WorldWideScience

Sample records for loads calibration laboratory

  1. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  2. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  3. Laboratory panel and radiometer calibration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deadman, AJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16659 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Griffith1_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LABORATORY PANEL... of Land surface imaging through a ground reference standard test site?, on http://qa4eo.org/documentation.html, 2009. [2] K. J. Thome, D. L. Helder, D. Aaron, and J. D. Dewald, ?Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ Absolute Radiometric Calibration Using...

  4. Tour of the Standards and Calibrations Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    This tour of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Standards and Calibrations Laboratory is intended as a guide to the capabilities of and services offered by this unique laboratory. Described are the Laboratory's ability to provide radiation fields and measurements for dosimeters, survey instruments, spectrometers, and sources and its available equipment and facilities. The tour also includes a survey of some Health Physics and interdepartmental programs supported by the Standards and Calibrations Laboratory and a listing of applicable publications

  5. Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaepman, M E; Dangel, S

    2000-07-20

    Field-based nonimaging spectroradiometers are often used in vicarious calibration experiments for airborne or spaceborne imaging spectrometers. The calibration uncertainties associated with these ground measurements contribute substantially to the overall modeling error in radiance- or reflectance-based vicarious calibration experiments. Because of limitations in the radiometric stability of compact field spectroradiometers, vicarious calibration experiments are based primarily on reflectance measurements rather than on radiance measurements. To characterize the overall uncertainty of radiance-based approaches and assess the sources of uncertainty, we carried out a full laboratory calibration. This laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer is based on a measurement plan targeted at achieving a calibration. The individual calibration steps include characterization of the signal-to-noise ratio, the noise equivalent signal, the dark current, the wavelength calibration, the spectral sampling interval, the nonlinearity, directional and positional effects, the spectral scattering, the field of view, the polarization, the size-of-source effects, and the temperature dependence of a particular instrument. The traceability of the radiance calibration is established to a secondary National Institute of Standards and Technology calibration standard by use of a 95% confidence interval and results in an uncertainty of less than ?7.1% for all spectroradiometer bands.

  6. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  7. Conception of CTMSP ionizing radiation calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the implantation process of an ionizing radiation calibration laboratory in a preexistent installation in CTMSP (bunker) approved by CNEN to operate with gamma-ray for non destructive testing. This laboratory will extend and improve the current metrological capacity for the attendance to the increasing demand for services of calibration of ionizing radiation measuring instruments. Statutory and regulatory requirements for the licensing of the installation are presented and deeply reviewed. (author)

  8. Calibration Laboratory of the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, K.; Wernli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration and working checks of radiation protection instruments are carried out at the Calibration Laboratory of the Paul Scherrer Institute. In view of the new radiation protection regulation, the calibration laboratory received an official federal status. The accreditation procedure in cooperation with the Federal Office of Metrology enabled a critical review of the techniques and methods applied. Specifically, personal responsibilities, time intervals for recalibration of standard instruments, maximum permissible errors of verification, traceability and accuracy of the standard instruments, form and content of the certificates were defined, and the traceability of the standards and quality assurance were reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  9. Calibration for plutonium-238 lung counting at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1976-01-01

    The lung counting facility at Mound Laboratory was calibrated for making plutonium-238 lung deposition assessments in the fall of 1969. Phoswich detectors have been used since that time; however, the technique of calibration has improved considerably. The current technique of calibrating the lung counter is described as well as the method of error analysis and determination of the minimum detectable activity. A Remab hybrid phantom is used along with an attenuation curve which is derived from plutonium loaded lungs and ground beef absorber measurements. The errors that are included in an analysis as well as those that are excluded are described. The method of calculating the minimum detectable activity is also included

  10. Requirements for the accreditation of a calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, T.A.; Peretti, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    CNEA's activity in calibration is recent but it has a significant development. To assure high quality results, activity must be sustained and improved from day to day. The calibrations laboratory was accredited before Laboratories Qualification Committee, thus adding reliability to its results and making it more competitive when compared to other laboratories not accredited. Among other services given are supervision and follow up of calibrations in laboratories, participation in interlaboratory assays together with other calibration laboratories and assessments on calibration aspects of measuring equipment. (author)

  11. Laboratory implantation for well type ionization chambers calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, E.A.; Dias, D.J.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    The Radiological Science Laboratory is implanting a service for calibration of well type chambers by IAEA training program. The kerma rate in the air (mu Gy/h) of the linear Cs-137 reference source CDCS-J4 have been determined using a well type chamber Standard Imaging HDR-1000 model, which have been calibrated at Secondary Standard Laboratory Calibration of IAEA, whereas two HDR-1000 Plus chambers were calibrated too, following the same standards. The results were compared with Wisconsin University calibration certification and has demonstrated that well type ionization chamber calibration can be used in brachytherapy for several kinds of radionuclides. (Author)

  12. The NRPB Chilton Calibration Laboratory for radiological protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory in NRPB Headquarters is intended as an authoritative reference laboratory for all aspects of radiation protection level instrument calibrations for X-, gamma and beta radiations and to be complementary to the national primary standards of the National Physical Laboratory. The gamma ray, filtered X-ray, fluorescence X-ray and beta ray facilities are described. (U.K.)

  13. Quality assurance programs at the PNL calibrations laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, R.K.; McDonald, J.C.; Fox, R.A.; Eichner, F.N.

    1993-03-01

    The calibrations laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) serves as a radiological standardization facility for personnel and environmental dosimetry and radiological survey instruments. As part of this function, the calibrations laboratory must maintain radiological reference fields with calibrations traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This task is accomplished by a combination of (1) sources or reference instruments calibrated at or by NIST, (2) measurement quality assurance (MQA) interactions with NIST, and (3) rigorous internal annual and quarterly calibration verifications. This paper describes a representative sample of the facilities, sources, and actions used to maintain accurate and traceable fields

  14. Modal and Wave Load Identification by ARMA Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    1992-01-01

    In this note, modal parameter and wave load identification by calibration of ARMA models are considered for a simple offshore structure. The theory of identification by ARMA calibration is introduced as an identification technique in the time domain, which can be applied for white noise–excited s......In this note, modal parameter and wave load identification by calibration of ARMA models are considered for a simple offshore structure. The theory of identification by ARMA calibration is introduced as an identification technique in the time domain, which can be applied for white noise...... by an experimental example of a monopile model excited by random waves. The identification results show that the approach is able to give very reliable estimates of the modal parameters. Furthermore, a comparison of the identified wave load process and the calculated load process based on the Morison equation shows...

  15. A Baseline Load Schedule for the Manual Calibration of a Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Gisler, R.

    2013-01-01

    A baseline load schedule for the manual calibration of a force balance is defined that takes current capabilities at the NASA Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory into account. The chosen load schedule consists of 18 load series with a total of 194 data points. It was designed to satisfy six requirements: (i) positive and negative loadings should be applied for each load component; (ii) at least three loadings should be applied between 0 % and 100 % load capacity; (iii) normal and side force loadings should be applied at the forward gage location, aft gage location, and the balance moment center; (iv) the balance should be used in "up" and "down" orientation to get positive and negative axial force loadings; (v) the constant normal and side force approaches should be used to get the rolling moment loadings; (vi) rolling moment loadings should be obtained for 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees balance orientation. In addition, three different approaches are discussed in the paper that may be used to independently estimate the natural zeros, i.e., the gage outputs of the absolute load datum of the balance. These three approaches provide gage output differences that can be used to estimate the weight of both the metric and non-metric part of the balance. Data from the calibration of a six-component force balance will be used in the final manuscript of the paper to illustrate characteristics of the proposed baseline load schedule.

  16. NVLAP activities at Department of Defense calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, D.M. [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There are 367 active radiological instrument calibration laboratories within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Each of the four services in DoD manages, operates, and certifies the technical proficiency and competency of those laboratories under their cognizance. Each service has designated secondary calibration laboratories to trace all calibration source standards to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Individual service radiological calibration programs and capabilities, present and future, are described, as well as the measurement quality assurance (MQA) processes for their traceability. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) programs for dosimetry systems are briefly summarized. Planned NVLAP accreditation of secondary laboratories is discussed in the context of current technical challenges and future efforts.

  17. NVLAP activities at Department of Defense calibration laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are 367 active radiological instrument calibration laboratories within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Each of the four services in DoD manages, operates, and certifies the technical proficiency and competency of those laboratories under their cognizance. Each service has designated secondary calibration laboratories to trace all calibration source standards to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Individual service radiological calibration programs and capabilities, present and future, are described, as well as the measurement quality assurance (MQA) processes for their traceability. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) programs for dosimetry systems are briefly summarized. Planned NVLAP accreditation of secondary laboratories is discussed in the context of current technical challenges and future efforts

  18. Calibration of laboratory equipment and its intermediate verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedi, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    When a laboratory wants to prove that he has technical competence to carry out tests or calibrations must demonstrate that it has complied with certain requirements that establish , among others, the mandatory : calibrate or verify equipment before putting it into service in order to ensure that it meets to the specifications of laboratory equipment to keep records evidencing the checks that equipment complies with the specification ; perform intermediate checks for maintain confidence in the calibration status of the equipment , ensure that the operation is checked and calibration status of equipment when the equipment goes outside the direct control of the laboratory , before be returned to service, establish a program and procedure for the calibration of equipment; show how determined the calibration periods of their equipment as well as evidence that intermediate checks are suitable for the calibration periods. However, some confusion is observed as to the meaning of the terms 'calibration' and 'verification' of a computer. This paper analyzes applicable documentation and suggests that the differences are generated in part by translations and by characterization concepts upon its usage, that is, if it is legal metrology or assessment conformity. Therefore, this study aims to characterize both concepts , fundamentals to zoom distinguish , outline appropriate strategies for calibration and verification activities to ensure the compliance with regulatory requirements [es

  19. LLNL X-ray Calibration and Standards Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The LLNL X-ray Calibration and Standards Laboratory is a unique facility for developing and calibrating x-ray sources, detectors, and materials, and for conducting x-ray physics research in support of our weapon and fusion-energy programs

  20. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, J.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  1. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program

  2. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  3. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards

  4. Modal and Wave Load Identification by ARMA Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper modal parameter as well as wave load identification by calibration of ARMA models is considered for a simple offshore structure. The theory of identification by ARMA calibration is presented as an identification technique in the time domain which can be applied for white noise excited...... systems. The technique is generalized also to include the case of ambient excitation processes such as wave excitation which are non-white processes. Due to those results a simple but effective approach for identification of the load process is proposed. Finally the theoretical presentation is illustrated...

  5. Validation of a densimeter calibration procedure for a secondary calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar Herrera, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantify the need for calibration of a density measurement instrument at the research units at the Sede Rodrigo Facio of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A calibration procedure was documented for the instrument that presented the highest demand in the survey by the calibration service. A study of INTE-ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 and specifically in section 5.4 of this standard was done, to document the procedure for calibrating densimeters. Densimeter calibration procedures and standards were sought from different national and international sources. The method of hydrostatic weighing or Cuckow method was the basis of the defined procedure. Documenting the calibration procedure and creating other documents was performed for data acquisition log, intermediate calculation log and calibration certificate copy. A veracity test was performed using as reference laboratory a laboratory of calibration secondary national as part of the validation process of the documented procedure. The results of the E_n statistic of 0.41; 0.34 and 0.46 for the calibration points 90%, 50% and 10% were obtained for the densimeter scale respectively. A reproducibility analysis of the method was performed with satisfactory results. Different suppliers were contacted to estimate the economic costs of the equipment and materials, needed to develop the documented method of densimeter calibration. The acquisition of an analytical balance was recommended, instead of a precision scale, in order to improve the results obtained with the documented method [es

  6. Project of an integrated calibration laboratory of instruments at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo Adolfo San Jose

    2009-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares offers calibration services of radiation detectors used in radioprotection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for IPEN and for external facilities (public and private). One part of its facilities is located in the main building, along with other laboratories and study rooms, and another part in an isolated building called Bunker. For the optimization, modernization and specially the safety, the laboratories in the main building shall be transferred to an isolated place. In this work, a project of an integrated laboratory for calibration of instruments was developed, and it will be an expansion of the current Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of IPEN. Therefore, a series of radiometric monitoring of the chosen localization of the future laboratory was realized, and all staff needs (dimensions and disposition of the study rooms and laboratories) were defined. In this project, the laboratories with X ray equipment, alpha and beta radiation sources were located at an isolated part of the building, and the wall shielding was determined, depending on the use of each laboratory. (author)

  7. Investigation of a Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) Distributed Load Calibration Methodology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FOSS is a relatively newer technology that needs to be explored for application to load calibration and loads monitoring efforts. Load calibration opportunities are...

  8. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, R. [Radiation Instrument Calibration Laboratory, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5{mu}Sv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured.

  9. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5μSv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured

  10. [Fundamental aspects for accrediting medical equipment calibration laboratories in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamosa-Rincón, Luis E; López-Isaza, Giovanni A; Villarreal-Castro, Milton F

    2010-02-01

    Analysing the fundamental methodological aspects which should be considered when drawing up calibration procedure for electro-medical equipment, thereby permitting international standard-based accreditation of electro-medical metrology laboratories in Colombia. NTC-ISO-IEC 17025:2005 and GTC-51-based procedures for calibrating electro-medical equipment were implemented and then used as patterns. The mathematical model for determining the estimated uncertainty value when calibrating electro-medical equipment for accreditation by the Electrical Variable Metrology Laboratory's Electro-medical Equipment Calibration Area accredited in compliance with Superintendence of Industry and Commerce Resolution 25771 May 26th 2009 consists of two equations depending on the case; they are: E = (Ai + sigmaAi) - (Ar + sigmaAr + deltaAr1) and E = (Ai + sigmaAi) - (Ar + sigmaA + deltaAr1). The mathematical modelling implemented for measuring uncertainty in the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira's Electrical Variable Metrology Laboratory (Electro-medical Equipment Calibration Area) will become a good guide for calibration initiated in other laboratories in Colombia and Latin-America.

  11. Proficiency Testing Activities of Frequency Calibration Laboratories in Taiwan, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    cht.com.tw Abstract In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025 and the demand of TAF (Taiwan Accreditation Foundation) for calibration inter... IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The proficiency testing results are then important...on-site evaluation, an assessment team is organized to examine the technical competence of the labs and their compliance with the requirements of ISO

  12. Health Physics Society program for accreditation of calibration laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.; Masse, F.X.; Swinth, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Health Physics Society has instituted a new program for accreditation of organizations that calibrate radiation survey instruments. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals with an expanded means of direct and indirect access to national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. Secondary accredited laboratories are expected to provide a regional support basis. Tertiary accredited laboratories are expected to operate on a more local basis and provide readily available expertise to end users. The accreditation process is an effort to provide better measurement assurance for surveys of radiation fields. The status of the accreditation program, general criteria, gamma-ray calibration criteria, and x-ray calibration criteria are reviewed

  13. Standardization of irradiation values at the Radiation Calibration Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Dung; Hoang Van Nguyen; Phan Van Toan; Phan Dinh Sinh; Tran Thi Tuyet; Do Thi Phuong

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the theme is to determine dose rates around radiation facilities and sources in the NRI Radiation Calibration Laboratory. By improving equipment, calibrating a main dosemeter and carrying out experiments, the theme team received the following results: 1. The controller of a X-rays generator PY(-200 was improved. It permits to increase accuracy of radiation dose calibration up to 2-4 times; 2. The FAMER DOSEMETER 2570/1B with the ionization chamber NE 2575 C of the NRI Radiation Calibration Laboratory was calibrated at SSDL (Hanoi); 3. Dose rates at 4 positions around a high activity Co-60 source were determined; 4. Dose rates at 3 positions around a low activity Co-60 source were determined; 5. Dose rates at 3 positions around a low activity Cs-137 source were determined; 6. Dose rate at 1 position of a X-rays beam (Eaverage = 48 keV) was determined; 7. Dose rate at 1 position of a X-rays beam (Eaverage = 65 keV) was determined. (author)

  14. Secondary standards laboratories for ionizing radiation calibrations: the national laboratory interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Campbell, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    The national laboratories are probable candidates to serve as secondary standards laboratories for the federal sector. Representatives of the major Department of Energy laboratories were polled concerning attitudes toward a secondary laboratory structure. Generally, the need for secondary laboratories was recognized and the development of such a program was encouraged. The secondary laboratories should be reviewed and inspected by the National Bureau of Standards. They should offer all of the essential, and preferably additional, calibration services in the field of radiological health protection. The selection of secondary laboratories should be based on economic and geographic criteria and/or be voluntary. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  15. Tritium monitor calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.J.; Aikin, D.J.; Houlton, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Tritium in air is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with air breathing instruments based on ionization chambers. Stack emissions are continuously monitored from sample tubes which each connect to a Tritium bubble which differentially collects HTO and HT. A set of glass vials of glycol capture the HTO. The HT is oxidized with a palladium catalyst and the resultant HTO is captured in a second set of vials of glycol. The glycol is counted with a liquid scintillation counter. All calibrations are performed with tritium containing gas. The Radiation Instrumentation and Calibration (RIC) Team has constructed and maintains two closed loop gas handling systems based on femto TECH model U24 tritium ion chamber monitors: a fixed system housed in a fume hood and a portable system mounted on two two wheeled hand trucks. The U24 monitors are calibrated against tritium in nitrogen gas standards. They are used as standard transfer instruments to calibrate other ion chamber monitors with tritium in nitrogen, diluted with air. The gas handling systems include a circulation pump which permits a closed circulation loop to be established among the U24 monitor and typically two to four other monitors of a given model during calibration. Fixed and portable monitors can be calibrated. The stack bubblers are calibrated in the field by: blending a known concentration of tritium in air within the known volume of the two portable carts, coupled into a common loop; releasing that gas mixture into a ventilation intake to the stack; collecting oxidized tritium in the bubbler; counting the glycol; and using the stack and bubbler flow rates, computing the bubbler's efficiency. Gas calibration has become a convenient and quality tool in maintaining the tritium monitors at LANL

  16. Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, E.L.; Correll, R.L.; Cunningham, R.B.; Johns, G.G.; Nicolls, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures common to different methods of calibration of neutron moisture meters are outlined and laboratory and field calibration methods compared. Gross errors which arise from faulty calibration techniques are described. The count rate can be affected by the dry bulk density of the soil, the volumetric content of constitutional hydrogen and other chemical components of the soil and soil solution. Calibration is further complicated by the fact that the neutron meter responds more strongly to the soil properties close to the detector and source. The differences in slope of calibration curves for different soils can be as much as 40%

  17. Quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhogora, W.E.; Yoloye, O.; Ngaile, J.; Lema, U.S.

    2000-01-01

    A quality assurance programme at the National Calibration Laboratory for ionizing radiation in Tanzania is described. The programme focuses mainly on regular stability check source and reference output measurements, performance testing of TLD systems as well as some external audit checks. It is found that the stability check source measurements are within ± 1%. Similarly, the air kerma rate measurements agree well with calibration uncertainties, that is ± 2% for protection level measurements and ± 1.5% for clinical dosimetry. The results of comparison of dose measurements done on site and those obtained from some external audit checks are also within requirements. This shows that the working standards have been kept with good care, and that the traceability to the international measurement system is adequately maintained. Some examples on calibration transfer activities are briefly discussed

  18. High dose calibrations at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Fox, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    The need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers, and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed. 4 refs

  19. Calibration laboratories as a regional repair center: consolidate or collocate

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Marquita A; Pasch, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the integration of AIMDs Miramar and North Island, and NADEP North Island calibration laboratories. The expected benefits and weaknesses or problems resulting from integration are examined. The benefits analyzed include those in the areas of manpower, training, standards reduction, inventory reduction, streamlining facilities, and increased productivity. The problems analyzed include increased transportation costs, facilities modification costs, reduce...

  20. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  1. The Mars Science Laboratory APXS calibration target: Comparison of Martian measurements with the terrestrial calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; King, P.L.; Burkemper, L.; Berger, J.A.; Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.I.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I.; Thompson, L.; Edgett, K.S.; Yingst, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover carries a basalt calibration target for monitoring the performance of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The spectrum acquired on Sol 34 shows increased contributions from Mg, S, Cl and Fe relative to laboratory spectra recorded before launch. Mars Hand Lens Imager images confirm changes in the appearance of the surface. Spectra taken on Sols 179 and 411 indicate some loss of the deposited material. The observations suggest deposition of a surface film likely consisting of dust mobilized by impingement of the sky crane’s terminal descent engine plumes with surface fines during Curiosity’s landing. New APXS software has been used to model the thin film that coated the calibration target on landing. The results suggest that a film of about 100 nm thickness, and containing predominantly MgO, Fe 2 O 3 , SO 3 , Cl and Na 2 O could give rise to the observed spectral changes. If this film is also present on the alpha particle sources within the APXS, then its effect is negligible and the terrestrial calibration remains appropriate

  2. The Mars Science Laboratory APXS calibration target: Comparison of Martian measurements with the terrestrial calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); King, P.L. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario N6A3K7 (Canada); Burkemper, L. [Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Berger, J.A. [Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario N6A3K7 (Canada); Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.I.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I. [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Thompson, L. [Planetary and Space Science Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B5A3 (Canada); Edgett, K.S. [Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, CA 92191-0148 (United States); Yingst, R.A. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover carries a basalt calibration target for monitoring the performance of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The spectrum acquired on Sol 34 shows increased contributions from Mg, S, Cl and Fe relative to laboratory spectra recorded before launch. Mars Hand Lens Imager images confirm changes in the appearance of the surface. Spectra taken on Sols 179 and 411 indicate some loss of the deposited material. The observations suggest deposition of a surface film likely consisting of dust mobilized by impingement of the sky crane’s terminal descent engine plumes with surface fines during Curiosity’s landing. New APXS software has been used to model the thin film that coated the calibration target on landing. The results suggest that a film of about 100 nm thickness, and containing predominantly MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}, Cl and Na{sub 2}O could give rise to the observed spectral changes. If this film is also present on the alpha particle sources within the APXS, then its effect is negligible and the terrestrial calibration remains appropriate.

  3. Assembly of a laboratory for calibration in brachytherapy. Comparison of responses with different instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Saravi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A common practice in quality control programs for dosimetry in brachytherapy is the source calibration. The AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) in the Task Group No. 40 (TG-40) it recommends that each institution that offers a brachytherapy service verifies the intensity of each source provided by the maker with secondary traceability. For such a reason it is necessary to have laboratories able to make calibrations of sources, traceable electrometer-chambers to primary or credited laboratories. The Regional Center of Reference of Dosimetry of the CNEA (National Commission of Atomic Energy) it is in the stage of finalization of the assembly of a Laboratory for source calibration and use equipment in brachytherapy. For it has two ionization chambers well type and two electrometers gauged by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin. Also account with a wide variety of supports and with a tube of 137 Cs pattern 3M model 6500/6D6C. The procedures for the calibration of sources and equipment were elaborated starting from the TECDOC-1274. On the other hand, its were carried out measurements with different instrumentation for the comparison of responses and at the same time to implement the calibration procedures. For it, its were used chambers and electrometers of the institution, of hospitals and of the national company 'Solydes'. In the measurements its were used seeds of 125 I taken place in Argentina and the tube of 137 Cs pattern mentioned previously. In first place it was proceeded to the determination of the center of the region of the plateau in the axial response for the seeds of Iodine-125 and the tube of Cesium-137 pattern using different chambers. Later on its were carried out measurements of accumulated loads during a certain interval of time in this position. The calibration factors of each chamber were determined, N Sk (μGy m 2 h -1 A -1 ), as the quotient of the kerma rate in reference air of the

  4. The transfer voltage standard for calibration outside of a laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urekar Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer voltage standard is designed for transferring the analog voltage from a calibrator to the process control workstation for multi-electrode electrolysis process in a plating plant. Transfer voltage standard is based on polypropylene capacitors and operational amplifiers with tera-ohm range input resistance needed for capacitor self-discharging effect cancellation. Dielectric absorption effect is described. An instrument for comparison of reference and control voltages is devised, based on precise window comparator. Detailed description of the main task is given, including constraints, theoretical and practical solutions. Procedure for usage of the standard outside of a laboratory conditions is explained. Comparison of expected and realized standard characteristics is given. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-32019

  5. Dosimetry through the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar M, V.M.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Medina O, V.P.; Vergara M, F.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Salinas L, B.

    2004-01-01

    In the beginnings of the sixty years an urgent necessity is presented mainly in the developing countries, of improving in important form the accuracy in the dosimetry of external faces in therapy of radiations (radiotherapy centers), mainly in the calibration of c linical dosemeters . In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), and the World Health Organization, (WHO), they carried out a mutual agreement with regard to the establishment and operation of a net of Secondary Patron Laboratories of Dosimetry, (LSCD). The necessity to establish measure patterns in the field of the dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, is necessary, to have an accuracy but high in the dosimetry of the radiation beams in therapy which is highly dependent of the dose given to the tumor of those patient with cancer. Similar levels of accuracy are required in protection measures to the radiation with an acceptable smaller accuracy, however, when the personal dosemeters are used to determine the doses received by the individuals under work conditions, such mensurations in therapy of radiations and radiological protection will have traceability through a chain of comparisons to primary or national patterns. The traceability is necessary to assure the accuracy and acceptability of the dosimetric measures, as well as, the legal and economic implications. The traceability is also necessary in the dosimetry of high dose like in the sterilization of different products. The main function of the LSCD is to provide a service in metrology of ionizing radiations, maintaining the secondary or national patterns, which have a traceability to the International System of measures, which is based for if same in the comparison of patterns in the Primary Laboratories of Dosimetry (LPD) under the auspice of the International Office of Weights and Measure (BIPM). The secondary and national patterns in the LSCD constitute in Mexico, the national patterns of the magnitudes in the dosimetry of the

  6. Upgrading the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory Towards ISO/IEC 17025: Radiation Standards and Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norhayati Abdullah; Shahrul Azlan Azizan; Siti Sara Deraman; Nor Azlin Azraai; Md Khairusalih Md Zin

    2010-01-01

    Calibration of quality control (QC) test tools used in diagnostic radiology is legally required under the Ministry of Health (MOH) requirement. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency is the national focal point for the calibration of quality control test tools used in diagnostic radiology. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory has measurement traceability to primary standard dosimetry laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)), thus providing an interface between the primary standard dosimetry laboratory and Malaysian hospitals, clinics and license class H holder. The Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory facility is comprised of a constant potential x-ray system with a capability of 160 kV tube and a series of reference and working standard ion chambers. The stability of reference and working standard ion chambers was measured using strontium-90. Dosimetric instruments used in diagnostic radiology is calibrated in terms of air kerma to comply with an International Code of Practices of dosimetry for example IAEA's Technical Report Series number 457. The new series of standard radiation qualities was established based on ISO/IEC 61267. The measurement of beam homogeneity was measured using film and ion chamber to define the field size at certain distance and kV output was measured using the spectrometer and non-invasive kVp meter. The uncertainties measurement was determined with expended uncertainties to a level of confidence of approximately 95% (coverage factor k=2). This paper describes the available facility and the effort of the Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to upgrade the laboratory towards ISO/IEC 17025. (author)

  7. Ice load reducer for dams : laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupien, R.; Cote, A.; Robert, A. [Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have focused on measuring static ice loads on various hydraulic structures in Canada. This paper discussed a Hydro-Quebec research project whose main purpose was to harmonize the ice thrust value in load combinations for use in general hydraulic works or for specific cases. The objectives of the project were to obtain a better understanding of existing data and to characterize sites and their influence on ice thrust; study the structural mechanisms involved in the generation of ice thrust, their consequences on the structural behaviour of ice and the natural mitigating circumstances that may be offered by ice properties or site operating procedures; and examine the relevance of developing an ice load reducer for works that might not fit the harmonized design value. The paper presented the main research goals and ice load reducer goals, with particular focus on the four pipe samples that were planned, built and tested. The experimental program involved checking the pipe shape behaviour in terms of flexibility-stiffness; maximum deformations; maximum load reduction; permanent deformations; and, ability to shape recovering. The testing also involved examining the strength versus strain rate; creep versus strain rate; and creep capacity under biaxial state of tension and compression. It was concluded that the two phenomena involved in generation of ice thrust, notably thermal expansion and water level changes, had very low strain rates. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  8. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  9. Automation of dosimeters calibration for radiotherapy in secondary dosimetric calibration laboratory of the CPHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Andy L. Romero; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automated system for measurements in the calibration of reference radiation dosimeters. It was made a software application that performs the acquisition of the measured values of electric charge, calculated calibration coefficient and automates the calibration certificate issuance. These values are stored in a log file on a PC. The use of the application improves control over the calibration process, helps to humanize the work and reduces personnel exposure. The tool developed has been applied to the calibration of dosimeters radiation patterns in the LSCD of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba

  10. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  11. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory

  12. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  13. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  14. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  15. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  16. Calibration procedures for improved accuracy of wind turbine blade load measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Johansson, Hjalmar [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    External loads acting on wind turbine blades are mainly transferred via the hub to the rest of the structure. It is therefore a normal approach to measure the loads acting on the turbine by load measurements in the blade roots. The load measurement is often accomplished by measurements of strain on the surface of the blade or the hub. The strain signals are converted to loads by applying calibration factors to the measurements. This paper deals with difficulties associated with load measurements on two different wind turbines; one with strain gauges applied to a steel hub where a linear stress-load relationship is expected and the other with strain gauges applied to the GFRP blade close to the bearings where strong non-linearity`s and temperature effects are expected. This paper suggests calibration methods to overcome these problems. 2 refs, 11 figs

  17. Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Svensson, Staffan; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela

    2005-01-01

    John Dalsgaard Sørensen, Staffan Svensson, Birgitte Dela Stang : Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures     Abstract :   The load bearing capacity of timber structures decrease with time depending on the type of load and timber. Based on representative limit...... states and stochastic models for timber structures, load duration factors are calibrated using probabilistic methods. Load duration e.ects are estimated on basis of simulation of realizations of wind, snow and imposed loads in accordance with the load models in the Danish structural codes. Three damage...... accumulation models are considered, namely Gerhards model, Barrett and Foschi _ s model and Foschi and Yao _ s model. The parameters in these models are .tted by the Maximum Likelihood Method using data relevant for Danish structural timber and the statistical uncertainty is quanti .ed. The reliability...

  18. Calibration of radioprotection equipment gamma radiation at the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - DEN/UFPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazario, Macilene; Khoury, Helen; Hazin, Clovis

    2003-01-01

    This work presents aspects of the radioprotection equipment calibration service of the Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (LMRI) of the DEN/UFPE related to the calibration procedures, characteristics of the radiation beam and the evaluation of equipment calibrated in the period of 2001-2002. The LMRI-DEN/UFPE is one of the four laboratories in Brazil licensed by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission for the execution of calibration services on area, surface contamination and personal monitors used by industries, hospitals, universities and research institutes using radioactive sources

  19. The role of a certified calibration laboratory in a station's measuring and test equipment calibration, repair, and documentation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebenstreit, K.; MacIntosh, N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines the role of a Certified Calibration Laboratory in- ensuring that the requirements of Measuring and Test Equipment calibration, identification, and traceability are met and documented. The Nuclear environment is one which is subject to influences from numerous 'quality agents'. One of the fields which comes under the scrutiny of the quality agents is that of equipment calibration and repair (both field components and M and TE). There is a responsibility to produce a superior product for the Ontario Consumer. The maintenance and calibration of Station Systems and their components have a direct impact on this output. The Measuring and Test Equipment element in each of these needs can be addressed by having a defined group of Maintenance Staff to execute a Measuring and Test Equipment Program which meets specific parameters. (author)

  20. A report from the AVS Standards Committee - Comparison of ion gauge calibrations by several standards laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    Calibrations by four U.S. laboratories of four hot-cathode ion gauges, in the range 0.07-13 mPa, showed systematic differences among laboratories that were much larger than the expected error of any one calibration. They also suggested that any of the four gauges tested, if properly packaged and shipped, was able to serve as a transfer standard with probable error of 2%. A second comparison was made of the calibrations by two U.S. laboratories of some other gauges that had also been calibrated by the National Physical Laboratory, England. Results did not permit conclusive determination of whether differences were due to the laboratories or to changes in the gauges.

  1. Three-dimensional mapping of salt load in the Murray-Darling Basin, 1 Steps in calibration of airborne electromagnetic surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Dent, D.L.; Jones, G.; Galloway, D.

    2004-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic survey yields a three-dimensional map of ground electrical conductivity. The remotely sensed data are translated into salt load by field and laboratory calibration: drilling, measurement of borehole conductivity, electrical conductivity of 1 : 5 soil¿water extracts

  2. Experimental validation and calibration of pedestrian loading models for footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricciardelli, Fransesco; Briatico, C; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2006-01-01

    Different patterns of pedestrian loading of footbridges exist, whose occurrence depends on a number of parameters, such as the bridge span, frequency, damping and mass, and the pedestrian density and activity. In this paper analytical models for the transient action of one walker and for the stat...

