an Eastern white pine seed orchard in Western North Carolina (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller


    I report on the attraction of the white pine cone beetle, Canophthorus coniperda (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to traps baited with the host monoterpene limonene in western North Carolina. Both (+)- and (-)-limonene attracted male and female cone beetles to Japenese beetle traps in an eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. seed...

  12. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.


    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  13. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L.; Myers, K.; Tissue, D.T.; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW


    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressures (pCO 2 ). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (pCO 2 ) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO 2 at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO 2 on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O 2 ) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO 2 in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO 2 . Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO 2 . In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO 2 . Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO 2 had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO 2 on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs

  14. Short-term effects of fertilization on photosynthesis and leaf morphology of field-grown loblolly pine following long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, C.A.; Palmroth, S.; Ward, E.


    This study examined the effects of an initial nitrogen (N) fertilizer application on the upper-canopy needle morphology and gas exchange of a loblolly pine tree exposed to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations over a period of 9 years. Plots in the study were split, and one half of each plot was fertilized with 112 kg ha -1 of elemental N. Measurements included needle length, mass per unit area, N concentrations on a mass and area basis, light-saturated net photosynthesis per unit leaf area, and per unit mass and leaf conductance. Results of the study showed that fertilization had little impact on needle length, mass per unit area, or leaf conductance. Results suggested that although both needle age classes accumulated N following fertilization, current-year foliage incorporated N into its photosynthetic machinery, while 1-year old foliage stored N. No significant interactions were observed between elevated CO 2 and light-saturated net photosynthesis per unit leaf area. The study found few fertilization and CO 2 interaction effects on leaf physiology and morphology. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.


    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  16. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA


    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso


    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  17. Precommercial thinning of naturally seeded slash pine increases volume and monetary returns (United States)

    Earle P. Jones


    A naturally seeded slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) stand, having up to 50,000 stems per acre, was precommercially thinned at age 3. Two thinning methods left single trees spaced 10 by 10 feet, and clumps of 6 to 8 trees spaced 10 by 10 feet, compared with the unthinned original stand. At age 23, the single-...

  18. Season for Direct Seeding Slash Pine in the Middle and Upper Coastal Plains of Georgia (United States)

    Earle P. Jones


    Repellent-treated seed of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) were sown at eight monthly dates from November to June for 5 years in Dooly County, Georgia. Observations of seedlings indicated that germination, survival, and first-year establishment were superior on plots planted in November through April. Slow...

  19. Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Richard Braham; Felipe Sanchez


    Some of the most species-rich areas and highest concentrations of threatened and endangered species in the southeastern United States are found in wet savanna and flatwood longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) communities. Where intensive forestry practices have eliminated much of the natural understory of the longleaf ecosystem, the potential for...

  20. Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone and fluctuating moisture supply on loblolly pine seedlings inoculated with root infecting ophiostomatoid fungi (United States)

    Jeff Chieppa; Lori Eckhardt; Art Chappelka


    Southern Pine Decline is a cause of premature mortality of Pinus species in the Southeastern United States. While the pathogenicity of ophiostomatoid fungi, associated with declining Pinus species, has been observed both in the laboratory and the field the driving mechanisms for success of fungal infection, as well as the bark-...

  1. Determining Nutrient Requirements For Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Stands Using the SSAND (Soil Supply and Nutrient Demand) Model (United States)

    Hector G. Adegbidi; Nicholas B. Comerford; Hua Li; Eric J. Jokela; Nairam F. Barros


    Nutrient management represents a central component of intensive silvicultural systems that are designed to increase forest productivity in southern pine stands. Forest soils throughout the South are generally infertile, and fertilizers may be applied one or more times over the course of a rotation. Diagnostic techniques, such as foliar analysis and soil testing are...

  2. Greenhouse gas fluxes and root productivity in a switchgrass and loblolly pine intercropping system for bioenergy production (United States)

    Paliza Shrestha; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett


    This study is part of a larger collaborative effort to determine the overall environmental sustainability of intercropping pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), both of which are promising feedstock for bioenergy production in the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina.

  3. Biomass production of dense direct-seeded lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at short rotation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, I.; Bergsten, U.


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a fast-growing species that is suitable for producing woody biomass in Nordic countries. Direct seeding of this species is cheaper than planting and creates dense, stable stands. The objective of this study was to quantify the stem volume and biomass production of direct seeded lodgepole pine stands grown under different site conditions with different stem densities, at an age that would permit extensive harvesting of biomass. A circle-plot inventory was performed in 16 of the oldest direct seeded lodgepole pine stands in mid-northern Sweden. Stemwood production of almost 200 m{sup 3}/ha was achieved on average on the best sites, rising to about 300 m{sup 3}/ha for the best circle-plots within 30 years of direct seeding despite the fact that pre-commercial thinning was made once or twice. This corresponds to 100 and 140 tons of dry weight biomass/ha, respectively. Higher stand stem densities ({>=}3000 st/ha) yielded more biomass with only slight reductions in diameter at breast height. The development of stem volume with respect to dominant height in direct seeded stands was becoming comparable to that in planted stands with similar spacing. It therefore seems that there is an unutilized potential for cost-effectively growing lodgepole pine in dense stands for biomass production after direct seeding. It may be possible to devise regimes for short(er) rotation forestry that would yield substantial amount of inexpensive biomass for biorefineries within a few decades. (orig.)

  4. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468 (United States)

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale


    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  5. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topa, M.A.


    Seedlings of pond (Pinus serotina (Michx.)), sand (P. clausa (Engelm.) Sarg.), and loblolly pines (P. taeda L., drought-hardy and wet site seed sources) were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic or aerobic conditions to determine the effects of anaerobics on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond pines was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with specific morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root in anaerobically-grown loblolly and pond pine seedlings was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments. Tissue elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term 32 p uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass, since H 2 PO 4 - influx in the anaerobically-grown seedlings was more than twice that of their aerobic counterparts. Sand pine possessed the physiological but not morphological capacity to increase P uptake under anaerobic growth conditions. Pond and wet-site loblolly pine seedlings maintained root growth, perhaps through enhanced internal root aeration - an advantage in field conditions where the phosphorus supply may be limited or highly localized

  6. Cultural intensity and planting density effects on individual tree stem growth, stand and crown attributes, and stand dynamics in thinned loblolly pine plantations during the age 12- to age 15- year period in the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Evan Johnson; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Robert Teskey


    Three existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) installations in the Plantation Management Research Cooperative's Upper Coastal Plain/Piedmont Culture Density Study were used to examine the effects of two cultural intensities, four initial planting densities, and their interactions on stem growth at the individual tree level from age 12 to 15 years and at the stand...

  7. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on loblolly pine. 1: Growth, photosynthesis and pigment production in greenhouse-grown seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.


    One-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were grown in an unshaded greenhouse for 7 months under 4 levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation simulating stratospheric ozone reductions of 16, 25 and 40% and included a control with no UV-B radiation. Periodic measurements were made of growth and gas exchange characteristics and needle chlorophyll and UV-B-absorbing-compound concentrations. The effectiveness of UV-B radiation on seedling growth and physiology varied with the UV-B irradiance level. Seedlings receiving the lowest supplemental UV-B irradiance showed reductions in growth and photosynthetic capacity after only 1 month of irradiation. These reductions persisted and resulted in lower biomass production, while no increases in UV-B-absorbing compounds in needles were observed. Seedlings receiving UV-B radiation which simulated a 25% stratospheric ozone reduction showed an increase in UV-B-absorbing-compound concentrations after 6 months, which paralleled a recovery in photosynthesis and growth after an initial decrease in these characteristics. The seedlings grown at the highest UV-B irradiance (40% stratospheric ozone reduction) showed a more rapid increase in the concentration of UV-B-absorbing compounds and no effects of UV-B radiation on growth or photosynthetic capacity until after 4 months at this irradiance. Changes in photosynthetic capacity were probably the result of direct effects on light-dependent processes, since no effects were observed on either needle chlorophyll concentrations or stomatal conductance. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these responses persist and accumulate over subsequent years. (author)

  8. Pine seeds radiosensitivity as depended upon their humidity and the term of storage after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porozova, O.A.


    The seeds of pine (Pinus silvestris L.) have been used to study the effect of average and so called ''low doses'' of ionizing radiation at different levels of seed humidity (3-4%-dried a little, 6-7%-aerially-dry and 9-10%-humid). The Seeds of every humidity level are irradiated in May in a rather wide dose range 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 Gy from a gamma source of 137 Cs at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min. After irradiation part of seeds was sown. It is shown that seeds with relatively high water content are more stable to the effect of gamma-radiation. The first indices of radiation injury in humid seeds (9-10% humidity) in the criteria of laboratory growing-out are noticed at the dose of 20 Gy while in dried seeds (3-4% hymidity) - at the dose of 2 Gy. Radiation injury of aerially-dried and dried seeds increases with the increase of radiation dose and periods of their storage. In humid seeds this effect depends on radiation dose alone; their storage for eight months did not produce a noticeable effect on growing-out

  9. Seasonality and Management Affect Land Surface Temperature Differences Between Loblolly Pine and Switchgrass Ecosystems in Central Virginia (United States)

    Ahlswede, B.; Thomas, R. Q.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Rady, J.; LeMoine, J.


    Changes in land-use and land management can have biogeochemical and biophysical effects on local and global climate. While managed ecosystems provide known food and fiber benefits, their influence on climate is less well quantified. In the southeastern United States, there are numerous types of intensely managed ecosystems but pine plantations and switchgrass fields represent two biogeochemical and biophysical extremes; a tall, low albedo forest with trees harvested after multiple decades vs. a short, higher albedo C4 grass field that is harvested annually. Despite the wide spread use of these ecosystems for timber and bioenergy, a quantitative, empirical evaluation of the net influence of these ecosystems on climate is lacking because it requires measuring both the greenhouse gas and energy balance of the ecosystems while controlling for the background weather and soil environment. To address this need, we established a pair of eddy flux towers in these ecosystems that are co-located (1.5 km apart) in Central Virginia and measured the radiative energy, non-radiative energy and carbon fluxes, along with associated biometeorology variables; the paired site has run since April 2016. During the first 1.5 years (two growing seasons), we found strong seasonality in the difference in surface temperature between the two ecosystems. In the growing seasons, both sites had similar surface temperature despite higher net radiation in pine. Following harvest of the switchgrass in September, the switchgrass temperatures increased relative to pine. In the winter, the pine ecosystem was warmer. We evaluate the drivers of these intra-annual dynamics and compare the climate influence of these biophysical differences to the differences in carbon fluxes between the sites using a suite of established climate regulation services metrics. Overall, our results show tradeoffs exist between the biogeochemical and biophysical climate services in managed ecosystems in the southeastern United

  10. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States. (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L


    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  11. Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (United States)

    Taylor J. Turner; Diana F. Tomback; Bradley Van Anderson; Michael Murray


    Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are well known for using conifer seeds as their principal nutriment source. Seeds are primarily harvested from whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), piñon (P. edulis), limber (P. flexilis), southwestern white (P. strobiformis), Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pine as well as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  12. Surfing the Koehler Curve: revisiting a method for the identification of longleaf pine stumps and logs (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Karen G. Reed


    Measurements of pith and second growth ring diameters were used by Koehler in 1932 to separate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) timbers from those of several southern pines (e.g., loblolly, shortleaf). In the current study, measurements were taken from plantation-grown longleaf, loblolly and shortleaf pine trees, as well as old growth longleaf pine, lightwood, and...

  13. Seed origin and warming constrain lodgepole pine recruitment, slowing the pace of population range shifts (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew; Veblen, Thomas T.; Smith, Jeremy M.; Moyes, Andrew B.; Kueppers, Lara M.


    Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations. Heating reduced (by 49%) recruitment to the third year of both low- and high-elevation seed sources across the elevation gradient, while watering alleviated some of the negative effects of heating (108% increase in watered plots). Demographic models based on recruitment data from the climate manipulations and long-term observations of adult populations revealed that heating could effectively halt modeled upslope range expansion except when combined with watering. Simulating fire and rapid post-fire forest recovery at lower elevations accelerated lodgepole pine expansion into the alpine, but did not alter final abundance rankings among climate scenarios. Regardless of climate scenario, greater recruitment of low-elevation seeds compensated for longer dispersal distances to treeline, assuming colonization was allowed to proceed over multiple centuries. Our results show that ecotypes from lower elevations within a species’ range could enhance recruitment and facilitate upslope range shifts with climate change.

  14. Assessing the effect of marginal water use efficiency on water use of loblolly pine and sweetgum in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions (United States)

    Kim, D.; Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.


    Stomata are the common pathways through which diffusion of CO2 and water vapor take place in a plant. Therefore, the responses of stomatal conductance to environmental conditions are important to quantify carbon assimilation and water use of plants. In stomatal optimality theory, plants may adjust the stomatal conductance to maximize carbon assimilation for a given water availability. The carbon cost for unit water loss, marginal water use efficiency (λ), depends on changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and pre-dawn leaf water potential. The relationship can be described by λ with no water stress (λ0) and the sensitivity of λ to pre-dawn leaf water potential (β0), which may vary by plant functional type. Assessment of sensitivity of tree and canopy water use to those parameters and the estimation of the parameters for individual plant functional type or species are needed. We modeled tree water use of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) in ambient and elevated CO2 (+200 µmol mol-1) at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site with Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2), a demographic terrestrial biosphere model that scales up individual-level competition for light, water and nutrients to the ecosystem-level. Simulated sap flux density for different tree size classes and species was compared to observations. The sensitivity analysis with respect to the model's hydraulic parameters was performed. The initial results showed that the impacts of λ on tree water use were greater than other hydraulic traits in the model, such as vertical hydraulic conductivity and leaf and stem capacitance. With 10% increase in λ, modeled water flow from root to leaf decreased by 2.5 and 1.6% for P. taeda and by 7.9 and 5.1% for L. styraciflua in ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, respectively. Values of hydraulic traits (λ0 and β0) for P. taeda and L. styraciflua in ambient an elevated CO2 conditions were also suggested.

  15. Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine

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    Garnier-Géré Pauline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted or genome-wide selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of highly-multiplexed SNP genotyping for genetic mapping in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., the main conifer used for commercial plantation in southwestern Europe. Results We designed a custom GoldenGate assay for 1,536 SNPs detected through the resequencing of gene fragments (707 in vitro SNPs/Indels and from Sanger-derived Expressed Sequenced Tags assembled into a unigene set (829 in silico SNPs/Indels. Offspring from three-generation outbred (G2 and inbred (F2 pedigrees were genotyped. The success rate of the assay was 63.6% and 74.8% for in silico and in vitro SNPs, respectively. A genotyping error rate of 0.4% was further estimated from segregating data of SNPs belonging to the same gene. Overall, 394 SNPs were available for mapping. A total of 287 SNPs were integrated with previously mapped markers in the G2 parental maps, while 179 SNPs were localized on the map generated from the analysis of the F2 progeny. Based on 98 markers segregating in both pedigrees, we were able to generate a consensus map comprising 357 SNPs from 292 different loci. Finally, the analysis of sequence homology between mapped markers and their orthologs in a Pinus taeda linkage map, made it possible to align the 12 linkage groups of both species. Conclusions Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in maritime pine, a conifer species that has a genome seven times the size of the human genome. This SNP-array will be extended thanks to recent sequencing effort using

  16. Masting in ponderosa pine: comparisons of pollen and seed over space and time. (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Linhart, Yan B; Snyder, Marc A


    Many plant species exhibit variable and synchronized reproduction, or masting, but less is known of the spatial scale of synchrony, effects of climate, or differences between patterns of pollen and seed production. We monitored pollen and seed cone production for seven Pinus ponderosa populations (607 trees) separated by up to 28 km and 1,350 m in elevation in Boulder County, Colorado, USA for periods of 4-31 years for a mean per site of 8.7 years for pollen and 12.1 for seed cone production. We also analyzed climate data and a published dataset on 21 years of seed production for an eighth population (Manitou) 100 km away. Individual trees showed high inter-annual variation in reproduction. Synchrony was high within populations, but quickly became asynchronous among populations with a combination of increasing distance and elevational difference. Inter-annual variation in temperature and precipitation had differing influences on seed production for Boulder County and Manitou. We speculate that geographically variable effects of climate on reproduction arise from environmental heterogeneity and population genetic differentiation, which in turn result in localized synchrony. Although individual pines produce pollen and seed, only one-third of the covariation within trees was shared. As compared to seed cones, pollen had lower inter-annual variation at the level of the individual tree and was more synchronous. However, pollen and seed production were similar with respect to inter-annual variation at the population level, spatial scales of synchrony and associations with climate. Our results show that strong masting can occur at a localized scale, and that reproductive patterns can differ between pollen and seed cone production in a hermaphroditic plant.

  17. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz


    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  18. Financial Performance of Mixed-Age Naturally Regenerated Loblolly-Hardwood Stands in the South Central United States (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee Abt


    To estimate the financial performance of a natural mixed species and mixed-age management in the loblolly-pine forest type, we examined 991 FIA plots in the south central states. The plots were of the loblolly pine forest type, mixed-age, and had been regenerated naturally. We gauged the financial performance of each plot from the equivalent annual income (EAI)...

  19. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) (United States)

    Valli Peacher


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  20. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

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    Christopher R. Keyes


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  1. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species (United States)

    J. Dunlap


    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  2. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia). (United States)

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes


    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L * ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a * , b * , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen


    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  4. Relationships Between Seed Weight, Germination Potential and Biochemical Reserves of Maritime Pine in Morocco: Elements for Tree Seedlings Improvement (United States)

    Wahid, Nadya; Bounoua, Lahouari


    Selection of quality seeds in breeding programs can significantly improve seedling productivity. Germination and biochemical analyses on seeds from ten natural populations of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in Morocco reveals significant differences among populations in seed weight, germination characters and protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes. During germination, the mobilization of protein content in megagametophyte is significantly different among populations than sugar content. A strong positive correlation between the germination capacity and the protein content in both dry seeds and megagametophytes indicates that the best populations in term of germination capacity may also be the richest in protein content. The present study finds that seed weight is not a good indicator for quality seed selection, nor is it recommended to increase the degree of germinability. Our results suggest that the pine population in southern Morocco might have adapted to drought conditions as it is characterized by heavy seed weight and lower speed of protein content mobilization in megagametophyte compared to northern populations growing in temperate climate.

  5. Retention of seed trees fails to lifeboat ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in harvested Scots pine forests. (United States)

    Varenius, Kerstin; Lindahl, Björn D; Dahlberg, Anders


    Fennoscandian forestry has in the past decades changed from natural regeneration of forests towards replantation of clear-cuts, which negatively impacts ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity. Retention of trees during harvesting enables EMF survival, and we therefore expected EMF communities to be more similar to those in old natural stands after forest regeneration using seed trees compared to full clear-cutting and replanting. We sequenced fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicons to assess EMF communities in 10- to 60-year-old Scots pine stands regenerated either using seed trees or through replanting of clear-cuts with old natural stands as reference. We also investigated local EMF communities around retained old trees. We found that retention of seed trees failed to mitigate the impact of harvesting on EMF community composition and diversity. With increasing stand age, EMF communities became increasingly similar to those in old natural stands and permanently retained trees maintained EMF locally. From our observations, we conclude that EMF communities, at least common species, post-harvest are more influenced by environmental filtering, resulting from environmental changes induced by harvest, than by the continuity of trees. These results suggest that retention of intact forest patches is a more efficient way to conserve EMF diversity than retaining dispersed single trees. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Stand Dynamics and Plant Associates of Loblolly Pine Plantations to Midrotation after Early Intensive Vegetation Management-A Southeastern United States Regional Study (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Ray A. Newbold; M. Boyd Edwards; Shepard M. Zedaker


    Increasingly, pine plantations worldwide are grown using early control of woodv and/or herbaceous vegetation. Assuredsustainablepractices require long-term data on pine plantation development detailing patterns and processes to understand both crop-competition dynamics and the role of stand participants in providing multiple attributes such as biodiversity conservation...

  7. Differential gene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) challenged with the fusiform rust fungus, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (United States)

    Henrietta Myburg; Alison M. Morse; Henry V. Amerson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Dudley Huber; Jason A. Osborne; Saul A. Garcia; C. Dana Nelson; John M. Davis; Sarah F. Covert; Leonel M. van Zyle


    Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme is the pathogen that incites fusiform rust disease of southern pine species. To date, a number of host resistance genes have been mapped. Although genomic mapping studies have provided valuable information on the genetic basis of disease interactions in this pine-rust pathosystem, the interaction...

  8. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L


    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  9. Are we over-managing longleaf pine? (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  10. Pines (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi


    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  11. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm


    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  12. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

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    Lech Urbaniak


    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  13. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  14. Microsite and elevation zone effects on seed pilferage, germination, and seedling survival during early whitebark pine recruitment. (United States)

    Pansing, Elizabeth R; Tomback, Diana F; Wunder, Michael B; French, Joshua P; Wagner, Aaron C


    Tree recruitment is a spatially structured process that may undergo change over time because of variation in postdispersal processes. We examined seed pilferage, seed germination, and seedling survival in whitebark pine to determine whether 1) microsite type alters the initial spatial pattern of seed caches, 2) higher abiotic stress (i.e. higher elevations) exacerbates spatial distribution changes, and 3) these postdispersal processes are spatially clustered. At two study areas, we created a seed distribution pattern by burying seed caches in microsite types frequently used by whitebark pine's avian seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker) in upper subalpine forest and at treeline, the latter characterized by high abiotic environmental stress. We monitored caches for two years for pilferage, germination, and seedling survival. Odds of pilferage (both study areas), germination (northern study area), and survival (southern study area) were higher at treeline relative to subalpine forest. At the southern study area, we found higher odds of 1) pilferage near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest, 2) germination near rocks relative to trees within both elevation zones, and 3) seedling survival near rocks and trees relative to no object at treeline. No microsite effects were detected at the northern study area. Findings indicated that the microsite distribution of seed caches changes with seed/seedling stage. Higher odds of seedling survival near rocks and trees were observed at treeline, suggesting abiotic stress may limit safe site availability, thereby shifting the spatial distribution toward protective microsites. Higher odds of pilferage at treeline, however, suggest rodents may limit treeline recruitment. Further, odds of pilferage were higher near rocks and trees relative to no object in subalpine forest but did not differ among microsites at treeline, suggesting pilferage can modulate the spatial structure of regeneration, a finding supported by

  15. Effects of seeding ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on vegetation recovery following fire in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest (United States)

    Barclay, Angela D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Allen, Craig D.


    Forty-nine vegetation transects were measured in 1997 and 1998 to determine the impact of grass seeding after the 1996 Dome Fire, which burned almost 6900 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forest in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. High- and moderate-burned areas in Santa Fe National Forest were seeded with a mixture that included the exotic ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Adjacent burned areas of Bandelier National Monument were not seeded, and were used as a control in the post-seeding study. On the seeded plots, foliar cover of ryegrass declined from 1997 to 1998 due to self-inhibition and/or reduced precipitation from 1997 to 1998. Foliar cover and diversity of native forbs were greater in 1997 than 1998, probably due to a wet growing season in 1997. Cover, species richness, and diversity of native forbs were highest in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensities. Regeneration and survivorship of conifer seedlings decreased as ryegrass cover increased, particularly in areas of high-burn intensity. Exotic plant cover, mostly horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.], increased from 1997 to 1998 in non-seeded areas of moderate- and high-burn intensity. Both the initial success of seeding and the eventual impacts on native vegetation were strongly modulated by climate variability.

  16. Long-Term Trends in Loblolly Pine Site Productivity and Stand Characteristics Observed at the Impac Research Site in Alachua County, Florida (United States)

    Timothy A. Martin; Eric J. Jokela


    While nutrient availability is a dominant factor controlling leaf area development and pine productivity in the southeastern USA, few studies have explored the long-term interactions among nutrient inputs, canopy foliage production, and aboveground biomass production. In order to address these questions, the Intensive Management Practices Assessment Center (IMPAC)...

  17. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren


    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  18. Whole-tree and forest floor removal from a loblolly pine plantation have no effect on forest floor CO2 efflux 10 years after harvest (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G. Sanchez


    Intensive management of southern pine plantations has yielded multifold increases in productivity over the last half century. The process of harvesting merchantable material and preparing a site for planting can lead to a considerable loss of organic matter. Intensively managed stands may experience more frequent disturbance as rotations decrease in length, exposing...

  19. Clonal Variations in Flower Production at the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.subsp. pallasiana Seed Orchard

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    Full Text Available This study was conducted for three years (2002-2004 in a black pine seed orchard established with 30 clonesoriginating from the forest of Yenice-Bakraz in Bartın, 1990. During the research, the variations between theclones in the seed orchard were determined based on the number of male and female flowers. According to theresults, the average values of flower production in three years at seed orchard showed considerable variations. Itwas determined that the number of the male and female flowers were 817,2 and 99,3 respectively. 62% ofaverage number of male flowers and 49% of female flowers were produced by 10 clones in 3 years. It was alsodetermined that the amount of the flowers for the clones showed significant differences within the years.