  3. Calibration of Load Duration Factor kmod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela; Svensson, Staffan

    and the stochastic models are formulated in accordance with the load models in the Danish structural codes, DS 409, and DS 410. three damage accumulation models are considered, namely Gerhards model, Barret & Foschi's model, and Foschi & Yao's model. The parameters in these moels are fitted using data relevant...

  4. Laboratory Accreditation and the Calibration of Radiologic Measuring Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancsura, P.; Kovago, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper is presented that accreditation in our days is a strict requirement for a lab for its results could be accepted on international level. Accreditation itself brings to new requirements, among them some are related to the calibration of the radiological measuring equipment

  5. Calibration Laboratory for Medical Physics towards ISO/ IEC 17025 accreditation: Experience and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Abdul Aziz Ramli; Muhammad Jamal Isa; Sharul Azlan Azizan

    2011-01-01

    Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory is laboratory where placed under Medical Physics Group, Radiation Healthy and Safety Division. This laboratory offers calibration services to their customers that covered doses calibration, tube voltan (kVp), exposure doses, sensitometer and densitometer. After 12 years of operation, it is the right time for this laboratory to upgrade their quality services based on ISO/ IEC 17025. Accreditation scope covered calibration for diagnostic doses only. Starting from 2009, serious effort was done to prepare the quality documents that covered quality manual, quality procedure and work orders. Meanwhile, several series of audit were done by Quality Management Center (QMC), now Innovation Management Center (IMC) with collaboration with Standard Department. This paper works revealed challenges and experience during the process toward ISO/ IEC 17025 accreditation. (author)

  6. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  7. Exercise for laboratory comparison of calibration coefficient in 137Cs beam, radiation protection - 2013/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; Potiens, M.P.A.; Soares, C.M.A.; Silveira, R.R.; Khoury, H.; Borges, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the preliminary results of the second exercise of comparing the radiation monitors calibration laboratories in Brazil. The exercise involved eight laboratories and the measured quantity is the air kerma in a beam of 137 Cs for radioprotection. The exercise was conducted by the LNMRI/IRD, in a star shaped arrangement from October 2013 to July 2015. The largest deviation was 2% of the calibration coefficient that is acceptable for applications in radioprotection. (author)

  8. Inter-laboratory project q calibration of SANS instruments using silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, Abarrul; Gunawan; Edy Giri, Putra; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Knott, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The inter-laboratory project for q-calibration of SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using silver behenate was carried out among Indonesia National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The standard sample of silver behenate, [CH 3 (CH 2 ) 20 COOAg](AgBE), has been assessed as an international standard for the calibration of both x-ray and neutron scattering instruments. The results indicate excellent agreement for q calibration obtained among the three laboratories, BATAN, JAERI and ANSTO. (Y. Kazumata)

  9. Practice for characterization and performance of a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This practice addresses the specific requirements for laboratories engaged in dosimetry calibrations involving ionizing radiation, namely, gamma-radiation, electron beams or X-radiation (bremsstrahlung) beams. It specifically describes the requirements for the characterization and performance criteria to be met by a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory. The absorbed-dose range is typically between 10 and 10 5 Gy. This practice addresses criteria for laboratories seeking accreditation for performing high-dose dosimetry calibrations, and is a supplement to the general requirements described in ISO/IEC 17025. By meeting these criteria and those in ISO/IEC 17025, the laboratory may be accredited by a recognized accreditation organization. Adherence to these criteria will help to ensure high standards of performance and instill confidence regarding the competency of the accredited laboratory with respect to the services it offers

  10. QA experience at the University of Wisconsin accredited dosimetry calibration laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWard, L.A.; Micka, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW ADCL) employs procedure manuals as part of its Quality Assurance (QA) program. One of these manuals covers the QA procedures and results for all of the UW ADCL measurement equipment. The QA procedures are divided into two main areas: QA for laboratory equipment and QA for external chambers sent for calibration. All internal laboratory equipment is checked and recalibrated on an annual basis, after establishing its consistency on a 6-month basis. QA for external instruments involves checking past calibration history as well as comparing to a range of calibration values for specific instrument models. Generally, the authors find that a chamber will have a variation of less than 0.5 % from previous Co-60 calibration factors, and falls within two standard deviations of previous calibrations. If x-ray calibrations are also performed, the energy response of the chamber is plotted and compared to previous instruments of the same model. These procedures give the authors confidence in the transfer of calibration values from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  11. QA experience at the University of Wisconsin accredited dosimetry calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWard, L.A.; Micka, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW ADCL) employs procedure manuals as part of its Quality Assurance (QA) program. One of these manuals covers the QA procedures and results for all of the UW ADCL measurement equipment. The QA procedures are divided into two main areas: QA for laboratory equipment and QA for external chambers sent for calibration. All internal laboratory equipment is checked and recalibrated on an annual basis, after establishing its consistency on a 6-month basis. QA for external instruments involves checking past calibration history as well as comparing to a range of calibration values for specific instrument models. Generally, the authors find that a chamber will have a variation of less than 0.5 % from previous Co-60 calibration factors, and falls within two standard deviations of previous calibrations. If x-ray calibrations are also performed, the energy response of the chamber is plotted and compared to previous instruments of the same model. These procedures give the authors confidence in the transfer of calibration values from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  12. Photovoltaic Device Performance Evaluation Using an Open-Hardware System and Standard Calibrated Laboratory Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montes-Romero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a complete characterization system for photovoltaic devices designed to acquire the current-voltage curve and to process the obtained data. The proposed system can be replicated for educational or research purposes without having wide knowledge about electronic engineering. Using standard calibrated instrumentation, commonly available in any laboratory, the accuracy of measurements is ensured. A capacitive load is used to bias the device due to its versatility and simplicity. The system includes a common part and an interchangeable part that must be designed depending on the electrical characteristics of each PV device. Control software, developed in LabVIEW, controls the equipment, performs automatic campaigns of measurements, and performs additional calculations in real time. These include different procedures to extrapolate the measurements to standard test conditions and methods to obtain the intrinsic parameters of the single diode model. A deep analysis of the uncertainty of measurement is also provided. Finally, the proposed system is validated by comparing the results obtained from some commercial photovoltaic modules to the measurements given by an independently accredited laboratory.

  13. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.

  14. Services of the CDRH X-ray calibration laboratory and their traceability to National Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards

  15. Measuring the Bed Load velocity in Laboratory flumes using ADCP and Digital Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conevski, Slaven; Guerrero, Massimo; Rennie, Colin; Bombardier, Josselin

    2017-04-01

    Measuring the transport rate and apparent velocity of the bedload is notoriously hard and there is not a certain technique that would obtain continues data. There are many empirical models, based on the estimation of the shear stress, but only few involve direct measurement of the bed load velocity. The bottom tracking (BT) mode of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has been used many times to estimate the apparent velocity of the bed load. Herein is the basic idea, to exploit the bias of the BT signal towards the bed load movement and to calibrate this signal with traditional measuring techniques. These measurements are quite scarce and seldom reliable since there are not taken in controlled conditions. So far, no clear confirmation has been conducted in laboratory-controlled conditions that would attest the assumptions made in the estimation of the apparent bed load velocity, nor in the calibration of the empirical equations. Therefore, this study explores several experiments under stationary conditions, where the signal of the ADCP BT mode is recorded and compared to the bed load motion recorded by digital camera videography. The experiments have been performed in the hydraulic laboratories of Ottawa and Bologna, using two different ADCPs and two different high resolution cameras. In total, more then 30 experiments were performed for different sediment mixtures and different hydraulic conditions. In general, a good match is documented between the apparent bed load velocity measured by the ADCP and the videography. The slight deviation in single experiments can be explained by gravel particles inhomogeneity, difficult in reproducing the same hydro-sedimentological conditions and the randomness of the backscattering strength.

  16. GESCAL: Quality management automated system for a calibration and test laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano de Armas, J.; Valdes Ramos, M.; Morales Monzon, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    GESCAL is a software created to automate all elements composing the quality system in a calibration and test laboratory. It also evaluates quality according to its objectives and policies. This integrated data system decreases considerably the amount of time devoted to manage quality. It is speedier in searching and evaluating information registers thus notably in reducing the workload for laboratory staff

  17. Requirements for the authorization of operation os a calibration laboratory of gamma-ray monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process for obtaining the authorization of operation of a laboratory designed to calibrate area and personal monitors with gamma radiation, by using a sealed Cs-137 source. The regulations of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) are deeply analysed and discussed. The authorization for construction, the authorization for modification of items important to safety, the authorization for the acquisition and handling of radiation sources, the authorization for operating, and the authorization for withdrawal of operation of the laboratory are also discussed. The paper also describes the technical and managerial requirements necessary to operate a gamma radiation calibration laboratory in Brazil. . (author)

  18. Assessment of annual pollutant loads in combined sewers from continuous turbidity measurements: sensitivity to calibration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, C; Joannis, C; Chebbo, G

    2009-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for assessing annual wet weather Suspended Solids (SS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads in combined sewers, along with the associated uncertainties from continuous turbidity measurements. The proposed method is applied to data from various urban catchments in the cities of Paris and Nantes. The focus here concerns the impact of the number of rain events sampled for calibration (i.e. through establishing linear SS/turbidity or COD/turbidity relationships) on the uncertainty of annual pollutant load assessments. Two calculation methods are investigated, both of which rely on Monte Carlo simulations: random assignment of event-specific calibration relationships to each individual rain event, and the use of an overall relationship built from the entire available data set. Since results indicate a fairly low inter-event variability for calibration relationship parameters, an accurate assessment of pollutant loads can be derived, even when fewer than 10 events are sampled for calibration purposes. For operational applications, these results suggest that turbidity could provide a more precise evaluation of pollutant loads at lower cost than typical sampling methods.

  19. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  20. Automatic Phase Calibration for RF Cavities using Beam-Loading Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P. [Fermilab; Chase, B. E. [Fermilab

    2017-10-01

    Precise calibration of the cavity phase signals is necessary for the operation of any particle accelerator. For many systems this requires human in the loop adjustments based on measurements of the beam parameters downstream. Some recent work has developed a scheme for the calibration of the cavity phase using beam measurements and beam-loading however this scheme is still a multi-step process that requires heavy automation or human in the loop. In this paper we analyze a new scheme that uses only RF signals reacting to beam-loading to calculate the phase of the beam relative to the cavity. This technique could be used in slow control loops to provide real-time adjustment of the cavity phase calibration without human intervention thereby increasing the stability and reliability of the accelerator.

  1. Collimation system for a laboratory of primary and secondary ionizing radiation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.R.; David, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a cooperation plan between the LNMRI/IRD and the LCR/UERJ, for the a primary calibration at the IRD and a secondary laboratory at the LCR, both calibrated for mammographic beams which will be part a Calibration National Network. For the mounting of the primary laboratory, the first step was to install two additional collimators in order to guarantee that the beam area over the ionization chamber to satisfy the calibration international standards. So, the collimators were constructed obeying the geometric rules, the first being of conic format and the second of the cylindrical format, therefore avoiding the effects of the scattering radiation on the edges. By using this collimation system it was possible to verify the uniformity of the radiation field incident the ionization chamber to be over 98% of the total area, guaranteeing better precision of the measurement

  2. Calibrations and evaluation of the quality assurance during 1999 at the National Laboratory for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Israelsson, Karl-Erik; Kylloenen, Jan-Erik; Samuelson, Goeran

    2000-06-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is the National Laboratory for the dosimetric quantities kerma, absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The activity is based on established calibration procedures and a quality assurance program for the used standards. This report gives a brief summary of the calibrations performed during 1999 and a more detailed description and analysis of the quality assurance during this year. The report makes it easier to draw conclusions about the long-term stability and possible malfunctions

  3. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  4. Implementation of ISO guide 25 in a medical dosimetry secondary standards calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, there is a great deal of discussion among industry and government agencies about ISO 9000 accreditation. U.S. manufacturers with ISO 9000 accreditation are regarded more favorably by European countries. The principles behind the ISO 9000 accreditation are based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles that are being implemented in many U.S. industries. This paper will deal only with the calibration issue. There is a difference in the areas covered by ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 25 documents. ISO 9000, in particular ISO 9001 - ISO 9003, cover the open-quotes calibrationclose quotes of inspection, measuring and test equipment. This equipment is basically used for open-quotes factory calibrationsclose quotes to determine that equipment is performing within manufacturer specifications. ISO Guide 25 is specifically for open-quotes calibration and testing laboratories,close quotes generally laboratories that have painstaking procedures to reduce uncertainties and establish high accuracy of the transfer of calibration. The experience of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in conforming to ISO Guide 25 will be outlined. The entire laboratory staff must become familiar with the process and an individual with direct authority must become the one to maintain the quality of equipment and calibrations in the role of open-quotes quality-assurance manager.close quotes

  5. Laboratory implantation for well type ionization chambers calibration; Implantacao de um laboratorio para calibracao de camaras de ionizacao tipo poco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, E.A.; Dias, D.J.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- LCR- DBB (UERJ). R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC, sala 136 terreo- CEP 20.550-013. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Radiological Science Laboratory is implanting a service for calibration of well type chambers by IAEA training program. The kerma rate in the air (mu Gy/h) of the linear Cs-137 reference source CDCS-J4 have been determined using a well type chamber Standard Imaging HDR-1000 model, which have been calibrated at Secondary Standard Laboratory Calibration of IAEA, whereas two HDR-1000 Plus chambers were calibrated too, following the same standards. The results were compared with Wisconsin University calibration certification and has demonstrated that well type ionization chamber calibration can be used in brachytherapy for several kinds of radionuclides. (Author)

  6. Optimized star sensors laboratory calibration method using a regularization neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengfen; Niu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Jiazhen

    2018-02-10

    High-precision ground calibration is essential to ensure the performance of star sensors. However, the complex distortion and multi-error coupling have brought great difficulties to traditional calibration methods, especially for large field of view (FOV) star sensors. Although increasing the complexity of models is an effective way to improve the calibration accuracy, it significantly increases the demand for calibration data. In order to achieve high-precision calibration of star sensors with large FOV, a novel laboratory calibration method based on a regularization neural network is proposed. A multi-layer structure neural network is designed to represent the mapping of the star vector and the corresponding star point coordinate directly. To ensure the generalization performance of the network, regularization strategies are incorporated into the net structure and the training algorithm. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high precision with less calibration data and without any other priori information. Compared with traditional methods, the calibration error of the star sensor decreased by about 30%. The proposed method can satisfy the precision requirement for large FOV star sensors.

  7. Dynamic axle and wheel loads identification: laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. Q.; Law, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    Two methods have been reported by Zhu and Law to identify moving loads on the top of a bridge deck. One is based on the exact solution (ESM) and the other is based on the finite element formulation (FEM). Simulation studies on the effect of different influencing factors have been reported previously. This paper comparatively studies the performances of these two methods with experimental measurements obtained from a bridge/vehicle system in the laboratory. The strains of the bridge deck are measured when a model car moves across the bridge deck along different paths. The moving loads on the bridge deck are identified from the measured strains using these two methods, and the responses are reconstructed from the identified loads for comparison with the measured responses to verify the performances of these methods. Studies on the identification accuracy due to the effect of the number of vibration mode used, the number of measuring points and eccentricities of travelling paths are performed. Results show that the ESM could identify the moving loads individually or as axle loads when they are travelling at an eccentricity with the sensors located close to the travelling path of the forces. And the accuracy of the FEM is dependent on the amount of measured information used in the identification.

  8. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.

    2016-09-28

    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  9. Standardization of the calibration of brachytherapy sources at the IAEA dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanta, A.; Andreo, P.

    1996-01-01

    A new service to SSDLs has been initiated at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory for providing calibrations of well-type ionisation chambers, used in brachytherapy applications, which are traceable to the International Measurement System. Considering that the most common radionuclide used in the developing countries is 137 Cs, two such sources of the type used for gynaecological intracavitary applications have been purchased by the Agency and calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. These 137 Cs reference sources together with a well-type ionization chamber constitute the IAEA brachytherapy dosimetry standard. Based on the recommendations by a group of experts, a method has been developed for transferring calibrations to SSDLs which is described in this paper. The method is based on the acquisition by the SSDLs of sources and equipment similar to those at the IAEA. The well-type chamber is to be calibrated at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, and this will be used at the SSDL to calibrate its own reference sources. These sources can in turn by used to calibrate well-type chambers from hospital users and to calibrate other type of sources by performing measurements in air. In order to standardize the procedures for the two methods and to provide guidance to the SSDLs, measurements have been carried out at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The reproducibility of the two type of measurements has been found to be better than 0.5%, and the uncertainty of calibrations estimated to be less than 1.5% (one standard deviation). (author). 8 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Quality control tests in dose calibrators used in research laboratories of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, Lilian T.; Junior, Amaury C.R.; Martins, Elaine W.; Dias, Carla R.; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to do the intercomparison between two dose calibrators used in research laboratories at IPEN-CNEN / SP, one being the Capinted NPL-CRC, of the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos (LCI) do IPEN, and the other Capintec CRC-15R of the Centro de Radiofarmacia (CR). The standard sources used for carrying out the comparing tests between the two laboratories were 57 Co, 133 Ba and the 13 7 C s

  11. History, organization, and oversight of the accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories by the AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, M.

    1993-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has operated an accreditation program for secondary standards laboratories that calibrate radiation measuring instruments. Except for one short period, that program has been able to provide the facilities to satisfy the national need for accurate calibrations of such instruments. That exception, in 1981, due to the combination of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requiring instrument calibrations by users of cobalt-60 teletherapy units and the withdrawal of one of the three laboratories accredited at that time. However, after successful operation as a Task Group of the Radiation Therapy Committee (RTC) of the AAPM for two decades, a reorganization of this structure is now under serious consideration by the administration of the AAPM

  12. History, organization, and oversight of the accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories by the AAPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfeld, M. [St. James Hospital and Health Centers, Chicago Heights, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    For more than 20 years, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has operated an accreditation program for secondary standards laboratories that calibrate radiation measuring instruments. Except for one short period, that program has been able to provide the facilities to satisfy the national need for accurate calibrations of such instruments. That exception, in 1981, due to the combination of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requiring instrument calibrations by users of cobalt-60 teletherapy units and the withdrawal of one of the three laboratories accredited at that time. However, after successful operation as a Task Group of the Radiation Therapy Committee (RTC) of the AAPM for two decades, a reorganization of this structure is now under serious consideration by the administration of the AAPM.

  13. How to prepare a calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation using X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, Francisco; Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Quaresma, Daniel da Silva; Batista Filha, Luzianete do Amaral; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the main features of a system for calibration and testing of radiation detectors used in low and medium energy. It is based on pre-assembly System Laboratory of Metrology Division (DIMET) Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). (author)

  14. Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Calibration of Relative Humidity Devices Among Accredited Laboratories in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, F.; Khairuddin, S.; Othman, H.

    2017-01-01

    An inter-laboratory comparison in relative humidity measurements among accredited laboratories has been coordinated by the National Metrology Institute of Malaysia. It was carried out to determine the performance of the participating laboratories. The objective of the comparison was to acknowledge the participating laboratories competencies and to verify the level of accuracies declared in their scope of accreditation, in accordance with the MS ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. The measurement parameter involved was relative humidity for the range of 30-90 %rh at a nominal temperature of 50°C. Eight accredited laboratories participated in the inter-laboratory comparison. Two units of artifacts have been circulated among the participants as the transfer standards.

  15. ISO/IEC 17025–2017 "New requirements to the competence of test and calibration laboratories"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova P. O.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available due to the continuous improvement of the regulatory framework, there is a growing demand for laboratory centers that provide services in the field of testing. The relevance of the topic lies in the transition of laboratories to the new version of ISO/IEC 17025–2017 «General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories». The article compares two versions of the standard, reveals differences and similarities. And changes in the gradation of changes are also highlighted.

  16. Laboratory for the Dosimetric Equipment Calibration at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Horwacik, T.; Marczewska, B.; Nowak, T.; Olko, P.; Ryba, E.; Zbroja, K.

    2000-12-01

    A new calibration laboratory has been developed at the INP, Cracow, Poland. The laboratory is located in a hall of dimension 9 m (length) x 4 m (wide) x 4.5 m (height). For calibration purposes the Cs-137 source of activity 185 MBq / 5 Ci / is applied, placed in the 16 cm thick lead capsule. The beam is collimated using a collimator with a constant opening of 20 o . The source is placed 2 m above the ground to avoid albedo scattering. This source covers a dose rate range from 17 mGy/h to 290 μGy/h. For low-dose calibration 0.05 Ci source is applied. The positioning of the source and opening of the collimator is pneumatically controlled. The dosimeters to be calibrated are placed onto a vehicle with DC motor positioned by PC computer. The vehicle is remotely positioned with the precision of one millimetre at the distance from the source between 1 and 7 meters. The vehicle positioning is controlled electronically and additionally checked via TV-camera. Exact dosimeter positioning is performed with a medical cross-laser and with a telescope device. The construction of the vehicle allows for performing of angular irradiations. On the axis of the vehicle 320 keV Phillips X-ray tube is installed which may be used as an irradiation source. UNIDOS dosimeter with PTW ionisation chambers is used for determination of the dose rate. This calibration stand is designed for calibration of personal dosimeters, calibration of active devices for radiation protections and for research on the newly developed thermoluminescent materials. (author)

  17. Characterization of the radiation field of a 137Cs source in a calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, E.F.; Freitas, C.; Freire, D.; Almeida, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the broad range of radiation levels found in practice, the calibration of radiation detector requires that the laboratory have a large range of values of air kerma rates for a reference distance to the source, in order to allow the calibration of all scales. The dosimetry performed for open beam and with the different attenuators has shown deviations smaller than 5% in relation to the data supplied by the manufacturer that is acceptable. These results are in accordance with the recommendations of the ISO/DIS 4037-2

  18. X radiation qualities characterization following the standard IEC 61267 recommendations at the calibration laboratory of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franciscatto, Priscila Cerutti

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for the X radiation qualities characterization following the new recommendations of the standard 61267 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to establish a new procedure for calibration of dosimetric systems used in the field of diagnostic radiology. The reference qualities radiation of IEC 61267: RQR 2 to RQR 10, RQA 2 to RQA 10, RQB 2 to RQB 10 and RQN 2 to RQN 10 were implanted at the calibration laboratory of IPEN (LCI). Their characteristics were analyzed through measurements of beam parameters such as: Practical peak voltage (PPV), specific additional filtrations for each qualities (high purity aluminum of about 99.9%), 1st and 2nd Half Value Layers, homogeneity coefficient. The inherent filtration of the X ray tube was also determined. With the establishment of these radiation qualities, the LCI will be ready to calibrate the measuring instruments of radiation in the new qualities, allowing an improvement in radiological services offered by IPEN. (author)

  19. Calibration of a laboratory spectrophotometer for specular light by means of stacked glass plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; Richardson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Stacked glass plates have been used to calibrate a laboratory spectrophotometer, over the spectral range 0.5-2.5 microns, for specular light. The uncalibrated instrument was characterized by systematic errors when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates. Calibration included first, a determination of the reflectance of a standard composed of barium sulfate paint deposited on an aluminum plate; second, the approximation of the reflectance and transmittance residuals between observed and computed values by means of cubic equations; and, finally, the removal of the systematic errors by a computer. The instrument, after calibration, was accurate to 1% when used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of stacked glass plates.

  20. Laboratory calibrations of airborne gamma-ray spectrometers. Measurements and discussions of important parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsbech, U.

    1994-02-01

    This report is the fourth of reports from The Department of Electrophysics covering measurement and interpretation of airborne gamma-spectrometry measurements. It describes different topics concerning the construction of a suitable calibration setup in the laboratory. The goal is to build a simple and cheap laboratory setup that can produce most of the gamma-ray data needed for an interpretation of spectra measured 50 to 120 m above ground level. A simple calibration setup has been build and tested. It may produce gamma-ray spectra similar to those measured in the air - from surface contamination with artificial nuclides and from 'bulk' natural radioactivity. It is possible to investigate the influence of the air above an aircraft carrying the detector (skyshine: scattering of gamma photons in the air above the detector). In order to reduce the influence of non-detected pile-up the count rates are kept low without reaching levels where the background spectra (to be subtracted) would cause unacceptable counting statistical fluctuations. Sources selected for the calibrations are heavy minerals sand (with thorium and uranium), potassium nitrate (with 40 K). These sources are 'bulk sources' of natural radioactivity. Cesium-137 has been selected as the basic artifical surface contamination nuclide. The report also discusses methods for comparing two spectra a priori assumed equal. Finally the properties of some materials that could be used as 'air-substitutes' in the calibration setup have been tested with respect to stability against moisture sorption. (au)

  1. Bilateral comparison of the calibration laboratories in radiodiagnosis: Technical Protocol 16/17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.G.P.; Almeida, C.E.V. de

    2016-01-01

    The need to standardize the results in diagnostic radiology conditions of calibration laboratories, taking into account the applicability to conventional radiology , mammography and computed tomography where the total demand for diagnostic imaging is ≈70 % ≈4 % and ≈2 % respectively. The objective of the technical protocol is not only the equipment used , but also in terms of reference and the evaluation worksheet measurement uncertainties . The results of stability and energy dependence of transfer chamber shows these adequacy for the propose. (author)

  2. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson; Valeriano, Caio C.S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Federico, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    With the increased use of techniques using neutron radiation, there has been a considerable growth in the number of detectors for this kind of radiation. A neutron calibration laboratory with neutron radiation ("2"4"1AmBe) was designed. In practical situations of this type of laboratory, one of the main problems is related to the knowledge of scattered radiation. In order to evaluate this scattered radiation, simulations were carried out without the presence of structural elements and with the complete room. Fourteen measuring points were evaluated in different directions at various distances. (author)

  3. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  4. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  5. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  6. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, Bruno M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Fonseca, Evaldo S.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br, E-mail: bfreitas@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  7. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Freitas, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  8. Experimental comparison between total calibration factors and components calibration factors of reference dosemeters used in secondary standard laboratory dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative comparison of component calibration factors with the corresponding overall calibration factor was used to evaluate the adopted component calibration procedure in regard to parasitic elements. Judgement of significance is based upon the experimental uncertainty of a well established procedure for determination of the overall calibration factor. The experimental results obtained for different ionization chambers and different electrometers demonstrate that for one type of electrometer the parasitic elements have no influence on its sensitivity considering the experimental uncertainty of the calibration procedures. In this case the adopted procedure for determination of component calibration factors is considered to be equivalent to the procedure of determination of the overall calibration factor and thus might be used as a strong quality control measure in routine calibration. (Author) [pt

  9. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology, and requirements proposal for calibration laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel Mattos Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. A metrology network was created, but it is not yet accredited by the accreditation organism of the country, INMETRO. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the un attenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267, and to develop a requirement proposal for instruments calibration laboratories. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. A laboratory requirement proposal was finalized and it shall be submitted to INMETRO to be used as auxiliary normative document in laboratory accreditation. (author)

  10. Calibration system with cryogenically-cooled loads for cosmic microwave background polarization detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, M; Tajima, O; Chinone, Y; Hazumi, M; Ishidoshiro, K; Nagai, M

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel system to calibrate millimeter-wave polarimeters for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. This technique is an extension of the conventional metal mirror rotation approach, however, it employs cryogenically-cooled blackbody absorbers. The primary advantage of this system is that it can generate a slightly polarized signal (∼100 mK) in the laboratory; this is at a similar level to that measured by ground-based CMB polarization experiments observing a ∼10 K sky. It is important to reproduce the observing condition in the laboratory for reliable characterization of polarimeters before deployment. In this paper, we present the design and principle of the system and demonstrate its use with a coherent-type polarimeter used for an actual CMB polarization experiment. This technique can also be applied to incoherent-type polarimeters and it is very promising for the next-generation CMB polarization experiments.

  11. Photovoltaic Calibrations at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Uncertainty Analysis Following the ISO 17025 Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of photovoltaic (PV) performance with respect to reference conditions requires measuring current versus voltage for a given tabular reference spectrum, junction temperature, and total irradiance. This report presents the procedures implemented by the PV Cell and Module Performance Characterization Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to achieve the lowest practical uncertainty. A rigorous uncertainty analysis of these procedures is presented, which follows the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This uncertainty analysis is required for the team’s laboratory accreditation under ISO standard 17025, “General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.” The report also discusses additional areas where the uncertainty can be reduced.

  12. Comparison on the calibrations of hydrometers for liquids density determination between SIM laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Abed; Quiroga, Aldo; Daued, Arturo; Cantero, Diana; Sequeira, Francisco; Castro, Luis Carlos; Becerra, Luis Omar; Salazar, Manuel; Vega, Maria

    2017-01-01

    A supplementary comparison was made between SIM laboratories concerning the calibration of four hydrometers within the range of 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3. The main objectives of the comparison were to evaluate the degree of equivalences SIM NMIs in the calibration of hydrometers of high accuracy. The participant NMIs were: CENAM, IBMETRO, INEN, INDECOPI, INM, INTN and LACOMET. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Radiation protection calibration facilities at the National Radiation Laboratory, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The National Radiation Laboratory (NRL), serving under the Ministry of Health, provides radiation protection services to the whole of New Zealand. Consequently it performs many functions that are otherwise spread amongst several organizations in larger countries. It is the national regulatory body for radiation protection. It writes and enforces codes of safe practice, and conducts safety inspections of all workplaces using radiation. It provides a personal monitoring service for radiation workers. It also maintains the national primary standards for x-ray exposure and 60 Co air kerma. These standards are transferred to hospitals through a calibration service. The purpose of this report is to outline the primary standards facilities at NRL, and to discuss the calibration of dosemeters using these facilities. (J.P.N.)

  14. Design and laboratory calibration of the compact pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Shen, Weimin

    2009-11-01

    The designed hyperspectral imaging system is composed of three main parts, that is, optical subsystem, electronic subsystem and capturing subsystem. And a three-dimensional "image cube" can be obtained through push-broom. The fore-optics is commercial-off-the-shelf with high speed and three continuous zoom ratios. Since the dispersive imaging part is based on Offner relay configuration with an aberration-corrected convex grating, high power of light collection and variable view field are obtained. The holographic recording parameters of the convex grating are optimized, and the aberration of the Offner configuration dispersive system is balanced. The electronic system adopts module design, which can minimize size, mass, and power consumption. Frame transfer area-array CCD is chosen as the image sensor and the spectral line can be binned to achieve better SNR and sensitivity without any deterioration in spatial resolution. The capturing system based on the computer can set the capturing parameters, calibrate the spectrometer, process and display spectral imaging data. Laboratory calibrations are prerequisite for using precise spectral data. The spatial and spectral calibration minimize smile and keystone distortion caused by optical system, assembly and so on and fix positions of spatial and spectral line on the frame area-array CCD. Gases excitation lamp is used in smile calibration and the keystone calculation is carried out by different viewing field point source created by a series of narrow slit. The laboratory and field imaging results show that this pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system can acquire high quality spectral images.

  15. Contribution to the RMTC in the field of tank calibration and measurements - the TAMSCA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.A.; Landat, D.; Caviglia, M.; Silvapestana, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Methodological and Training Centre (RMTC) is being established for training of personnel from the various Russian and CIS nuclear facilities organizations in the control and accountancy methods, utilised in EURATOM and in the IAEA. Under the project equipment and support will be provided in a number of areas, namely containment and surveillance, training, passive/active neutron assay and mass/volume methodologies. For the latter a mass/volume measurement laboratory - a Tank Measurements and Calibration Laboratory (TAMSCA) is being set-up in IPPE, Obninsk. The goal is to upgrade the methodology within the Russian Federation in the application of mass/volume measurement techniques and render a facility suitable adapted to carrying out training courses with specific orientation for the nuclear inspectors and operators of nuclear facilities for nuclear accountancy and control [ru

  16. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  17. The biochemical estimation of age in Euphausiids: Laboratory calibration and field comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. R.; Ju, Se-J.; Son, S.-K.; Feinberg, L. R.; Shaw, C. T.; Peterson, W. T.

    2010-04-01

    Euphausiids play a key role in many marine ecosystems as a link between primary producers and top predators. Understanding their demographic (i.e. age) structure is an essential tool to assess growth and recruitment as well as to determine how changes in environmental conditions might alter their condition and distribution. Age determination of crustaceans cannot be accomplished using traditional approaches, and here we evaluate the potential for biochemical products of tissue metabolism (termed lipofuscins) to determine the demographic structure of euphausiids in field collections . Lipofuscin was extracted from krill neural tissues (eye and eye-stalk), quantified using fluorescent intensity and normalized to tissue protein content to allow comparisons across animal sizes. Multiple fluorescent components from krill were observed, with the major product having a maximum fluorescence at excitation of 355 nm and emission of 510 nm. Needed age calibration of lipofuscin accumulation in Euphausia pacifica was accomplished using known-age individuals hatched and reared in the laboratory for over one year. Lipofuscin content extracted from neural tissues of laboratory-reared animals was highly correlated with the chronological age of animals ( r=0.87). Calibrated with laboratory lipofuscin accumulation rates, field-collected sub-adult and adult E. pacifica in the Northeast Pacific were estimated to be older than 100 days and younger than 1year. Comparative data for the Antarctic krill, E. superba showed much higher lipofuscin values suggesting a much longer lifespan than the more temperate species, E. pacifica. These regional comparisons suggest that biochemical indices allow a practical approach to estimate population age structure of diverse populations, and combined with other measurements can provide estimates of vital rates (i.e. longevity, mortality, growth) for krill populations in dynamic environments.

  18. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Herbaut, Y.; Haddad, A.; Giroux, J.; Rouillon, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  19. Improvement of the quality control program of the clinical dosimeters calibration laboratory of the IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor, E-mail: wbdamatto@ipen.br, E-mail: mppotiens@ipen.br, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A set of clinical dosimeters (thimble ionization chamber coupled to an electrometer) commonly used in radiotherapy in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analysis parameters for the dosimeters behaviour were established, specifying their sensitivities and operating characteristics. Applied tests were: repeatability, reproducibility and current leakage. Thus it was possible to determine the most common defects found in these equipment and the actions that could be taken to prevent it (clinical dosimeters quality control programs). The behaviour of 167 dosimeters was analyzed and in this study, 62 of them have been tested. The main problem detected during calibration tests was current leakage, i.e. electronic noise. The tests were applied to the routine measurements at the Calibration Laboratory implementing an ideal calibration procedure. New calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. Therefore, it was made the improvement of the quality control programme of the clinical dosimeters calibration laboratory, benefiting the users of such equipment with better consistent calibration measurements. (author)

  20. Improvement of the quality control program of the clinical dosimeters calibration laboratory of the IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2013-01-01

    A set of clinical dosimeters (thimble ionization chamber coupled to an electrometer) commonly used in radiotherapy in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analysis parameters for the dosimeters behaviour were established, specifying their sensitivities and operating characteristics. Applied tests were: repeatability, reproducibility and current leakage. Thus it was possible to determine the most common defects found in these equipment and the actions that could be taken to prevent it (clinical dosimeters quality control programs). The behaviour of 167 dosimeters was analyzed and in this study, 62 of them have been tested. The main problem detected during calibration tests was current leakage, i.e. electronic noise. The tests were applied to the routine measurements at the Calibration Laboratory implementing an ideal calibration procedure. New calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. Therefore, it was made the improvement of the quality control programme of the clinical dosimeters calibration laboratory, benefiting the users of such equipment with better consistent calibration measurements. (author)

  1. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  2. UNSAT-H infiltration model calibration at the Subsurface Disposal Area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martian, P.

    1995-10-01

    Soil moisture monitoring data from the expanded neutron probe monitoring network located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were used to calibrate numerical infiltration models for 15 locations within and near the SDA. These calibrated models were then used to simulate infiltration into the SDA surficial sediments and underlying basalts for the entire operational period of the SDA (1952--1995). The purpose of performing the simulations was to obtain a time variant infiltration source term for future subsurface pathway modeling efforts as part of baseline risk assessment or performance assessments. The simulation results also provided estimates of the average recharge rate for the simulation period and insight into infiltration patterns at the SDA. These results suggest that the average aquifer recharge rate below the SDA may be at least 8 cm/yr and may be as high as 12 cm/yr. These values represent 38 and 57% of the average annual precipitation occurring at the INEL, respectively. The simulation results also indicate that the maximum evaporative depth may vary between 28 and 148 cm and is highly dependent on localized lithology within the SDA

  3. Automatization of the Calibration Laboratory for Radiation Monitors of the IRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Tania S.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Quaresma, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    This work will present the concluded stages and also the ones that are still in process to reach the full automation of the calibration system. Little by little the laboratory included in its installations the automatization of some of its operations, aiming the safety of the staff and their equipment. The automation makes the installation almost ideal for the radioprotection, that is, makes its exposure as low as possible and the routines more accurate, minimizing attributed the uncertainties and the doses received by the professionals who operated the system manually. Currently, on the operation table there is a control of the position car exists and its speed, the internal TV circuit (of the room, the position of the car and equipment that is going to be calibrated), the control of the registration is done by the Autolab program and the Irradiator Buchler OB85 control with the sources of 137Cs and 60Co.A next stage will be the implantation of the automation project of the positioning of the three used attenuators. (author)

  4. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  5. Status of the laboratory infrastructure for detector calibration and characterization at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, N.; Ballak, K.-E.; Dietze, T.; Ekmedzič, M.; Hauf, S.; Januschek, F.; Kaukher, A.; Kuster, M.; Lang, P. M.; Münnich, A.; Schmitt, R.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.

    2016-12-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short and spatially coherent X-ray pulses in an energy range of 0.25 to 25 keV . The pulse timing structure is unique with a burst of 2700 pulses of 100 fs length at a temporal distance of 220 ns followed by a 99.4 ms gap. To make optimal use of this timing structure and energy range a great variety of detectors are being developed for use at XFEL.EU, including 2D X-ray imaging cameras that are able to detect images at a rate of 4.5 MHz, provide dynamic ranges up to 105 photons per pulse per pixel under different operating conditions and covering a large range of angular resolution \\cite{requirements,Markus}. In order to characterize, commission and calibrate this variety of detectors and for testing of detector prototypes the XFEL.EU detector group is building up an X-ray test laboratory that allows testing of detectors with X-ray photons under conditions that are as similar to the future beam line conditions at the XFEL.EU as is possible with laboratory sources [1]. A total of four test environments provide the infrastructure for detector tests and calibration: two portable setups that utilize low power X-ray sources and radioactive isotopes, a test environment where a commercial high power X-ray generator is in use, and a pulsed X-ray/electron source which will provide pulses as short as 25 ns in XFEL.EU burst mode combined with target anodes of different materials. The status of the test environments, three of which are already in use while one is in commissioning phase, will be presented as well as first results from performance tests and characterization of the sources.

  6. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment...

  7. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  8. Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the radiation protection and hygiene center CPHR in its first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.; Jova Sed, L.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences of a secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration from the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR) in first year of work and the procedures for quality assessment used in the calibration and quality control service of radiotherapeutic equipment. For the yield calibration of the calibrated sources an ionometric method was used using ionizing chambers coupled to electrometers. Those determination were based on dosimetric American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)

  9. Implementation of a laboratory for manufacture, repair and electric calibration of dosemeters based in ionization chambers utilized in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.H.B.; Peres, M.A.L.; Moreira, A.J.C.; Nette, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturers of ionization chamber dosimeters for radiotherapy maintain only sales representatives in Brazil with no servicing capability causing difficulties to customers/users to get broken equipment back into operation. Aiming to partially solve this problem, a laboratory for maintenance, repair and electrical calibration was started in 1995 with the support of a two year IAEA Technical Assistance Project (BRA/1/031). (Author)

  10. Quality control of calibration system for area monitors at National Laboratory of Metrology from Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.M.O.; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The quality control of equipment used in calibration from the National Laboratory of Metrology on Ionizing Radiations is presented, with results of standard measure systems and irradiation system. Tables and graphics with the quality of systems are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  11. In-core flow measurement and calibration of gags using on-load instrumented stringers in a C.A.G.R. at Hinkley Point 'B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.E.; Carrick, I.H.

    1982-06-01

    The initial fuel loading of the first CAGR at Hinkley Point included 5 specially instrumented stringers (OLIS) each containing a flow-measuring venturi and additional thermocouples. Venturi absolute and differential pressures were measured by transducers mounted on the pile-cap. Transducers and thermocouples were routed to a computer/logger and processed into stringer performance data. The venturi was engineered to comply closely with appropriate British Standards but compromises were made to minimise interaction with other functions of the OLIS plug unit, justifying rig calibration of venturis to check for deviation in behaviour. High accuracy and reliability of the flow measuring system were established by thorough commissioning procedures. The transducers were selected for low sensitivity to their operational environment. Nevertheless calibration of all transducers was carried out both in laboratory and in-situ. Errors introduced by signal processing were identified and zero drift monitored. Pipe-runs were scrupulously leak-tested and leak sensitivity was evaluated. After one year re-calibration and recommissioning gave confidence of long term stability. Measurements of stringer behaviour were collected in a series of tests spanning the full range of both the setting of the channel flow control gags and the reactor power. Throughout these tests comprehensive monitoring, with intercalibration between the OLIS and comparison with installed reactor instrumentation has quantified residual error. These measurements were used to check the theoretical model used by the station for channel flow assessment. The excellent agreement obtained justified proceeding to the derivation of a universal gag resistance calibration applying to all power levels. In performance tests aimed at evaluation of overall generating efficiency, the theoretical model was used to make accurate estimates of reactor power and flow which agreed well with estimates based directly on further OLIS

  12. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  13. Field and laboratory calibration of neutron probes for soil moisture measurements on a deep loess chernozem soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaecke, B.; Schaecke, E.

    1979-01-01

    In the case of a varying profile structure it is necessary to use different calibration curves and adequate correction factors, respectively. The bulk density of the soil had the greatest influence on the calibration. An increase in bulk density by 0.2 g/cm 3 at a clay content of 18% resulted in an apparent increase in the values of moisture measurements by 1.5 to 2.0% of the volume of water. In naturally stratified soil the humus content of the chernozem horizon, being 3% higher than that of the underlying loess horizon, was found to influence the measuring results obtained by the probe. The calibration curves determined for chernozem and loess horizons in the laboratory agreed well with those obtained in the field. The measured values read from the probe and the gravimetrically determined values of the soil moisture were of great significance in all measured depths of the profile. (author)

  14. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    computed at various pitch angles through changes in actuator length. The linear spring stiffness was estimated by using the internal volume of the...Vehicle Technology Directorate Mechanics Division (ATTN: RDRL-VTM) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Finally, the balance loads are not only induced by the rotor hub loads, but also by loads transmitted via the pitch links to the swashplate. Thus

  15. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  16. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  17. Calibration and Sequence Development Status for the Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement goals of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the "Curiosity" Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) include chemical and isotopic analysis of organic and inorganic volatiles for both atmospheric and solid samples [1,2]. SAM directly supports the ambitious goals of the MSL mission to provide a quantitative assessment of habitability and preservation in Gale crater by means of a range of chemical and geological measurements [3]. The SAM FM combined calibration and environmental testing took place primarily in 2010 with a limited set of tests implemented after integration into the rover in January 2011. The scope of SAM FM testing was limited both to preserve SAM consumables such as life time of its electromechanical elements and to minimize the level of terrestrial contamination in the SAM instrument. A more comprehensive calibration of a SAM-like suite of instruments will be implemented in 2012 with calibration runs planned for the SAM testbed. The SAM Testbed is nearly identical to the SAM FM and operates in a ambient pressure chamber. The SAM Instrument Suite: SAM's instruments are a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), a 6-column Gas Chromatograph (GC), and a 2-channel Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS). Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry is designed for identification of even trace organic compounds. The TLS [5] secures the C, H, and O isotopic composition in carbon dioxide, water, and methane. Sieved materials are delivered from the MSL sample acquisition and processing system to one of68 cups of the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). 59 of these cups are fabricated from inert quartz. After sample delivery, a cup is inserted into one of 2 ovens for evolved gas analysis (EGA ambient to >9500C) by the QMS and TLS. A portion of the gas released can be trapped and subsequently analyzed by GCMS. Nine sealed cups contain liquid solvents and chemical derivatization or thermochemolysis agents to extract and transform polar molecules

  18. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 7. Calibration studies on the carbon piezoresistive gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horning, R.R.; Isbell, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    The calibrations, time responses, and Hugoniot for carbon piezoresistive gages from two manufacturers are presented. These gages exhibit a high sensitivity of about --20 percent resistance change per GPa at 0.5 GPa. Their equilibrium times, when tested in fused silica, exceed 0.6 μs below 0.5 GPa but improve at higher stresses and under better impedance matching conditions. They can be made of low atomic number materials, making them interesting candidates for studying the mechanical responses of materials to electron and x-ray deposition. (U.S.)

  19. Free-field reciprocity calibration of laboratory standard (LS) microphones using a time selective technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Although the basic principle of reciprocity calibration of microphones in a free field is simple, the practical problems are complicated due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the influence of cross talk and reflections from the surroundings. The influence of uncorrelated noise can be reduced...

  20. Extreme Design Loads Calibration of Offshore Wind Turbine Blades through Real Time Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Vesth, Allan; Lamata, Rebeca Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset of the mea......Blade Root flap and Edge moments are measured on the blades of a 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in normal operation. Ten minute maxima of the measurements are sampled to determine the extreme blade root flap moment, edge moment and resultant moment over six month duration. A random subset...... of the measurements over a week is taken as input to stochastic load extrapolation whereby the one year extrapolated design extreme is obtained, which are then compared with the maximum extremes obtained from direct measurements over a six month period to validate the magnification in the load levels for the blade...... root flap moment, edge moment obtained by extrapolation. The validation yields valuable information on prescribing the slope of the local extrapolation curve at each mean wind speed. As an alternative to determining the contemporaneous loads for each primary extrapolated load, the blade root resultant...

  1. Use of Balance Calibration Certificate to Calculate the Errors of Indication and Measurement Uncertainty in Mass Determinations Performed in Medical Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana VÂLCU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the reference document, the article proposes the way to calculate the errors of indication and associated measurement uncertainties, by resorting to the general information provided by the calibration certificate of a balance (non-automatic weighing instruments, shortly NAWI used in medical field. The paper may be also considered a useful guideline for: operators working in laboratories accredited in medical (or other various fields where the weighing operations are part of their testing activities; test houses, laboratories, or manufacturers using calibrated non-automatic weighing instruments for measurements relevant for the quality of production subject to QM requirements (e.g. ISO 9000 series, ISO 10012, ISO/IEC 17025; bodies accrediting laboratories; accredited laboratories for the calibration of NAWI. Article refers only to electronic weighing instruments having maximum capacity up to 30 kg. Starting from the results provided by a calibration certificate it is presented an example of calculation.

  2. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.F.; Liu, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00 (CRWMS M and O 1999c). These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  3. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, C.; Liu, H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the Calibrated Properties Model that provides calibrated parameter sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This work was performed in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan for U0035 Calibrated Properties Model REV00. These calibrated property sets include matrix and fracture parameters for the UZ Flow and Transport Model (UZ Model), drift seepage models, drift-scale and mountain-scale coupled-processes models, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models as well as Performance Assessment (PA) and other participating national laboratories and government agencies. These process models provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions

  4. Present knowledge about Laboratory Testing of Axial Loading on Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads...... on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section...

  5. Influence of Loading Rate on the Calibration of Instrumented Charpy Strikers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; McColskey, D.; McCowan, C.

    2009-01-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. The conventional approach for establishing an analytical relationship between strain gage output and force applied to the transducer is the static calibration, which is preferably performed with the striker installed in the pendulum assembly. However, the response of an instrumented striker under static force application may sometimes differ significantly from its dynamic performance during an actual Charpy test. This is typically reflected in a large difference between absorbed energy returned by the pendulum encoder (KV) and calculated under the instrumented force/displacement test record (Wt). Such difference can be either minimized by optimizing the striker design or analytically removed by adjusting forces and displacements until KV = Wt (the so-called 'Dynamic Force Adjustment'). This study investigates the influence of increasing force application rates on the force/voltage characteristics of two instrumented strikers, one at NIST in Boulder, CO and one at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium.

  6. A review of the probabilistic safety assessment of the Radiation Monitor Calibration Laboratory of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Erica Cupertino

    2005-03-01

    The main purpose of this work is to update the PSA study of the Radiation Monitor Calibration Laboratory of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Power Station taking into account new information. It is considered in this study an evaluation of the human reliability analysis in the calibration procedure of the radiation monitors, and for such the THERP modeling is used, as well as the use of the Bayesian approach for the calculation of the equipment failure probabilities used by the operators. Some accident scenarios of external origin were incorporated for evaluating their importance for an accident that might expose a worker to gamma radiation. A catastrophic failure is analyzed in the diesel generators 3 and 4, whose building is nearby the laboratory, as well as the route of change and the transportation of the steam generator of the nuclear power plant since the laboratory is located in the plant controlled area. Although more accidents scenarios are considered in this work, a conservative approach was not used and thus a smaller radiological risk was obtained. (author)

  7. Quality control of secondary standards and calibration systems, therapy level, of National Laboratory of Metrology from Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The results of quality control program of secondary standards, therapy level, and the calibration system of clinical dosemeters were analysed from 1984, when a change in the laboratory installation occurred and new standards were obtained. The national and the international intercomparisons were emphasised. The results for graphite wall chambers were compared, observing a maximum variation of about 0,6%. In the case of Delrin (TK01) wall chambers, the maximum variation was 1,7%. The results of post intercomparisons with thermoluminescent dosemeters have presented derivations lesser than 1%, securing the standards consistence at LNMRI with the international metrological system. (C.G.C.)

  8. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  9. Secondary calibration laboratory for dosimetry in levels of therapy at the University of Santiago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez Castano, D. M.; Pazos Alvarez, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic inherent benefits provided by the existence of a traceability chain radiation in any application, add the legal requirement for hospitals as pointed to by the RO. 1566/1998, which sets quality standards in radiotherapy. The decree attributed to hospital specialists radio physics in article 10 the responsibility for determining the acceptance and initial reference state of radiation generating equipment for therapeutic purposes, and the establishment and implementation of quality control programs associated and technical and physical aspects of radiation dosimetry. Different international organizations such as ICRU and IAEA recommendations on maintaining the accuracy of the dose delivered to patients in general, should be placed at least 5% considering the whole chain irradiation. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to establish programs of quality control and calibration dosimetric regular basis. The protocol of the IAEA TRS398 recommended dose calibration in water because it is a quantity of interest closest to clinical use and allows a relative uncertainty in the calibration environment reduced to 1%.. (Author)

  10. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  11. Project of an integrated calibration laboratory of instruments at IPEN; Projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo Adolfo San Jose

    2009-07-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares offers calibration services of radiation detectors used in radioprotection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for IPEN and for external facilities (public and private). One part of its facilities is located in the main building, along with other laboratories and study rooms, and another part in an isolated building called Bunker. For the optimization, modernization and specially the safety, the laboratories in the main building shall be transferred to an isolated place. In this work, a project of an integrated laboratory for calibration of instruments was developed, and it will be an expansion of the current Calibration Laboratory of Instruments of IPEN. Therefore, a series of radiometric monitoring of the chosen localization of the future laboratory was realized, and all staff needs (dimensions and disposition of the study rooms and laboratories) were defined. In this project, the laboratories with X ray equipment, alpha and beta radiation sources were located at an isolated part of the building, and the wall shielding was determined, depending on the use of each laboratory. (author)

  12. Exercise for laboratory comparison of calibration coefficient in {sup 137}Cs beam, radiation protection - 2013/2014; Exercicio de comparacao laboratorial do coeficiente de calibracao em feixe de Cesio-137, radioprotecao - 2013/2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, T.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: tschirn@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, C.M.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silveira, R.R. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Khoury, H. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernandes, E. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas; Cardoso, W.F. [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (Eletronuclear), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, J.C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work deals with the preliminary results of the second exercise of comparing the radiation monitors calibration laboratories in Brazil. The exercise involved eight laboratories and the measured quantity is the air kerma in a beam of {sup 137}Cs for radioprotection. The exercise was conducted by the LNMRI/IRD, in a star shaped arrangement from October 2013 to July 2015. The largest deviation was 2% of the calibration coefficient that is acceptable for applications in radioprotection. (author)

  13. Reducing cognitive load in the chemistry laboratory by using technology-driven guided inquiry experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacz, Frank, Jr.

    The chemistry laboratory is an integral component of the learning experience for students enrolled in college-level general chemistry courses. Science education research has shown that guided inquiry investigations provide students with an optimum learning environment within the laboratory. These investigations reflect the basic tenets of constructivism by engaging students in a learning environment that allows them to experience what they learn and to then construct, in their own minds, a meaningful understanding of the ideas and concepts investigated. However, educational research also indicates that the physical plant of the laboratory environment combined with the procedural requirements of the investigation itself often produces a great demand upon a student's working memory. This demand, which is often superfluous to the chemical concept under investigation, creates a sensory overload or extraneous cognitive load within the working memory and becomes a significant obstacle to student learning. Extraneous cognitive load inhibits necessary schema formation within the learner's working memory thereby impeding the transfer of ideas to the learner's long-term memory. Cognitive Load Theory suggests that instructional material developed to reduce extraneous cognitive load leads to an improved learning environment for the student which better allows for schema formation. This study first compared the cognitive load demand, as measured by mental effort, experienced by 33 participants enrolled in a first-year general chemistry course in which the treatment group, using technology based investigations, and the non-treatment group, using traditional labware, investigated identical chemical concepts on five different exercises. Mental effort was measured via a mental effort survey, a statistical comparison of individual survey results to a procedural step count, and an analysis of fourteen post-treatment interviews. Next, a statistical analysis of achievement was

  14. Characterization and Simulation of a New Design Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber for CT Dosimetry at Calibration Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.; Maia, Ana F.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a new extended-length parallel-plate ionization chamber was tested in the standard radiation qualities for computed tomography established according to the half-value layers defined at the IEC 61267 standard, at the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN). The experimental characterization was made following the IEC 61674 standard recommendations. The experimental results obtained with the ionization chamber studied in this work were compared to those obtained with a commercial pencil ionization chamber, showing a good agreement. With the use of the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, simulations were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the cables, insulator, PMMA body, collecting electrode, guard ring, screws, as well as different materials and geometrical arrangements, on the energy deposited on the ionization chamber sensitive volume. The maximum influence observed was 13.3% for the collecting electrode, and regarding the use of different materials and design, the substitutions showed that the original project presented the most suitable configuration. The experimental and simulated results obtained in this work show that this ionization chamber has appropriate characteristics to be used at calibration laboratories, for dosimetry in standard computed tomography and diagnostic radiology quality beams.

  15. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  16. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A.; Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling 18 F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by 40 K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  17. In-Situ Load System for Calibrating and Validating Aerodynamic Properties of Scaled Aircraft in Ground-Based Aerospace Testing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.

  18. Laboratory calibration of the calcium carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in the 25-250 °C temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Tobias; John, Cédric M.; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; Davis, Simon; Crawshaw, John

    2015-05-01

    Many fields of Earth sciences benefit from the knowledge of mineral formation temperatures. For example, carbonates are extensively used for reconstruction of the Earth's past climatic variations by determining ocean, lake, and soil paleotemperatures. Furthermore, diagenetic minerals and their formation or alteration temperature may provide information about the burial history of important geological units and can have practical applications, for instance, for reconstructing the geochemical and thermal histories of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is a relatively new technique that can provide the formation temperature of carbonate minerals without requiring a priori knowledge of the isotopic composition of the initial solution. It is based on the temperature-dependent abundance of the rare 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals, specified as a Δ47 value. The clumped isotope thermometer has been calibrated experimentally from 1 °C to 70 °C. However, higher temperatures that are relevant to geological processes have so far not been directly calibrated in the laboratory. In order to close this calibration gap and to provide a robust basis for the application of clumped isotopes to high-temperature geological processes we precipitated CaCO3 (mainly calcite) in the laboratory between 23 and 250 °C. We used two different precipitation techniques: first, minerals were precipitated from a CaCO3 supersaturated solution at atmospheric pressure (23-91 °C), and, second, from a solution resulting from the mixing of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 in a pressurized reaction vessel at a pressure of up to 80 bar (25-250 °C).

  19. Neutron Arm Study and Calibration for the GEn Experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Ngo

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the neutron electric form factor, GEn, will allow us to solve indirectly for the quark charge distribution inside of the neutron. With the equipment at Jefferson Lab we have measured GEn at four momentum transfer values of Q**2 at 1.3, 2.4 and 3.4 (GeV/c)**2 using a polarized electron beam and polarized Helium target. The scattered electrons off of the Helium target are detected in the BigBite spectrometer and the recoiling neutrons from the Helium are detected in the Neutron Arm, which is composed of an array of scintillators. The main focus of this thesis will be devoted to the geometry, timing and energy calibrations of the Neutron Arm

  20. Bed Load Variability and Morphology of Gravel Bed Rivers Subject to Unsteady Flow: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.

  1. Performance of the Opalinus Clay under thermal loading: experimental results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gens, A. [Universitat Politència de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Gaus, I. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-15

    The paper presents an overview of the behaviour of Opalinus Clay under thermal loading as observed in three in situ heating tests performed in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: HE-B, HE-D and HE-E. The three tests are summarily described; they encompass a broad range of test layouts and experimental conditions. Afterwards, the following topics are examined: determination of thermal conductivity, thermally-induced pore pressure generation and thermally-induced mechanical effects. The mechanisms underlying pore pressure generation and dissipation are discussed in detail and the relationship between rock damage and thermal loading is examined using an additional in situ test: SE-H. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the various thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) interactions identified in the heating tests. (authors)

  2. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  3. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  4. Photon contributions from the 252Cf and 241Am–Be neutron sources at the PSI Calibration Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Boschung, M.; Meier, K.; Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Figel, M.; Mayer, S.

    2012-01-01

    At the accredited PSI Calibration Laboratory neutron reference fields traceable to the national standards of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany are available for the calibration of ambient and personal dose equivalent (rate) meters and passive dosimeters. The photon contribution to the ambient dose equivalent in the neutron fields of the 252 Cf and 241 Am–Be sources was measured using various photon dose rate meters and active and passive dosimeters. Measuring photons from a neutron source usually involves considerable uncertainties due to the presence of neutron induced photons in the room, due to a non-zero neutron sensitivity of the photon detector, and last but not least due to the energy response of the photon detectors. Therefore eight independent detectors and methods were used to obtain a reliable estimate for the photon contribution of the two sources as an average of the individual methods. For the 241 Am–Be source a photon contribution of approximately 4.9% was determined and for the 252 Cf source a contribution of 3.6%.

  5. Calibrations and evaluation of the quality assurance during 1999 at the National Laboratory for ionising radiation; Kalibrerings- och normalieverksamheten vid Riksmaetplats 06 under 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Israelsson, Karl-Erik; Kylloenen, Jan-Erik; Samuelson, Goeran

    2000-06-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is the National Laboratory for the dosimetric quantities kerma, absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The activity is based on established calibration procedures and a quality assurance program for the used standards. This report gives a brief summary of the calibrations performed during 1999 and a more detailed description and analysis of the quality assurance during this year. The report makes it easier to draw conclusions about the long-term stability and possible malfunctions.

  6. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source] Booster Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs

  7. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF A MICROFLUIDIC ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSOR FOR AEROSOL OXIDATIVE LOAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeffrey; Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Henry, Charles; Volckens, John

    2014-05-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with human morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which PM impacts human health are unresolved, but evidence suggests that PM intake leads to cellular oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, reliable tools are needed for estimating the oxidant generating capacity, or oxidative load, of PM at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours). One of the most widely reported methods for assessing PM oxidative load is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The traditional DTT assay utilizes filter-based PM collection in conjunction with chemical analysis to determine the oxidation rate of reduced DTT in solution with PM. However, the traditional DTT assay suffers from poor time resolution, loss of reactive species during sampling, and high limit of detection. Recently, a new DTT assay was developed that couples a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler with microfluidic-electrochemical detection. This 'on-line' system allows high temporal resolution monitoring of PM reactivity with improved detection limits. This study reports on a laboratory comparison of the traditional and on-line DTT approaches. An urban dust sample was aerosolized in a laboratory test chamber at three atmospherically-relevant concentrations. The on-line system gave a stronger correlation between DTT consumption rate and PM mass (R 2 = 0.69) than the traditional method (R 2 = 0.40) and increased precision at high temporal resolution, compared to the traditional method.

  8. Laboratory calibration of density-dependent lines in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M. F.; Desai, P.; Bitter, M.; Roquemore, L.; Reinke, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    We have been making spectral measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) from different laboratory sources in order to investigate the electron density dependence of various astrophysically important emission lines and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. The measurement are being performed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap, the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which together span an electron density of four orders of magnitude and which allow us to test the various models at high and low density limits. Here we present measurements of Fe XXII and Ar XIV, which include new data from an ultra high resolution (λ/Δλ >4000) spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility. We found good agreement between the measurements and modeling calculations for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV.

  9. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  10. The role of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric calibration in the implementation of the dosimetric magnitudes with radiological protection aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Medina O, V.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is very well-known the paper of the net of secondary laboratories of dosimetric calibration of the OAS in the dissemination of the traceability of the dosimetric magnitudes: kerma in air and absorbed dose in water, to the radiotherapy departments, given the high accuracy and precision that require the radiotherapy treatments. However the LSCD has other important areas at least for the development, implementation and evaluation of dosimetric magnitudes denominated operative magnitudes with ends of radiological protection: environmental equivalent dose H*(10), directional equivalent dose H'(0.07) and personal equivalent dose Hp. In the case of radiological protection the LSCD-ININ has been implementing the infrastructure to give service of personal dosimetry for photons and beta particles in terms of the operative magnitudes. For photons: X and gamma rays, it account with a secondary pattern camera PTW T34035 gauged in H * and Hp in the primary laboratory of Germany PTB. For the case of beta radiation its account with an extrapolation camera PTW 23392 with a secondary pattern kit of sources of the type I, gauged in terms of H'(0.07) in the PTB. (Author)

  11. A laboratory-calibrated model of coho salmon growth with utility for ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhard, Christopher V.; Som, Nicholas A.; Perry, Russell W.; Plumb, John M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of laboratory- and hatchery-based growth data to estimate broadly applicable parameters of mass- and temperature-dependent growth of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Following studies of other salmonid species, we incorporated the Ratkowsky growth model into an allometric model and fit this model to growth observations from eight studies spanning ten different populations. To account for changes in growth patterns with food availability, we reparameterized the Ratkowsky model to scale several of its parameters relative to ration. The resulting model was robust across a wide range of ration allocations and experimental conditions, accounting for 99% of the variation in final body mass. We fit this model to growth data from coho salmon inhabiting tributaries and constructed ponds in the Klamath Basin by estimating habitat-specific indices of food availability. The model produced evidence that constructed ponds provided higher food availability than natural tributaries. Because of their simplicity (only mass and temperature are required as inputs) and robustness, ration-varying Ratkowsky models have utility as an ecological tool for capturing growth in freshwater fish populations.

  12. Applicability of laboratory data to large scale tests under dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Klenk, A.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of dynamic loading and subsequent fracture must be based on reliable data for loading and deformation history. This paper describes an investigation to examine the applicability of parameters which are determined by means of small-scale laboratory tests to large-scale tests. The following steps were carried out: (1) Determination of crack initiation by means of strain gauges applied in the crack tip field of compact tension specimens. (2) Determination of dynamic crack resistance curves of CT-specimens using a modified key-curve technique. The key curves are determined by dynamic finite element analyses. (3) Determination of strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relationships for the finite element simulation of small-scale and large-scale tests. (4) Analysis of the loading history for small-scale tests with the aid of experimental data and finite element calculations. (5) Testing of dynamically loaded tensile specimens taken as strips from ferritic steel pipes with a thickness of 13 mm resp. 18 mm. The strips contained slits and surface cracks. (6) Fracture mechanics analyses of the above mentioned tests and of wide plate tests. The wide plates (960x608x40 mm 3 ) had been tested in a propellant-driven 12 MN dynamic testing facility. For calculating the fracture mechanics parameters of both tests, a dynamic finite element simulation considering the dynamic material behaviour was employed. The finite element analyses showed a good agreement with the simulated tests. This prerequisite allowed to gain critical J-integral values. Generally the results of the large-scale tests were conservative. 19 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Exercise of laboratory comparison for contamination monitor calibration between LNMRI/IRD and LCR/UERJ - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need to decide on the best methodology to be applied in the next contamination monitor calibration comparisons with the Brazilian network of calibration radiation monitors. The calibration factor was chosen as a response calibration performed in the four monitors used in this comparison because it does not require the detector area or probe thereby reducing an important variable. It was observed that the variation of the positioning system may have an influence up to 10% in calibration. The results obtained for the calibration factor showed a difference of up to 31.2%. (author)

  14. Cause analysis for unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing activities: a case study of Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a survey carried out among Brazilian calibration laboratories accredited under ISO/IEC 17025:2005 with the objective to identify how these laboratories investigate the root causes of unsatisfactory results in proficiency testing. The survey was coordinated by the Brazilian accreditation body, the General Coordination for Accreditation (Cgcre, of the Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro.