  20. Natural regeneration and seed production of pine stands on the dumps of coal mining industry in Kuzbass

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    V. I. Ufimtsev


    Full Text Available On the basis of the accounting of undergrowth in 5 gradations of crown closure density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest-ris L. stands, growing on the dumps in 4 ecological-geographic areas of Kuzbass, inverse relation of parameters of renewal from hydrothermal coefficient of the district is established. Optimum conditions develop in a steppe kernel where the number of shoots, seed production and undergrowth reaches 110 thousand trees per hectare with crown closure of 50 % and density of forest stand of 0.75 thousand trees of the II class of age on 1 hectare. At decrease or increase of forest canopy density of the main tree stand layer quantitative characteristics decrease. The smallest amount of undergrowth is recorded in the mountain-taiga area – from 0.4 to 23 thousand trees per hectare with a tendency to increase in the process of increasing crown closure. Areas of the northern forest-steppe and the southern forest-steppe on quantitative signs of renewal are intermediate. The number of undergrowth has high direct correlation dependence on the size of the current fructification of forest stands – around a steppe kernel ripens to 3.7 million seeds on 1 hectare, in mountain and taiga – to 0.39 million seeds on 1 hectare. Sowing qualities of seeds – the weight 1000, energy of germination and viability, and morphometric characteristics of 2-year seedlings, which are grown up from them – height, diameter and point of a vital state between ecological-geographic areas have no statistically reliable distinctions, but the characteristics stated above, than in the stands on zone soils. It testifies to usefulness of dumps’ conditions for natural regeneration of Scots pine, high actual reproductive opportunities for pine stands in forest-steppe areas and a steppe kernel, and also potential opportunities of the stands in the mountain and taiga region of the southern Kuzbass.

  1. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić


    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  2. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery provenance method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

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    Vladan Ivetić


    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methods on quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine were investigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goc, Studenica and Sargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gocko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gocko led to the highest seedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.     

  3. Long term effects of wet site timber harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain


    Neaves III, Charles Mitchell


    Short term studies have suggested that ground based timber harvesting on wet sites can alter soil properties and inhibit early survival and growth of seedlings. Persistence of such negative effects may translate to losses in forest productivity over a rotation. During the fall and winter of 1989, numerous salvage logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on wet pine flats in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo. A long-term experim...

  4. Effect of Removal of Woody Biomass after Clearcutting and Intercropping Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum with Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda on Rodent Diversity and Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Marshall


    Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.

  5. Impact of weed control and fertilization on growth of four species of pine in the Virginia Piedmont (United States)

    Dzhamal Y. Amishev; Thomas R. Fox


    During 1999, a mixed stand of Virginia pine and hardwoods in the Piedmont of Virginia was clearcut and site prepared by burning. Three replications, containing strips of loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, Virginia pine, and Eastern white pine, were planted at a 3 m x 1.5 m spacing during February to June, 2000. The strips were subsequently split to accommodate four...

  6. Nitrogen release, tree uptake, and ecosystem retention in a mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation following fertilization with 15N-enriched enhanced efficiency fertilizers.


    Werner, Amy


    Nitrogen is the most frequently limiting nutrient in southern pine plantations.  Previous studies found that only 10 to 25% of applied urea fertilizer N is taken up by trees.  Enhanced efficiency fertilizers could increase tree uptake efficiency by controlling the release of N and/or stabilize N.  Three enhanced efficiency fertilizers were selected as a representation of fertilizers that could be used in forestry: 1) NBPT treated urea (NBPT urea), 2) polymer coated urea (PC urea), and 3) mono...


    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y


    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841.

  8. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt


    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  9. Mapped DNA probes from Ioblolly pine can be used for restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping in other conifers (United States)

    M.R. Ahuja; M.E. Devey; A.T. Groover; K.D. Jermstad; D.B Neale


    A high-density genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) is being constructed for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Consequently, a large number of DNA probes from loblolly pine are potentially available for use in other species. We have used some of these DNA probes to detect RFLPs in 12 conifers and an angiosperm....

  10. Effects of ionizing-radiation and post-radiation action of some plant growth regulators on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalski


    Full Text Available The effects of small doses of gamma irradiation on the seed germination and seedling growth of Scotch pine and post-radiation action of water solutions of IAA, GA3 and kinetin have been investigated. Changes in the destructive action of ionizing-radiation toy gibberellic acid and its intensifying by IAA and kinetin has been found.

  11. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin (United States)

    C.W. Yeatman


    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  12. Usage of the pruned log index for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Aplicação do Índice de Tora Podada para Pinus taeda e Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Jeton Cardoso


    Full Text Available

    The assessment of the quality of clearwood produced in pruned plantations of pine is necessary, especially to set price and know the utilization potential. The pruned log index (PLI, index used in Chile and New Zealand to characterize the quality of the logs, is a function of measurable variables of each log as diameter with defects, diameter 1.3 m from the largest end and the ratio between the cylinder volume common to the entire length of the log and the scaling volume through the method Smalian. This study aims at evaluating the ITP usage for slash pine (Pinus elliottii logs at the age 24 years and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda at 19, harvested
    in the regions of Ibaiti, Paraná, and Itapeva, São Paulo. The PLI values did not exceed 2.3, which  indicates that there is little clearwood on the logs. This has been proven through the veneering results, in which the potentially clear volume in relation to the log volume ranged between 52% and 55%, but 10.3% at the maximum, was turned into clearwood veneer. The slicing procedure in the lathe proved to be suitable, since it allowed the diameter of the knotty core to be measured as soon as the knot came out. The PLI showed itself as applicable for the Brazilian conditions.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.62.119

  1. Effects of irrigation frequency and grit color on the germination of lodgepole pine seeds (United States)

    Jeremy R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; Douglas R. Cobos


    Nursery cultural practices during germination can be highly variable between existing production facilities. Although nursery guidebooks suggest keeping seeds moist, there are no known scientific answers indicating what sufficient moisture levels are. This study objective was to characterize differing irrigation regimes and grit color choices on different germination...

  2. Seed dispersal in limber and southwestern white pine: Comparing core and peripheral populations (United States)

    Diana F. Tomback; Sheridan Samano; Elizabeth L. Pruett; Anna W. Schoettle


    According to the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution (Thompson 2005), the potential for coevolutionary relationships between interacting species varies with the presence of other species within a community. This implies that the strength of coevolution between two species may vary geographically. In this study, we ask whether there is a shift in vertebrate seed...

  3. Ratio equations for loblolly pine trees (United States)

    Dehai Zhao; Michael Kane; Daniel Markewitz; Robert. Teskey


    The conversion factors (CFs) or expansion factors (EFs) are often used to convert volume to green or dry weight, or from one component biomass to estimate total biomass or other component biomass. These factors might be inferred from the previously developed biomass and volume equations with or without destructive sampling data. However, how the factors are related to...

  4. Proteins in seed and seedlings of selected Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold trees as genetic markers tolerant to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mataruga Milan


    Full Text Available A precondition necessary for creation and selection of genotypes tolerant of stress conditions is a study of physiological, biochemical and molecular bases of their adaptive reaction to stress. The study includes 40 lines of free pollination originating from 5 provenances: Sutjeska, Višegrad, Tara, Teslić and Durmitor (B&H, Serbia and Montenegro. Two populations were selected from each provenance, i.e.: 5 lines of free pollination represent the population growing on the cliffs and 3 lines of free pollination represent the population growing at the best site of Austrian pine. Specific characteristics of the studied provenances, populations, and free pollination lines were confirmed by the analyses in the salt-soluble proteins. The identical protein composition was proved in a small number of cases in the replicates of the same free pollination line, which indicates a high intra-line variability, which can be the result of the effect of father, as well as of heterozygosity of mother trees. The analyses of protein composition of seed showed considerable differences at provenance level. Inter-line, population and provenance differences, and also, the interaction between the origin and drought factor, were recorded for 9-day-old seedlings germinated in induced drought conditions and in normal conditions.

  5. Repeated fire effects on soil physical properties in two young longleaf pine stands on the west gulf coastal plain (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer


    Repeated prescribed fire is a valuable tool for the management of longleaf and loblolly pine. When applied every two to ten years, for example, prescribed fire perpetuates existing longleaf pine ecosystems (Outcalt 1997). Furthermore, the acceptance of fire as a management tool, together with recent improvements in longleaf pine...

  6. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.


    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community

  7. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel


    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  8. Physiological girdling of pine trees via phloem chilling: proof of concept (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Chris Maier; Felipe Sanchez; Peter Anderson; John Butnor; Richard Waring; Sune Linder


    Quantifying below-ground carbon (C) allocation is particularly difficult as methods usually disturb the root– mycorrhizal–soil continuum. We reduced C allocation below ground of loblolly pine trees by: (1) physically girdling trees and (2) physiologically girdling pine trees by chilling the phloem. Chilling reduced cambium temperatures by approximately 18 °C. Both...

  9. Estimating long-term carbon sequestration patterns in even- and uneven-aged southern pine stands (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin


    Carbon (C) sequestration has become an increasingly important consideration for forest management in North America, and has particular potential in pine-dominated forests of the southern United States. Using existing literature on plantations and long-term studies of naturally regenerated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated stands on...

  10. Phenotypic analysis of first-year traits in a pseudo-backcross {(slash x loblolly) x slash} and the ope-pollinated families of the pure-species progenitors (United States)

    Patricio R. Munoz Del Valle; Dudley A. Huber; John R. Butnor


    A single test, including one pseudo-backcross (Pinus elliottii x Pinus taeda) x P. elliottii and openpollinated families of the pure species progenitors, was established in North Central Florida in December 2007 to study the transfer of the fast-growing characteristics from a P. taeda L. (loblolly pine) parent into the P. elliottii Engelm. (slash pine) background....

  11. Lodgepole pine: the first evidence of seed-based somatic embryogenesis and the expression of embryogenesis marker genes in shoot bud cultures of adult trees. (United States)

    Park, So-Young; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D


    Of the various alternatives for cloning elite conifers, somatic embryogenesis (SE) appears to be the best option. In recent years, significant areas of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest have been devastated by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) in Western Canada. In an attempt to establish an SE propagation system for MPB-resistant lodgepole pine, several families displaying varying levels of resistance were selected for experimentation involving shoot bud and immature seed explants. In bud cultures, eight embryogenic lines were induced from 2 of 15 genotypes following various treatments. Genotype had an important influence on embryogenic culture initiation, and this effect was consistent over time. These lines were identified by microscopic observation and genetic markers. Despite the abundance of early somatic embryos, the cultures have yet to develop into mature embryos. In contrast, immature zygotic embryos (ZEs) cultured from megagametophytes initiated SE at an early dominance stage via nodule-type callus in 1 of 10 genotypes. As part of the study, putative embryogenesis-specific genes, WOX2 (WUSCHELL homeobox 2) and HAP3A, were analyzed in cultures of both shoot bud explants and ZEs. On the basis of these analyses, we postulate that PcHAP3A was expressed mainly in callus and may be involved in cell division, whereas WOX2 was expressed mainly in embryonal mass (EM)-like tissues. The findings from this study, based on molecular assessment, suggest that the cell lines derived from bud cultures were truly EM. Moreover, these experimental observations suggest that PcWOX2 could be used as an early genetic marker to discriminate embryogenic cultures from callus.

  12. Plentern mit Kiefern--Ergebnisse aus den USA [Plentering with pines--results from the United States (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Don C. Bragg; Andreas Zingg


    Until now, scientifically reliable data on plentering of light-demanding tree species in Europe have been lacking. This gap is filled with long-term trials from the USA, among others with southern yellow pines. In the southern state of Arkansas, two plots of 16 hectares were installed in 1936, in the context of a large-scale trial of mixed loblolly pine (...

  13. Long-Term Prescribed Burning Regime Has Little Effect on Springtails in Pine Stands of Southern Arkansas (United States)

    Michele L. Renschin; Lynne C. Thompson; Michael G. Shelton


    Concerns regarding the impacts of prescribed fires on faunal communities in pine stands have led to numerous studies. One soil/litter insect that may be influenced by fire is springtails, an important member of the forest floor community. A study was conducted in burned and unburned loblolly/shortleaf pine stands in southeastern Arkansas to examine whether springtail...

  14. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  15. Effect of prescribed burning on soil moisture and germination of southwestern ponderosa pine seed on basaltic soils (United States)

    Sally M Haase


    Prescribed burning created a more favorable seedbed by exposing mineral soil and increasing soil moisture, resulting in a twenty-fold increase in the number of seeds germinating on burned compared to unburned sites.