  15. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others, E-mail: mariobalthar@gmail.com [Centro Tecnológico do Exército (IDQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  16. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  17. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  18. Study for correction of neutron scattering in the calibration of the albedo individual monitor from the Neutron Laboratory (LN), IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da

    2014-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) runs a neutron individual monitoring service with albedo type monitor and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Moreover the largest number of workers exposed to neutrons in Brazil is exposed to 241 Am-Be fields. Therefore a study of the response of albedo dosemeter due to neutron scattering from 241 Am-Be source is important for a proper calibration. In this work, it has been evaluated the influence of the scattering correction in two distances at the Low Scattering Laboratory of the Neutron Laboratory of the Brazilian National Laboratory (Lab. Nacional de Metrologia Brasileira de Radiacoes Ionizantes) in the calibration of that albedo dosemeter for a 241 Am-Be source. (author)

  19. Quality of determinations obtained from laboratory reference samples used in the calibration of X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlova, Ludmila A.; Suvorova, Ludmila F.; Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Pavlov, Sergey M.

    2003-01-01

    Nine simple minerals and oxides, traditionally used as laboratory reference samples in the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of silicate minerals, have been quantitatively evaluated. Three separate series of data, comprising the average concentration, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, confidence interval and the z-score of data quality, were calculated for 21 control samples derived from calibrations obtained from three sets of reference samples: (1) simple minerals; (2) oxides; and (3) certified glass reference materials. No systematic difference was observed between the concentrations obtained from these three calibration sets when analyzed results were compared to certified compositions. The relative standard deviations obtained for each element were smaller than target values for all determinations. The z-score values for all elements determined fell within acceptable limits (-2< z<2) for concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100%. These experiments show that the quality of data obtained from laboratory reference calibration samples is not inferior to that from certified reference glasses. The quality of results obtained corresponds to the 'applied geochemistry' type of analysis (category 2) as defined in the GeoPT proficiency testing program. Therefore, the laboratory reference samples can be used for calibrating EPMA techniques in the analysis of silicate minerals and for controlling the quality of results

  20. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  1. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  2. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, Robert; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Update of the Picker C9 irradiator control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon S, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Picker C9 irradiator is responsible for the calibration of different radiological equipment and the control system that maintains it in operation is designed in the graphical programming software LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench), being its major advantages: the different types of communication, easy interconnection with other software and the recognition of different hardware devices, among others. Operation of the irradiator control system is performed with the NI-Usb-6008 (DAQ) data acquisition module of the National Instruments Company. The purpose of this work is to update the routines that make the Picker C9 control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration, using the graphic programming software LabVIEW, as well as to configure the new acquisition hardware of data that is implemented to control the Picker C9 irradiator system and ensure its operation. (Author)

  4. Bilateral comparison of the calibration laboratories in radiodiagnosis: Technical Protocol 16/17; Comparacao bilateral dos laboratorios de calibracao em radiodiagnostico: Protocolo Tecnico 16/17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, C.E.V. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/IBRAG/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2016-07-01

    The need to standardize the results in diagnostic radiology conditions of calibration laboratories, taking into account the applicability to conventional radiology , mammography and computed tomography where the total demand for diagnostic imaging is ≈70 % ≈4 % and ≈2 % respectively. The objective of the technical protocol is not only the equipment used , but also in terms of reference and the evaluation worksheet measurement uncertainties . The results of stability and energy dependence of transfer chamber shows these adequacy for the propose. (author)

  5. Critical issues for implementation of the standard NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005 in Testing and Calibration Laboratory: case study at a public institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Denise Confar Carvalho de

    2013-01-01

    The public institution aims to promote excellence in public management to contribute to the quality of services provided to its customers and to increase competitiveness in the country, as well as its international projection. A technical barrier to trade that can lead to dissatisfaction and achieve the reputation of the institution is failing the test or calibration results and measurement data, thereby accreditation is regarded as the first essential step to facilitate the mutual acceptance of test results and calibration or measurement data. For recognition, laboratories need to demonstrate full compliance with both the sections of ISO/IEC 17025:2005, i.e. management and technical requirements. This research aims to discuss the critical aspects for implementation of ABNT NBR ISO / IEC 17025:2005 for calibration and testing of a Public Institution seeking accreditation of its laboratories with INMETRO, national accreditation body Laboratories. Besides getting preventive, corrective and improvement actions continues guidelines. Furthermore, the methodology used was to conduct a literature search and apply a questionnaire to identify the degree of agreement / disagreement of the foundations of the standard servers. Analysis of the results showed that the critical issues were: commitment, training, resources (infrastructure, human) and culture. (author)

  6. Predicting the performance uncertainty of a 1-MW pilot-scale carbon capture system after hierarchical laboratory-scale calibration and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Marcy, Peter William; Dietiker, Jean-François; Li, Tingwen; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin

    2017-05-01

    A challenging problem in designing pilot-scale carbon capture systems is to predict, with uncertainty, the adsorber performance and capture efficiency under various operating conditions where no direct experimental data exist. Motivated by this challenge, we previously proposed a hierarchical framework in which relevant parameters of physical models were sequentially calibrated from different laboratory-scale carbon capture unit (C2U) experiments. Specifically, three models of increasing complexity were identified based on the fundamental physical and chemical processes of the sorbent-based carbon capture technology. Results from the corresponding laboratory experiments were used to statistically calibrate the physical model parameters while quantifying some of their inherent uncertainty. The parameter distributions obtained from laboratory-scale C2U calibration runs are used in this study to facilitate prediction at a larger scale where no corresponding experimental results are available. In this paper, we first describe the multiphase reactive flow model for a sorbent-based 1-MW carbon capture system then analyze results from an ensemble of simulations with the upscaled model. The simulation results are used to quantify uncertainty regarding the design’s predicted efficiency in carbon capture. In particular, we determine the minimum gas flow rate necessary to achieve 90% capture efficiency with 95% confidence.

  7. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Instrumentation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Procedures for the calibration of different types of laboratory equipment are described. Provisions for maintaining the integrity of reference and working standards traceable back to a national standard are discussed. Methods of validation and certification methods are included. An appendix lists available publications and services of national standardizing agencies

  9. Impact Load Behavior between Different Charge and Lifter in a Laboratory-Scale Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zixin; Peng, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhencai; Yu, Zhangfa; Li, Tongqing

    2017-07-31

    The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes. The research results shown as follows: The semi-empirical power draw of Bond model in this paper does not apply very satisfactorily for the ball mills, while the power draw determined by DEM simulation show a good approximation for the measured power draw. Besides, the impact force on the lifter was affected by mill speed, grinding media filling, lifter height and iron ore particle. The maximum percent of the impact force between 600 and 1400 N is at 70-80% of critical speed. The impact force can be only above 1400 N at the grinding media filling of 20%, and the maximum percent of impact force between 200 and 1400 N is obtained at the grinding media filling of 20%. The percent of impact force ranging from 0 to 200 N decreases with the increase of lifter height. However, this perfect will increase above 200 N. The impact force will decrease when the iron ore particles are added. Additionally, for the 80% of critical speed, the measured power draw has a maximum value. Increasing the grinding media filling increases the power draw and increasing the lifter height does not lead to any variation in power draw.

  10. Calibration Device Designed for proof ring used in SCC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. Y.; Kang, Z. Y.; Yu, Y. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a calibration device for proof ring used in SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) experiment was designed. A compact size loading device was developed to replace traditional force standard machine or a long screw nut. The deformation of the proof ring was measured by a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) during the calibration instead of digital caliper or a dial gauge. The calibration device was verified at laboratory that the precision of force loading is ±0.1% and the precision of deformation measurement is ±0.002mm.

  11. Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology, and requirements proposal for calibration laboratories; Padronizacao da grandeza Kerma no ar para radiodiagnostico e proposta de requisitos para laboratorios de calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Manoel Mattos Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. A metrology network was created, but it is not yet accredited by the accreditation organism of the country, INMETRO. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the un attenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267, and to develop a requirement proposal for instruments calibration laboratories. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. A laboratory requirement proposal was finalized and it shall be submitted to INMETRO to be used as auxiliary normative document in laboratory accreditation. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md. Shaheed Reza; Md. Rajib Sharker; Md. Mokhlasur Rahman; Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered...

  13. Optimization of shadow cone length and mass for determination the amount of scattered radiation dose in the calibration laboratory of Am/Be neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisali, G.; Hamidi, S.; Hallajfard, E.; Shahvar, A.; Hajiloo, N.

    2007-01-01

    The shadow cone technique is one of the methods which is used for determining the contribution of scattered particles on the response of neutron detectors. This technique is used for neutron field calibration in Agriculture, Medicine and Industry Research School. In this investigation, we have designed and constructed an optimized shadow cone. According to the calculated neutron dose equivalent attenuation factors, a cone with 20 cm of iron and 30 cm of polyethylene has been found as optimum. For this cone, the neutron dose equivalent attenuation factor for 241 Am/Be neutron source, is 0.00035 for which the contribution of scattered neutrons in Agriculture, Medicine and Industry Research School neutron calibration laboratory according to the calculation and measurement results, can be evaluated with less than 0.5% of error

  14. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Mixed Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.; O'Connell, W.; Cochran, C.; Rinard, P.; Dearborn, D.; Endres, E.

    2002-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler for measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide, a method has been developed to extend the use of the PAN shuffler to the measurement of HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. This method uses the current LLNL HEU oxide calibration algorithms, appropriately corrected for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, and recently developed PuO 2 calibration algorithms to yield the mass of 235 U present via differences between the expected count rate for the PuO 2 and the measured count rate of the mixed U-Pu oxide. This paper describes the LLNL effort to use PAN shuffler measurements of units of certified reference material (CRM) 149 (uranium (93% Enriched) Oxide - U 3 O 8 Standard for Neutron Counting Measurements) and CRM 146 (uranium Isotopic Standard for Gamma Spectrometry Measurements) and a selected set of LLNL PuO 2 -bearing containers in consort with Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to each to (1) establish and validate a correction to the HEU calibration algorithm for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, (2) develop a PuO 2 calibration algorithm that includes the effect of PuO 2 density (2.4 g/cm 3 to 4.8 g/cm 3 ) and container size (8.57 cm to 9.88 cm inside diameter and 9.60 cm to 13.29 cm inside height) on the PAN shuffler response, and (3) develop and validate the method for establishing the mass of 235 U present in an unknown of mixed U-Pu oxide.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy of Chemoembolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Tightly Calibrated Small Microspheres in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagari, Katerina; Kiakidis, Theodoros; Pomoni, Maria; Moschouris, Hippokratis; Emmanouil, Emmanouil; Spiridopoulos, Themis; Sotirchos, Vlasios; Tandeles, Savvas; Koundouras, Dimitrios; Kelekis, Alexios; Filippiadis, Dimitrios; Charokopakis, Angelos; Bouma, Evanthia; Chatziioannou, Achilles; Dourakis, Spyridon; Koskinas, John; Karampelas, Theodoros; Tamvakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThis study examines safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of chemoembolization with loadable microspheres ≤100 μm for hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and MethodsA pilot safety study was performed in 19 patients with size and dose escalation and then 52 patients were enrolled prospectively and randomly assigned to chemoembolization with TANDEM™ loaded with 150 or 100 mg of doxorubicin.ResultsThe mean diameter of the tumors was 7.28 ± 2.09 cm (range 4–12) and distribution dominant/multiple 51.9/48.1 %. Child A/B distribution was 32/20 (61.5/38.5 %) and etiology HBV/HCV/HBV/HCV-hemochromatosis was 61.6/9.6/9.6/15.4 %. Twenty-five patients were assigned in the low and 27 in the high loading group. There was 1.92 % thirty-day mortality due to lesion rupture. Biliary damage was seen in 3 patients (5.7 %) in the high loading. Mean maximum plasma concentration of doxorubicin C_m_a_x ± SD was 284.9 ± 276.2 ng/mL for the high and 108.5 ± 77.6 ng/mL for the low loading (p < 0.001). According to m-RECIST overall objective response after two sessions reached 61.22 and 63.82 % at 6 months. Notably, complete target lesion response (CR) after the second session was observed in 28.57 % and maintained in 23.40 % at 6 months. No statistical differences in the local response rates were observed between the two loading groups. Overall survival (OS) at 6 months, 1 , 2, and 3 years was 98.08, 92.3, 88.46, and 82.6 %, respectively. OS and Progression-Free Survival did not demonstrate statistical significance between the two loading groups.ConclusionInitial evidence shows that (a) TANDEM™ achieves high rates of local response and mid-term survival, (b) high loading provides no clinical benefit and is associated with biliary toxicity.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy of Chemoembolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Tightly Calibrated Small Microspheres in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagari, Katerina, E-mail: kmalag@otenet.gr; Kiakidis, Theodoros; Pomoni, Maria; Moschouris, Hippokratis; Emmanouil, Emmanouil; Spiridopoulos, Themis; Sotirchos, Vlasios; Tandeles, Savvas; Koundouras, Dimitrios; Kelekis, Alexios; Filippiadis, Dimitrios; Charokopakis, Angelos; Bouma, Evanthia; Chatziioannou, Achilles [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Evgenidion Hospital, 2nd and 1st Department of Radiology (Greece); Dourakis, Spyridon; Koskinas, John [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Hippokration General Hospital, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Hepatology (Greece); Karampelas, Theodoros; Tamvakopoulos, Konstantinos [Foundation Biomedical Research of Academy of Athens (FBRA) (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitrios [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Evgenidion Hospital, 2nd and 1st Department of Radiology (Greece)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeThis study examines safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of chemoembolization with loadable microspheres ≤100 μm for hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and MethodsA pilot safety study was performed in 19 patients with size and dose escalation and then 52 patients were enrolled prospectively and randomly assigned to chemoembolization with TANDEM™ loaded with 150 or 100 mg of doxorubicin.ResultsThe mean diameter of the tumors was 7.28 ± 2.09 cm (range 4–12) and distribution dominant/multiple 51.9/48.1 %. Child A/B distribution was 32/20 (61.5/38.5 %) and etiology HBV/HCV/HBV/HCV-hemochromatosis was 61.6/9.6/9.6/15.4 %. Twenty-five patients were assigned in the low and 27 in the high loading group. There was 1.92 % thirty-day mortality due to lesion rupture. Biliary damage was seen in 3 patients (5.7 %) in the high loading. Mean maximum plasma concentration of doxorubicin C{sub max} ± SD was 284.9 ± 276.2 ng/mL for the high and 108.5 ± 77.6 ng/mL for the low loading (p < 0.001). According to m-RECIST overall objective response after two sessions reached 61.22 and 63.82 % at 6 months. Notably, complete target lesion response (CR) after the second session was observed in 28.57 % and maintained in 23.40 % at 6 months. No statistical differences in the local response rates were observed between the two loading groups. Overall survival (OS) at 6 months, 1 , 2, and 3 years was 98.08, 92.3, 88.46, and 82.6 %, respectively. OS and Progression-Free Survival did not demonstrate statistical significance between the two loading groups.ConclusionInitial evidence shows that (a) TANDEM™ achieves high rates of local response and mid-term survival, (b) high loading provides no clinical benefit and is associated with biliary toxicity.

  17. Identification of the Uncertainties for the Calibration of the Partial Safety Factors for Load in Tidal Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaizka Zarraonandia Simeón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal energy is nowadays one of the fastest growing types of marine renewable energy. In particular, Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbines (HATTs are the most advanced designs and the most appropriate for standardization. This paper presents a review of actual design criteria focusing on the identification of the uncertainties that technology developers need to address during the design process. Key environmental parameters like turbine inflow conditions or predictions of extreme values are still grey areas due to the lack of site measurements and the uncertainty in metocean model predictions. A comparison of turbulence intensity characterization using different tools and at different points in time shows the uncertainty in the prediction of this parameter. Numerical models of HATTs are still quite uncertain, often dependent on experience of the people running them. In the reliability-based calibration of partial safety factors, the uncertainties need to be reflected on the limit state formulation. This paper analyses the different types of uncertainties present in the limit state equation. These uncertainties are assessed in terms of stochastic variables in the limit state equation. In some cases, advantage can be taken from the experience from offshore wind and oil and gas industries. Tidal turbines have a mixture of the uncertainties present in both industries with regard to partial safety factor calibration.

  18. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam instruments: Preflight and in-flight calibration, validation, and data archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M.A.; Maki, J.N.; Lemmon, M.T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M.C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K.M.; Madsen, M.B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M.A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, Ryan; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Morris, R.V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R.G.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted ~2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard calibration target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) “true color” images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning ~400–1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight calibration of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that calibration refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the calibration

  19. The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover Mastcam instruments: Preflight and in-flight calibration, validation, and data archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F.; Godber, A.; McNair, S.; Caplinger, M. A.; Maki, J. N.; Lemmon, M. T.; Van Beek, J.; Malin, M. C.; Wellington, D.; Kinch, K. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Hardgrove, C.; Ravine, M. A.; Jensen, E.; Harker, D.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Cisneros, E.; Deen, R. G.

    2017-07-01

    The NASA Curiosity rover Mast Camera (Mastcam) system is a pair of fixed-focal length, multispectral, color CCD imagers mounted 2 m above the surface on the rover's remote sensing mast, along with associated electronics and an onboard calibration target. The left Mastcam (M-34) has a 34 mm focal length, an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 0.22 mrad, and a FOV of 20° × 15° over the full 1648 × 1200 pixel span of its Kodak KAI-2020 CCD. The right Mastcam (M-100) has a 100 mm focal length, an IFOV of 0.074 mrad, and a FOV of 6.8° × 5.1° using the same detector. The cameras are separated by 24.2 cm on the mast, allowing stereo images to be obtained at the resolution of the M-34 camera. Each camera has an eight-position filter wheel, enabling it to take Bayer pattern red, green, and blue (RGB) "true color" images, multispectral images in nine additional bands spanning 400-1100 nm, and images of the Sun in two colors through neutral density-coated filters. An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command and data interfaces to the rover, 8 Gb of image storage per camera, 11 bit to 8 bit companding, JPEG compression, and acquisition of high-definition video. Here we describe the preflight and in-flight calibration of Mastcam images, the ways that they are being archived in the NASA Planetary Data System, and the ways that calibration refinements are being developed as the investigation progresses on Mars. We also provide some examples of data sets and analyses that help to validate the accuracy and precision of the calibration.

  20. Modernization of the irradiation apparatus for nuclear instrument calibration laboratory of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, M.; Csete, I.; Lenart, A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Office of Measures, OMH of Hungary, has made several proposals for improving technical and personal conditions of metrological inspection of calibration apparatuses at PNPP, Hungary. Some recent improvement of irradiation facilities are described, including the collimator system of the large gamma irradiation facility, the small gamma irradiation gun, and the Pu-Be neutron gun. The upgrading operations and results of these equipment are presented. (N.T.) 4 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of 192 Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis after

  2. Deformation Behavior of Recycled Concrete Aggregate during Cyclic and Dynamic Loading Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA is a relatively new construction material, whose applications can replace natural aggregates. To do so, extensive studies on its mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics are still necessary. RCA is currently used as a subbase material in the construction of roads, which are subject to high settlements due to traffic loading. The deformation characteristics of RCA must, therefore, be established to find the possible fatigue and damage behavior for this new material. In this article, a series of triaxial cyclic loading and resonant column tests is used to characterize fatigue in RCA as a function of applied deviator stress after long-term cyclic loading. A description of the shakedown phenomenon occurring in the RCA and calculations of its resilient modulus (Mr as a function of fatigue are also presented. Test result analysis with the stress-life method on the Wohler S-N diagram shows the RCA behavior in accordance with the Basquin law.

  3. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH2O EC-10, ECH2O EC-20, ECH2O EC-5, and ECH2O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH2O EC-5 and ECH2O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions. PMID:27854263

  4. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of comparison of the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density determination between SIM laboratories: SIM.M.D-K4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Luis Omar

    2009-01-01

    This SIM comparison on the calibration of high accuracy hydrometers was carried out within fourteen laboratories in the density range from 600 kg/m3 to 1300 kg/m3 in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence among participant laboratories. This key comparison anticipates the planned key comparison CCM.D-K4, and is intended to be linked with CCM.D-K4 when results are available. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Update on Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.; O'Connell, W.; Cochran, C.; Rinard, P.; Dearborn, D.; Endres, E.

    2002-01-01

    In October of 1999, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began an effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron (PAN) drum shuffler for measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide. A single unit of certified reference material (CRM) 149 (Uranium (93% Enriched) Oxide - U 3 O 8 Standard for Neutron Counting Measurements) was used to (1) develop a mass calibration curve for HEU oxide in the nominal range of 393 g to 3144 g 235 U, and (2) perform a detailed axial and radial mapping of the detector response over a wide region of the PAN shuffler counting chamber. Results from these efforts were reported at the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 4lSt Annual Meeting in July 2000. This paper describes subsequent efforts by LLNL to use a unit of CRM 146 (Uranium Isotopic Standard for Gamma Spectrometry Measurements) in consort with Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to CRM 149 and CRM 146 units and a selected set of containers with CRM 149-equivalent U 3 O 8 to (1) extend the low range of the reported mass calibration curve to 10 g 235 U, (2) evaluate the effect of U 3 O 8 density (2.4 g/cm 3 to 4.8 g/cm 3 ) and container size (5.24 cm to 12.17 cm inside diameter and 6.35 cm to 17.72 cm inside height) on the PAN shuffler response, and (3) develop mass calibration curves for U 3 O 8 enriched to 20.1 wt% 235 U and 52.5 wt% 235 U.

  6. State-of-the art comparability of corrected emission spectra. 2. Field laboratory assessment of calibration performance using spectral fluorescence standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Bremser, Wolfram; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Spieles, Monika; Hoffmann, Angelika; DeRose, Paul C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Gauthier, François; Ebert, Bernd; Taubert, R Dieter; Voigt, Jan; Hollandt, Jörg; Macdonald, Rainer

    2012-05-01

    In the second part of this two-part series on the state-of-the-art comparability of corrected emission spectra, we have extended this assessment to the broader community of fluorescence spectroscopists by involving 12 field laboratories that were randomly selected on the basis of their fluorescence measuring equipment. These laboratories performed a reference material (RM)-based fluorometer calibration with commercially available spectral fluorescence standards following a standard operating procedure that involved routine measurement conditions and the data evaluation software LINKCORR developed and provided by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This instrument-specific emission correction curve was subsequently used for the determination of the corrected emission spectra of three test dyes, X, QS, and Y, revealing an average accuracy of 6.8% for the corrected emission spectra. This compares well with the relative standard uncertainties of 4.2% for physical standard-based spectral corrections demonstrated in the first part of this study (previous paper in this issue) involving an international group of four expert laboratories. The excellent comparability of the measurements of the field laboratories also demonstrates the effectiveness of RM-based correction procedures.

  7. Laboratory Setup for Vertically Loaded Suction Caisson Foundation in Sand and Validation of Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    during the last years and, following this trend, design choice will turn into foundation composed of three or four suction bucket foundations, called respectively tripod and tetrapod. Overturning moment in tripod and tetrapod is carried by vertical loading; therefore vertical pull-out capacity is tested......, in both static and cyclic case of loading. Testing rig and equipment are presented together with procedures. Tests results are presented in order to verify the output of tests. CPT-based methods and beta-methods to evaluate installation and pull-out resistance are then presented and implemented in Matlab...... in order to validate responses. It is demonstrated that kf parameter of CPT-based methods is dependent on the overburden pressure applied. Parameters of beta methods are analyzed and defined. Satisfying results are obtained with methods that are considering a linear increase or decrease with the depth...

  8. Plastic biofilm carrier after corn cobs reduces nitrate loading in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate-nitrogen removal rates can be increased substantially in denitrifying bioreactors with a corn cob bed medium compared to woodchips; however, additional organic carbon (C) is released into the effluent. This laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the performance of a post-bed cha...

  9. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W; Dutré, Phillip; Van Aardt, Jan A N; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol

    2007-09-07

    The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results

  10. A Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG to Assess the BRDF of Materials. Presentation, Calibration and Implementation on Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Coppin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light

  11. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  12. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  13. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Ground magnetic survey at site for planned facility for calibration of borehole orientation equipment at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2012-01-15

    This report presents survey description and results of ground magnetic measurements carried out by GeoVista AB at Aespoe in December, 2011. The purpose of the ground magnetic measurement was to measure variations in the earth magnetic field and to gain knowledge of the magnetization of the bedrock in an area where SKB plan to build a facility for calibration of equipment for measurements of borehole orientation. A total of 312 data points were collected along three survey lines, 104 points/profile. The data show nice and smooth variations that appear to be natural. There is a clear consistency of the magnetic field variations between the three survey lines, which indicates that the variations in the magnetic field reflect geological variations related to lithology and content of magnetic minerals. There are no indications of artifacts or erroneous data. The anomaly field averages at -32 nT with peak values of Min = -1,016 nT and Max = +572 nT. The strongest anomalies occur at profile length c. 130-140 m. Adding the background field of 50,823 nT, measured at a base station located close to the survey area, the total magnetic field averages at 50,791+-226 nT. The ground magnetic measurement gives background information before the construction of the calibration facility. The magnetic anomaly at c. 130-140 m give possibilities to control disturbances of magnetic-accelerometer based instruments. The magnetic measurements show that it is possible to construct the facility at the site

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Ground magnetic survey at site for planned facility for calibration of borehole orientation equipment at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Haakan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents survey description and results of ground magnetic measurements carried out by GeoVista AB at Aespoe in December, 2011. The purpose of the ground magnetic measurement was to measure variations in the earth magnetic field and to gain knowledge of the magnetization of the bedrock in an area where SKB plan to build a facility for calibration of equipment for measurements of borehole orientation. A total of 312 data points were collected along three survey lines, 104 points/profile. The data show nice and smooth variations that appear to be natural. There is a clear consistency of the magnetic field variations between the three survey lines, which indicates that the variations in the magnetic field reflect geological variations related to lithology and content of magnetic minerals. There are no indications of artifacts or erroneous data. The anomaly field averages at -32 nT with peak values of Min = -1,016 nT and Max = +572 nT. The strongest anomalies occur at profile length c. 130-140 m. Adding the background field of 50,823 nT, measured at a base station located close to the survey area, the total magnetic field averages at 50,791±226 nT. The ground magnetic measurement gives background information before the construction of the calibration facility. The magnetic anomaly at c. 130-140 m give possibilities to control disturbances of magnetic-accelerometer based instruments. The magnetic measurements show that it is possible to construct the facility at the site

  15. Summary of New Los Alamos National Laboratory Groundwater Data Loaded in July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Steven M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides information concerning groundwater monitoring data obtained by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under its interim monitoring plan and contains results for chemical constituents that meet seven screening criteria laid out in the Compliance Order on Consent. Tables are included in the report to organize the findings from the samples. The report covers groundwater samples taken from wells or springs that provide surveillance of the groundwater zones indicated in the table.

  16. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton under laboratory culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ariful Haque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered as a control (Control group. OTC was fed to the fish in the experimental aquarium at the rate of 2 g/kg through diet twice daily whereas fish reared under control condition was given feed without antibiotic for 20 d and bacterial content in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish were estimated at every alternative day after onset of the experiment. Results: Rearing the fish with OTC treated feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial load in the aquarium water, gills, intestine and skin of the fish whereas the content remain unchanged or little increased in the control group. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were within the suitable range in the experimental aquarium but not in control aquaria throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: These results suggest that OTC could be a potential antibiotic to reduce the bacterial load in fish and can be used commercially for maintaining the fish health in aquarium conditions.

  17. Optimisation and calibration of the polarimeter Polder at Saturne. Experiment t20 at the Jefferson Laboratory: Measurement of the deuteron form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Laurent

    1998-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the made for the upgrade of the deuteron tensor polarimeter Polder, and its use in the so-called t 20 experiment at the Jefferson Laboratory (USA). The Polder polarimeter is based on the analysing reaction H(d → ,2p)n which makes possible the measurement of the tensor polarization of deuterons in the kinetic energy range 160 MeV - 520 MeV. The first part of this thesis describes the polarimeter and its performances as obtained during the calibration experiment at Saturne (Saclay, France). Specific developments of this polarimeter for the t 20 experiment (Wire Chambers with 3 detections planes, target, hodoscopes) are described. An acquisition system based on Fastbus-VME standard was developed and used during the calibration runs. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the t 20 experiment. The experimental devices, the CEBAF accelerator and the data analysis are presented. Finally the preliminary results for the polarization t 20 and the extraction of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron (G c , G q and G m ) for six values of the transferred momentum Q in the range of 4.11 - 6.8 fm -1 are presented and discussed along various theoretical models predictions. (author) [fr

  18. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ.

    2013-01-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba 133 , Cs 137 , Co 60 and Co 57 . The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co 57 of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba 133 1.00, relative to Co 57 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable

  19. Laboratory Calibration Studies in Support of ORGANICS on the International Space Station: Evolution of Organic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiterkamp, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Halasinski, T.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Schmidt, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific overview and current status of ORGANICS an exposure experiment performed on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the evolution of organic matter in space (PI: P. Ehrenfreund), with supporting laboratory experiments performed at NASA Ames. ORGANICS investigates the chemical evolution of samples submitted to long-duration exposure to space environment in near-Earth orbit. This experiment will provide information on the nature, evolution, and survival of carbon species in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in solar system targets.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Optimization Models for Calibration and Leakage Detection of Water Distribution Network Using Laboratorial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasirian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the accuracy of leakage detection using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO has been investigated. The method has been evaluated on two networks consist of a hypothetical and a laboratorial networks. The results have proved the capability of the method and have confirmed the good convergence and speed. Experimental evaluations have shown serious effects of the number and value of leakage on the results. It is proved that a good fitness cannot guarantee the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem two validation methods based on a number of obtained results have been developed.

  1. Automation of dosimeters calibration for radiotherapy in secondary dosimetric calibration laboratory of the CPHR; Automatizacion de la calibracion de dosimetros de radioterapia en el laboratorio secundario de calibracion dosimetrica del CPHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Andy L. Romero; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez, E-mail: c19btm@frcuba.co.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automated system for measurements in the calibration of reference radiation dosimeters. It was made a software application that performs the acquisition of the measured values of electric charge, calculated calibration coefficient and automates the calibration certificate issuance. These values are stored in a log file on a PC. The use of the application improves control over the calibration process, helps to humanize the work and reduces personnel exposure. The tool developed has been applied to the calibration of dosimeters radiation patterns in the LSCD of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba.

  2. Laboratory Load Model Based on 150 kVA Power Frequency Converter and Simulink Real-Time – Concept, Implementation, Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Małkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available First section of the paper provides technical specification of laboratory load model basing on 150 kVA power frequency converter and Simulink Real-Time platform. Assumptions, as well as control algorithm structure is presented. Theoretical considerations based on criteria which load types may be simulated using discussed laboratory setup, are described. As described model contains transformer with thyristor-controlled tap changer, wider scope of device capabilities is presented. Paper lists and describes tunable parameters, both: tunable during device operation and changed only before starting the experiment. Implementation details are given in second section of paper. Hardware structure is presented and described. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance and storage solution, as well as used Simulink real-time features are presented. List and description of all measurements is provided. Potential of laboratory setup modifications is evaluated. Third section describes performed laboratory tests. Different load configurations are described and experimental results are presented. This includes simulation of under frequency load shedding, frequency and voltage dependent characteristics of groups of load units, time characteristics of group of different load units in a chosen area and arbitrary active and reactive power regulation basing on defined schedule. Different operation modes of control algorithm are described: apparent power control, active and reactive power control, active and reactive current RMS value control.

  3. Dosimetry through the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Mexico; Dosimetria a traves del Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar M, V.M.; Alvarez R, J.T.; Medina O, V.P.; Vergara M, F.; Anaya M, R.; Cejudo A, J.; Salinas L, B. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In the beginnings of the sixty years an urgent necessity is presented mainly in the developing countries, of improving in important form the accuracy in the dosimetry of external faces in therapy of radiations (radiotherapy centers), mainly in the calibration of ''clinical dosemeters''. In 1976 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA), and the World Health Organization, (WHO), they carried out a mutual agreement with regard to the establishment and operation of a net of Secondary Patron Laboratories of Dosimetry, (LSCD). The necessity to establish measure patterns in the field of the dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, is necessary, to have an accuracy but high in the dosimetry of the radiation beams in therapy which is highly dependent of the dose given to the tumor of those patient with cancer. Similar levels of accuracy are required in protection measures to the radiation with an acceptable smaller accuracy, however, when the personal dosemeters are used to determine the doses received by the individuals under work conditions, such mensurations in therapy of radiations and radiological protection will have traceability through a chain of comparisons to primary or national patterns. The traceability is necessary to assure the accuracy and acceptability of the dosimetric measures, as well as, the legal and economic implications. The traceability is also necessary in the dosimetry of high dose like in the sterilization of different products. The main function of the LSCD is to provide a service in metrology of ionizing radiations, maintaining the secondary or national patterns, which have a traceability to the International System of measures, which is based for if same in the comparison of patterns in the Primary Laboratories of Dosimetry (LPD) under the auspice of the International Office of Weights and Measure (BIPM). The secondary and national patterns in the LSCD constitute in Mexico, the national patterns of the magnitudes in the

  4. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  5. A convenient calibrator for tritium survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, J.M.; Janmohamed, S.R.; Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Staff in Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear power stations were having difficulty calibrating their tritium-in-air survey meters. Chalk River Laboratories suggested using a standard silica gel collector loaded with tritiated water vapour as a radiation source. The collector is a polyethylene tube with a length of rubber tubing attached to each end. The plastic tube is filled with dry silica gel, and cotton wool is stuffed into each end to retain the gel. To load the source with tritiated vapour, a bubbler containing tritiated water is connected to the collector until the gel is completely pink. The end tubes of the source are then connected to each other to seal the source. To use the source, the rubber tubes are connected to the intake and exhaust fittings of the survey meter to be calibrated. No tritium vapour is released during loading or calibration. This source not only verifies that the ion chamber and electrometer are working, but also checks whether the air sample is reaching the detector. It is more direct and credible than a gamma source, and is inexpensive and convenient to construct and calibrate at the power station. 5 figs

  6. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  7. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  8. Viability study of a construction of invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.; Pereira, M.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work has studied the parameters for the construction of an invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI. This study took into consideration the necessity of quality control of the of X-rays equipment required by Ministry of Health - MS, through the regulation N.453. To satisfy the demands of the MS, the recommendation of the norm IEC 61676 was analyzed by using the quantity of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) in the measurements of the voltage discharge applied to the X-rays tubes, the infra structures of metrology available in the country to offer tracking the components of the high voltage meter through INMETRO and the difficulty of adaptation of the high voltage meter analyser III U in relation to the Pan tak HF160 equipment in which respect the connection of the high voltage cable and the voltage limitations due to the electric configuration of the high voltage generator of the constant potential Pantak HF160 equipment. (author)

  9. Implementation of a laboratory for manufacture, repair and electric calibration of dosemeters based in ionization chambers utilized in radiotherapy; Implementacao de um laboratorio para manutencao, reparo e calibracao eletrica de dosimetros baseados em camaras de ionizacao, utilizados em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.H.B.; Peres, M.A.L.; Moreira, A.J.C.; Nette, H.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. Av. Salvador Allende S/N. Barra de Tijuca CEP: 22780-160. Caixa Postal: 37750 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    Manufacturers of ionization chamber dosimeters for radiotherapy maintain only sales representatives in Brazil with no servicing capability causing difficulties to customers/users to get broken equipment back into operation. Aiming to partially solve this problem, a laboratory for maintenance, repair and electrical calibration was started in 1995 with the support of a two year IAEA Technical Assistance Project (BRA/1/031). (Author)

  10. Monitoring of event-based mobilization of hydrophobic pollutants in rivers: calibration of turbidity as a proxy for particle facilitated transport in field and laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Egner, Marius; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-08-15

    Transport of many pollutants in rivers is coupled to mobilization of suspended particles which typically occurs during floods. Since the amount of total suspended solids (TSS) in rivers can be monitored by turbidity measurements this may be used as a proxy for the total concentration of particle associated pollutants such as PAHs, PCBs, etc. and several heavy metals. Online turbidity measurements (e.g. by optical backscattering sensors) would then also allow for an assessment of particle and pollutant flux dynamics if once calibrated against TSS and total pollutant concentrations for a given catchment. In this study, distinct flood and thus turbidity events were sampled at high temporal resolution in three contrasting sub-catchments of the River Neckar in Southwest Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, Steinlach) as well as in the River Neckar itself and investigated for the total amount of PAHs and TSS in water; turbidity (NTU) and grain size distributions of suspended solids were determined as well. Laboratory experiments were performed with natural river bed sediments from different locations (Ammer) to investigate PAH concentrations, TSS and turbidity during sedimentation of suspended particles under controlled conditions (yielding smaller and smaller suspended particles and TSS with time). Laboratory and field results agreed very well and showed that turbidity and TSS were linearly correlated over an extended turbidity range up to 2000 NTU for the field samples and up to 8000 NTU in lab experiments. This also holds for total PAH concentrations which can be reasonably well predicted based on turbidity measurements and TSS vs. PAHs relationships - even for high turbidity values observed during flood events (>2000 NTU). Total PAH concentrations on suspended solids were independent of grain size of suspended particles. This implies that for the rivers investigated the sorption capacity of particles did not change significantly during the observed events. Copyright © 2014

  11. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R.C.; Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R.B.; Clegg, S.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Barraclough, B.L.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Delapp, D.; Dyar, M.D.; Fabre, C.; Gasnault, O.; Lanza, N.; Mazoyer, J.; Melikechi, N.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Newsom, H.; Ollila, A.; Perez, R.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  12. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Bohlke, John Karl; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC) in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). To aid in the calibration of these reference materials, which span more than 125‰, an artificially enriched reference water (δ18O of +78.91‰) and two barium sulfates (one depleted and one enriched in 18O) were prepared and calibrated relative to VSMOW2 and SLAP reference waters. These materials were used to calibrate the other isotopic reference materials in this study, which yielded:Reference materialδ18O and estimated combined uncertainty IAEA-602 benzoic acid+71.28 ± 0.36‰USGS35 sodium nitrate+56.81 ± 0.31‰IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate+25.32 ± 0.29‰IAEA-601 benzoic acid+23.14 ± 0.19‰IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate+12.13 ± 0.33‰NBS 127 barium sulfate+8.59 ± 0.26‰VSMOW2 water0‰IAEA-600 caffeine−3.48 ± 0.53‰IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate−11.35 ± 0.31‰USGS34 potassium nitrate−27.78 ± 0.37‰SLAP water−55.5‰The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for δ18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the δ18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA

  13. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx); Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentode Medicao de Radiacao Gama (LabCal) do IDQBRN do CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S., E-mail: aneurideamorim@gmail.com [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Quimica, Biologica, Radiologica e Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  14. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  15. Pre-flight calibration and initial data processing for the ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, R.C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Maurice, S.; Lasue, J.; Forni, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Anderson, R.B. [United States Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Clegg, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bender, S. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Blaney, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Barraclough, B.L. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cousin, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Deflores, L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Delapp, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Dyar, M.D. [Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA (United States); Fabre, C. [Georessources, Nancy (France); Gasnault, O. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Lanza, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Mazoyer, J. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University, Dover, DE (United States); Meslin, P.-Y. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse (France); Newsom, H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is the first planetary science instrument to employ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the compositions of geological samples on another planet. Pre-processing of the spectra involves subtracting the ambient light background, removing noise, removing the electron continuum, calibrating for the wavelength, correcting for the variable distance to the target, and applying a wavelength-dependent correction for the instrument response. Further processing of the data uses multivariate and univariate comparisons with a LIBS spectral library developed prior to launch as well as comparisons with several on-board standards post-landing. The level-2 data products include semi-quantitative abundances derived from partial least squares regression. A LIBS spectral library was developed using 69 rock standards in the form of pressed powder disks, glasses, and ceramics to minimize heterogeneity on the scale of the observation (350–550 μm dia.). The standards covered typical compositional ranges of igneous materials and also included sulfates, carbonates, and phyllosilicates. The provenance and elemental and mineralogical compositions of these standards are described. Spectral characteristics of this data set are presented, including the size distribution and integrated irradiances of the plasmas, and a proxy for plasma temperature as a function of distance from the instrument. Two laboratory-based clones of ChemCam reside in Los Alamos and Toulouse for the purpose of adding new spectra to the database as the need arises. Sensitivity to differences in wavelength correlation to spectral channels and spectral resolution has been investigated, indicating that spectral registration needs to be within half a pixel and resolution needs to match within 1.5 to 2.6 pixels. Absolute errors are tabulated for derived compositions of each major element in each standard using PLS regression

  16. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  17. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  18. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities

  19. Dosemeter calibration in X-ray and in cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da

    1988-01-01

    Some tests about quality security for clinical dosemeter calibration in secondary standard dosimetry laboratory are described. The tests in gama calibration system, in X-ray calibration, in secondary standard dosimeter, in the dosemeter that will be calibrated, during the calibration and after the calibration are shown. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. Calibration uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration...

  1. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  2. The value of point-of-care CD4+ and laboratory viral load in tailoring antiretroviral therapy monitoring strategies to resource limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle, Emily P; Jani, Ilesh V; Rosettie, Katherine L; Wood, Robin; Osher, Benjamin; Resch, Stephen; Pei, Pamela P; Maggiore, Paolo; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Peter, Trevor; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-09-24

    To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load monitoring compared with current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. We use the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-International model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [$/year of life saved (YLS)] of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique. We compare: monitoring for clinical disease progression [clinical ART monitoring strategy (CLIN)] vs. annual POC-CD4 in rural settings without laboratory services and biannual laboratory CD4 (LAB-CD4), biannual POC-CD4, and annual viral load in urban settings with laboratory services. We examine the impact of a range of values in sensitivity analyses, using Mozambique's 2014 per capita gross domestic product ($620) as a benchmark cost-effectiveness threshold. In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 compared to CLIN improves life expectancy by 2.8 years, reduces time on failed ART by 0.6 years, and yields an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $480/YLS. In urban settings, biannual POC-CD4 is more expensive and less effective than viral load. Compared to biannual LAB-CD4, viral load improves life expectancy by 0.6 years, reduces time on failed ART by 1.0 year, and is cost-effective ($440/YLS). In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and is cost-effective compared to CLIN. In urban settings, viral load has the greatest clinical benefit and is cost-effective compared to biannual POC-CD4 or LAB-CD4. Tailoring ART monitoring strategies to specific settings with different available resources can improve clinical outcomes while remaining economically efficient.

  3. Primary calibration in acoustics metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhomem, T A Bacelar; Soares, Z M Defilippo

    2015-01-01

    SI unit in acoustics is realized by the reciprocity calibrations of laboratory standard microphones in pressure field, free field and diffuse field. Calibrations in pressure field and in free field are already consolidated and the Inmetro already done them. Calibration in diffuse field is not yet consolidated, however, some national metrology institutes, including Inmetro, are conducting researches on this subject. This paper presents the reciprocity calibration, the results of Inmetro in recent key comparisons and the research that is being developed for the implementation of reciprocity calibration in diffuse field

  4. SPOTS Calibration Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented using the procedure outlined by the Standardisation Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement to calibrate a digital image correlation system. The process involves comparing the experimental data obtained with the optical measurement system to the theoretical values for a specially designed specimen. The standard states the criteria which must be met in order to achieve successful calibration, in addition to quantifying the measurement uncertainty in the system. The system was evaluated at three different displacement load levels, generating strain ranges from 289 µstrain to 2110 µstrain. At the 289 µstrain range, the calibration uncertainty was found to be 14.1 µstrain, and at the 2110 µstrain range it was found to be 28.9 µstrain. This calibration procedure was performed without painting a speckle pattern on the surface of the metal. Instead, the specimen surface was prepared using different grades of grit paper to produce the desired texture.

  5. Calibration factor or calibration coefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs was set up in order to establish links between SSDL members and the international measurement system. At the end of 2001, there were 73 network members in 63 Member States. The SSDL network members provide calibration services to end-users at the national or regional level. The results of the calibrations are summarized in a document called calibration report or calibration certificate. The IAEA has been using the term calibration certificate and will continue using the same terminology. The most important information in a calibration certificate is a list of calibration factors and their related uncertainties that apply to the calibrated instrument for the well-defined irradiation and ambient conditions. The IAEA has recently decided to change the term calibration factor to calibration coefficient, to be fully in line with ISO [ISO 31-0], which recommends the use of the term coefficient when it links two quantities A and B (equation 1) that have different dimensions. The term factor should only be used for k when it is used to link the terms A and B that have the same dimensions A=k.B. However, in a typical calibration, an ion chamber is calibrated in terms of a physical quantity such as air kerma, dose to water, ambient dose equivalent, etc. If the chamber is calibrated together with its electrometer, then the calibration refers to the physical quantity to be measured per electrometer unit reading. In this case, the terms referred have different dimensions. The adoption by the Agency of the term coefficient to express the results of calibrations is consistent with the 'International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology' prepared jointly by the BIPM, IEC, ISO, OIML and other organizations. The BIPM has changed from factor to coefficient. The authors believe that this is more than just a matter of semantics and recommend that the SSDL network members adopt this change in terminology. (author)

  6. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Anwar, K.; Arshed, W.; Mubarak, M.A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  7. Variations in cerebrospinal fluid viral loads among enterovirus genotypes in patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed meningitis due to enterovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Romain; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Mirand, Audrey; Pereira, Bruno; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Chambon, Martine; Regagnon, Christel; Brebion, Amélie; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Archimbaud, Christine

    2014-08-15

    Acute enterovirus (EV) meningitis is a major cause of hospitalization among adults and children. It is caused by multiple EV genotypes assigned to 4 species (EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, and EV-D). We determined viral loads in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 156 patients of all ages with EV meningitis during a 5-year observational prospective study. The virus strains were genotyped, and their time origin was determined with Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The CSF viral loads ranged between 3.4 and 7.5 log10 copies/mL (median, 4.9 log10 copies/mL). They were higher in neonates than in infants and children (P = .02) but were comparable in adults. Viral loads were associated with EV genotypes (P < .001). The EV strains were identified in 152 of 156 patients and assigned to 23 genotypes within the EV-A and EV-B species. The most frequent genotypes, echoviruses 6 and 30, were associated with different viral loads (P < .001). The highest viral loads were in meningitis cases caused by coxsackievirus A9, B4, and B5 genotypes. Most patients infected by a same genotype were infected by a major virus variant of recent emergence. The variations in CSF viral loads in patients at the onset of EV meningitis are related to genotypic differences in the virus strains involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  9. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  10. The effects of laboratory inquire-based experiments and computer simulations on high school students‘ performance and cognitive load in physics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Branka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to examine the extent to which different teaching instructions focused on the application of laboratory inquire-based experiments (LIBEs and interactive computer based simulations (ICBSs improved understanding of physical contents in high school students, compared to traditional teaching approach. Additionally, the study examined how the applied instructions influenced students’ assessment of invested cognitive load. A convenience sample of this research included 187 high school students. A multiple-choice test of knowledge was used as a measuring instrument for the students’ performance. Each task in the test was followed by the five-point Likert-type scale for the evaluation of invested cognitive load. In addition to descriptive statistics, determination of significant differences in performance and cognitive load as well as the calculation of instructional efficiency of applied instructional design, computed one-factor analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test. The findings indicate that teaching instructions based on the use of LIBEs and ICBSs equally contribute to an increase in students’ performance and the reduction of cognitive load unlike traditional teaching of Physics. The results obtained by the students from the LIBEs and ICBSs groups for calculated instructional efficiency suggest that the applied teaching strategies represent effective teaching instructions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010: The Quality of Education System in Serbia from European Perspective

  11. The impact of benthic fauna on fluvial bed load transport: Challenges of upscaling laboratory experiments to river and landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The impact on sediment transport processes and channel morphology of several relatively large, iconic animals including beaver and salmon is increasingly well understood. However, many other aquatic fauna are important zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers. These somewhat overlooked "Cinderella" species include benthic aquatic insect larvae, freshwater crustaceans and many species of fish. Despite relatively modest individual effects, the ubiquity, abundance and cumulative impact of these organisms makes them a potentially significant agency, with as yet undiscovered and unquantified impacts on channel morphology and sediment fluxes. Their actions (digging, foraging, moving, burrowing), constructions and secretions modify bed sediment characteristics (grain size distribution, interlock, imbrication, protrusion), alter bed topography (thence hydraulic roughness) and contribute to biogenic restraints on grain movement. In turn, they can affect the distribution of surface particle entrainment thresholds and bed shear stresses, with implications for bed load transport. Flume experiments have measured some of these impacts and provided direct observations of the mechanisms involved, but many of the most interesting research questions pertain to the impact of these animals at reach, catchment and even landscape scales: Not least, what is the impact of small aquatic animals on bed load flux and yield? This presentation will consider some of the challenges involved in answering this question; that is, of scaling up experimental understanding of how aquatic animals affect bed load transport processes to river scales. Pertinent themes include: (1) the potential impacts of experimental arrangements on the behaviours and activities that affect hydraulic or geomorphological processes; (2) field coincidence of the spatial and temporal distributions of (a) the animals and their behaviours with (b) the physical conditions (substrates, flows) under which those animals are

  12. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  13. Fuzzy-TLX: using fuzzy integrals for evaluating human mental workload with NASA-Task Load indeX in laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzé-Amady, Marc; Raufaste, Eric; Prade, Henri; Meyer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mental workload in which various load sources must be integrated to derive reliable workload estimates. We report a new algorithm for computing weights from qualitative fuzzy integrals and apply it to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration -Task Load indeX (NASA-TLX) subscales in order to replace the standard pair-wise weighting technique (PWT). In this paper, two empirical studies were reported: (1) In a laboratory experiment, age- and task-related variables were investigated in 53 male volunteers and (2) In a field study, task- and job-related variables were studied on aircrews during 48 commercial flights. The results found in this study were as follows: (i) in the experimental setting, fuzzy estimates were highly correlated with classical (using PWT) estimates; (ii) in real work conditions, replacing PWT by automated fuzzy treatments simplified the NASA-TLX completion; (iii) the algorithm for computing fuzzy estimates provides a new classification procedure sensitive to various variables of work environments and (iv) subjective and objective measures can be used for the fuzzy aggregation of NASA-TLX subscales. NASA-TLX, a classical tool for mental workload assessment, is based on a weighted sum of ratings from six subscales. A new algorithm, which impacts on input data collection and computes weights and indexes from qualitative fuzzy integrals, is evaluated through laboratory and field studies. Pros and cons are discussed.

  14. Experimental comparison among the laboratories accredited within the framework of the European Co-operation for Accreditation on the calibration of a radiation protection dosimeters in the terms of the quantity air Kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovi, M.; Toni, M.P.; Tricomi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The European co-operation for Accreditation (EA) formalises the collaboration of the Accreditation Bodies of the Member States of the European Union and the European Free Trade Association covering all conformity assessment activities. This collaboration is based on a Memorandum of Understanding dated the 27 November 1997 and aims at developing and maintain Multilateral Agreements (MLAs) within EA and with non-members accreditation bodies. MLAs Signatories guarantee uniformity of accreditation by continuous and rigorous evaluation. Based on mutual confidence, the MLAs recognise the equivalence of the accreditation systems administered by EA Members and of certificates and reports issued by bodies accredited under these systems. A basic element of the program to establish and maintain mutual confidence among calibration services is the participation of the accredited laboratories in experimental interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) organised by EA members or other international organisations. The aim of these ILC is to verify the technical equivalence of calibration services within the EA. The ILC which it is dealt with in the present work was recently carried out over a period of two years, ending in May 2002. It interested the laboratories accredited in the ionising radiation field for calibration of dosimeters at radiation protection levels in terms of the quantity air kerma (K air ) due to 6 0C o and 1 37C s gamma radiation. The ILC was planned by the EA expert group on Ionising radiation and radioactivity and approved by the EA General Assembly in December 1999 with the title Calibration of a Radiation Protection Dosimeter under the code IR3. The need of this comparison also resulted from an inquiry carried out in 1998 by the expert group among the different Accreditation Bodies members of EA and associated to EA. The organization of the ILC was carried out according to the EA rules by the Italian Accreditation Body in the ionising radiation field, the SIT

  15. Effect of two heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, on the organic load removal efficiency in a laboratory UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Luis Eduardo; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in three up flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactors each with 3 L capacity, four hours of hydraulic retention time, (HRT) and volumetric organic load of 4,8 g/L/d. After the initial start phase, which was of 4.000 hours for the three reactors, they were affected in the following way: the first reactor was continuously feed with 5 mg/L of cadmium chloride, the second one was continuously feed with 10 mg/L of nickel chloride and the last one was not affected and served as reference. Efficiency in organic load removal was measured as oxygen chemical demand (OCD), the first reactor changed from 60% in the start phase (phase one) to 18% in the cadmium-affected phase (phase two), efficiency in removal (OCI) in reactor two varied from 60 to 24% and the last one did not change in a noticeable manner. Reactor one accumulated cadmium in the mud, whereas reactor two did not do that with nickel

  16. Conquer the FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Off loading) separation challenge using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Astrid R.; Hannisdal, Andreas; Amarzguioui, Morad; Wood, Deborah; Tor Andersen [Aibel, Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    To have the necessary confidence in a separators' performance, the design must be based on more than simple design rules. A combination of separation testing, computer modelling, and general knowledge of the process is needed. In addition, new technologies can provide enhanced overall performance when it is required. This paper describes how all of these techniques can be combined to get the most out of separator design. We will describe how Aibel has used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), together with laboratory testing, multi-disciplinary knowledge and new technology in order to revolutionize the way we design separators. This paper will present a study of separation performance for one of our customers. A CFD simulation was performed to predict the internal waves inside a separator located on a FPSO, and how these affect separation phenomena. The performance of the theoretical CFD model was verified by laboratory wave experiments. Separation tests were performed to test new solutions which could increase the performance of the process. Based on the CFD simulations and the separation tests, a modification of the separator was proposed. (author)

  17. Experiences on the implementation of a postal auditing service to know teletherapy doses using Cobalt 60 attained by the Secondary laboratory for dosimetric calibration from CPHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, R.; Morales, J.A.; Molina, D.; Dominguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes experiences gained by LSCD from CPHR on the implementation and validation of a postal auditing system. The system checks doses absorbed by water for teletherapy equipment using Cobalt 60. The verification was made with Chinese DTL type JR 1152F (microbars) introduced in capsules developed and employed by IAEA in the postal auditing service for doses IAEA/WHO. The analysis includes the creation of groups of detectors based on their individual sensibility. They have a dispersion range that was almost 2%. Here irradiation was applied to a water dummy. Other tests employed were that for thermal treatment and calibration. Besides one auditing the effectiveness of the postal technique in two facilities using Cobalt 60. The methodology implemented helps to determine doses absorbed in reference conditions with a lower global uncertainty (k=2) (3.2%)

  18. Calibration of SMA material model for the prediction of the ‘evolutionary’ load-bias behavior under conditions of extended thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleeb, A F; Dhakal, B; Padula II, S A; Gaydosh, D J

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of the cyclic response of the 55NiTi polycrystalline material system using a recently formulated, multimechanism-based, modeling framework. It has a number of significant contributions. First, it presents a comprehensive characterization of such a complex material system under broad thermo-mechanical loading conditions in isobaric experiments that cover: (a) the entire relevant stress range from 10 to 300 MPa, and (b) sufficient number of thermal cycles to enable the investigation of the details of the evolution of the cyclic strain-versus-temperature hysteresis loops. Second, the detailed comparisons presented for the model results and the experimental measurements provide the necessary validation of the modeling capabilities of the multimechanism framework. Third, specific plots are given detailing the variations with thermal cycling of the internal variables associated with each of the individual inelastic mechanisms. Fourth, an anatomical discussion details the interplay between the internal mechanisms to describe the material behavior within all the important response characteristic regions, thus providing a convenient means to complement the theoretical concepts in the mathematical approach. Given the comprehensive nature of this model, and its successful experimental validation under a wide range of conditions, it is believed that the model is capable of analyzing 55NiTi actuators. It is also emphasized that the insights provided in this work will carry forth to characterization of other SMA material systems. (paper)

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of dried blood spots for HIV-1 viral load quantification: A laboratory assessment of 3 commercial assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannus, Pieter; Claus, Maarten; Gonzalez, Maria Mercedes Perez; Ford, Nathan; Fransen, Katrien

    2016-11-01

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2.0, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, and the bioMérieux NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0. Sensitivity and specificity to detect treatment failure at a threshold of 1000 cps/mL with DBS were determined.A total of 272 HIV-positive patients and 51 HIV-negative people were recruited in the study. The mean difference or bias between plasma and DBS VL was 25% of the specimens differed by >0.5 log cps/mL.All 3 assays had comparable sensitivities around 80% and specificities around 90%. Upward misclassification rates were around 10%, but downward misclassification rates ranged from 20.3% to 23.6%. Differences in between assays were not statistically significant (P > 0.1).The 3 VL assays evaluated had suboptimal performance with DBS but still performed better than immunological or clinical monitoring. Even after the introduction of the much-anticipated point-of-care VL devices, it is expected that DBS will remain important as a complementary option for supporting access to VL monitoring, particularly in rural, resource-limited settings. Manufacturers should accelerate efforts to develop more reliable, sensitive and specific methods to test VL on DBS specimens.

  20. Removal of radiocesium from low level radioactive effluents by hexacyanoferrate loaded synthetic zeolite. Laboratory to pilot plant scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dayamoy; Rao, Manjula A.; Khot, Shantinath A.; Shah, Jayesh G.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Pawaskar, Chandrahas S.; Gangadharan, Anand; Rao, Shankar N.; Jain, Savita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-06-01

    Present paper reports removal of radiocesium from low level waste using a modified sorbent (13X-CFC) prepared by in-situ precipitation of potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) inside the macropores of a synthetic zeolite. The Cs exchange isotherm of the sorbent is established and it found to follow Fruendlich absorption isotherm equation. It is varified that presence of hexacyanoferrate on zeolite facilitates rapid Cs uptake performance. This is further confirmed in laboratory scale column tests, wherein excellent Cs removal performance from low level waste simulant was observed even at higher flow rates (40 bed volumes per hour). The utility of the sorbent is established through successful demonstration in a pilot scale (50 L) trial with almost complete removal of {sup 137}Cs from more than 14,000 bed volumes of actual low level waste. The sorbent, owing to its low cost and excellent {sup 137}Cs removal performance, is expected to find application in treatment of very low active waste streams.

  1. Laboratory triggering of stick-slip events by oscillatory loading in the presence of pore fluid with implications for physics of tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Noel M.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2012-01-01

    The physical mechanism by which the low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that make up portions of tectonic (also called non-volcanic) tremor are created is poorly understood. In many areas of the world, tectonic tremor and LFEs appear to be strongly tidally modulated, whereas ordinary earthquakes are not. Anomalous seismic wave speeds, interpreted as high pore fluid pressure, have been observed in regions that generate tremor. Here we build upon previous laboratory studies that investigated the response of stick-slip on artificial faults to oscillatory, tide-like loading. These previous experiments were carried out using room-dry samples of Westerly granite, at one effective stress. Here we augment these results with new experiments on Westerly granite, with the addition of varying effective stress using pore fluid at two pressures. We find that raising pore pressure, thereby lowering effective stress can significantly increase the degree of correlation of stick-slip to oscillatory loading. We also find other pore fluid effects that become important at higher frequencies, when the period of oscillation is comparable to the diffusion time of pore fluid into the fault. These results help constrain the conditions at depth that give rise to tidally modulated LFEs, providing confirmation of the effective pressure law for triggering and insights into why tremor is tidally modulated while earthquakes are at best only weakly modulated.

  2. Calibration apparatus for precise barometers and vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, S.Y.; Choi, I.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Hong, S.S.; Chung, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to calibrate highly accurate absolute pressure gauges, such as barometers and vacuum gauges, laser, or ultrasonic mercury manometers have been used. However, the complexity and cost of manometers have greatly reduced the use of this method in most calibration laboratories. As a substitute, a gas-operated pressure balance is used to calibrate precise gauges. In such cases, many commercially available pressure balances are unsuitable because the necessary exposure of the piston, cylinder, and masses to the atmosphere causes contamination problems and allows dust particles into the gap between the piston and cylinder. In this article, a weight-loading device is described that allows masses to be changed in situ without breaking the vacuum. This device makes it possible to add or remove weights easily during the calibration, thereby greatly reducing the time between observations. Using this device, we efficiently calibrated a precise quartz resonance barometer (Paroscientific, model 760-16B) over a pressure range of 940-1050 h Pa and a precise vacuum gauge (MKS, CDG 100 Torr) over a pressure range of 0-100 h Pa

  3. X-ray calibration qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Since the recent publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 374 ''Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotheraphy'', there have been a number of queries about the origin of, and the rationale behind, the X-ray qualities recommended for calibration purposes. The simple answer is that these are the qualities derived at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1971 for calibration of therapy-level dosimeters and which are still in use for that purpose. As some SSDLs may have difficulties in adopting these exact combinations of kV and filtration. This paper discusses the basic ideas involved, and how to go about deriving a different series of qualities

  4. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxides within DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M E; O'Connell, W J

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. In June 2002, at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Material Management, LLNL reported on an extensive effort to calibrate this shuffler, based on standards measurements and extensive simulations, for HEU oxides and mixed U-Pu oxides in thin-walled primary and secondary containers. In August 2002, LLNL began to also use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers for HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. Compared to the double thin-walled containers, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers have substantially thicker walls, and the density of materials in these containers was found to extend over a greater range (1.35 g/cm 3 to 4.62 g/cm 3 ) than foreseen for the double thin-walled containers. Further, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 Standard allows for oxides containing at least 30 wt% Pu plus U whereas the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers were derived for virtually pure HEU or mixed U-Pu oxides. An initial series of Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to given quantities of HEU oxide and mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers was generated and compared with the response predicted by the calibration algorithms for thin-walled containers. Results showed a decrease on the order of 10% in the count rate, and hence a decrease in the calculated U mass for measured unknowns, with some varying trends versus U mass. Therefore a decision was made to develop a calibration algorithm for the PAN shuffler unique to the DOE-STD-3013-2000 container. This paper describes that effort and selected unknown item measurement results

  5. Automated Calibration of Dosimeters for Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Acosta, A.; Gutierrez Lores, S.

    2015-01-01

    Calibration of dosimeters for diagnostic radiology includes current and charge measurements, which are often repetitive. However, these measurements are usually done using modern electrometers, which are equipped with an RS-232 interface that enables instrument control from a computer. This paper presents an automated system aimed to the measurements for the calibration of dosimeters used in diagnostic radiology. A software application was developed, in order to achieve the acquisition of the electric charge readings, measured values of the monitor chamber, calculation of the calibration coefficient and issue of a calibration certificate. A primary data record file is filled and stored in the computer hard disk. The calibration method used was calibration by substitution. With this system, a better control over the calibration process is achieved and the need for human intervention is reduced. the automated system will be used in the calibration of dosimeters for diagnostic radiology at the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. (Author)

  6. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  7. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  8. Transient Calibration of a Variably-Saturated Groundwater Flow Model By Iterative Ensemble Smoothering: Synthetic Case and Application to the Flow Induced During Shaft Excavation and Operation of the Bure Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, D. T.; Kerrou, J.; Benabderrahmane, H.; Perrochet, P.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of groundwater flow models in transient state can be motivated by the expected improved characterization of the aquifer hydraulic properties, especially when supported by a rich transient dataset. In the prospect of setting up a calibration strategy for a variably-saturated transient groundwater flow model of the area around the ANDRA's Bure Underground Research Laboratory, we wish to take advantage of the long hydraulic head and flowrate time series collected near and at the access shafts in order to help inform the model hydraulic parameters. A promising inverse approach for such high-dimensional nonlinear model, and which applicability has been illustrated more extensively in other scientific fields, could be an iterative ensemble smoother algorithm initially developed for a reservoir engineering problem. Furthermore, the ensemble-based stochastic framework will allow to address to some extent the uncertainty of the calibration for a subsequent analysis of a flow process dependent prediction. By assimilating the available data in one single step, this method iteratively updates each member of an initial ensemble of stochastic realizations of parameters until the minimization of an objective function. However, as it is well known for ensemble-based Kalman methods, this correction computed from approximations of covariance matrices is most efficient when the ensemble realizations are multi-Gaussian. As shown by the comparison of the updated ensemble mean obtained for our simplified synthetic model of 2D vertical flow by using either multi-Gaussian or multipoint simulations of parameters, the ensemble smoother fails to preserve the initial connectivity of the facies and the parameter bimodal distribution. Given the geological structures depicted by the multi-layered geological model built for the real case, our goal is to find how to still best leverage the performance of the ensemble smoother while using an initial ensemble of conditional multi

  9. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  10. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, Jeremy S., E-mail: jeremy.cushman@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dally, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Davis, Christopher J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lim, Kyungeun E. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Heeger, Karsten M., E-mail: karsten.heeger@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Maruyama, Reina H. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nucciotti, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wise, Thomas [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  11. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1998-01-01

    The two tasks of the Dosimetry and Calibration Section at CERN are the Individual Dosimetry Service which assures the personal monitoring of about 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation at CERN, and the Calibration Laboratory which verifies all the instruments and monitors. This equipment is used by the sections of the RP Group for assuring radiation protection around CERN's accelerators, and by the Environmental Section of TISTE. In addition, nearly 250 electronic and 300 quartz fibre dosimeters, employed in operational dosimetry, are calibrated at least once a year. The Individual Dosimetry Service uses an extended database (INDOS) which contains information about all the individual doses ever received at CERN. For most of 1997 it was operated without the support of a database administrator as the technician who had assured this work retired. The Software Support Section of TIS-TE took over the technical responsibility of the database, but in view of the many other tasks of this Section and the lack of personnel, only a few interventions for solving immediate problems were possible

  12. Quality Management and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Good specification of a product’s performance requires adequate characterization of relevant properties. Particulate products are usually characterized by some PSD, shape or porosity parameter(s). For proper characterization, adequate sampling, dispersion, and measurement procedures should be available or developed and skilful personnel should use appropriate, well-calibrated/qualified equipment. The characterization should be executed, in agreement with customers, in a wellorganized laboratory. All related aspects should be laid down in a quality handbook. The laboratory should provide proof for its capability to perform the characterization of stated products and/or reference materials within stated confidence limits. This can be done either by internal validation and audits or by external GLP accreditation.