  16. Assessing the Transferability of Statistical Predictive Models for Leaf Area Index Between Two Airborne Discrete Return LiDAR Sensor Designs Within Multiple Intensely Managed Loblolly Pine Forest Locations in the South-Eastern USA (United States)

    Sumnall, Matthew; Peduzzi, Alicia; Fox, Thomas R.; Wynne, Randolph H.; Thomas, Valerie A.; Cook, Bruce


    Leaf area is an important forest structural variable which serves as the primary means of mass and energy exchange within vegetated ecosystems. The objective of the current study was to determine if leaf area index (LAI) could be estimated accurately and consistently in five intensively managed pine plantation forests using two multiple-return airborne LiDAR datasets. Field measurements of LAI were made using the LiCOR LAI2000 and LAI2200 instruments within 116 plots were established of varying size and within a variety of stand conditions (i.e. stand age, nutrient regime and stem density) in North Carolina and Virginia in 2008 and 2013. A number of common LiDAR return height and intensity distribution metrics were calculated (e.g. average return height), in addition to ten indices, with two additional variants, utilized in the surrounding literature which have been used to estimate LAI and fractional cover, were calculated from return heights and intensity, for each plot extent. Each of the indices was assessed for correlation with each other, and was used as independent variables in linear regression analysis with field LAI as the dependent variable. All LiDAR derived metrics were also entered into a forward stepwise linear regression. The results from each of the indices varied from an R2 of 0.33 (S.E. 0.87) to 0.89 (S.E. 0.36). Those indices calculated using ratios of all returns produced the strongest correlations, such as the Above and Below Ratio Index (ABRI) and Laser Penetration Index 1 (LPI1). The regression model produced from a combination of three metrics did not improve correlations greatly (R2 0.90; S.E. 0.35). The results indicate that LAI can be predicted over a range of intensively managed pine plantation forest environments accurately when using different LiDAR sensor designs. Those indices which incorporated counts of specific return numbers (e.g. first returns) or return intensity correlated poorly with field measurements. There were

  17. Overstory tree status following thinning and burning treatments in mixed pine-hardwood stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Yong Wang


    Prescribed burning and thinning are intermediate stand treatments whose consequences when applied in mixed pine-hardwood stands are unknown. The William B. Bankhead National Forest in northcentral Alabama has undertaken these two options to move unmanaged, 20- to 50-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations towards upland hardwood-dominated...

  18. Effects of canopy treatments on early growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings and ground vegetation in North Carolina: a preliminary study (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker


    We installed a field experiment to support the development of protocols to restore longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to existing mature loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands at Camp Lejeune, NC. Seven canopy treatments included four uniform and three gap treatments. The four uniform treatments were defined by target residual basal...

  19. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober


    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  20. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.


    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  1. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif


    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  2. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison (United States)

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems are characterized by a diverse community of native groundcover species. Critics of plantation forestry claim that loblolly (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) forests are devoid of native groundcover due to associated management practices. As a result of these practices, some believe that ecosystem functions characteristic of longleaf pine are lost under loblolly and slash pine plantation management. Our objective was to quantify and compare vegetation composition and structure of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pine forests of differing ages, management strategies, and land-use histories. Information from this study will further our understanding and lead to inferences about functional differences among pine cover types. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 49 overstory plots across Southlands Experiment Forest in Bainbridge, GA. Nested plots, i.e. midstory, understory, and herbaceous, were replicated four times within each overstory plot. Over 400 species were identified. Herbaceous species richness was variable for all three pine cover types. Herbaceous richness for longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine averaged 15, 13, and 12 species per m2, respectively. Longleaf pine plots had significantly more (p < 0.029) herbaceous species and greater herbaceous cover (p < 0.001) than loblolly or slash pine plots. Longleaf and slash pine plots were otherwise similar in species richness and stand structure, both having lower overstory density, midstory density, and midstory cover than loblolly pine plots. Multivariate analyses provided additional perspectives on vegetation patterns. Ordination and classification procedures consistently placed herbaceous plots into two groups which we refer to as longleaf pine benchmark (34 plots) and non-benchmark (15 plots). Benchmark plots typically contained numerous herbaceous species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities found in the area. Conversely

  3. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell


    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  4. Analysis of fungal diversity impacts on pinus roxburghii seeds from pine forest and plant nurseries of azad kashmir, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Noreen, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussain, T.


    Pinus tree plays a pivotal role in commercial revenue generation, domestic lives of rural communities and sustaining of climate of Azad Kashmir. Pinus grows in forest as wild species but due to harsh environmental parameters it is also cultivated in nurseries for propagation and plantation. In this research, injurious impacts of mycofloral diversity on seed germination of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in nature (forest) and nurseries were explored from different localities of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. In the analysis two protocols viz., blotter method (BM) and agar plate method (APM) were employed and 11 fungal species of nine genera were isolated. APM was found better (66a ± +-0.32) than BM (60a ± 0.09). The prevalence of different isolated taxa was as: Aspergillus niger (42.75%), Aspergillus flavus (24.0%), Botrytis sp (14.25%), Botryosphaeria sp. (17.75%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (32.75%), Drechslera sp. (5.75%), Fusarium sp. (47.50%), Penecillium sp. (7.25%), Rhizopus stolonifer (11.50%), Rhizopus oryzae (13.0%) and Mucor sp.(7.0%). Pathogenicity analysis depicted that Fusarium was the most harmful (15.75e ± 0.54), followed by Aspergillus flavus (20.50d ± 0.32), Aspergillus niger (25.75c ± 0.42) and Rhizopus sp. (35.75b ± 0.12). Different pathogenicity results of analyzed fungal species were found in different areas and it was highest in Muzaffarabad (52.0%), Kotli (45.6%), Samahni (42.4 %) and least in Bhimber (36.0 %). Radical length (mm) of Pinus roxburghii was severely affected by Aspergillus flavus (46.6a ± 0.44) in Muzaffarabad, Rhizopus sp. (44.1a ± 0.72) in Samahni, Fusarium sp.( 42.5a ± 0.28) in Kotali, Aspergillus niger (37.8a ± 0.44) in Samahni, respectively. The tested species showed that plumule length (mm) of samples was most retarded in Muzaffarbad (37.98%) and least affected in Mirpur (24.58%). The results depict that fungi do cause damage to seed germination and growth of seedlings in nature and nurseries and these findings will be useful

  5. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden


    Fries, Anders


    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  6. Chopper GEN2 + Glyphosate efficacy for height classes of hardwood sprouts recolonizing six clearcut pine sites (United States)

    Jimmie Yeiser; Andrew Ezell


    The purpose of this study was to assess sprout size as a determinant of subsequent control by a standard, single rate of imazapyr +glyphosate applied during site preparation. All study sites were in the hilly upper coastal plain of Mississippi (Winston or Oktibbeha Counties) or Louisiana (Sabine or Winn Parishes) and supported loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations...

  7. Performance of mixed pine-hardwood stands 16 years after fell-and-burn treatments (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David H. van Lear; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop


    Four variations of the fell-and-burn technique were compared for height and volume production on dry Piedmont sites. A two-factorial randomized complete block design of winter versus spring felling, with and without a summer burn, was implemented, followed by planting of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) at 15 x 15 foot spacing. After 16 growing seasons...

  8. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations. (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller


    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  9. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; Henry L. Short; E.A. Epps


    Six classes of current herbaceous and woody forage were collected seasonally from a 5-year-old mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) plantation (in Texas) and subjected to nutrient analyses and nylon bag dry-matter digestion trials. Forages were most nutritious and digestible in the spring when tissues were succulent and growing rapidly. Browse...

  10. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin


    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  11. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris


    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  12. Remote estimation of a managed pine forest evapotranspiration with geospatial technology (United States)

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G Sun; A. Bowman


    Remote sensing has increasingly been used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and its supporting parameters in a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective manner. The goal of this study was to develop remote sensing-based models for estimating ET and the biophysical parameters canopy conductance (gc), upper-canopy temperature, and soil moisture for a mature loblolly pine...

  13. Evaluating the role of cutting treatments, fire and soil seed banks in an experimental framework in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota (United States)

    Cody L. Wienk; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Guy R. McPherson


    Pinus ponderosa Laws. (ponderosa pine) forests have changed considerably during the past century, partly because recurrent fires have been absent for a century or more. A number of studies have explored the influence of timber harvest or burning on understory production in ponderosa pine forests, but study designs incorporating cutting and prescribed...

  14. Genetic anaylsis of a disease resistance gene from loblolly pine (United States)

    Yinghua Huang; Nili Jin; Alex Diner; Chuck Tauer; Yan Zhang; John Damicone


    Rapid advances in molecular genetics provide great opportunities for studies of host defense mechanisms. Examination of plant responses to disease at the cellular and molecular level permits both discovery of changes in gene expression in the tissues attacked by pathogens, and identification of genetic components involved in the interaction between host and pathogens....

  15. Carbon and Water Fluxes in a Drained Coastal Clearcut and a Pine Plantation in Eastern North Carolina (United States)

    J. L. Deforest; Ge Sun; A. Noormets; J. Chen; Steve McNulty; M. Gavazzi; Devendra M. Amatya; R. W. Skaggs


    The effects of clear-cutting and cultivating for timber on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes were evaluated by comparative measurements of two drained coastal wetland systems in the North Carolina coastal plain. Measurements were conducted from January through September, 2005 in a recent clearcut (CC) of native hardwoods and a loblolly pine (Pinus tacda...

  16. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich


    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  17. Impacts of pine species, stump removal, cultivation, and fertilization on soil properties half a century after planting (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Felipe G Sanchez; C. Dana Nelson


    To better understand the long-term effects of species selection and forest management practices on soil quality and soil C retention, we analyzed soil samples from an experimental planting of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf ((Pinus palustris Mill.), and slash ((Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pines under...

  18. An Unwelcome Guest in China: A Pine-Feeding Mealybug (United States)

    Jianghua Sun; Gary L. DeBarr; Tong-Xian Liu; C. Wayne Berisford; Stephen R. Clarke


    This story began in January 1988. Two business representatives from the Seed Company of the Ministry of the Forestry, People's Republic of China, visited the Southern Seed Company in Baldwin, Georgia, during a seed-buying trip. Just before leaving, they collected 70 scions from slash pines (Pinus elliotti) in a second-generation seed orchard...

  19. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    James M. Guldin


    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  20. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  1. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David


    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  2. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Jérôme Ogée; Asko Noormets; Julien Jouangy; Michael Gavazzi; Emrys Treasure; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; John S. King


    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the...

  3. Clonal variation in growth, flowering and cone production in a seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2009 ... production in a seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in ... one of the important seed sources for forest plantations. And also, these seed ...... Ph.D. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umea ,. Sweden.

  4. Plume dispersion in four pine thinning scenarios: development of a simple pheromone dispersion model (United States)

    Holly Peterson; Harold Thistle; Brian Lamb; Gene Allwine; Steve Edburg; Brian Strom


    A unique field campaign was conducted in 2004 to examine how changes in stand density may affect dispersion of insect pheromones in forest canopies. Over a l4-day period, 126 tracer tests were performed, and conditions ranged from an unthinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) canopy through a series of thinning scenarios with basal areas of32.l, 23.0, and 16.1 m2ha-l.ln...

  5. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen


    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  6. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine (United States)

    M.A. Sword


    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  7. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site (United States)

    Charles R. Berry


    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  8. Direct-seedling pines in the south (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  9. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... and empty seeds by the flotation method. It is quite important not to damage the seed embryo and con- sequently seed germination ability during or after the flotation treatment by these liquids that have different densities. On the other hand, when Crimean pine seeds are left in water, the seeds generally ...

  10. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (United States)

    Jung Oh Hyun


    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  11. Costs of rodent control in pine regeneration in California (United States)

    Richard D. Cosens; David Tackle


    The control of seed-eating rodents, combined with the proper method of cutting and site preparation, appears essential to get the maximum results of natural seeding of pine. One method of control is by treating the area to be regenerated with lethal bait prior to seedfall. This note describes such a method and costs of treatment for the westside and eastside Sierran...

  12. Control of Insects in Slash Pine Cones with Trunk Implantations of Bidrin® Systemic Insecticide - First-Year Results (United States)

    Edward P. Merkel


    Initial experiments with the implantation of the systemic insecticide Bidrin® into the trunks of slash pines in a seed production area resulted in various degrees of control of coneworms, Dioryctria spp., and the pine seed-worm, Laspeyresia anaronjada Miller, depending on dosage rates and time of application. When applied in early...

  13. Oleoresin Capsicum has Potential as a Rodent Repellent in Direct Sedding Longleaf Pine (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    Direct seeding of southern pines has been a versatile and inexpensive alternative to planting on many reforestation sites across the South. Successful direct seeding has required that seeds be coated with thiram to repel birds, and with endrin to repel rodents. Endrin, which is extremely toxic, is no longer produced in the United States. Therefore, a substitute is...