  13. Wind Tunnel Balance Calibration: Are 1,000,000 Data Points Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement systems are typically calibrated based on standard practices established by a metrology standards laboratory, for example the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), or dictated by an organization's metrology manual. Therefore, the calibration is designed and executed according to an established procedure. However, for many aerodynamic research measurement systems a universally accepted standard, traceable approach does not exist. Therefore, a strategy for how to develop a calibration protocol is left to the developer or user to define based on experience and recommended practice in their respective industry. Wind tunnel balances are one such measurement system. Many different calibration systems, load schedules and procedures have been developed for balances with little consensus on a recommended approach. Especially lacking is guidance the number of calibration data points needed. Regrettably, the number of data points tends to be correlated with the perceived quality of the calibration. Often, the number of data points is associated with ones ability to generate the data rather than by a defined need in support of measurement objectives. Hence the title of the paper was conceived to challenge recent observations in the wind tunnel balance community that shows an ever increasing desire for more data points per calibration absent of guidance to determine when there are enough. This paper presents fundamental concepts and theory to aid in the development of calibration procedures for wind tunnel balances and provides a framework that is generally applicable to the characterization and calibration of other measurement systems. Questions that need to be answered are for example: What constitutes an adequate calibration? How much data are needed in the calibration? How good is the calibration? This paper will assist a practitioner in answering these questions by presenting an underlying theory on how to evaluate a calibration based on

  14. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  15. Investigation on calibration parameter of mammography calibration facilities at MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Md Saion Salikin; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Azuhar Ripin; Norriza Mohd Isa

    2004-01-01

    A mammography calibration facility has been established in the Medical Physics Laboratory, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). The calibration facility is established at the national level mainly to provide calibration services for radiation measuring test instruments or test tools used in quality assurance programme in mammography, which is being implemented in Malaysia. One of the accepted parameters that determine the quality of a radiation beam is the homogeneity coefficient. It is determined from the values of the 1 st and 2 nd Half Value Layer (HVL). In this paper, the consistency of the mammography machine beam qualities that is available in MINT, is investigated and presented. For calibration purposes, five radiation qualities namely 23, 25, 28, 30 and 35 kV, selectable from the control panel of the X-ray machine is used. Important parameters that are set for this calibration facility are exposure time, tube current, focal spot to detector distance (FDD) and beam size at specific distance. The values of homogeneity coefficient of this laboratory for the past few years tip to now be presented in this paper. Backscatter radiations are also considered in this investigation. (Author)

  16. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  17. Calibration of hydrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, Salvatore; Malengo, Andrea

    2006-10-01

    After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and the procedure used at the INRiM (formerly IMGC-CNR) density laboratory have been considered to assess all relevant contributions involved in the calibration of different kinds of hydrometers. The uncertainty is strongly dependent on the kind of hydrometer; in particular, the results highlight the importance of the density of the reference buoyant liquid, the temperature of calibration and the skill of operator in the reading of the scale in the whole assessment of the uncertainty. It is also interesting to realize that for high-resolution hydrometers (division of 0.1 kg m-3), the uncertainty contribution of the density of the reference liquid is the main source of the total uncertainty, but its importance falls under about 50% for hydrometers with a division of 0.5 kg m-3 and becomes somewhat negligible for hydrometers with a division of 1 kg m-3, for which the reading uncertainty is the predominant part of the total uncertainty. At present the best INRiM result is obtained with commercially available hydrometers having a scale division of 0.1 kg m-3, for which the relative uncertainty is about 12 × 10-6.

  18. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  19. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  1. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  2. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  3. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs

  4. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  5. SPRT Calibration Uncertainties and Internal Quality Control at a Commercial SPRT Calibration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiandt, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The Hart Scientific Division of the Fluke Corporation operates two accredited standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) calibration facilities, one at the Hart Scientific factory in Utah, USA, and the other at a service facility in Norwich, UK. The US facility is accredited through National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and the UK facility is accredited through UKAS. Both provide SPRT calibrations using similar equipment and procedures, and at similar levels of uncertainty. These uncertainties are among the lowest available commercially. To achieve and maintain low uncertainties, it is required that the calibration procedures be thorough and optimized. However, to minimize customer downtime, it is also important that the instruments be calibrated in a timely manner and returned to the customer. Consequently, subjecting the instrument to repeated calibrations or extensive repeated measurements is not a viable approach. Additionally, these laboratories provide SPRT calibration services involving a wide variety of SPRT designs. These designs behave differently, yet predictably, when subjected to calibration measurements. To this end, an evaluation strategy involving both statistical process control and internal consistency measures is utilized to provide confidence in both the instrument calibration and the calibration process. This article describes the calibration facilities, procedure, uncertainty analysis, and internal quality assurance measures employed in the calibration of SPRTs. Data will be reviewed and generalities will be presented. Finally, challenges and considerations for future improvements will be discussed.

  6. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  7. Guidelines on calibration of neutron measuring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, G.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization have agreed to establish an IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) in order to improve accuracy in applied radiation dosimetry throughout the world. These SSDLs must be equipped with, and maintain, secondary standard instruments, which have been calibrated against primary standards, and must be nominated by their governments for membership of the network. The majority of the existing SSDLs were established primarily to work with photon radiation (X-rays and gamma rays). Neutron sources are, however, increasingly being applied in industrial processes, research, nuclear power development and radiation biology and medicine. Thus, it is desirable that the SSDLs in countries using neutron sources on a regular basis should also fulfil the minimum requirements to calibrate neutron measuring devices. It is the primary purpose of this handbook to provide guidance on calibration of instruments for radiation protection. A calibration laboratory should also be in a position to calibrate instrumentation being used for the measurement of kerma and absorbed dose and their corresponding rates. This calibration is generally done with photons. In addition, since each neutron field is usually contaminated by photons produced in the source or by scatter in the surrounding media, neutron protection instrumentation has to be tested with respect to its intrinsic photon response. The laboratory will therefore need to possess equipment for photon calibration. This publication deals primarily with methods of applying radioactive neutron sources for calibration of instrumentation, and gives an indication of the space, manpower and facilities needed to fulfil the minimum requirements of a calibration laboratory for neutron work. It is intended to serve as a guide for centres about to start on neutron dosimetry standardization and calibration. 94 refs, 8 figs, 12 tabs

  8. Features calibration of the dynamic force transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sc., M. Yu Prilepko D.; Lysenko, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The article discusses calibration methods of dynamic forces measuring instruments. The relevance of work is dictated by need to valid definition of the dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics taking into account their intended application. The aim of this work is choice justification of calibration method, which provides the definition dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics under simulation operating conditions for determining suitability for using in accordance with its purpose. The following tasks are solved: the mathematical model and the main measurements equation of calibration dynamic forces transducers by load weight, the main budget uncertainty components of calibration are defined. The new method of dynamic forces transducers calibration with use the reference converter “force-deformation” based on the calibrated elastic element and measurement of his deformation by a laser interferometer is offered. The mathematical model and the main measurements equation of the offered method is constructed. It is shown that use of calibration method based on measurements by the laser interferometer of calibrated elastic element deformations allows to exclude or to considerably reduce the uncertainty budget components inherent to method of load weight.

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  10. Calibration of the SNO+ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneira, J.; Falk, E.; Leming, E.; Peeters, S.; SNO+ Collaboration.

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the SNO+ experiment is to perform a low-background and high-isotope-mass search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, employing 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator loaded with tellurium, in its initial phase at 0.5% by mass for a total mass of 1330 kg of 130Te. The SNO+ physics program includes also measurements of geo- and reactor neutrinos, supernova and solar neutrinos. Calibrations are an essential component of the SNO+ data-taking and analysis plan. The achievement of the physics goals requires both an extensive and regular calibration. This serves several goals: the measurement of several detector parameters, the validation of the simulation model and the constraint of systematic uncertainties on the reconstruction and particle identification algorithms. SNO+ faces stringent radiopurity requirements which, in turn, largely determine the materials selection, sealing and overall design of both the sources and deployment systems. In fact, to avoid frequent access to the inner volume of the detector, several permanent optical calibration systems have been developed and installed outside that volume. At the same time, the calibration source internal deployment system was re-designed as a fully sealed system, with more stringent material selection, but following the same working principle as the system used in SNO. This poster described the overall SNO+ calibration strategy, discussed the several new and innovative sources, both optical and radioactive, and covered the developments on source deployment systems.

  11. 40 CFR 160.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 160.63 Maintenance and calibration of..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/ or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance and calibration of...

  12. Dosimetry and Calibration Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Dosimetry and Calibration Section fulfils two tasks within CERN's Radiation Protection Group: the Individual Dosimetry Service monitors more than 5000 persons potentially exposed to ionizing radiation on the CERN sites, and the Calibration Laboratory verifies throughout the year, at regular intervals, over 1000 instruments, monitors, and electronic dosimeters used by RP Group. The establishment of a Quality Assurance System for the Individual Dosimetry Service, a requirement of the new Swiss Ordinance for personal dosimetry, put a considerable workload on the section. Together with an external consultant it was decided to identify and then describe the different 'processes' of the routine work performed in the dosimetry service. The resulting Quality Manual was submitted to the Federal Office for Public Health in Bern in autumn. The CERN Individual Dosimetry Service will eventually be officially endorsed after a successful technical test in March 1999. On the technical side, the introduction of an automatic development machine for gamma films was very successful. It processes the dosimetric films without an operator being present, and its built-in regeneration mechanism keeps the concentration of the processing chemicals at a constant level

  13. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-01-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  14. Update of the Picker C9 irradiator control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration; Actualizacion del sistema de control del irradiador Picker C9 de la sala gamma II del laboratorio secundario de calibracion dosimetrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon S, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The Picker C9 irradiator is responsible for the calibration of different radiological equipment and the control system that maintains it in operation is designed in the graphical programming software LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench), being its major advantages: the different types of communication, easy interconnection with other software and the recognition of different hardware devices, among others. Operation of the irradiator control system is performed with the NI-Usb-6008 (DAQ) data acquisition module of the National Instruments Company. The purpose of this work is to update the routines that make the Picker C9 control system of the gamma II room of the secondary laboratory of dosimetric calibration, using the graphic programming software LabVIEW, as well as to configure the new acquisition hardware of data that is implemented to control the Picker C9 irradiator system and ensure its operation. (Author)

  15. ACVP-02: Plasma SIV/SHIV RNA Viral Load Measurements through the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SIV plasma viral load assay performed by the Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core (QMDC) utilizes reagents specifically designed to detect and accurately quantify the full range of SIV/SHIV viral variants and clones in common usage in the rese

  16. 21 CFR 58.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Equipment § 58.63 Maintenance and... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance and calibration of equipment. 58.63..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate...

  17. Critical issues for implementation of the standard NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005 in Testing and Calibration Laboratory: case study at a public institution; Aspectos criticos para implantacao da norma NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005 em laboratorio de ensaio e calibracao: estudo de caso em uma instituicao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Denise Confar Carvalho de

    2013-07-01

    The public institution aims to promote excellence in public management to contribute to the quality of services provided to its customers and to increase competitiveness in the country, as well as its international projection. A technical barrier to trade that can lead to dissatisfaction and achieve the reputation of the institution is failing the test or calibration results and measurement data, thereby accreditation is regarded as the first essential step to facilitate the mutual acceptance of test results and calibration or measurement data. For recognition, laboratories need to demonstrate full compliance with both the sections of ISO/IEC 17025:2005, i.e. management and technical requirements. This research aims to discuss the critical aspects for implementation of ABNT NBR ISO / IEC 17025:2005 for calibration and testing of a Public Institution seeking accreditation of its laboratories with INMETRO, national accreditation body Laboratories. Besides getting preventive, corrective and improvement actions continues guidelines. Furthermore, the methodology used was to conduct a literature search and apply a questionnaire to identify the degree of agreement / disagreement of the foundations of the standard servers. Analysis of the results showed that the critical issues were: commitment, training, resources (infrastructure, human) and culture. (author)

  18. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  19. Improvement of the calibration technique of clinical dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlin Caldas, L.V.

    1988-08-01

    Clinical dosemeters constituted of ionization chambers connected to electrometers are usually calibrated as whole systems in appropriate radiation fields against secondary standard dosemeters in calibration laboratories. This work reports on a technique of component calibration procedures separately for chambers and electrometers applied in the calibration laboratory of IPEN-CNEN, Brazil. For electrometer calibration, redundancy was established by using a standard capacitor of 1000pF (General Radio, USA) and a standard current source based on air ionization with Sr 90 (PTW, Germany). The results from both methods applied to several electrometers of clinical dosemeters agreed within 0.4%. The calibration factors for the respective chambers were determined by intercomparing their response to the response of a certified calibrated chamber in a Co 60 calibration beam using a Keithley electrometer type 617. Overall calibration factors compared with the product of the respective component calibration factors for the tested dosemeters showed an agreement better than 0.7%. This deviation has to be considered with regard to an uncertainty of 2.5% in routine calibration of clinical dosemeters. Calibration by components permits to calibrate ionization chambers one at a time for those hospitals who have several ionization chambers but only one electrometer (small hospitals, hospitals in developing countries). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Mechanics of log calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, W.C.; Cram, M.E.; Hall, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    For any measurement to have meaning, it must be related to generally accepted standard units by a valid and specified system of comparison. To calibrate well-logging tools, sensing systems are designed which produce consistent and repeatable indications over the range for which the tool was intended. The basics of calibration theory, procedures, and calibration record presentations are reviewed. Calibrations for induction, electrical, radioactivity, and sonic logging tools will be discussed. The authors' intent is to provide an understanding of the sources of errors, of the way errors are minimized in the calibration process, and of the significance of changes in recorded calibration data

  1. Calibration-free optical chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for taking absorbance-based chemical measurements are described. In a specific embodiment, an indicator-based pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) sensor displays sensor-to-sensor reproducibility and measurement stability. These qualities are achieved by: 1) renewing the sensing solution, 2) allowing the sensing solution to reach equilibrium with the analyte, and 3) calculating the response from a ratio of the indicator solution absorbances which are determined relative to a blank solution. Careful solution preparation, wavelength calibration, and stray light rejection also contribute to this calibration-free system. Three pCO2 sensors were calibrated and each had response curves which were essentially identical within the uncertainty of the calibration. Long-term laboratory and field studies showed the response had no drift over extended periods (months). The theoretical response, determined from thermodynamic characterization of the indicator solution, also predicted the observed calibration-free performance.

  2. Cryogenic Thermometer Calibration Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, C; Thermeau, J P

    1998-01-01

    A cryogenic thermometer calibration facility has been designed and is being commissioned in preparation for the very stringent requirements on the temperature control of the LHC superconducting magnets. The temperature is traceable in the 1.5 to 30 K range to standards maintained in a national metrological laboratory by using a set of Rhodium-Iron temperature sensors of metrological quality. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating simultaneously 60 industrial cryogenic thermometers in the 1.5 K to 300 K temperature range, a thermometer being a device that includes both a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept. The thermometers can be calibrated in good and degraded vacuum or immersed in the surrounding fluid and at different Joule self-heating conditions that match those imposed by signal conditioners used in large cryogenic machinery. The calibration facility can be operated in an automatic mode and all the control and safety routines are handled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)...

  3. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations

  4. Validating and calibrating the Nintendo Wii balance board to derive reliable center of pressure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Julia M; Mancini, Martina; Peterka, Robert J; Hayes, Tamara L; Horak, Fay B

    2014-09-29

    The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB) has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation) research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the "gold standard" laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP) measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP) to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz). Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB's CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML) (compared to the anteroposterior (AP)) sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB's, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB's CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB's CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error) from 2-6 mm (before calibration) to 0.5-2 mm (after calibration). WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain) CoP sway measures, from -10.5% (before calibration) to -0.05% (after calibration) (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions). In this study, we characterized the WBB's CoP measurement error under controlled, dynamic

  5. Synthesis Polarimetry Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellenbrock, George

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis instrumental polarization calibration fundamentals for both linear (ALMA) and circular (EVLA) feed bases are reviewed, with special attention to the calibration heuristics supported in CASA. Practical problems affecting modern instruments are also discussed.

  6. ORNL calibrations facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ORNL Calibrations Facility is operated by the Instrumentation Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation calibration standards for calibration of ORNL health physics instruments and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for calibration of those survey instruments and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL

  7. Calibration of Elasto-Magnetic Sensors on In-Service Cable-Stayed Bridges for Stress Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Carlo; Zonta, Daniele; Laasri, Hassan Ait; Glisic, Branko; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-05

    The recent developments in measurement technology have led to the installation of efficient monitoring systems on many bridges and other structures all over the world. Nowadays, more and more structures have been built and instrumented with sensors. However, calibration and installation of sensors remain challenging tasks. In this paper, we use a case study, Adige Bridge, in order to present a low-cost method for the calibration and installation of elasto-magnetic sensors on cable-stayed bridges. Elasto-magnetic sensors enable monitoring of cable stress. The sensor installation took place two years after the bridge construction. The calibration was conducted in two phases: one in the laboratory and the other one on site. In the laboratory, a sensor was built around a segment of cable that was identical to those of the cable-stayed bridge. Then, the sample was subjected to a defined tension force. The sensor response was compared with the applied load. Experimental results showed that the relationship between load and magnetic permeability does not depend on the sensor fabrication process except for an offset. The determination of this offset required in situ calibration after installation. In order to perform the in situ calibration without removing the cables from the bridge, vibration tests were carried out for the estimation of the cables' tensions. At the end of the paper, we show and discuss one year of data from the elasto-magnetic sensors. Calibration results demonstrate the simplicity of the installation of these sensors on existing bridges and new structures.

  8. Calibration of Elasto-Magnetic Sensors on In-Service Cable-Stayed Bridges for Stress Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cappello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in measurement technology have led to the installation of efficient monitoring systems on many bridges and other structures all over the world. Nowadays, more and more structures have been built and instrumented with sensors. However, calibration and installation of sensors remain challenging tasks. In this paper, we use a case study, Adige Bridge, in order to present a low-cost method for the calibration and installation of elasto-magnetic sensors on cable-stayed bridges. Elasto-magnetic sensors enable monitoring of cable stress. The sensor installation took place two years after the bridge construction. The calibration was conducted in two phases: one in the laboratory and the other one on site. In the laboratory, a sensor was built around a segment of cable that was identical to those of the cable-stayed bridge. Then, the sample was subjected to a defined tension force. The sensor response was compared with the applied load. Experimental results showed that the relationship between load and magnetic permeability does not depend on the sensor fabrication process except for an offset. The determination of this offset required in situ calibration after installation. In order to perform the in situ calibration without removing the cables from the bridge, vibration tests were carried out for the estimation of the cables’ tensions. At the end of the paper, we show and discuss one year of data from the elasto-magnetic sensors. Calibration results demonstrate the simplicity of the installation of these sensors on existing bridges and new structures.

  9. Computational integration of the phases and procedures of calibration processes for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gleice R. dos; Thiago, Bibiana dos S.; Rocha, Felicia D.G.; Santos, Gelson P. dos; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    This work proceed the computational integration of the processes phases by using only a single computational software, from the entrance of the instrument at the Instrument Calibration Laboratory (LCI-IPEN) to the conclusion of calibration procedures. So, the initial information such as trade mark, model, manufacturer, owner, and the calibration records are digitized once until the calibration certificate emission

  10. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  11. Development of a quality assured calibration method for the PSI radon chamber reference atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, C.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Vezzu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Radon detectors and measuring instruments are calibrated at the PSI Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements by exposing them to a calibrated radon reference atmosphere in the PSI radon chamber. A sophisticated and quality assured calibration technique was developed which guarantees the traceability of this radon chamber reference atmosphere to standards of internationally acknowledged primary laboratories. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs

  12. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  13. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaro, Erhabor; Chima, Njemanze

    2014-06-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is a term used to describe the publicly funded healthcare delivery system providing quality healthcare services in the United Kingdom. There are several challenges militating against the effective laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England. Biomedical scientists work in healthcare to diagnose disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment through the analysis of body fluids and tissue samples from patients. They provide the "engine room" of modern medicine with 70% of diagnosis based on the laboratory results generated by them. This review involved the search of literature for information on working condition of biomedical scientist in the NHS in England. Laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England faces numerous daunting challenges; staffing levels in the last few years have become dangerously low, less remunerated, relatively less experienced and predominantly band 5's, multidisciplinary rather than specialty based, associated with working more unsocial hours without adequate recovery time, de-banding of staff, high staff turnaround, profit and cost driven rather than quality. These factors has resulted in burn out, low morale, high sickness absences, increased error rate, poor team spirit, diminished productivity and suboptimal laboratory service delivery. There is the urgent need to retract our steps on unpopular policies to ensure that patient care is not compromised by ensuring adequate staffing level and mix, ensuring adequate remuneration of laboratory staff, implementing evidenced-based specialty oriented service, determining the root cause/s for the high staff turnover and implementing corrective action, identifying other potential sources of waste in the system rather than pruning the already dangerously low staffing levels and promoting a quality delivery side by side cost effectiveness.

  14. Providing primary standard calibrations beyond 20 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S P

    2004-01-01

    The number of applications of medical ultrasound utilising frequencies in excess of 20 MHz has shown a consistent increase over recent years. Coupled with the commercial availability of wide-bandwidth hydrophones whose response extends beyond 40 MHz, this has driven a growing need to develop hydrophone calibration techniques at elevated frequencies. The current National Physical Laboratory primary standard method of calibrating hydrophones is based on an optical interferometer. This has been in operation for around 20 years and provides traceability over the frequency range of 0.3 to 20 MHz. More recently, calibrations carried out using the interferometer have been extended to 60 MHz, although the uncertainties associated with these calibrations are poor, being in excess of ±20% at high frequencies. Major contributions to the degraded calibration uncertainties arise from poor signal-to-noise at higher frequencies, the frequency response of the photodiodes used and the noise floor of the instrument. To improve the uncertainty of hydrophone calibrations above 20 MHz, it has been necessary to build and commission a new interferometer. Important features of the new primary standard are its use of a higher power laser to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, along with photodiodes whose greater bandwidth to improve the overall frequency response. This paper describes the design of key aspects of the new interferometer. It also presents some initial results of the performance assessment, including a detailed comparison of calibrations of NPL reference membrane hydrophones, undertaken using old and new interferometers for calibration up to 40 MHz

  15. Quality control for dose calibrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, L.C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear medicine laboratories are required to assay samples of radioactivity to be administered to patients. Almost universally, these assays are accomplished by use of a well ionization chamber isotope calibrator. The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Institute for Radiological Protection and Dosimetry) of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (National Commission for Nuclear Energy) is carrying out a National Quality Control Programme in Nuclear Medicine, supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The assessment of the current needs and practices of quality control in the entire country of Brazil includes Dose Calibrators and Scintillation Cameras, but this manual is restricted to the former. Quality Control Procedures for these Instruments are described in this document together with specific recommendations and assessment of its accuracy. (author)

  16. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefor...

  17. Calibration of Photon Sources for Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnders, Alex

    Source calibration has to be considered an essential part of the quality assurance program in a brachytherapy department. Not only it will ensure that the source strength value used for dose calculation agrees within some predetermined limits to the value stated on the source certificate, but also it will ensure traceability to international standards. At present calibration is most often still given in terms of reference air kerma rate, although calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water would be closer to the users interest. It can be expected that in a near future several standard laboratories will be able to offer this latter service, and dosimetry protocols will have to be adapted in this way. In-air measurement using ionization chambers (e.g. a Baldwin—Farmer ionization chamber for 192Ir high dose rate HDR or pulsed dose rate PDR sources) is still considered the method of choice for high energy source calibration, but because of their ease of use and reliability well type chambers are becoming more popular and are nowadays often recommended as the standard equipment. For low energy sources well type chambers are in practice the only equipment available for calibration. Care should be taken that the chamber is calibrated at the standard laboratory for the same source type and model as used in the clinic, and using the same measurement conditions and setup. Several standard laboratories have difficulties to provide these calibration facilities, especially for the low energy seed sources (125I and 103Pd). Should a user not be able to obtain properly calibrated equipment to verify the brachytherapy sources used in his department, then at least for sources that are replaced on a regular basis, a consistency check program should be set up to ensure a minimal level of quality control before these sources are used for patient treatment.

  18. SWAT Model Configuration, Calibration and Validation for Lake Champlain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to develop phosphorus loading estimates for sources in the Lake Champlain Basin. This document describes the model setup and parameterization, and presents calibration results.

  19. Improvement of gamma calibration procedures with commercial management software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, Rodrigo F.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Santos, Gelson P.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the gamma calibration procedure of the Instruments Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the IPEN-CNEN-SP was improved with the use of the commercial management software Autolab TM from Automa Company. That software was adapted for our specific use in the calibration procedures. The evaluation of the uncertainties in gamma calibration protocol was improved by the LCI staff and yet the all worksheets and final calibration report lay-out was developed in commercial software like Excell TM and Word TM from Microsft TM . (author)

  20. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  1. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England

    OpenAIRE

    Osaro, Erhabor; Chima, Njemanze

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is a term used to describe the publicly funded healthcare delivery system providing quality healthcare services in the United Kingdom. There are several challenges militating against the effective laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England. Biomedical scientists work in healthcare to diagnose disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment through the analysis of body fluids and tissue samples from patients. They provide the “engine room” of modern...

  2. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhabor Osaro

    2014-06-01

    There is the urgent need to retract our steps on unpopular policies to ensure that patient care is not compromised by ensuring adequate staffing level and mix, ensuring adequate remuneration of laboratory staff, implementing evidenced-based specialty oriented service, determining the root cause/s for the high staff turnover and implementing corrective action, identifying other potential sources of waste in the system rather than pruning the already dangerously low staffing levels and promoting a quality delivery side by side cost effectiveness.

  3. Maximum respiratory pressure measuring system : calibration and evaluation of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Pereira, N.C.; Oliveira Júnior, M.; Vasconcelos, F.H.; Parreira, V.F.; Tierra-Criollo, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the evaluation of uncertainties in the measurements results obtained during the calibration of a digital manovacuometer prototype (DM) with a load cell sensor pressure device incorporated. Calibration curves were obtained for both pressure

  4. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  5. Automation of the Calibration of Reference Dosimeters Used in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Acosta, A.; Gutierrez Lores, S.

    2013-01-01

    Traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements are essential in radiation dosimetry, particularly in radiotherapy, where the outcome of treatments is highly dependent on the radiation dose delivered to patients. The role of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) is crucial in providing traceable calibrations to hospitals, since these laboratories disseminate calibrations at specific radiation qualities appropriate to the use of radiation measuring instruments. These laboratories follow IAEA/WHO guidelines for calibration procedures, often being current and charge measurements described in these guidelines a tedious task. However, these measurements are usually done using modern electrometers which are equipped with a RS-232 interface that allows instrument control from a PC. This paper presents the design and employment of an automated system aimed to the measurements of the radiotherapy dosimeters calibration process for Cobalt-60 gamma rays. A software was developed using Lab View, in order to achieve the acquisition of the charge values measured, calculation of the calibration coefficient and issue of a calibration certificate. A primary data report file is filled and stored in the PC's hard disk. By using this software tool, a better control over the calibration process is achieved, it reduces the need for human intervention and it also reduces the exposure of the laboratory staff. The automated system has been used for the calibration of reference dosimeters used in radiotherapy at the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (Author)

  6. Radiation and Health Technology Laboratory Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goles, Ronald W.; Johnson, Michelle Lynn; Piper, Roman K.; Peters, Jerry D.; Murphy, Mark K.; Mercado, Mike S.; Bihl, Donald E.; Lynch, Timothy P.

    2003-07-15

    The Radiological Standards and Calibrations Laboratory, a part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) performs calibrations and upholds reference standards necessary to maintain traceability to national standards. The facility supports U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site, programs sponsored by DOE Headquarters and other federal agencies, radiological protection programs at other DOE and commercial nuclear sites and research and characterization programs sponsored through the commercial sector. The laboratory is located in the 318 Building of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. The facility contains five major exposure rooms and several laboratories used for exposure work preparation, low-activity instrument calibrations, instrument performance evaluations, instrument maintenance, instrument design and fabrication work, thermoluminescent and radiochromic Dosimetry, and calibration of measurement and test equipment (M&TE). The major exposure facilities are a low-scatter room used for neutron and photon exposures, a source well room used for high-volume instrument calibration work, an x-ray facility used for energy response studies, a high-exposure facility used for high-rate photon calibration work, a beta standards laboratory used for beta energy response studies and beta reference calibrations and M&TE laboratories. Calibrations are routinely performed for personnel dosimeters, health physics instrumentation, photon and neutron transfer standards alpha, beta, and gamma field sources used throughout the Hanford Site, and a wide variety of M&TE. This report describes the standards and calibrations laboratory.

  7. Effect of contact stiffness on wedge calibration of lateral force in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative friction measurement of nanomaterials in atomic force microscope requires accurate calibration method for lateral force. The effect of contact stiffness on lateral force calibration of atomic force microscope is discussed in detail and an improved calibration method is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. The improved method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate the method in this article

  8. The Importance of Splat Events to the Spatiotemporal Structure of Near-Bed Fluid Velocity and Bed Load Motion Over Bed Forms: Laboratory Experiments Downstream of a Backward Facing Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, K. C. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Flow separation/reattachment on the lee side of alluvial bed forms is known to produce a complex turbulence field, but the spatiotemporal details of the associated patterns of bed load sediment transported remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bed load motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bed load motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward facing step. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were used to characterize fluid turbulent patterns, while manual particle tracking techniques were used to characterize bed load transport. Octant analysis, conducted using ADV data, coupled with Markovian sequence probability analysis highlights differences in the flow near reattachment versus farther downstream. Near reattachment, three distinct flow patterns are apparent. Farther downstream we see the development of a dominant flow sequence. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events are more apparent near flow reattachment. These events are composed of streamwise and cross-stream fluxes of comparable magnitudes. Transport pattern and fluid velocity data are consistent with the existence of permeable "splat events," wherein a volume of fluid moves toward and impinges on the bed (sweep) causing a radial movement of fluid in all directions around the point of impingement (outward interaction). This is congruent with flow patterns, identified with octant analysis, proximal to flow reattachment.

  9. Secondary calibration laboratory for dosimetry in levels of therapy at the University of Santiago; Laboratorio secundario de calibracion para dosimetria en niveles de terapia en la Universidad de Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez Castano, D. M.; Pazos Alvarez, A.

    2011-07-01

    A basic inherent benefits provided by the existence of a traceability chain radiation in any application, add the legal requirement for hospitals as pointed to by the RO. 1566/1998, which sets quality standards in radiotherapy. The decree attributed to hospital specialists radio physics in article 10 the responsibility for determining the acceptance and initial reference state of radiation generating equipment for therapeutic purposes, and the establishment and implementation of quality control programs associated and technical and physical aspects of radiation dosimetry. Different international organizations such as ICRU and IAEA recommendations on maintaining the accuracy of the dose delivered to patients in general, should be placed at least 5% considering the whole chain irradiation. In order to achieve this purpose it is necessary to establish programs of quality control and calibration dosimetric regular basis. The protocol of the IAEA TRS398 recommended dose calibration in water because it is a quantity of interest closest to clinical use and allows a relative uncertainty in the calibration environment reduced to 1%.. (Author)

  10. Calibration of Flick standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalmann, Ruedi; Spiller, Jürg; Küng, Alain; Jusko, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Flick standards or magnification standards are widely used for an efficient and functional calibration of the sensitivity of form measuring instruments. The results of a recent measurement comparison have shown to be partially unsatisfactory and revealed problems related to the calibration of these standards. In this paper the influence factors for the calibration of Flick standards using roundness measurement instruments are discussed in detail, in particular the bandwidth of the measurement chain, residual form errors of the device under test, profile distortions due to the diameter of the probing element and questions related to the definition of the measurand. The different contributions are estimated using simulations and are experimentally verified. Also alternative methods to calibrate Flick standards are investigated. Finally the practical limitations of Flick standard calibration are shown and the usability of Flick standards both to calibrate the sensitivity of roundness instruments and to check the filter function of such instruments is analysed. (paper)

  11. Instrument evaluation, calibration, and installation for the heater experiments at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauf, T.; Pratt, H.; Simonson, E.; Hustrulid, W.; Nelson, P.; DuBois, A.; Binnall, E.; Haught, R.

    1979-12-01

    Borehole instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, displacement, and stress was evaluated, modified, calibrated, and installed in an underground site at Stripa, Sweden where experiments are currently underway to investigate the suitability of granite as a storage medium for nuclear waste. Three arrays of borehole instrumentation measure the thermomechanical effects caused by electrical heaters which simulate the thermal output of canisters of radioactive waste. Because most rock mechanics investigations are carried out at modest temperatures, a sustained operating temperature as high as 200 0 C was an unusual and most important criterion governing the instrumentation program. Extensive laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of high temperature on instrument behavior and also to develop calibration and data-reduction procedures. The rod extensometers were tested for anchor creep, the selection of a suitable high-temperature pressurizing fluid, and the thermal stability of the grout. Four temperature corrections are incorporated into the data reduction of the USBM borehole deformation measurement: the bridge voltage offset correction, the change in calibration factor induced by temperature, and the thermal expansion of the gage and of the rock. The vibrating wire gages were calibrated in the laboratory by loading gages installed in a granite block at pressures up to 13 MPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 0 to 200 0 C. Both the slope and offset of the response equation are corrected for temperature effects. Most thermocouples were calibrated in an oven at the field site. Thermocouples were emplaced with individual gages and into holes backfilled with sand or grout

  12. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  13. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  14. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  15. Calibration of photon and beta ray sources used in brachytherapy. Guidelines on standardized procedures at Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories; Calibracion de fuentes de fotones y rayos beta usadas en braquiterapia. Guia de procedimiento estandarizados en Laboratorios Secundarios de Calibracion Dosimetrica (LSCD) y en hospitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    It has generally been recognized that international harmonization in radiotherapy dosimetry is essential. Consequently, the IAEA has given much effort to this, for example by publishing a number of reports in the Technical Reports Series (TRS) for external beam dosimetry, most notably TRS-277 and more recently TRS-398. Both of these reports describe in detail the steps to be taken for absorbed dose determination in water and they are often referred to as 'dosimetry protocols'. Similar to TRS-277, it is expected that TRS-398 will be adopted or used as a model by a large number of countries as their national protocol. In 1996, the IAEA established a calibration service for low dose rate (LDR) 137 Cs brachytherapy sources, which is the most widely used source for treatment of gynecological cancer. To further enhance harmonization in brachytherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published in 1999 IAEA-TECDOC-1079 entitled 'Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources. Guidelines on Standardized Procedures for the Calibration of Brachytherapy Sources at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) and Hospitals'. The report was well received and was distributed in a large number of copies to the members of the IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs and to medical physicists working with brachytherapy. The present report is an update of the aforementioned TECDOC. Whereas TECDOC-1079 described methods for calibrating brachytherapy sources with photon energies at or above those of {sup 192}Ir, the current report has a wider scope in that it deals with standardization of calibration of all the most commonly used brachytherapy sources, including both photon and beta emitting sources. The latter sources have been in use for a few decades already, but their calibration methods have been unclear. Methods are also described for calibrating sources used in the rapidly growing field of cardiovascular angioplasty. In this application, irradiation of the vessel wall is done in an attempt to prevent restenosis

  16. Calibration of a scintillation dosemeter for beta rays using an extrapolation ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, A.T.; Sipilae, P.M.; Kosunen, A.

    2004-01-01

    A scintillation dosemeter is calibrated for 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta rays from an ophthalmic applicator, using an extrapolation ionization chamber as a reference instrument. The calibration factor for the scintillation dosemeter agrees with that given by the manufacturer of the dosemeter within ca. 2%. The estimated overall uncertainty of the present calibration is ca. 6% (2 sd). A calibrated beta-ray ophthalmic applicator can be used as a reference source for further calibrations performed in the laboratory or in the hospital

  17. Improved bolt models for use in global analyses of storage and transportation casks subject to extra-regulatory loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalan, R.J.; Ammerman, D.J.; Gwinn, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Transportation and storage casks subjected to extra-regulatory loadings may experience large stresses and strains in key structural components. One of the areas susceptible to these large stresses and strains is the bolted joint retaining any closure lid on an overpack or a canister. Modeling this joint accurately is necessary in evaluating the performance of the cask under extreme loading conditions. However, developing detailed models of a bolt in a large cask finite element model can dramatically increase the computational time, making the analysis prohibitive. Sandia National Laboratories used a series of calibrated, detailed, bolt finite element sub-models to develop a modified-beam bolt-model in order to examine the response of a storage cask and closure to severe accident loadings. The initial sub-models were calibrated for tension and shear loading using test data for large diameter bolts. Next, using the calibrated test model, sub-models of the actual joints were developed to obtain force-displacement curves and failure points for the bolted joint. These functions were used to develop a modified beam element representation of the bolted joint, which could be incorporated into the larger cask finite element model. This paper will address the modeling and assumptions used for the development of the initial calibration models, the joint sub-models and the modified beam model

  18. Sex differences in muscular load among house painters performing identical work tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyland, Jacob; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to estimate possible differences in upper body muscular load between male and female house painters performing identical work tasks. Sex-related differences in muscular load may help explain why women, in general, have more musculoskeletal complaints than men....... METHODS: In a laboratory setting, 16 male and 16 female house painters performed nine standardised work tasks common to house painters. Unilateral electromyography (EMG) recordings were obtained from the supraspinatus muscle by intramuscular electrodes and from the trapezius, extensor and flexor carpi...... radialis muscles by surface electrodes. Relative muscular loads in %EMGmax as well as exerted force in Newton, based on ramp calibrations, were assessed. Sex differences were tested using a mixed model approach. RESULTS: Women worked at about 50% higher relative muscular loads than men in the supraspinatus...

  19. 40 CFR 792.63 - Maintenance and calibration of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Equipment § 792.63 Maintenance and..., maintenance, testing, calibration, and/or standardization of equipment, and shall specify, when appropriate... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance and calibration of...

  20. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  1. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Tess L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This report presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  2. Calibration of measurement instruments in industrial irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiou, A.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the activities of the AREVA NC site in La Hague and its organization, the author describes the missions of the Calibration Laboratory within this establishment, its methods, its metrological means, and outlines the traceability of results

  3. Calibration of ADRET voltage generator type CV102. Program CODAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, Gerard.

    1978-07-01

    The CODAV programm studied by the Metrology SES/SME laboratory is used for the calibration of ADRET voltage generator type CV.102. A JCAM.10 microcomputer run the measurement cycle and the printout of the results [fr

  4. Laboratory and pilot-scale field experiments for application of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded chitosan composites to phosphate removal from natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply iron oxide nanoparticle-chitosan (ION-chitosan) composites to phosphate removal from natural water collected from the Seoho Stream in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Laboratory batch experiments showed that phosphate removal by the ION-chitosan composites was not sensitive to pH changes between pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. During six cycles of adsorption-desorption, the composites could be successfully regenerated with 5 mM NaOH solution and reused for phosphate removal. Laboratory fixed-bed column experiments (column height = 10 and 20 cm, inner diameter = 2.5 cm, flow rate = 8.18 and 16.36 mL/min) demonstrated that the composites could be successfully applied for phosphate removal under dynamic flow conditions. A pilot-scale field experiment was performed in a pilot plant, which was mainly composed of chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation and an adsorption tower, built nearby the Seoho Stream. The natural water was pumped from the Seoho Stream into the pilot plant, passed through the chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation process, and then introduced into the adsorption tower (height = 100 cm, inner diameter = 45 cm, flow rate = 7.05 ± 0.18 L/min) for phosphate removal via the composites (composite volume = 80 L, composite weight = 85.74 kg). During monitoring of the adsorption tower (33 days), the influent total phosphorus (T-P) concentration was in the range of 0.020-0.046 mgP/L, whereas the effluent T-P concentration was in the range of 0.010-0.028 mgP/L. The percent removal of T-P in the adsorption tower was 52.3% with a phosphate removal capacity of 0.059 mgP/g.

  5. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239 Pu, 187 Re, and 238 U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis

  6. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  7. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...

  8. Topics in Statistical Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Natural cubic spline speed di st 110 B.2 The calibrate function The most basic calibration problem, the one often encountered in more advanced ...0040-1706, 1537-2723. A. M. Mood, F. A. Graybill, and D. C. Boes. Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, Auckland , U.A, 1974. ISBN

  9. Calibration of high resolution digital camera based on different photogrammetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N F A; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents method of calibrating high-resolution digital camera based on different configuration which comprised of stereo and convergent. Both methods are performed in the laboratory and in the field calibration. Laboratory calibration is based on a 3D test field where a calibration plate of dimension 0.4 m × 0.4 m with grid of targets at different height is used. For field calibration, it uses the same concept of 3D test field which comprised of 81 target points located on a flat ground and the dimension is 9 m × 9 m. In this study, a non-metric high resolution digital camera called Canon Power Shot SX230 HS was calibrated in the laboratory and in the field using different configuration for data acquisition. The aim of the calibration is to investigate the behavior of the internal digital camera whether all the digital camera parameters such as focal length, principal point and other parameters remain the same or vice-versa. In the laboratory, a scale bar is placed in the test field for scaling the image and approximate coordinates were used for calibration process. Similar method is utilized in the field calibration. For both test fields, the digital images were acquired within short period using stereo and convergent configuration. For field calibration, aerial digital images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. All the images were processed using photogrammetric calibration software. Different calibration results were obtained for both laboratory and field calibrations. The accuracy of the results is evaluated based on standard deviation. In general, for photogrammetric applications and other applications the digital camera must be calibrated for obtaining accurate measurement or results. The best method of calibration depends on the type of applications. Finally, for most applications the digital camera is calibrated on site, hence, field calibration is the best method of calibration and could be employed for obtaining accurate

  10. The GERDA calibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Laura; Froborg, Francis; Tarka, Michael; Bruch, Tobias; Ferella, Alfredo [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    A system with three identical custom made units is used for the energy calibration of the GERDA Ge diodes. To perform a calibration the {sup 228}Th sources are lowered from the parking positions at the top of the cryostat. Their positions are measured by two independent modules. One, the incremental encoder, counts the holes in the perforated steel band holding the sources, the other measures the drive shaft's angular position even if not powered. The system can be controlled remotely by a Labview program. The calibration data is analyzed by an iterative calibration algorithm determining the calibration functions for different energy reconstruction algorithms and the resolution of several peaks in the {sup 228}Th spectrum is determined. A Monte Carlo simulation using the GERDA simulation software MAGE has been performed to determine the background induced by the sources in the parking positions.

  11. 40 CFR 92.116 - Engine output measurement system calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer's data, actual measurement, or the value recorded from the previous calibration used for this... load-cell or transfer standard may be used to verify the in-use torque measurement system. (i) The... spaced torque values as indicated by the master load-cell for each in-use range used. (v) The in-use...

  12. Development of nano-roughness calibration standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baršić, Gorana; Mahović, Sanjin; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2012-01-01

    At the Laboratory for Precise Measurements of Length, currently the Croatian National Laboratory for Length, unique nano-roughness calibration standards were developed, which have been physically implemented in cooperation with the company MikroMasch Trading OU and the Ruđer Bošković Institute. In this paper, a new design for a calibration standard with two measuring surfaces is presented. One of the surfaces is for the reproduction of roughness parameters, while the other is for the traceability of length units below 50 nm. The nominal values of the groove depths on these measuring surfaces are the same. Thus, a link between the measuring surfaces has been ensured, which makes these standards unique. Furthermore, the calibration standards available on the market are generally designed specifically for individual groups of measuring instrumentation, such as interferometric microscopes, stylus instruments, scanning electron microscopes (SEM) or scanning probe microscopes. In this paper, a new design for nano-roughness standards has been proposed for use in the calibration of optical instruments, as well as for stylus instruments, SEM, atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes. Therefore, the development of these new nano-roughness calibration standards greatly contributes to the reproducibility of the results of groove depth measurement as well as the 2D and 3D roughness parameters obtained by various measuring methods. (paper)

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox 3 Planet Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox was redesigned to improve its load-sharing characteristics and predicted fatigue life. The most important aspect of the redesign was to replace the cylindrical roller bearings with preloaded tapered roller bearings in the planetary section. Similar to previous work, the strain gages installed on the planet tapered roller bearings were calibrated in a load frame. This report describes the calibration tests and provides the factors necessary to convert the measured units from dynamometer testing to bearing loads, suitable for comparison to engineering models.

  14. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency

  15. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  16. AFM lateral force calibration for an integrated probe using a calibration grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huabin; Gee, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) friction measurements on hard and soft materials remain a challenge due to the difficulties associated with accurately calibrating the cantilever for lateral force measurement. One of the most widely accepted lateral force calibration methods is the wedge method. This method is often used in a simplified format but in so doing sacrifices accuracy. In the present work, we have further developed the wedge method to provide a lateral force calibration method for integrated AFM probes that is easy to use without compromising accuracy and reliability. Raw friction calibration data are collected from a single scan image by continuous ramping of the set point as the facets of a standard grating are scanned. These data are analysed to yield an accurate lateral force conversion/calibration factor that is not influenced by adhesion forces or load deviation. By demonstrating this new calibration method, we illustrate its reliability, speed and ease of execution. This method makes accessible reliable boundary lubrication studies on adhesive and heterogeneous surfaces that require spatial resolution of frictional forces. - Highlights: • We develop a simple and accurate method for lateral force calibration in AFM friction measurements. • We detail the basis of the method and illustrate how to use it and its reliability with example data. • Our method is easy, accurate and accounts for the affects of adhesion on friction measurements. • The method is applicable to integrated probes, as opposed to colloidal probes. • This allows accurate AFM friction measurements on spatially heterogeneous and adhesive surfaces

  17. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Baca, J.; Pecos, J.M.; Davidson, D.R.; McElroy, R.D.; Brochu, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  18. Calibrating the neutron moisture meter: Precision and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.; Waheed, R.A.; Hignett, C.T.; Greacen, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    Established laboratory and field calibration procedures for the neutron moisture meter are demonstrated on a uniform soil and alternative, low cost procedures on a duplex, less uniform soil. The effect of field variability on the calibration methodology is discussed with the aim of optimising calibration reliability at minimal cost. The difference between calibration for a soil material, or for a field (a range of soil materials) is considered. In particular, calibration for the estimation of water content change is shown to be a different problem from calibration for the estimation of water content in a variable field. Techniques aimed at detecting field variability problems during calibration are suggested, and methods for optimising the results for the intended use of the instrument are outlined. Pairing of calibration tubes, alternative methods of analysis of calibration data, and use of other information from the field to measure its variability, can improve the precision of calibration procedures to the point where minimal calibration effort, with careful analysis, can provide reliable results. (author)

  19. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  20. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  1. BES online calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bingyun; Li Xiaonan; Zhu Kejun; Zhang Jiawen; Gong Mingyu

    2003-01-01

    We constructed BES (Beijing Spectrometer) online calibration system to ensure the coherence of readout electronic channels due to huge data volume in high energy physics experiment. This paper describes the structure of hardware and software, and its characteristic and function

  2. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  3. Scanner calibration revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozhitkov Alexander E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calibration of a microarray scanner is critical for accurate interpretation of microarray results. Shi et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 2005, 6, Art. No. S11 Suppl. 2. reported usage of a Full Moon BioSystems slide for calibration. Inspired by the Shi et al. work, we have calibrated microarray scanners in our previous research. We were puzzled however, that most of the signal intensities from a biological sample fell below the sensitivity threshold level determined by the calibration slide. This conundrum led us to re-investigate the quality of calibration provided by the Full Moon BioSystems slide as well as the accuracy of the analysis performed by Shi et al. Methods Signal intensities were recorded on three different microarray scanners at various photomultiplier gain levels using the same calibration slide from Full Moon BioSystems. Data analysis was conducted on raw signal intensities without normalization or transformation of any kind. Weighted least-squares method was used to fit the data. Results We found that initial analysis performed by Shi et al. did not take into account autofluorescence of the Full Moon BioSystems slide, which led to a grossly distorted microarray scanner response. Our analysis revealed that a power-law function, which is explicitly accounting for the slide autofluorescence, perfectly described a relationship between signal intensities and fluorophore quantities. Conclusions Microarray scanners respond in a much less distorted fashion than was reported by Shi et al. Full Moon BioSystems calibration slides are inadequate for performing calibration. We recommend against using these slides.

  4. Calibration of thermoluminiscent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.

    1989-07-01

    In this report the relation between exposure and absorbed radiation dose in various materials is represented, on the base of recent data. With the help of this a calibration procedure for thermoluminescent materials, adapted to the IRI radiation standard is still the exposure in rontgen. In switching to the air kerma standard the calibration procedure will have to be adapted. (author). 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  5. Calibration procedure for Slocum glider deployed optical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinić, Ivona; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Ragan, Matthew; Oberg, Carl; Jones, Burton H

    2009-08-31

    Recent developments in the field of the autonomous underwater vehicles allow the wide usage of these platforms as part of scientific experiments, monitoring campaigns and more. The vehicles are often equipped with sensors measuring temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Chl a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, phycoerithrin (PE) fluorescence and spectral volume scattering function at 117 degrees, providing users with high resolution, real time data. However, calibration of these instruments can be problematic. Most in situ calibrations are performed by deploying complementary instrument packages or water samplers in the proximity of the glider. Laboratory calibrations of the mounted sensors are difficult due to the placement of the instruments within the body of the vehicle. For the laboratory calibrations of the Slocum glider instruments we developed a small calibration chamber where we can perform precise calibrations of the optical instruments aboard our glider, as well as sensors from other deployment platforms. These procedures enable us to obtain pre- and post-deployment calibrations for optical fluorescence instruments, which may differ due to the biofouling and other physical damage that can occur during long-term glider deployments. We found that biofouling caused significant changes in the calibration scaling factors of fluorescent sensors, suggesting the need for consistent and repetitive calibrations for gliders as proposed in this paper.

  6. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  7. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  8. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  9. Precision and accuracy control of dose calibrator: CAPINTEC CRC 12 in laboratory for radiopharmacy of Nuclear Medicine Institute of Sucre, Bolivia; Control de precision y exactitud del calibrador de dosis: CAPINTEC CRC 12 del Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia del Instituto de Medicina Nuclear Sucre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huanca Sardinas, E; Castro Sacci, O; Torrez Cabero, M; Vasquez Ibanez, M.R; Zambrana Zelada, AJ., E-mail: nuclear_sre@entelnet.bo, E-mail: ehuancasardinas@hotmail.com, E-mail: marcetorrez@hotmail.com, E-mail: maritavas@yahoo.es, E-mail: alfzambrana@gmail.com [Universidad Mayor Real y Pontifica de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca, Sucre (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Radiofarmacia - Instituto de Medicina Nuclear de Sucre. Hospital Santa Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The dose calibrator is one of the indispensable tools in radiopharmacy laboratories of a nuclear medicine department also is mandated to provide accurate readings. A very high doses produce unnecessary radiation exposure to the patient or a very low dose, prolong the acquisition time of the studies affecting the quality of the image. In the present work we did a retrospective analysis of the results of quality checks performed at precision accuracy of the Gauge CRC12 CAPINTEC dose calibrator over a period of 16 years, using sealed certified sources with low power, medium and high: Ba{sup 133} , Cs{sup 137} , Co{sup 60} and Co{sup 57}. The results showed that the lowest standard deviation value was 0.17 for Ba133, relative to Co{sup 57} of 2.97 in the control of accuracy. Accuracy over control values were also lower standard deviation for Ba{sup 133} 1.00, relative to Co{sup 57} 10.06. Being stated that the CRC12 CAPINTEC activimeter reliability is acceptable during the reporting period and under the conditions indicated. Therefore, we continue to make these quality control procedures and the professional must feel confident that the measurements obtained with it are reliable.

  10. AVIRIS Inflight Calibration Experiments, Analysis, and Results in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Pavri, Betina

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) measures spectra from 370 to 2500 nm with nominally 10-nm sampling and resolution. The spectra are acquired as images with an 11 km width and up to 800 km length from the ER-2 platform or 2.1 km width and 160 km length from the Twin Otter platform. AVIRIS measurements are used for a range of Earth science research and application objectives. The molecular absorption and particle scattering properties expressed in the calibrated AVIRIS measurements are used. For both science research and application objectives, calibration of the AVIRIS spectra is required to produce useful results. Each year prior to the flight season AVIRIS is calibrated in the laboratory. However, the temperature, pressure, vibration, and observational geometry, as well as mechanical, electrical, and operational interfaces of the laboratory are different than the environment on board the airborne platform. To validate the calibration of AVIRIS in the flight environment, an inflight calibration experiment is orchestrated at the beginning of each flight season. In most years additional inflight calibration experiments occur towards the middle and end of the flight season as well. For an inflight calibration experiment, AVIRIS acquires airborne data over a designated calibration target. In concert with the airborne data acquisition, surface and atmospheric properties at the calibration target are measured in situ. These in situ measurements are used to constrain a radiative transfer code and predict the radiance incident at the AVIRIS instrument from the calibration target. This prediction is compared with the AVIRIS-measured radiance to validate the calibration of AVIRIS in the flight environment. Additional properties (such as the AVIRIS inflight measurement precision) are determined as well. This paper presents measurements, analyses, and results from the inflight calibration experiment held on the dry lake bed surface of Rogers Dry

  11. Calibration of Nuclear Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, J.B; Antanasijevic, R.; Novakovic, V.; Tasic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we compare some of our preliminary results relating to the calibration Nuclear Track Detectors (NTD) with corresponding results obtained from other participants at the First International Intercomparison of Image Analyzers (III 97/98). Thirteen laboratories from Algeria, China, Czech Rep., France. Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia and Yugoslavia participated in the III A 97/98. The NTD was 'Tustrack', Bristol. This type of CR-39 detector was etched by the organizer (J.Paltarey of al, Atomic Energy Research Institute, HPD, Budapest, Hungary). Etching condition was: 6N NaOH, 70 0C . Seven series detectors were exposed with the sources: B(n,a)Li, Am-241, Pu-Be(n,p), Radon and Am-Cm-Pu. Following parameters of exposed detectors were measured: track density of different sorts of tracks (circular, elliptical, track overlapping, their diameters, major and minor axis and other). (authors)

  12. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  13. Calibration Under Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2005-03-01

    This report is a white paper summarizing the literature and different approaches to the problem of calibrating computer model parameters in the face of model uncertainty. Model calibration is often formulated as finding the parameters that minimize the squared difference between the model-computed data (the predicted data) and the actual experimental data. This approach does not allow for explicit treatment of uncertainty or error in the model itself: the model is considered the %22true%22 deterministic representation of reality. While this approach does have utility, it is far from an accurate mathematical treatment of the true model calibration problem in which both the computed data and experimental data have error bars. This year, we examined methods to perform calibration accounting for the error in both the computer model and the data, as well as improving our understanding of its meaning for model predictability. We call this approach Calibration under Uncertainty (CUU). This talk presents our current thinking on CUU. We outline some current approaches in the literature, and discuss the Bayesian approach to CUU in detail.

  14. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  15. Comparison of infusion pumps calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Godinho, Isabel; do Céu Ferreira, Maria; Furtado, Andreia; Lucas, Peter; Silva, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, several types of infusion pump are commonly used for drug delivery, such as syringe pumps and peristaltic pumps. These instruments present different measuring features and capacities according to their use and therapeutic application. In order to ensure the metrological traceability of these flow and volume measuring equipment, it is necessary to use suitable calibration methods and standards. Two different calibration methods can be used to determine the flow error of infusion pumps. One is the gravimetric method, considered as a primary method, commonly used by National Metrology Institutes. The other calibration method, a secondary method, relies on an infusion device analyser (IDA) and is typically used by hospital maintenance offices. The suitability of the IDA calibration method was assessed by testing several infusion instruments at different flow rates using the gravimetric method. In addition, a measurement comparison between Portuguese Accredited Laboratories and hospital maintenance offices was performed under the coordination of the Portuguese Institute for Quality, the National Metrology Institute. The obtained results were directly related to the used calibration method and are presented in this paper. This work has been developed in the framework of the EURAMET projects EMRP MeDD and EMPIR 15SIP03.

  16. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  17. Gamma counter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the calibration of a gamma radiation measurement instrument to be used over any of a number of different absolute energy ranges. The method includes the steps of adjusting the overall signal gain associated with pulses which are derived from detected gamma rays, until the instrument is calibrated for a particular absolute energy range; then storing parameter settings corresponding to the adjusted overall signal gain, and repeating the process for other desired absolute energy ranges. The stored settings can be subsequently retrieved and reapplied so that test measurements can be made using a selected one of the absolute energy ranges. Means are provided for adjusting the overall signal gain and a specific technique is disclosed for making coarse, then fine adjustments to the signal gain, for rapid convergence of the required calibration settings. (C.F.)

  18. ESTABLISHING BRDF CALIBRATION CAPABILITIES THROUGH SHORTWAVE INFRARED

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2017-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laborato...

  19. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  20. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  1. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  2. Metrological reliability of the calibration procedure in terms of air kerma using the ionization chamber NE2575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Margarete Cristina; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da; Rosado, Paulo H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to provide X radiation beams that were established by international standardization organizations to perform calibration and testing of dosimeters. Reliable and traceable standard dosimeters should be used in the calibration procedure. The aim of this work was to study the reliability of the NE 2575 ionization chamber used as standard dosimeter for the air kerma calibration procedure adopted in the CDTN Calibration Laboratory. (author)

  3. Preparing, Loading and Shipping Irradiated Metals in Canisters Classified as Remote-Handled (RH) Low-Level Waste (LLW) From Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, B.C.; Moore, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Irradiated metals, classified as remote-handled low-level waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were containerised in various sized canisters for long-term storage. The legacy waste canisters were placed in below-grade wells located at the 7827 Facility until a pathway for final disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) could be identified and approved. Once the pathway was approved, WESKEM, LLC was selected by Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC to prepare, load, and ship these canisters from ORNL to the NTS. This paper details some of the technical challenges encountered during the retrieval process and solutions implemented to ensure the waste was safely and efficiently over-packed and shipped for final disposal. The technical challenges detailed in this paper include: 1) how to best perform canister/lanyard pre-lift inspections since some canisters had not been moved in ∼10 years, so deterioration was a concern; 2) replacing or removing damaged canister lanyards; 3) correcting a mis-cut waste canister lanyard resulting in a shielded overpack lid not seating properly; 4) retrieving a stuck canister; and 5) developing a path forward after an overstrained lanyard failed causing a well shield plug to fall and come in contact with a waste canister. Several of these methods can serve as positive lessons learned for other projects encountering similar situations. (authors)

  4. The isotope laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The various research projects and investigations carried out at the laboratory are briefly described. These include:- hormone investigations (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) by radioimmunology in cattle and swine; the synthesis of fatty acids in sheep digestive juices; vitamin E in pigs; the uptake of phosphorus in cloudberries; the uptake and breaking down of glyphosate in spruce and wild oats; transport and assimilation of MCPA; ground water pollution from sewage; process investigations in fish oil production; cleaning process in dairy piping; soil humidity radiometric gage calibration; mass spectroscopy. The courses held by the laboratory for students and the consumption of radioisotope tracers are summarised. (JIW)

  5. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  6. A new technique for the calibration of neutron probes by volumetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encarnacao, F.A.F. da.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were performed for the determination of a calibration curve of a neutron probe in three different kinds of soils: Red Yellow PODZOLIC, LITOLIC and ALLUVIAL, in the last one laboratory studies were done to determine local humidity on the calibration curve parameters. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  7. Calibration of clinical dosemeters in the IAEA water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.; Albuquerque, M.P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the IAEA Code of Practice were applied at the Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo in order to provide in the future the clinical dosemeters users with absorbed dose to water calibration factors for Cobalt 60 radiation beams. In this work the clinical dosemeters were calibrated free in air and in water, and the results were compared, using conversion factors. The several tested clinical dosemeters of different manufacturers and models belong to the laboratory and to hospitals. For the measurements in water the IAEA cubic water phantom was used. The dosemeters were all calibrated free in air in terms of air kerma, and the calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water were obtained through conversion factors. the same dosemeters were also calibrated into the water phantom. Good agreement was found between the two methods, the differences were always less than 0.5%. The data obtained during this work show that when the dosemeters are used only in Cobalt 60 radiation and the users apply in the hospital routine work the IAEA Code of Practice, the calibration can be performed directly in the water phantom. This procedure provides the useful calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water

  8. Construction and calibration of a simple scintillation counter for monitoring radioactive gases in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of the practical construction, laboratory calibration and simple-in-situ calibration check of scintillation detectors used for monitoring radioactive inert gases in gaseous effluents. The βγ-ray and γ-ray detectors are identical except for an absorber which is placed over the window of the γ-ray detector after calibration. The construction and calibration of both detectors is therefore identical. (author)

  9. Use of beam probes for rigidity calibration of the A1900 fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginter, T.N. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Farinon, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baumann, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Hausmann, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kwan, E.; Naviliat Cuncic, O. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Portillo, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Rogers, A.M.; Stetson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Villari, A.C.C. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Williams, S.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Use of a beam-based approach is presented for establishing a rigidity calibration for the A1900 fragment separator located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Also presented is why an alternative approach to the rigidity calibration – using detailed field maps of individual magnetic components – is not a feasible basis for deriving an accurate calibration. The level of accuracy achieved for the rigidity calibration is ±0.1%.

  10. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  12. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  13. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  14. Calibration service of radiation detectors and dosemeters at IPEN/ Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [IPEN, CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, has already over 25 years been calibrating instruments used in radiation protection and therapy measurements and belonging to hospitals, industries, clinics and other users located in Sao Paulo and in other parts of Brazil. At the present time, the Calibration Laboratory is part of the Radiation Metrology Center and it acts in the Radiation Protection, Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology areas, using special set-ups with gamma and beta radiation sealed sources, alpha and beta radiation plane sources and low and intermediate energies of X radiation. Moreover, it has reference instruments for each calibration area with traceability to the Brazilian National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (secondary standards) and international laboratories (primary standards). The number of tested instruments is increasing annually (from 170 in 1980 to 1871 in 2005), and for the development of new techniques and radiation detectors the continuous improvement of the existing calibration methods is necessary, as well as the establishment of new calibration services to be offered by the Calibration Laboratory for Brazilian and South American users. The objective of this study is to show the evolution of the calibration service developed at IPEN, describing the applied methods and the calibrated instruments types. The quality system implantation process following the basis of the NBR IEC/ISO 17025 standard is also presented with some tools used in the calibration procedures. (Author)

  15. Calibration service of radiation detectors and dosemeters at IPEN/ Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, has already over 25 years been calibrating instruments used in radiation protection and therapy measurements and belonging to hospitals, industries, clinics and other users located in Sao Paulo and in other parts of Brazil. At the present time, the Calibration Laboratory is part of the Radiation Metrology Center and it acts in the Radiation Protection, Radiation Therapy, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology areas, using special set-ups with gamma and beta radiation sealed sources, alpha and beta radiation plane sources and low and intermediate energies of X radiation. Moreover, it has reference instruments for each calibration area with traceability to the Brazilian National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (secondary standards) and international laboratories (primary standards). The number of tested instruments is increasing annually (from 170 in 1980 to 1871 in 2005), and for the development of new techniques and radiation detectors the continuous improvement of the existing calibration methods is necessary, as well as the establishment of new calibration services to be offered by the Calibration Laboratory for Brazilian and South American users. The objective of this study is to show the evolution of the calibration service developed at IPEN, describing the applied methods and the calibrated instruments types. The quality system implantation process following the basis of the NBR IEC/ISO 17025 standard is also presented with some tools used in the calibration procedures. (Author)

  16. Calibration and uncertainties in gas microflow measurement in the range of 2–200 µg s−1 of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, J; Dijoux, F; Yardin, C; Macé, T; Vaslin-Reimann, S

    2010-01-01

    Today the field of chemistry needs calibration in gas microflow measurement for applications such as thin film deposition, catalysis or the automotive industry. Few European metrology laboratories conduct this type of calibration. In France no laboratory can calibrate below 20 µg s −1 . To meet this growing need, LNE has developed a calibration bench using the method of 'traced gas' in the range of 2–200 µg s −1 . The method and the uncertainty estimation of the calibration bench and calibration results of three laminar flowmeters of Molbloc type and industrial flowmeters are presented in this paper

  17. Neutron dosemeter responses in workplace fields and the implications of using realistic neutron calibration fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Horwood, N.; Taylor, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The use of realistic neutron calibration fields to overcome some of the problems associated with the response functions of presently available dosemeters, both area survey instruments and personal dosemeters, has been investigated. Realistic calibration fields have spectra which, compared to conventional radionuclide source based calibration fields, more closely match those of the workplace fields in which dosemeters are used. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify laboratory systems which would produce appropriate workplace-like calibration fields. A detailed analysis was then undertaken of the predicted under- and over-responses of dosemeters in a wide selection of measured workplace field spectra assuming calibration in a selection of calibration fields. These included both conventional radionuclide source calibration fields, and also several proposed realistic calibration fields. The present state of the art for dosemeter performance, and the possibilities of improving accuracy by using realistic calibration fields are both presented. (author)

  18. ECAL Energy Flow Calibration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    My talk will be covering my work as a whole over the course of the semester. The focus will be on using energy flow calibration in ECAL to check the precision of the corrections made by the light monitoring system used to account for transparency loss within ECAL crystals due to radiation damage over time.