  14. Tree seed handling, processing, testing, and storage at Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (United States)

    Gordon Christians


    The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...

  15. Spatial patterns of ponderosa pine regeneration in high-severity burn patches (United States)

    Suzanne M. Owen; Carolyn H. Sieg; Andrew J. Sanchez. Meador; Peter Z. Fule; Jose M. Iniguez; L. Scott. Baggett; Paula J. Fornwalt; Michael A. Battaglia


    Contemporary wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine forests can leave uncharacteristically large patches of tree mortality, raising concerns about the lack of seed-producing trees, which can prevent or significantly delay ponderosa pine regeneration. We established 4-ha plots in high-severity burn patches in two Arizona wildfires, the 2000 Pumpkin and 2002 Rodeo-...

  16. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sedykh


    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  17. Analyzing the complexity of cone production in longleaf pine by multiscale entropy (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Qinfeng Guo; Dale G. Brockway


    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are important ecosystems in the southeastern USA because of their ecological and economic value. Since European settlement, longleaf pine ecosystems have dramatically declined in extent, to the degree that they are now listed as endangered ecosystems. Its sporadic seed production, which...

  18. Entropy dynamics in cone production of longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway; Qinfeng Guo


    Sporadic temporal patterns of seed production are a challenge for the regeneration and restoration of longleaf pine, which is a keystone component of an endangered ecosystem in the southeastern United States. In this study, long-term data for longleaf pine cone production, collected at six sites across the southeastern region, was examined from the perspective of...

  19. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae) (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden


    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  20. Ponderosa pine ecosystems (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain


    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  1. Soil Preferences in Germination and Survival of Limber Pine in the Great Basin White Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V. Smithers


    Full Text Available In the Great Basin, limber pine is a sub-alpine tree species that is colonizing newly available habitat above treeline in greater numbers than treeline-dominating Great Basin bristlecone pine, especially on dolomite soil, where few plants are able to grow and where limber pine adults are rare. To examine the role of soil type on germination and establishment of limber pine, I sowed limber pine seeds in containers of the three main White Mountains soil types in one location while measuring soil moisture and temperature. I found that dolomite soil retains water longer, and has higher soil water content, than quartzite and granite soils and has the coolest maximum growing season temperatures. Limber pine germination and survival were highest in dolomite soil relative to quartzite and granite where limber pine adults are more common. While adult limber pines are rare on dolomite soils, young limber pines appear to prefer them. This indicates that limber pine either has only recently been able to survive in treeline climate on dolomite or that bristlecone pine has some long-term competitive advantage on dolomite making limber pine, a species with 1500 year old individuals, an early succession species in Great Basin sub-alpine forests.

  2. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants. (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D


    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  3. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem. (United States)

    McKinney, Shawn T; Fiedler, Carl E; Tomback, Diana F


    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for dispersal of its large, wingless seeds. Clark's Nutcracker, a facultative mutualist with whitebark pine, is sensitive to rates of energy gain, and emigrates from subalpine forests during periods of cone shortages. The invasive fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, reduces whitebark pine cone production by killing cone-bearing branches and trees. Mortality from blister rust reaches 90% or higher in some whitebark pine forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and the rust now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine. Our objectives were to identify the minimum level of cone production necessary to elicit seed dispersal by nutcrackers and to determine how cone production is influenced by forest structure and health. We quantified forest conditions and ecological interactions between nutcrackers and whitebark pine in three Rocky Mountain ecosystems that differ in levels of rust infection and mortality. Both the frequency of nutcracker occurrence and probability of seed dispersal were strongly related to annual whitebark pine cone production, which had a positive linear association with live whitebark pine basal area, and negative linear association with whitebark pine tree mortality and rust infection. From our data, we estimated that a threshold level of approximately 1000 cones/ha is needed for a high likelihood of seed dispersal by nutcrackers (probability > or = 0.7), and that this level of cone production can be met by forests with live whitebark pine basal area > 5.0 m2/ha. The risk of mutualism disruption is greatest in northern

  4. Understanding the Fate of Applied Nitrogen in Pine Plantations of the Southeastern United States Using 15N Enriched Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E. Raymond


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of using enhanced efficiency fertilizer (EEFs products compared to urea to improve fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (FNUE in forest plantations. All fertilizer treatments were labeled with 15N (0.5 atom percent and applied to 100 m2 circular plots at 12 loblolly pine stands (Pinus taeda L. across the southeastern United States. Total fertilizer N recovery for fertilizer treatments was determined by sampling all primary ecosystem components and using a mass balance calculation. Significantly more fertilizer N was recovered for all EEFs compared to urea, but there were generally no differences among EEFs. The total fertilizer N ecosystem recovery ranged from 81.9% to 84.2% for EEFs compared to 65.2% for urea. The largest amount of fertilizer N recovered for all treatments was in the loblolly pine trees (EEFs: 38.5%–49.9%, urea: 34.8% and soil (EEFs: 30.6%–38.8%, urea: 28.4%. This research indicates that a greater ecosystem fertilizer N recovery for EEFs compared to urea in southeastern pine plantations can potentially lead to increased FNUE in these systems.

  5. A novel multifunctional O-methyltransferase implicated in a dual methylation pathway associated with lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine (United States)

    Li, Laigeng; Popko, Jacqueline L.; Zhang, Xing-Hai; Osakabe, Keishi; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P.; Chiang, Vincent L.


    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferases (OMTs) catalyze the methylation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives for the synthesis of methylated plant polyphenolics, including lignin. The distinction in the extent of methylation of lignins in angiosperms and gymnosperms, mediated by substrate-specific OMTs, represents one of the fundamental differences in lignin biosynthesis between these two classes of plants. In angiosperms, two types of structurally and functionally distinct lignin pathway OMTs, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferases (CAOMTs) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs), have been reported and extensively studied. However, little is known about lignin pathway OMTs in gymnosperms. We report here the first cloning of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) xylem cDNA encoding a multifunctional enzyme, SAM:hydroxycinnamic Acids/hydroxycinnamoyl CoA Esters OMT (AEOMT). The deduced protein sequence of AEOMT is partially similar to, but clearly distinguishable from, that of CAOMTs and does not exhibit any significant similarity with CCoAOMT protein sequences. However, functionally, yeast-expressed AEOMT enzyme catalyzed the methylation of CAOMT substrates, caffeic and 5-hydroxyferulic acids, as well as CCoAOMT substrates, caffeoyl CoA and 5-hydroxyferuloyl CoA esters, with similar specific activities and was completely inactive with substrates associated with flavonoid synthesis. The lignin-related substrates were also efficiently methylated in crude extracts of loblolly pine secondary xylem. Our results support the notion that, in the context of amino acid sequence and biochemical function, AEOMT represents a novel SAM-dependent OMT, with both CAOMT and CCoAOMT activities and thus the potential to mediate a dual methylation pathway in lignin biosynthesis in loblolly pine xylem. PMID:9144260

  6. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts


    Gross, Donovan


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  7. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  8. Variation in monoterpene content among geographic sources of eastern white pine (United States)

    A.R. Gilmore; J.J. Jokela


    Variations of monoterpenes in cortical oleoresins and foliar samples were determined for seed from 16 provenances of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The experiment was analyzed using the "raw" and the arcsine "transformed" data. Alpha-pinene, camphene, and β-pinene varied between seed sources when "raw" data were analyzed...

  9. Synthesis of lower treeline limber pine (Pinus flexilis) woodland knowledge, research needs, and management considerations (United States)

    Robert E. Means


    Lower treeline limber pine woodlands have received little attention in peer-reviewed literature and in management strategies. These ecologically distinct systems are thought to be seed repositories between discontinuous populations in the northern and central Rocky Mountains, serving as seed sources for bird dispersal between distinct mountain ranges. Their position on...

  10. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: Implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Carl E. Fiedler; Diana F. Tomback


    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's...

  11. Using flotation in ethanol to separate filled and empty seeds of Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the separation of filled and empty seeds of Crimean pine [Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe] by flotation in ethanol and the effect of this treatment on seed germination were investigated. Flotation tests in 96% ethanol by the density method and then germination tests were made on the seeds ...

  12. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B


    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  13. Whitebark pine planting guidelines (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar


    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  14. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.


    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  15. Interaction Among Machine Traffic, Soil Physical Properties and Loblolly Pine Root Prolifereation in a Piedmont Soil (United States)

    Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald


    The impact of forwarder traffic on soil physical properties was evaluated on a Gwinnett sandy loam, a commonly found soil of the Piedmont. Soil strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly altered by forwarder traffic, but reductions in air-filled porosity also occurred. Bulk density did not increase significantly in trafficked treatments. The...

  16. Using a Density-Management Diagram to Develop Thinning Schedules for Loblolly Pine Plantations (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; V. Clark Baldwin


    A method for developing thinning schedules using a density-management diagram is presented. A density-management diagram is a form of stocking chart based on patterns of natural stand development. The diagram allows rotation diameter and the upper and lower limits of growing stock to be easily transformed into before and after thinning densities. Site height lines on...

  17. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project (United States)


    ..., dogwood, and sourwood. Stand density is high, typically ranging from 120 to 160 square feet of basal area... native forest vegetation. This change in condition would improve ecosystem [[Page 59164

  18. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth (United States)

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford


    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  19. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones (United States)

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox


    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  20. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton


    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  1. Effects of genetics, management intensity, and seedling density on early stocking in loblolly pine (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau; B. Landis Herrin


    Rapid establishment and early tree growth can be key factors in successful plantation management. This generally entails planting good quality planting stock at a seedling density appropriate for the management objectives and then managing at an appropriate intensity with a goal of fully occupying the site as quickly as possible within the context of those objectives....

  2. A Linked Model for Simulating Stand Development and Growth Processes of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    V. Clark Baldwin; Phillip M. Dougherty; Harold E. Burkhart


    Linking models of different scales (e.g., process, tree-stand-ecosystem) is essential for furthering our understanding of stand, climatic, and edaphic effects on tree growth and forest productivity. Moreover, linking existing models that differ in scale and levels of resolution quickly identifies knowledge gaps in information required to scale from one level to another...

  3. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  4. Wood chemical composition as related to properties of handsheets made from loblolly pine refiner groundwood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    Burst and tear strengths of handsheets made from 48 pulps disk-refined from chips of varying chemical composition decreased with incressing extractive content after the independent effects of fiber morphology were specified. This result was attributed to lessened bond strength caused by reduced surface tension forces and blocking of reactive sites on the fiber surfaces...

  5. Crown-rise and crown-length dynamics: applications to loblolly pine (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Ralph L. Amateis; Jeffrey H. Gove; Annikki. Makela


    The original crown-rise model estimates the average height of a crown-base in an even-aged mono-species stand of trees. We have elaborated this model to reduce bias and prediction error, and to also provide crown-base estimates for individual trees. Results for the latter agree with a theory of branch death based on resource availability and allocation.We use the...

  6. A model for estimating understory vegetation response to fertilization and precipitation in loblolly pine plantations (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Ryan W. McKnight; Thomas R. Fox; H. Lee Allen


    A model form is presented, where the model contains regressors selected for inclusion based on biological rationale, to predict how fertilization, precipitation amounts, and overstory stand density affect understory vegetation biomass. Due to time, economic, and logistic constraints, datasets of large sample sizes generally do not exist for understory vegetation. Thus...

  7. Loblolly pine heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration as influenced by fertilization and reduced throughfall (United States)

    Brett C. Heim; Brian D. Strahm; John R. Seiler


    Carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main reservoirs in the global C cycle (Schimel 1995). Within these terrestrial ecosystems, soil C in the form of organic matter and plant biomass are the two largest pools of C.

  8. Long term growth responses of loblolly pine to optimal nutrient and water resource availability (United States)

    Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Phillip M. Dougherty; Kurt H. Johnsen


    A factorial combination of four treatments (control (CW), optimal growing season water availability (IW), optimum nutrient availability (FW), and combined optimum water and nutrient availability (FIW)) in four replications were initiated in an 8-year- old Pinus taeda stand growing on a droughty, nutrient-poor, sandy site in Scotland County, NC and...

  9. Loblolly pine seedling response to competition from exotic vs. native plants (United States)

    Pedram Daneshgar; Shibu Jose; Craig Ramsey; Robin Collins


    A field study was conducted in Santa Rosa County, FL to test the hypothesis that an exotic understory would exert a higher degree of competition on tree seedling establishment and growth than native vegetation. The study site was a 60 ha cutover area infested with the invasive exotic cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.]. A completely...

  10. Site establishment practices influence loblolly pine mortality throughout the stand rotation (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Robert J. Eaton


    During a rotation, land managers need to estimate yields, update inventories, and evaluate stand dynamics. All of these factors in land management are heavily influenced by tree mortality. Tree mortality can, in turn, be influenced by land management practices from the inception of the stand and throughout the rotation. We describe the impact of organic matter removal...

  11. Utilization of forest slash to sequester carbon in loblolly pine plantations in the lower coastal plain (United States)

    F. Sanchez; E.A. Carter; W. Edwards


    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  12. Relationships between Loblolly Pine small clear specimens and Dimension Lumber Tested in Static Bending (United States)

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Finto Antony; Michael Kane; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Huizhe Jin; Kim Love-Myers; John Paul McTague


    Prior to the 1980s, the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens. However, the procedures were changed because these models were found to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts...

  13. Sugar pine and its hybrids (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch


    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  14. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E., E-mail:; Sykes, Robert [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Peter, Gary F. [School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Davis, Mark [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)


    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  15. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark


    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.

  16. Seed fall and regeneration from a group selection cut . . . first year results (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    To approximate a group selection cut at the Challenge Experimental Forest, 48 small openings of three sizes—30, 60, and 90 feet in diameter—were logged in 1963. One aim was to create conditions of light and soil moisture that would favor establishment and growth of Douglas-fir, sugar pine, and white fir over ponderosa pine. Seed fall and first-year...

  17. Fusarium spp. and Pinus strobus seedlings: root disease pathogens and taxa associated with seed (United States)

    C. M. Ocamb; J. Juzwik; F. B. Martin


    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L .) seeds were sown in soil infested wlth Fusarium proliferatum, root necrosis developed on seedling roots, and F. proliferatum as reisolated from symptomatic roots; thus, demonstrating that F. proliferatum is pathogenic to eastern white pine seedling. Soils...

  18. Reproductive Success and Inbreeding Differ in Fragmented Populations of Pinus rzedowskii and Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii, Two Endemic Mexican Pines under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paty Castilleja Sánchez


    Full Text Available Seed production, quality, germination and seedling establishment are indicators of reproductive success in conifers. Monitoring of these parameters is essential to determine the viability of populations for the purposes of conservation. We analyze cone and seed traits as indicators of reproductive success in the endangered Rzedowski´s pine (Pinus rzedowskii (Madrigal et Caballero and near-threatened veitchii pine (Pinus ayacahuite var. veitchii (Shaw in west-central Michoacán, Mexico. These traits were systematically quantified and their variation assessed using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs. We found that the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine seems to be critical, presenting low seed efficiency (17.10%, germination (5.0% and seedling establishment (27.7%, with high levels of inbreeding (0.79. In contrast, veitchii pine presents moderate seed efficiency (54.9%, high germination (71.5% and seedling establishment (84%–97% and low inbreeding (0.33. Reproductive indicators differed significantly among zones and populations for each species, where fragment sizes mainly affected seed production and efficiency. This result indicates that fragmentation has played a more important role in the reproductive success of Rzedowski’s pine than in veitchii pine, perhaps by limiting pollen flow among zones and populations and producing higher levels of inbreeding and lower seed efficiency in the former species. We propose a conservation strategy for these important pine species in order to increase their long-term genetic viability.

  19. Harvesting costs and production rates for seed-tree removal in young-growth, mixed-conifer stands (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    Ponderosa pine seed trees left from a previous cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, were removed in October 1963. Logging costs and production rates were compared with those for a seed-tree cutting on an area nearby. Production rates for seed-tree removal greatly exceeded those for the operation as a whole. Skidding production increased by 38...

  20. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites? (United States)

    P.H. Cochran


    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  1. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger


    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  2. Root growth and hydraulic conductivity of southern pine seedlings in response to soil temperature and water availability after planting (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett


    Comparison of the root system growth and water transport of southern pine species after planting in different root-zone environments is needed to guide decisions regarding when, and what species to plant. Evaluation of how seed source affects root system responses to soil conditions will allow seed sources to be matched to planting conditions. The root growth and...

  3. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales. (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G


    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  4. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  5. Analysis of xylem formation in pine by cDNA sequencing (United States)

    Allona, I.; Quinn, M.; Shoop, E.; Swope, K.; St Cyr, S.; Carlis, J.; Riedl, J.; Retzel, E.; Campbell, M. M.; Sederoff, R.; hide


    Secondary xylem (wood) formation is likely to involve some genes expressed rarely or not at all in herbaceous plants. Moreover, environmental and developmental stimuli influence secondary xylem differentiation, producing morphological and chemical changes in wood. To increase our understanding of xylem formation, and to provide material for comparative analysis of gymnosperm and angiosperm sequences, ESTs were obtained from immature xylem of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). A total of 1,097 single-pass sequences were obtained from 5' ends of cDNAs made from gravistimulated tissue from bent trees. Cluster analysis detected 107 groups of similar sequences, ranging in size from 2 to 20 sequences. A total of 361 sequences fell into these groups, whereas 736 sequences were unique. About 55% of the pine EST sequences show similarity to previously described sequences in public databases. About 10% of the recognized genes encode factors involved in cell wall formation. Sequences similar to cell wall proteins, most known lignin biosynthetic enzymes, and several enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were found. A number of putative regulatory proteins also are represented. Expression patterns of several of these genes were studied in various tissues and organs of pine. Sequencing novel genes expressed during xylem formation will provide a powerful means of identifying mechanisms controlling this important differentiation pathway.

  6. Weather effects on the success of longleaf pine cone crops (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dale G. Brockway; Mary Anne Sword Sayer


    We used National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather data and historical records of cone crops from across the South to relate weather conditions to the yield of cones in 10 longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands. Seed development in this species occurs over a three-year time period and weather conditions during any part of this...

  7. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.


    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  8. Oleoresin crystallization in eastern white pine: relationships with chemical components of cortical oleoresin and resistance to the white-pine weevil (United States)

    Ronald C. Wilkinson


    Natural and weevil-larva-induced crystallization of oleoresin from 45 eastern white pine trees with known resin acid and monoterpene composition, and from 59 pairs of nonweeviled and heavily weeviled trees from the same seed sources, was examined in mid- and late spring. Very little difference was found between larva-induced and natural crystallization. Strobic acid-...

  9. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov


    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  10. Use of isotopic sulfur to determine whitebark pine consumption by Yellowstone bears: a reassessment (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.


    Use of naturally occurring stable isotopes to estimate assimilated diet of bears is one of the single greatest breakthroughs in nutritional ecology during the past 20 years. Previous research in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), USA, established a positive relationship between the stable isotope of sulfur (δ34S) and consumption of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) seeds. That work combined a limited sample of hair, blood clots, and serum. Here we use a much larger sample to reassess those findings. We contrasted δ34S values in spring hair and serum with abundance of seeds of whitebark pine in samples collected from grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in the GYE during 2000–2010. Although we found a positive relationship between δ34S values in spring hair and pine seed abundance for grizzly bears, the coefficients of determination were small (R2 ≤ 0.097); we failed to find a similar relationship with black bears. Values of δ34S in spring hair were larger in black bears and δ34S values in serum of grizzly bears were lowest in September and October, a time when we expect δ34S to peak if whitebark pine seeds were the sole source of high δ34S. The relationship between δ34S in bear tissue and the consumption of whitebark pine seeds, as originally reported, may not be as clean a method as proposed. Data we present here suggest other foods have high values of δ34S, and there is spatial heterogeneity affecting the δ34S values in whitebark pine, which must be addressed.

  11. Seed dissemination in small clearcuttings in north-central California (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald


    In a 1964-1967 study on the Challenge Experimental Forest, seedfall was evaluated in 2-, 5-, and 10-acre circular clearcuttings. During the 4 years, 10 seed crops, ranging from light to bumper, were produced by ponderosa pine. white fir, Douglas-fir, and incense cedar. Seedfall ranged from 76 to 40,691 sound seed per acre (188 to lOO,547/ha) for a single species in a...

  12. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  13. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  14. Rapid Turnover and Minimal Accretion of Mineral Soil Carbon During 60-Years of Pine Forest Growth on Previously Cultivated Land (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Mobley, M. L.; Billings, S. A.; Markewitz, D.


    At the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem field experiment (1957-present), reforestation of previously cultivated land over fifty years nearly doubled soil organic carbon (SOC) in surface soils (0 to 7.5-cm) but these gains were offset by significant SOC losses in subsoils (35 to 60-cm). Nearly all of the accretions in surface soils amounted to gains in light fraction SOC, whereas losses at depth were associated with silt and clay-sized particles. These changes are documented in the Calhoun Long-Term Soil-Ecosystem (LTSE) study that resampled soil from 16 plots about every five years and archived all soil samples from four soil layers within the upper 60-cm of mineral soil. We combined soil bulk density, density fractionation, stable isotopes, and radioisotopes to explore changes in SOC and soil organic nitrogen (SON) associated with five decades of the growth of a loblolly pine secondary forest. Isotopic signatures showed relatively large accumulations of contemporary forest-derived carbon in surface soils, and no accumulation of forest-derived carbon in subsoils. We interpret results to indicate that land-use change from cotton fields to secondary pine forests drove soil biogeochemical and hydrological changes that enhanced root and microbial activity and SOM decomposition in subsoils. As pine stands matured and are now transitioning to mixed pines and hardwoods, demands on soil organic matter for nutrients to support aboveground growth has eased due to pine mortality, and bulk SOM and SON and their isotopes in subsoils have stabilized. We anticipate major changes in the next fifty years as 1957 pine trees transition to hardwoods. This study emphasizes the importance of long-term experiments and deep soil measurements when characterizing SOC and SON responses to land use change. There is a remarkable paucity of E long-term soil data deeper than 30 cm.

  15. Does bristlecone pine senesce? (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor


    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  16. Diseases of lodgepole pine (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth


    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  17. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E


    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  18. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn


    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  19. Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of pine. (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Yu, Shitao; Hao, Naijia; Wells, Tyrone; Meng, Xianzhi; Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Liu, Shouxin; Ragauskas, Arthur J


    This study aims to reveal the structural features and reaction pathways for solid-liquid products from hydrothermal carbonization of Loblolly pine, where the solid products can be used as catalysts, adsorbents and electrode materials while liquid products can be treated yielding fuels and platform chemicals. Results revealed when treated at 240°C, cellulose and hemicellulose were degraded, in part, to 5-hydroxy-methyl furfural and furfural which were further transformed to aromatic structures via ring opening and Diels Alder reactions. Lignin degradation and formation of carbon-carbon bonds, forming aromatic motifs in the presence of furanic compounds connected via aliphatic bridges, ether or condensation reactions. After hydrothermal treatment, condensed aromatic carbon materials with methoxy groups were recovered with high fixed carbon content and HHV. The recovered liquid products are lignin-like value-added chemicals consisting of furfural and polyaromatic structure with alkanes and carboxyl, their total hydroxyl group content decreased when increasing reaction time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel


    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  1. Partial pine sterility in 1986 and 1987 within the zone of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, L.V.; Romanovskij, M.G.; Dukharev, V.A.


    Reproductive potency of Pinus silvestris was studied in 1986 and 1987 within the zone of Chernobyl accident by the estimates of the survival rate of seed-buds during the gametophyte and embryonal development. At the radiation level of 4 Gy a partial female pine sterility was manifested by the decreased gametophyte survival rate of seedbuds, pollinated in 1986, and by the diminished embryonal survival rate of seed-buds pollinated in 1985

  2. Patterns of cross-continental variation in tree seed mass in the Canadian Boreal Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jushan Liu

    Full Text Available Seed mass is an adaptive trait affecting species distribution, population dynamics and community structure. In widely distributed species, variation in seed mass may reflect both genetic adaptation to local environments and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Acknowledging the difficulty in separating these two aspects, we examined the causal relationships determining seed mass variation to better understand adaptability and/or plasticity of selected tree species to spatial/climatic variation. A total of 504, 481 and 454 seed collections of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb across the Canadian Boreal Forest, respectively, were selected. Correlation analyses were used to determine how seed mass vary with latitude, longitude, and altitude. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine how geographic and climatic variables influence seed mass. Climatic factors explained a large portion of the variation in seed mass (34, 14 and 29%, for black spruce, white spruce and jack pine, respectively, indicating species-specific adaptation to long term climate conditions. Higher annual mean temperature and winter precipitation caused greater seed mass in black spruce, but annual precipitation was the controlling factor for white spruce. The combination of factors such as growing season temperature and evapotranspiration, temperature seasonality and annual precipitation together determined seed mass of jack pine. Overall, sites with higher winter temperatures were correlated with larger seeds. Thus, long-term climatic conditions, at least in part, determined spatial variation in seed mass. Black spruce and Jack pine, species with relatively more specific habitat requirements and less plasticity, had more variation in seed mass explained by climate than did the more plastic species white spruce. As traits such as seed mass are related to seedling growth and survival, they

  3. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  4. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter


    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  5. Effect of cold storage, heat, smoke and charcoal on breaking seed dormancy of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Ericaceae)


    Jurado, E; Márquez-Linares, M; Flores, J


    We evaluated the effect of cold storage and fire-related cues on seed germination of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Mexican Manzanita), a common shrub in poorly managed pine-oak forests in Durango, Mexico. Because this shrub has a high density in previously burnt forests, we investigated the effect that high temperatures, smoke and charcoal might have on seed germination of this species. Seeds were collected fresh from the shrubs. The highest germination was 30% for seeds that had been cold stor...

  6. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity. (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn


    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  7. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.


    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  8. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.


    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  9. Influence of whitebark pine decline on fall habitat use and movements of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem


    Costello, Cecily M; van Manen, Frank T; Haroldson, Mark A; Ebinger, Michael R; Cain, Steven L; Gunther, Kerry A; Bjornlie, Daniel D


    When abundant, seeds of the high-elevation whitebark pine (WBP; Pinus albicaulis) are an important fall food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Rates of bear mortality and bear/human conflicts have been inversely associated with WBP productivity. Recently, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have killed many cone-producing WBP trees. We used fall (15 August–30 September) Global Positioning System locations from 89 bear years to investigate tempo...

  10. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R


    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  11. Mitochondrial phylogeny of pine cone beetles (Scolytinae, Conophthorus) and their affiliation with geographic area and host (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato; Nancy E. Gillette; Rodolfo Campos Bolanos; Felix A.H. Sperling


    Pine cone beetles (Conophthorus spp.) feed and kill immature cones of Pinus species, thereby reducing seed production and seriously impairing reforestation of forest ecosystems. Population variation of Conophthorus reproductive behavior has hampered the development of semiochemical control of these pests. This diYculty is...

  12. Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine (United States)

    W. J. Rietveld


    Extracts of green foliage of Arizona fescue and mountain muhly significantly reduced germination of ponderosa pine seeds, and retarded speed of elongation and mean radicle length. Three possible routes of release of the inhibitor were investigated: (1) leaching from live foliage, (2) root exudation, and (3) overwinter leaching from dead residues. The principal route...

  13. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations. (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel


    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  14. Drought effects on reproductive and growth characteristics in seed orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varol, T.; Ozel, H. B.; Bilir, N.


    Global climate change is one of the most important environmental problems, and it is also known that this change will lead to negative effects such as drought and increase in global temperature. This change is also estimated to increase its episodic effects negatively on growth and reproduction of the forest trees. In order to estimate the episodic or continuous effects of the drought, it is necessary to carry out studies based on long-term data. One of these studies are the investigation to be carried out on seed orchards that are one of the most important seed resources in forestry. Within this context, in this study, we determined to the reproductive and growth responses of the clones to the drought that continued in the most drought season (2012) for 2 subsequent years along with 65-year climate data for Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) and Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.). The relationships of SPEI values with seed characteristics and cone production were examined by using Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the results obtained from this study, it was found that the severe drought was effected the reproductive characteristics of both of red pine and cedar. The effect of drought on the number of cone (r=-0.810, P=0.022) in red pine and on the number of 1-year-old cones (r=-0.40, P=0.027) and on cone moisture (r=-0.715, P=0.022) in cedar was quite evident. These results indicate that approximately 65% of the change in number of cone in Red Pine and approximately 51% of the change in moisture content of the cones in cedar can be explained with the drought. From the data, it is clear that the drought is effective on the cone yield and seed characteristics in seed orchards of both of Red Pine and Taurus Cedar species. (author)

  15. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.


    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  16. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman


    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  17. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan


    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  18. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy


    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  19. The Austrian x red pine hybrid (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield


    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  20. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush


    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of fine root growth increases plant productivity in pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissom James E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic response of fine roots to a changing environment is suggested to affect the growth and form of a plant. Here we show that the plasticity of fine root growth may increase plant productivity based on an experiment using young seedlings (14-week old of loblolly pine. We use two contrasting pine ecotypes, "mesic" and "xeric", to investigate the adaptive significance of such a plastic response. Results The partitioning of biomass to fine roots is observed to reduce with increased nutrient availability. For the "mesic" ecotype, increased stem biomass as a consequence of more nutrients may be primarily due to reduced fine-root biomass partitioning. For the "xeric" ecotype, the favorable influence of the plasticity of fine root growth on stem growth results from increased allocation of biomass to foliage and decreased allocation to fine roots. An evolutionary genetic analysis indicates that the plasticity of fine root growth is inducible, whereas the plasticity of foliage is constitutive. Conclusions Results promise to enhance a fundamental understanding of evolutionary changes of tree architecture under domestication and to design sound silvicultural and breeding measures for improving plant productivity.

  2. Seed germination of Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. in response to light regimes caused by shading and seed positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.; Zhu, J.; Yan, Q.


    Pinus koraiensis Siebold and Zucc. (Korean pine), the dominant tree species in the mixed broadleaved Korean pine forests (regional climax), is severely restricted by its regeneration failure. To determine the effects of light regimes on P. koraiensis regeneration, the seed germination process was examined in shade houses and forest stands (before and after leaf expansion) with various light levels created by shading and seed positions. Despite the large size of P. koraiensis seeds (500-600 mg), both light intensity and quality significantly affected the germination percentage in both shade houses and forests. Substantial changes in light intensity and quality led the majority of seeds (80%) to germinate in leafless forests and shade houses, while only a minority ({<=}20%) germinated after leaf expansion in the forests. Moreover, seed germination in shade houses and leafless forests exhibited similar patterns; they consistently reached a 70% shading degree, which was optimal for the seed germination of P. koraiensis on topsoil. Seed positioning significantly affected germination for each shading degree, especially when litter and soil coverings drastically inhibited germination. In conclusion, (1) when seeds were not stressed by temperature and moisture, light irradiance played a critical role in the seed germination of P. koraiensis; (2) seed positioning, in relation to alterations in light intensity and quality, affected the germination of P. koraiensis; (3) a shade house experiment using neutral cloth provided an applicable and controllable way to monitor the P. koraiensis seed germination in early spring before leaf expansion. The light requirement for the germination of P. koraiensis played a key role in the regeneration of P. koraiensis throughout the temperate secondary forests. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  4. Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations – the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov


    Full Text Available The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of «seed cultures» is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in «seed cultures» the best trees from local plantings.

  5. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V


    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  6. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles (United States)

    William F. McCambridge


    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  7. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; Jimenez C, M.; Garcia T, M.A.


    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  8. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut


    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  9. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations


    Wallertz, Kristina


    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  10. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P


    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  11. Trends in Genetic and Environmental Parameters for Height, Diameter, and Volume in a Multilocation Clonal Study with Loblolly Pine (United States)

    A.D. Paul; G. Sam Foster; T. Caldwell; J. McRae


    Seedlings from 30 full-sib families (contained in 2,4 x 4 factorials) of loblollynine(Pinus taeda L.) were cloned and planted in three test sites in Georgia. Analyses were conducted on total height at ages 1 to 5 yr in the field, dbh at age 5, and individual tree volume at age 5. Four sources of genetic control were tested: male parent, female parent, male x female...

  12. Financial return from traditional wood products, feedstock, and carbon sequestration in loblolly pine plantations in the Southern U.S (United States)

    Umesh K. Chaudhan; Michael B. Kane


    We know that planting trees is a key approach for mitigating climate change; however, we are uncertain of what planting density per unit of land and what cultural regimes are needed to optimize traditional timber products, feedstock, and carbon sequestration.

  13. Volume and crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine grown at various ratios of between and within row spacings (United States)

    John R. Britt; Jason P. Reynolds


    In plantation forestry, several silvicultural treatments can be row oriented. When rows are treated individually, planting trees in wider rows may result in lower silvicultural treatment cost, facilitate future operations, such as thinning and fire fighting, and provide a longer period with open canopy conditions. All these scenarios could provide benefit to landowners...

  14. Ten-Year Effect of Six Site-Preparation Treatments on Piedmont Loblolly Pine Survival and Growth (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards


    Limited information is available on growth responses to different levels of intensity for site preparation in the Piedmont. In the present study, six intensities of site preparation were compared for their effect on survival, height and diameter growth, total volume produced, and basal area per acre for the first 10 years after treatment. Rates of survival and growth...

  15. Profitability potential for Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) short-rotation bioenergy plantings in the southern USA (United States)

    James H. Perdue; John A. Stanturf; Timothy M. Young; Xia Huang; Derek Dougherty; Michael Pigott; Zhimei Guo


    The use of renewable resources is important to the developing bioenergy economy and short rotation woody crops (SRWC) are key renewable feedstocks. A necessary step in advancing SRWC is defining regions suitable for SRWC commercial activities and assessing the relative economic viability among suitable regions. The goal of this study was to assess the potential...

  16. Short-term changes in soil C, N, and biota following harvesting and regeneration of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Mason C. Carter; Thomas J. Dean; Minyi Zhou; Michael G. Messina; Ziyin Wang


    In affiliation with the USDA-FS long-term soil productivity program, a series of studies have been established in the US gulf coast region to monitor the effects of intensive silviculture on site productivity. This report presents early results of a study of the interactive effects of harvest intensity and cultural treatments on soil C, N, and biological processes...

  17. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat (United States)


    hydrometer method (Milford 1997). Climate data from the study period was obtained from the National Climatic Data Center web service, with data for...texture of each plot using the hydrometer method (Milford 1997) and classified soil texture following the USDA soil classification system. Foliar

  18. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula


    Large-scale experimental manipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  19. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forest of the southeastern United States. (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; J.L. Hanula


    Several recent studies have shown that many litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudo scorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe (Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et...

  20. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula


    litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudoscorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe(Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et al. 2006; Kappes 2006; Jabin et al. 2007) and...

  1. Responses of Arthropods to large scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula


    Large-scale experimentalmanipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  2. A solution-state NMR approach to elucidating pMDI-wood bonding mechanisms in loblolly pine (United States)

    Daniel Joseph Yelle


    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for unambiguously determining the existence or absence of covalent chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground wood cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing DMSO-d6 and NMI-d6, keeping wood component polymers intact and in a near-...

  3. Negligible effects of severe organic matter removal and soil compaction on loblolly pine growth over 10 years (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; D. Andrew Scott; Kim H. Ludovici


    The long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study was initiated to examine the effect of soil porosity and organic matter (OM) levels on net primary productivity (NPP). The study design calls for three levels of OM removal (bole, whole tree and whole tree plus forest floor) and three levels of compaction (none, moderate and severe) being imposed on harvested sites prior to...

  4. Water Relations and Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Under Different Cultural Practices on Poorly Drained Sites in Arkansas (United States)

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher


    Substantial forest acreage in the south-central U.S. is seasonally water-logged due to an underlying fragipan. Severely restricted drainage in the non-growing season leads to a reduced subsoil zone, which restricts root respiration. The same sites may also be subjected to summer drought. These climatic and edaphic problems may result in low seedling survival and...

  5. Loblolly pine foliar patterns and growth dynamics at age 12 in response to planting density and cultural intensity (United States)

    Madison Katherine Akers; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Richard F. Daniels; Robert O. Teskey


    Examining the role of foliage in stand development across a range of stand structures provides a more detailed understanding of the processes driving productivity and allows further development of process-based models for prediction. Productivity changes observed at the stand scale will be the integration of changes at the individual tree scale, but few studies have...

  6. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry (United States)

    Despain, D.G.


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  7. Effects of early cone collection and artificial ripening on white spruce and red pine germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, D.A.; Haddon, B.D.


    Two experiments were conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute. Chalk River, Ontario in 1978 to test the feasibility of early cone collection and to determine the optimum conditions for the artificial ripening of white spruce and red pine cones. Cones were collected at periodic intervals, commencing 7 weeks before natural cone ripeness, and stored under four storage conditions and three storage periods. White spruce cones collected August 1, 4 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on open, screened trays for 12 weeks at 5 degrees Celcius and 75-95% relative humidity yielded seeds of high germinability. Seeds extracted from cones immediately after this collection failed to germinate. Cold storage of white spruce cones at 5 degrees Celcius for as little as 4 weeks eliminated dormancy and the subsequent need for seed stratification after extraction. Good germination of red pine seeds was obtained from cones collected August 16, 7 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on screened trays in a well-ventilated, unheated building, for 4 weeks. Completion of embryo growth must be attained before artificial ripening can be successfully applied; it may be used as an index for commencement of cone collections provided subsequent cone handling includes artificial ripening. (Refs. 39).

  8. Influence of laser radiation on the growth and development of seeds of agricultural plants (United States)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Polyakov, Vadim; Kascheev, Sergey; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey


    The experimental results presented in this study focused on the study of biological processes caused by exposure to the coating layers of the laser green light seed (λ = 532 nm) range for the larch, violet (λ = 405 nm) and red (λ = 640 nm) for spruce. Spend a series of experiments to study the dependence of crop seed quality (spruce and larch from the pine family) from exposure to laser radiation under different conditions. In all the analyzed groups studied seed germination and growth of seedlings exposed to laser exposure, compared with the control group. The results showed that the higher percentage of germination than seeds of the control group.

  9. A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine. (United States)

    Siepielski, A M; Benkman, C W


    Understanding how resource abundance limits adaptive evolution and influences species interactions is an important step towards developing insight into the role of microevolutionary processes in establishing macroevolutionary patterns. We examined how variation in resource abundance (forest area of lodgepole pine Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) influenced patterns of co-adaptation and coevolution between red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex) and lodgepole pine populations. First, we found that crossbill abundance increased logarithmically as forest area increased in mountain ranges lacking a preemptive competitor (pine squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Second, seed defences against predation by crossbills increased with increases in crossbill density, suggesting that seed defences have likely evolved in proportion to the intensity of selection that crossbills exert. Third, the average bill size of crossbill populations increased with increasing seed defences, which implies that crossbill offenses increased with increases in seed defences. The large bill size on the largest range is the result of coevolution with lodgepole pine with this crossbill population perhaps speciating. Local adaptation of crossbill populations on smaller ranges, however, is more likely the result of resident crossbills representing a subset of the potential colonists (phenotypic sorting) than of local evolution. In the smallest range, migration and possibly more frequent extinction likely impede local adaptation and may result in maladaptation.

  10. Impacts of Mastication: Soil Seed Bank Responses to a Forest Thinning Treatment in Three Colorado (USA Conifer Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha M. Faist


    Full Text Available Mastication is a forest fuel thinning treatment that involves chipping or shredding small trees and shrubs and depositing the material across the forest floor. By decreasing forest density mastication has been shown to lessen crown fire hazard, yet other impacts have only recently started to be studied. Our study evaluates how mastication treatments alter the density and composition of soil seed banks in three Colorado conifer forest types. The three forest types were (1 lodgepole pine, (2 ponderosa pine and (3 pinyon pine-juniper. Results showed that masticated sites contained higher seed bank densities than untreated sites: a pattern primarily driven by treatment effects in ponderosa pine forests. The seed bank was dominated by forbs regardless of forest type or treatment. This pattern of forb dominance was not observed in the aboveground vegetation cover as it demonstrated more even proportions of the functional groups. Graminoids showed a higher seed density in treated sites than untreated and, similarly, the identified non-native species only occurred in the treated ponderosa pine sites suggesting a potential belowground invasion for this forest type. These results suggest that presence of masticated material might not be creating a physical barrier hindering the transfer of seeds as predicted.

  11. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones


    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  12. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years. (United States)

    K.W. Seidel


    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  13. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17 (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  14. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley


    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  15. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle


    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  16. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance


    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  17. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions. (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria


    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  18. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  19. Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest (United States)

    Katul, G.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Bowling, D.; Clark, K.; Shurpali, N.; Turnipseed, A.; Albertson, J.; Tu, K.; Hollinger, D.; Evans, B. M.; Offerle, B.; Anderson, D.; Ellsworth, D.; Vogel, C.; Oren, R.


    The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100 m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (??(u), ??(w)) and temperature (??(T)) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u(*)2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (> 15%), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the 'canonical' structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the 'moving-equilibrium' hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u(*), especially when u(*) was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (I(w)) and the arrival

  20. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte


    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  1. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B


    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  2. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions (United States)

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  3. Interaction of factors modifying the radiosensitivity of dormant seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atayan, R.R.


    A review is presented on modification of radiation-induced effects in dormant plant seeds. Possible sources of discrepancy of data in the earlier literature are analysed. Approaches to the correct experimental study of mechanisms of interaction of environmental factors (water content, temperature, storage conditions) in the modification of radiobiological reactions are discussed. Progress in the radiation biology of plant seeds, achieved by precise control of experimental conditions, is considered. Plant genera used were barley, rice, maize, wheat, lupins, cotton, oats, pine, pea, crepis, brassica, lactuca, lycopersicon, trifohum, festuca, hibiscus. (author)

  4. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M.; White, Gary C.


    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda


    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction

  6. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.


    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables

  7. A Quick-Test for Biochar Effects on Seed Germination ... (United States)

    Biochar is being globally evaluated as a soil amendment to improve soil characteristics (e.g. soil water holding, nutrient exchange, microbiology, pesticides and chemical availability) to increase crop yields. Unfortunately, there are no quick tests to determine what biochar types are most effective at improving soil characteristics amenable for higher crop yields. Seed germination is a critical parameter for plant establishment and may be a quick indicator of biochar quality. We adapted Oregon State University Seed Laboratory procedures to develop a “quick-test” for screening the effects of biochar on seed germination. We used 11.0 cm rectangular x 3.5 cm deep containers fitted with blotter paper. The paper was premoistened with reverse-osmosis water, followed by placement of seeds (25 in a uniform 5 x 5 vacuum-assisted pattern, and biochar mixtures). A Norfolk and Coxville soil series from South Carolina were used. A total of 18 biochars were evaluated that were produced from 6 feedstocks (pine chips, poultry litter, swine solids, switchgrass, and two blends of pine chips and poultry litter); with biochar from each feedstock made by pyrolysis at 350, 500 and 700 ̊ C. Crops were cabbage, cucumber, onion, ryegrass and tomato. Preliminary results from the test indicated differences in seed germination due to soil type and possibly soil x biochar feedstock interactions. Other measurements including shoot dry weight per plate and pH of the soil+ biochar mixtur

  8. Stability in and correlation between factors influencing genetic quality of seed lots in seed orchard of Pinus tabuliformis Carr. over a 12-year span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Coniferous seed orchards require a long period from initial seed harvest to stable seed production. Differential reproductive success and asynchrony are among the main factors for orchard crops year-to-year variation in terms of parental gametic contribution and ultimately the genetic gain. It is fundamental in both making predictions about the genetic composition of the seed crop and decisions about orchard roguing and improved seed orchard establishment. In this paper, a primary Chinese pine seed orchard with 49 clones is investigated for stability, variation and correlation analysis of factors which influence genetic quality of the seed lots from initial seed harvest to the stable seed production over a 12 years span. Results indicated that the reproductive synchrony index of pollen shedding has shown to be higher than that of the strobili receptivity, and both can be drastically influenced by the ambient climate factors. Reproductive synchrony index of the clones has certain relative stability and it could be used as an indication of the seed orchard status during maturity stage; clones in the studied orchard have shown extreme differences in terms of the gametic and genetic contribution to the seed crop at the orchard's early production phase specifically when they severe as either female or male parents. Those differences are closely related to clonal sex tendency at the time of orchard's initial reproduction. Clonal gamete contribution as male and female parent often has a negative correlation. Clone utilization as pollen, seed or both pollen and seed donors should consider the role it would play in the seed crop; due to numerous factors influencing on the mating system in seed orchards, clonal genetic contribution as male parent is uncertain, and it has major influence on the genetic composition in the seed orchard during the initial reproductive and seed production phase.

  9. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa. (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher


    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions.

  10. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü


    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  11. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Carlton


    Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

  12. Screening Test of Greenhouse Seeding Exercise Matrix for Tissue Culture Seeding of Dendrobium Officinale Kimura et Migo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan


    Full Text Available The Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo has a high demand on planting matrix, while its tissue culture seeding has much more demands on planting matrix. To find out a seeding exercise matrix to enhance the survival rate of tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo more efficiently, this article carries out a screening test of greenhouse seeding exercise matrix material for tissue culture seeding of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. The test adopts full random test design, mainly for screening test of five matrix materials, namely pine bark, camphor tree bark, fern root, peanut shell and longan bark. Compare the impact of prepared seeding exercise matrix on the survival rate and growth trend (including plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate. The test result shows that: The seeding exercise matrix prepared by fern root is the most efficient, and the survival rate, plant height, growth rate and bud growth rate have achieved 100%, 4.5cm, 43.67% and 54.33% respectively. The main reason may be that the seeding exercise matrix C prepared by fern root is fairly loose and has a great water permeability, which is conducive to the growth of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo.

  13. Fire and mice: Seed predation moderates fire's influence on conifer recruitment (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Elizabeth E. Crone


    In fire-adapted ecosystems, fire is presumed to be the dominant ecological force, and little is known about how consumer interactions influence forest regeneration. Here, we investigated seed predation by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and its effects on recruitment of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in unburned...

  14. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.


    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  15. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  16. Biogeochemical hotspots following a simulated tree mortality event of southern pine beetle (United States)

    Siegert, C. M.; Renninger, H. J.; Karunarathna, S.; Hornslein, N.; Riggins, J. J.; Clay, N. A.; Tang, J. D.; Chaney, B.; Drotar, N.


    Disturbances in forest ecosystems can alter functions like productivity, respiration, and nutrient cycling through the creation of biogeochemical hotspots. These events occur sporadically across the landscape, leading to uncertainty in terrestrial biosphere carbon models, which have yet to capture the full complexity of biotic and abiotic factors driving ecological processes in the terrestrial environment. Given the widespread impact of southern pine beetle on forest ecosystems throughout the southeastern United States, it is critical to management and planning activities to understand the role of these disturbances. As such, we hypothesize that bark beetle killed trees create biogeochemical hotspots in the soils surrounding their trunk as they undergo mortality due to (1) increased soil moisture from reductions in plant water uptake and increased stemflow production, (2) enhanced canopy-derived inputs of carbon and nitrogen, and (3) increased microbial activity and root mortality. In 2015, a field experiment to mimic a southern pine beetle attack was established by girdling loblolly pine trees. Subsequent measurements of throughfall and stemflow for water quantity and quality, transpiration, stem respiration, soil respiration, and soil chemistry were used to quantify the extent of spatial and temporal impacts of tree mortality on carbon budgets. Compared to control trees, girdled trees exhibited reduced water uptake within the first 6 months of the study and succumbed to mortality within 18 months. Over two years, the girdled trees generated 33% more stemflow than control trees (7836 vs. 5882 L m-2). Preliminary analysis of carbon and nitrogen concentrations and dissolved organic matter quality are still pending. In the surrounding soils, C:N ratios were greater under control trees (12.8) than under girdled trees (12.1), which was driven by an increase in carbon around control trees (+0.13 mg C mg-1 soil) and not a decrease around girdled trees (-0.01 mg C mg-1

  17. Integrating invasive grasses into carbon cycle projections: Cogongrass spread in southern pine forests (United States)

    McCabe, T. D.; Flory, S. L.; Wiesner, S.; Dietze, M.


    Forested ecosystems are currently being disrupted by invasive species. One example is the invasive grass Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass), which is widespread in southeastern US pine forests. Pines forests dominate the forest cover of the southeast, and contribute to making the Southeast the United States' largest carbon sink. Cogongrass decreases the colonization of loblolly pine fine roots. If cogongrass continues to invade,this sink could be jeopardized. However, the effects of cogongrass invasion on carbon sequestration are largely unknown. We have projected the effects of elevated CO2 and changing climate on future cogongrass invasion. To test how pine stands are affected by cogongrass, cogongrass invasions were modeled using the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model, and parameterized using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn). ED2 takes into account local meteorological data, stand populations and succession, disturbance, and geochemical pools. PEcAn is a workflow that uses Bayesian sensitivity analyses and variance decomposition to quantify the uncertainty that each parameter contributes to overall model uncertainty. ED2 was run for four NEON and Ameriflux sites in the Southeast from the earliest available census of the site into 2010. These model results were compared to site measures to test for model accuracy and bias. To project the effect of elevated CO2 on cogongrass invasions, ED was run from 2006-2100 at four sites under four separate scenarios: 1) RPC4.5 CO2 and climate, 2) RPC4.5 climate only, with constant CO2 concentrations, 3) RPC4.5 Elevated CO2 only, with climate randomly selected from 2006-2026, 4) Present Day, made from randomly selected measures of CO2 and radiation from 2006-2026. Each scenario was run three times; once with cogongrass absent, once with a low cogongrass abundance, and once with a high cogongrass abundance. Model results suggest that many relevant parameters have high uncertainty due to lack of measurement. Further field

  18. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon


    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  19. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator


    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  20. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks


    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...