  19. Calibration with Absolute Shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik; Thyregod, Poul

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, penalized regression using the L-1 norm on the estimated parameters is proposed for chemometric je calibration. The algorithm is of the lasso type, introduced by Tibshirani in 1996 as a linear regression method with bound on the absolute length of the parameters, but a modification...

  20. Calibration bench of flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.

    1966-01-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  1. Physiotherapy ultrasound calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gledhill, M.

    1996-01-01

    Calibration of physiotherapy ultrasound equipment has long been a problem. Numerous surveys around the world over the past 20 years have all found that only a low percentage of the units tested had an output within 30% of that indicatd. In New Zealand, a survey carried out by the NRL in 1985 found that only 24% had an output, at the maximum setting, within + or - 20% of that indicated. The present performance Standard for new equipment (NZS 3200.2.5:1992) requires that the measured output should not deviate from that indicated by more than + or - 30 %. This may be tightened to + or - 20% in the next few years. Any calibration is only as good as the calibration equipment. Some force balances can be tested with small weights to simulate the force exerted by an ultrasound beam, but with others this is not possible. For such balances, testing may only be feasible with a calibrated source which could be used like a transfer standard. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  3. PLEIADES ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION : INFLIGHT CALIBRATION SITES AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lachérade

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  4. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  5. SCALA: In situ calibration for integral field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, S.; Küsters, D.; Kowalski, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Baugh, D.; Bongard, S.; Boone, K.; Buton, C.; Chen, J.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Hayden, B.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hoffmann, A.; Kim, A. G.; Leget, P.-F.; McKay, L.; Nordin, J.; Pain, R.; Pécontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reif, K.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Smadja, G.; Suzuki, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The scientific yield of current and future optical surveys is increasingly limited by systematic uncertainties in the flux calibration. This is the case for type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology programs, where an improved calibration directly translates into improved cosmological constraints. Current methodology rests on models of stars. Here we aim to obtain flux calibration that is traceable to state-of-the-art detector-based calibration. Methods: We present the SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a color (relative) flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova integral field spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m (UH 88) telescope. Results: By comparing the color trend of the illumination generated by SCALA during two commissioning runs, and to previous laboratory measurements, we show that we can determine the light emitted by SCALA with a long-term repeatability better than 1%. We describe the calibration procedure necessary to control for system aging. We present measurements of the SNIFS throughput as estimated by SCALA observations. Conclusions: The SCALA calibration unit is now fully deployed at the UH 88 telescope, and with it color-calibration between 4000 Å and 9000 Å is stable at the percent level over a one-year baseline.

  6. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  7. Field calibration of cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten

    2007-01-01

    A field calibration method and results are described along with the experience gained with the method. The cup anemometers to be calibrated are mounted in a row on a 10-m high rig and calibrated in the free wind against a reference cup anemometer. The method has been reported [1] to improve...... the statistical bias on the data relative to calibrations carried out in a wind tunnel. The methodology is sufficiently accurate for calibration of cup anemometers used for wind resource assessments and provides a simple, reliable and cost-effective solution to cup anemometer calibration, especially suited...

  8. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  9. Calibration-measurement unit for the automation of vector network analyzer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rolfes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of multi-port vector network analyzers, the need for automated, calibrated measurement facilities increases. In this contribution, a calibration-measurement unit is presented which realizes a repeatable automated calibration of the measurement setup as well as a user-friendly measurement of the device under test (DUT. In difference to commercially available calibration units, which are connected to the ports of the vector network analyzer preceding a measurement and which are then removed so that the DUT can be connected, the presented calibration-measurement unit is permanently connected to the ports of the VNA for the calibration as well as for the measurement of the DUT. This helps to simplify the calibrated measurement of complex scattering parameters. Moreover, a full integration of the calibration unit into the analyzer setup becomes possible. The calibration-measurement unit is based on a multiport switch setup of e.g. electromechanical relays. Under the assumption of symmetry of a switch, on the one hand the unit realizes the connection of calibration standards like one-port reflection standards and two-port through connections between different ports and on the other hand it enables the connection of the DUT. The calibration-measurement unit is applicable for two-port VNAs as well as for multiport VNAs. For the calibration of the unit, methods with completely known calibration standards like SOLT (short, open, load, through as well as self-calibration procedures like TMR or TLR can be applied.

  10. Optimization of procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilly, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    A test procedure for the radiometer/photometer calibrations mark International Light at the Laboratorio de Fotometria y Tecnologia Laser (LAFTA) de la Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is established. Two photometric banks are used as experimental set and two calibrations were performed of the International Light. A basic procedure established in the laboratory, is used for calibration from measurements of illuminance and luminous intensity. Some dependent variations of photometric banks used in the calibration process, the programming of the radiometer/photometer and the applied methodology showed the results. The procedure for calibration with radiometer/photometer can be improved by optimizing the programming process of the measurement instrument and possible errors can be minimized by using the recommended procedure. (author) [es

  11. Validating and Calibrating the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to Derive Reliable Center of Pressure Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Leach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the “gold standard” laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz. Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB’s CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML (compared to the anteroposterior (AP sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB’s, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB’s CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB’s CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error from 2–6 mm (before calibration to 0.5–2 mm (after calibration. WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain CoP sway measures, from −10.5% (before calibration to −0.05% (after calibration (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions. In this study, we characterized the WBB’s CoP measurement error

  12. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  13. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  14. Calibrations of pocket dosemeters using a comparison method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarriba V, I.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph is dedicated mainly to the calibration of pocket dosemeters. Various types of radiation sources used in hospitals and different radiation detectors with emphasis on ionization chambers are briefly presented. Calibration methods based on the use of a reference dosemeter were developed to calibrate all pocket dosemeters existing at the Radiation Physics and Metrology Laboratory. Some of these dosemeters were used in personnel dosimetry at hospitals. Moreover, a study was realized about factors that affect the measurements with pocket dosemeters in the long term, such as discharges due to cosmic radiation. A DBASE IV program was developed to store the information included in the hospital's registry

  15. The Utilization of Background Spectrum to Calibrate Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrouka, M. M.; Mutawa, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Many developed countries have very poor reference standards to calibrate their nuclear instrumentations or may find some difficulties to obtain a reference standard. In this work a simple way for Gamma spectrometry calibration was developed. The method depends on one reference point and additional points from the background. The two derived equations were applied to the analyses of radioactive nuclides in soil and liquid samples prepared by IAEA laboratories through AL MERA Project. The results showed the precision of the methodology used, as well as, the possibility of using some points in the background spectrum as a replacement for reference standards of Gamma spectrometry calibration. (authors)

  16. Establishment of 137Cs radiation fields for instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Xavier, M.

    1988-09-01

    In order to study the energy dependence of clinical dosemeters, systems constituted of ionization chambers connected to special electrometers, many times their calibration with the gamma radiation of 137 Cs is necessary. In this case, the radiation field characterization is fundamental. The source used presents and activity of 38,8 Tbq and belongs to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Dosimetric films, gammagraphy films, ionization chambers and Lucite phantons were used. At the calibration distance, 80 cm (detector-source detection), the homogeneity of a 10 X 10 cm 2 radiation field was equal 68%. (author) [pt

  17. MAVEN SEP Calibrated Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The maven.sep.calibrated Level 2 Science Data Bundle contains fully calibrated SEP data, as well as the raw count data from which they are derived, and ancillary...

  18. Ultrasonic calibration assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for in-service inspection of nuclear reactor vessels have several problems associated with them which this invention seeks to overcome. The first is that of calibration or referencing a zero start point for the vertical axis of transducer movement to locate a weld defect. The second is that of verifying the positioning (vertically or at a predetermined angle). Thirdly there is the problem of ascertaining the speed per unit distance in the operating medium of the transducer beam prior to the actual inspection. The apparatus described is a calibration assembly which includes a fixed, generally spherical body having a surface for reflecting an ultrasonic beam from one of the transducers which can be moved until the reflection from the spherical body is the highest amplitude return signal indicating radial alignment from the body. (U.K.)

  19. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  20. Generic System for Remote Testing and Calibration of Measuring Instruments: Security Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčević, M.; Hegeduš, H.; Golub, M.

    2010-01-01

    Testing and calibration of laboratory instruments and reference standards is a routine activity and is a resource and time consuming process. Since many of the modern instruments include some communication interfaces, it is possible to create a remote calibration system. This approach addresses a wide range of possible applications and permits to drive a number of different devices. On the other hand, remote calibration process involves a number of security issues due to recommendations specified in standard ISO/IEC 17025, since it is not under total control of the calibration laboratory personnel who will sign the calibration certificate. This approach implies that the traceability and integrity of the calibration process directly depends on the collected measurement data. The reliable and secure remote control and monitoring of instruments is a crucial aspect of internet-enabled calibration procedure.

  1. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  2. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  3. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided

  4. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  5. [Laboratory accreditation and proficiency testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2003-05-01

    ISO/TC 212 covering clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems will issue the international standard for medical laboratory quality and competence requirements, ISO 15189. This standard is based on the ISO/IEC 17025, general requirements for competence of testing and calibration laboratories and ISO 9001, quality management systems-requirements. Clinical laboratory services are essential to patient care and therefore should be available to meet the needs of all patients and clinical personnel responsible for human health care. If a laboratory seeks accreditation, it should select an accreditation body that operates according to this international standard and in a manner which takes into account the particular requirements of clinical laboratories. Proficiency testing should be available to evaluate the calibration laboratories and reference measurement laboratories in clinical medicine. Reference measurement procedures should be of precise and the analytical principle of measurement applied should ensure reliability. We should be prepared to establish a quality management system and proficiency testing in clinical laboratories.

  6. Observation models in radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.D.; Nicholls, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The observation model underlying any calibration process dictates the precise mathematical details of the calibration calculations. Accordingly it is important that an appropriate observation model is used. Here this is illustrated with reference to the use of reservoir offsets where the standard calibration approach is based on a different model to that which the practitioners clearly believe is being applied. This sort of error can give rise to significantly erroneous calibration results. (author). 12 refs., 1 fig

  7. Calibrated Properties Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzehej, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency

  8. The Calibration Home Base for Imaging Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Simon Brachmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Calibration Home Base (CHB is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric calibration as well as the characterization of sensor signal dependency on polarization are realized in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows to carry out a wide range of time consuming measurements in an ecient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards in all procedures ensures a traceable quality of results. Spectral measurements in the wavelength range 380–1000 nm are performed to a wavelength uncertainty of +- 0.1 nm, while an uncertainty of +-0.2 nm is reached in the wavelength range 1000 – 2500 nm. Geometric measurements are performed at increments of 1.7 µrad across track and 7.6 µrad along track. Radiometric measurements reach an absolute uncertainty of +-3% (k=1. Sensor artifacts, such as caused by stray light will be characterizable and correctable in the near future. For now, the CHB is suitable for the characterization of pushbroom sensors, spectrometers and cameras. However, it is planned to extend the CHBs capabilities in the near future such that snapshot hyperspectral imagers can be characterized as well. The calibration services of the CHB are open to third party customers from research institutes as well as industry.

  9. Statistical design of mass spectrometry calibration procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.

    1996-11-01

    The main objective of this task was to agree on calibration procedures to estimate the system parameters (i.e., dead-time correction, ion-counting conversion efficiency, and detector efficiency factors) for SAL's new Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer. SAL will use this mass spectrometer in a clean-laboratory which was opened in December 1995 to measure uranium and plutonium isotopes on environmental samples. The Finnigan MAT-262 mass spectrometer has a multi-detector system with seven Faraday cup detectors and one ion- counter for the measurement of very small signals (e.g. 10 -17 Ampere range). ORNL has made preliminary estimates of the system parameters based on SAL's experimental data measured in late 1994 when the Finnigan instrument was relatively new. SAL generated additional data in 1995 to verify the calibration procedures for estimating the dead-time correction factor, the ion-counting conversion factor and the Faraday cup detector efficiency factors. The system parameters estimated on the present data will have to be reestablished when the Finnigan MAT-262 is moved-to the new clean- laboratory. Different methods will be used to analyzed environmental samples than the current measurement methods being used. For example, the environmental samples will be electroplated on a single filament rather than using the current two filament system. An outline of the calibration standard operating procedure (SOP) is included

  10. Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic nuclide lung counting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic nuclides in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs

  11. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at INFLPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F.; Minea, R.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Sima, E.; Dumitrascu, M.; Stancu, E.; Vancea, C., E-mail: scarlat.f@gmail.com [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - INFLPR, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR) has constructed a High Energy Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory SSDL-STARDOOR - for performing dosimetric calibrations according to ISO IEC SR/EN 17025:2005 standards. This is outfitted with UNIDOS Secondary Standard Dosimeter from PTW (Freiburg Physikalisch-Technische Werksttaten) calibrated at the PTB-Braunschweig (German Federal Institute of Physics and Metrology). A radiation beam of the quality of Q used by our laboratory as calibration source are provided by INFLPR 7 MeV electron beam linear accelerator mounted in our facility. (author)

  12. Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WD15387, "Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells" was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and te international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

  13. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  14. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lambrecht

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.

  15. Calibration of triaxial fluxgate gradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vcelak, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The description of simple and fast calibration procedures used for double-probe triaxial fluxgate gradiometer is provided in this paper. The calibration procedure consists of three basic steps. In the first step both probes are calibrated independently in order to reach constant total field reading in every position. Both probes are numerically aligned in the second step in order that the gradient reading is zero in homogenous magnetic field. The third step consists of periodic drift calibration during measurement. The results and detailed description of each calibration step are presented and discussed in the paper. The gradiometer is finally verified during the detection of the metal object in the measuring grid

  16. Reliability Based Calibration of Fatigue Design Guidelines for Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsø, Rasmus; Otto, S.; Parmentier, G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple reliability based framework is applied to calibrate a new set of fatigue design guidelines. This new guideline considers two different approaches for the assessment of both loads, stresses and local stress raising effects, and partial safety factors must be given for any combination...

  17. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  18. Calibration of the 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic and dermatological applicators with an extrapolation ionization minichamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Oliveira, Mércia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2014-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators are used for brachytherapy in Brazilian clinics even though they are not manufactured anymore. Such sources must be calibrated periodically, and one of the calibration methods in use is ionometry with extrapolation ionization chambers. 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using an extrapolation minichamber developed at the Calibration Laboratory at IPEN. The obtained results agree satisfactorily with the data provided in calibration certificates of the sources. - Highlights: • 90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators were calibrated using a mini-extrapolation chamber. • An extrapolation curve was obtained for each applicator during its calibration. • The results were compared with those provided by the calibration certificates. • All results of the dermatological applicators presented lower differences than 5%

  19. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  20. IAEA/SSDL intercomparison of calibration factors for therapy level ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jilong; Cheng Jinsheng; Guo Zhaohui; Li Kaibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: By participating in IAEA-SSDL intercomparison, a dose to water calibration factor was introduced in order to check the measuring accuracy of 60 Co radiotherapy dose level standard and ensure the reliability and consistency of our calibration. Methods: The authors carried out both air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibrations against 60 Co γ-rays for one of our field class ionization chambers, and sent the results together with the chamber to IAEA dosimetry laboratory for calibration, then IAEA calibrated it and gave the deviation of the intercomparison. Results: The deviation of our air kerma calibration factors is -0.5%, and the deviation of our absorbed dose to water calibration factors is 0.4%. Conclusion: The deviation of calibration factors between IAEA and SSDL should be no more than ±1.5%. Therefore, the result of this intercomparison is considered satisfactory. (authors)

  1. Development of neutron calibration field using accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    A brief summary is given on the fast neutron calibration fields for 1) 8 keV to 15 MeV range, and 2) 30-80 MeV range. The field for 8 keV to 15 MeV range was developed at the Fast Neutron Laboratory (FNL) at Tohoku University using a 4.5 MV pulsed Dynamitron accelerator and neutron production reactions, {sup 45}Sc(p, n), {sup 7}Li(p, n), {sup 3}H(p, n), D(d, n) and T(d, n). The latter 30-80 MeV fields are setup at TIARA of Takasaki Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and at Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University using a 90 MeV AVF cyclotron and the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction. These fields have been applied for various calibration of neutron spectrometers and dosimeters, and for irradiation purposes. (author)

  2. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  3. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  4. Calibration of Resistance Factors Needed in the LRFD Design of Driven Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This research project presents the calibration of resistance factors for the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method of driven : piles driven into Louisiana soils based on reliability theory. Fifty-three square Precast-Prestressed-Concrete (P...

  5. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  6. Evaluation of the energy dependence of ionization chambers pencil type calibrated beam tomography standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Ladyjane Pereira; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory of IPEN (LCI - IPEN) performs calibrations of pencil-type ionization chambers (IC) used in measures of dosimetric survey on clinical systems of Computed Tomography (CT). Many users make mistakes when using a calibrated ionization chamber in their CT dosimetry systems. In this work a methodology for determination of factors of correction for quality (Kq) through the calibration curve that is specific for each ionization chamber was established. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate the energy dependence on an pencil-type Ionization Chamber(IC) calibrated at the LCI - IPEN. (author)

  7. The design and realization of calibration apparatus for measuring the concentration of radon in three models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiping, Guo [The Second Artillery Engineering College, Xi' an (China)

    2007-06-15

    For satisfying calibration request of radon measure in the laboratory, the calibration apparatus for radon activity measure is designed and realized. The calibration apparatus can auto-control and auto-measure in three models. sequent mode, pulse mode and constant mode. The stability and reliability of the calibration apparatus was tested under the three models. The experimental result shows that the apparatus can provides an adjustable and steady radon activity concentration environment for the research of radon and its progeny and for the calibration of its measure. (authors)

  8. Dynamic photogrammetric calibration of industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Hans-Gerd

    1997-07-01

    Today's developments in industrial robots focus on aims like gain of flexibility, improvement of the interaction between robots and reduction of down-times. A very important method to achieve these goals are off-line programming techniques. In contrast to conventional teach-in-robot programming techniques, where sequences of actions are defined step-by- step via remote control on the real object, off-line programming techniques design complete robot (inter-)action programs in a CAD/CAM environment. This poses high requirements to the geometric accuracy of a robot. While the repeatability of robot poses in the teach-in mode is often better than 0.1 mm, the absolute pose accuracy potential of industrial robots is usually much worse due to tolerances, eccentricities, elasticities, play, wear-out, load, temperature and insufficient knowledge of model parameters for the transformation from poses into robot axis angles. This fact necessitates robot calibration techniques, including the formulation of a robot model describing kinematics and dynamics of the robot, and a measurement technique to provide reference data. Digital photogrammetry as an accurate, economic technique with realtime potential offers itself for this purpose. The paper analyzes the requirements posed to a measurement technique by industrial robot calibration tasks. After an overview on measurement techniques used for robot calibration purposes in the past, a photogrammetric robot calibration system based on off-the- shelf lowcost hardware components will be shown and results of pilot studies will be discussed. Besides aspects of accuracy, reliability and self-calibration in a fully automatic dynamic photogrammetric system, realtime capabilities are discussed. In the pilot studies, standard deviations of 0.05 - 0.25 mm in the three coordinate directions could be achieved over a robot work range of 1.7 X 1.5 X 1.0 m3. The realtime capabilities of the technique allow to go beyond kinematic robot

  9. Broadband standard dipole antenna for antenna calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kunimasa; Sugiura, Akira; Morikawa, Takao

    1995-06-01

    Antenna calibration of EMI antennas is mostly performed by the standard antenna method at an open-field test site using a specially designed dipole antenna as a reference. In order to develop broadband standard antennas, the antenna factors of shortened dipples are theoretically investigated. First, the effects of the dipole length are analyzed using the induced emf method. Then, baluns and loads are examined to determine their influence on the antenna factors. It is found that transformer-type baluns are very effective for improving the height dependence of the antenna factors. Resistive loads are also useful for flattening the frequency dependence. Based on these studies, a specification is developed for a broadband standard antenna operating in the 30 to 150 MHz frequency range.

  10. The CHEOPS calibration bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildi, F.; Chazelas, B.; Deline, A.; Sarajlic, M.; Sordet, M.

    2017-09-01

    CHEOPS is an ESA Class S Mission aiming at the characterization of exoplanets through the precise measurement of their radius, using the transit method [1]. To achieve this goal, the payload is designed to be a high precision "absolute" photometer, looking at one star at a time. It will be able to cover la large fraction of the sky by repointing. Its launch is expected at the end of 2017 [2, this conference]. CHEOPS' main science is the measure of the transit of exoplanets of radius ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. The required photometric stability to reach this goal is of 20 ppm in 6 hours for a 9th magnitude star. The CHEOPS' only instrument is a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star on a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cooled to -40°C and stabilized within 10 mK [2]. CHEOPS being in a LEO, it is equipped with a high performance baffle. The spacecraft platform provides a pointing stability of < 2 arcsec rms. This relatively modest pointing performance makes high quality flat-fielding necessary In the rest of this article we will refer to the only CHEOPS instrument simply as "CHEOP" Its behavior will be calibrated thoroughly on the ground and only a small subset of the calibrations can be redone in flight. The main focuses of the calibrations are the photonic gain stability and sensibility to the environment variations and the Flat field that has to be known at a precision better than 0.1%.

  11. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  12. Load-cell-based weighing system for weighing 9.1- and 12.7-tonne UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.; Kane, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    For the independent verification of UF 6 cylinder masses by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at uranium enrichment facilities, an 18-tonne capacity Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) has been developed. The system was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and calibrated at the US National Bureau of Standards. The principal components of the LCBWS are two load cells, with readout and ancillary equipment, and a lifting fixture that couples the load cells to a cylinder. Initial experience with the system demonstrates that it has the advantages of transportability, ease of application, stability, and an attainable accuracy of 2 kg or better for a full cylinder

  13. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-01-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  14. Self-calibrating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussmeier, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A self-calibrating interferometer is disclosed which forms therein a pair of Michelson interferometers with one beam length of each Michelson interferometer being controlled by a common phase shifter. The transfer function measured from the phase shifter to either of a pair of detectors is sinusoidal with a full cycle for each half wavelength of phase shifter travel. The phase difference between these two sinusoidal detector outputs represents the optical phase difference between a path of known distance and a path of unknown distance

  15. Calibration of SSNDT detectors for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Laura C.; Santos, Talita O.; Pinheiro, Rose Mary M.; Rocha, Zildete

    2017-01-01

    The methods and instrumentation used to measure the concentration of radon need to be calibrated to obtain accurate results. The Nuclear Track Detector is considered the main method of analysis of radon research. Thus, the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG, Brazil) uses the detector CR-39 (Landauer) to measure the concentration of radon in homes, workplaces, underground mines, soils and in environment. Epidemiological studies reveal the strong relationship between lung cancer and radon exposure. Therefore, it is important to monitor this gas and its progeny in order to assess the radiological risk. The alpha particles emitted by radon and its progeny leave traces on CR-39 due to Coulombian interactions with the atoms of the material. The liquid density of traces is converted to radon concentration by means of a calibration factor obtained in calibrated systems. This work aims to determine the LRN / CDTN calibration factor. To do so, the CR-39 detectors were placed inside the calibration chambers, along with two AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) detectors and Ra-266 sources with activities of 3,379 kBq or 0.483 kBq, referenced by NIST. From this, six levels of exposure were obtained, which were: 44 kBq.d.m 3 , 4 kBq.d.m 3 , 3 kBq.d.m 3 , 15 kBq.d.m 3 , 30 kBq.d.m 3 , 26 kBq.d.m 3 . The conversion factor between the liquid density of traces and the total exposure time obtained was K = 52.028 ± 0.752 [(trace density.cm -2 ) / (kBq.d.m -3 )]. After the determination of the conversion factor, it was used to measure the concentration of radon in underground mines, obtaining concentration results between 122 ± 24 and 7384 ± 517 kBq.m -3

  16. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2018-02-01

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Pilot study to verify the calibration of electrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, P.; Meghzifene, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The main detector used for standardization of the quantities used in measurements of ionizing radiation is the ionization chamber. The interaction of the radiation with this detector produces electrical charge, usually, in the range of pC to nC. The instrument used to measure such small charges (or currents) is the electrometer. As part of a good practice, the measured charge (current) must be traceable to a primary or secondary standard. Some calibration laboratories can only provide a system calibration coefficient, i.e. a calibration coefficient for the combination of electrometer plus ionization chamber (Gy/scale division). This practice is acceptable, but it can impose a limitation to the automation of their calibration procedures (using computerized application for the acquisition of current/charge). Not all models have the possibility of a connection to a computer and in the case of those that don't have this capability, automation is not possible without the development of a specific interface. In addition, end-users receive a calibration coefficient, which is only valid for the set ion chamber and electrometer. In case of a broken chamber, the end-user cannot connect another chamber to their electrometer without knowing its calibration coefficient. If the calibration laboratories had the capability of calibrating the chamber separately from the electrometer, for example, using an electrometer calibrated in terms of charge, all the chambers could be calibrated using this electrometer. The laboratory can also benefit from the automation of the measurements. This requires that the laboratory must be able to cross-calibrate the electrometers (associated to the chambers) also in terms of charge (Coulombs). Electrical charge is standardized by the use of a standard air capacitor and a standard voltage source (Q=CV) and the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (IRD) in Brazil has also adopted this procedure. Since the Brazilian

  18. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  19. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  20. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R A; Islamy, M R F; Khairurrijal; Munir, M M; Latief, H; Irsyam, M

    2016-01-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM. (paper)

  1. Electromedical devices test laboratories accreditation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, C; Rubio, D; Ponce, S; Alvarez Abri, A; Terron, A; Vicencio, D; Fascioli, E

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, the technology and equipment at hospitals have been increase in a great way as the risks of their implementation. Safety in medical equipment must be considered an important issue to protect patients and their users. For this reason, test and calibrations laboratories must verify the correct performance of this kind of devices under national and international standards. Is an essential mission for laboratories to develop their measurement activities taking into account a quality management system. In this article, we intend to transmit our experience working to achieve an accredited Test Laboratories for medical devices in National technological University

  2. Technique for production of calibrated metal hydride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Browning, J.F.; Balsley, S.D.; Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.; Wampler, W.R.; Beavis, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    A technique has been developed for producing calibrated metal hydride films for use in the measurement of high-energy (5--15 MeV) particle reaction cross sections for hydrogen and helium isotopes on hydrogen isotopes. Absolute concentrations of various hydrogen isotopes in the film is expected to be determined to better than ±2% leading to the capacity of accurately measuring various reaction cross sections. Hydrogen isotope concentrations from near 100% to 5% can be made accurately and reproducibly. This is accomplished with the use of high accuracy pressure measurements coupled with high accuracy mass spectrometric measurements of each constituent partial pressure of the gas mixture during loading of the metal occluder films. Various techniques are used to verify the amount of metal present as well as the amount of hydrogen isotopes; high energy ion scattering analysis, PV measurements before, during and after loading, and thermal desorption/mass spectrometry measurements. The most appropriate metal to use for the occluder film appears to be titanium but other occluder metals are also being considered. Calibrated gas ratio samples, previously prepared, are used for the loading gas. Deviations from this calibrated gas ratio are measured using mass spectrometry during and after the loading process thereby determining the loading of the various hydrogen isotopes. These techniques are discussed and pertinent issues presented

  3. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  4. Performance assessment of an LNA used as active cold load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2015-01-01

    in various campaigns in very different environments. Primary calibration sources are a traditional hot load along with a noise diode, and the calibration quality is verified prior to almost each flight using a liquid Nitrogen cooled target. EMIRAD-2 also features a commercial-off-the-shelf (Miteq) low noise...

  5. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-06-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1 to 4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  6. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1-4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  7. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  8. National laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Calibration Laboratories as a Regional Repair Center: Consolidate or Collocate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Marquita

    1996-01-01

    .../shore rotation, AIS, and the internal chain of command. The thesis also discusses Navy organizational structure and financial management policy, and the aspects of each that make it difficult to implement change...

  10. Improvements in world-wide intercomparison of PV module calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, E.; Pavanello, D.; Field, M.; Kräling, U.; Neuberger, F.; Kiefer, K.; Osterwald, C.; Rummel, S.; Levi, D.; Hishikawa, Y.; Yamagoe, K.; Ohshima, H.; Yoshita, M.; Müllejans, H.

    2017-01-01

    The calibration of the electrical performance for seven photovoltaic (PV) modules was compared between four reference laboratories on three continents. The devices included two samples in standard and two in high-efficiency crystalline silicon technology, two CI(G)S and one CdTe module. The reference value for each PV module parameter was calculated from the average of the results of all four laboratories, weighted by the respective measurement uncertainties. All single results were then anal...

  11. Effects of Front-Loading and Stagger Angle on Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    length scale at z/H = 0.20 ………….… 131 Fig. E.1 Traverse arrangement to enable 3D movement inside the wind tunnel …..… 132 Fig. E.2 Diagram of in...2 ] USAF = United States Air Force 2D = two-dimensional 3D = three-dimensional 1 EFFECTS OF FRONT-LOADING AND STAGGER ANGLE ON ENDWALL...within the wakes. I used Druck LPM 5481 pressure transducers, calibrated using a Ruska 7250LP laboratory standard (the reported accuracy is within

  12. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  13. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  14. Analysis of load monitoring system in hydraulic mobile cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalairassan, G.; Boopathi, M.; Mohan, Rijo Mathew

    2017-11-01

    Load moment limiters or safe load control systems or are very important in crane safety. The system detects the moment of lifting load and compares this actual moment with the rated moment. The system uses multiple sensors such as boom angle sensor, boom length sensor for telescopic booms, pressure transducers for measuring the load, anti-two block switch and roller switches. The system works both on rubber and on outriggers. The sensors measure the boom extension, boom angle and load to give as inputs to the central processing, which calculate the safe working load range for that particular configuration of the crane and compare it with the predetermined safe load. If the load exceeds the safe load, actions will be taken which will reduce the load moment, which is boom telescopic retraction and boom lifting. Anti-two block switch is used to prevent the two blocking condition. The system is calibrated and load tested for at most precision.

  15. On chromatic and geometrical calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folm-Hansen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The main subject of the present thesis is different methods for the geometrical and chromatic calibration of cameras in various environments. For the monochromatic issues of the calibration we present the acquisition of monochrome images, the classic monochrome aberrations and the various sources...... the correct interpolation method is described. For the chromatic issues of calibration we present the acquisition of colour and multi-spectral images, the chromatic aberrations and the various lens/camera based non-uniformities of the illumination of the image plane. It is described how the monochromatic...... to design calibration targets for both geometrical and chromatic calibration are described. We present some possible systematical errors on the detection of the objects in the calibration targets, if viewed in a non orthogonal angle, if the intensities are uneven or if the image blurring is uneven. Finally...

  16. Development of portable flow calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Iijima, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    In the nuclear facilities, air sniffer system is often utilized to evaluate atmospheric concentration of radioactivity in the working environment. The system collects airborne dust on the filter during some sampling period. In this method, total air flow during the sampling period is an important parameter to evaluate the radioactivity concentration correctly. Therefore, calibration for the flow meter of air sniffer system must be done periodically according to Japan Industry Standards (JIS). As we have had to available device to calibrate the flow meter in the working area, we had to remove the flow meters from the installed place and carry them to another place where calibration can be made. This work required a great deal of labor. Now we have developed a portable flow calibrator for air sniffer system which enables us to make in-site calibration of the flow meter in the working area more easily. This report describes the outline of portable flow calibrator and it's experimental results. (author)

  17. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed

  18. Measurement quality assurance for beta particle calibrations at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C.G.; Pruitt, J.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Standardized beta-particle fields have been established in an international standard and have been adopted for use in several U.S. dosimeter and instrument testing standards. Calibration methods and measurement quality assurance procedures employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for beta-particle calibrations in these reference fields are discussed. The calibration facility including the NIST-automated extrapolation ionization chamber is described, and some sample results of calibrations are shown. Methods for establishing and maintaining traceability to NIST of secondary laboratories are discussed. Currently, there are problems in finding a good method for routine testing of traceability to NIST. Some examples of past testing methods are given and solutions to this problem are proposed.

  19. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Sharma, S.D.; Palaniselvam, T.; Vandana, S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Vinatha, S.; Patki, V.S.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2004-01-01

    A HDR 1000 PLUS well type ionization chamber, procured from Standard Imaging, USA, and maintained by medical Physics and Safety Section (MPSS), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, as a reference well chamber 1 (RWCH1), was traceably calibrated against the primary standard established by Radiological Standards Laboratory (RSL), BARC for 192 Ir HDR source, in terms of air kerma strength (AKS). An indigenously developed well-type ionization chamber, reference well chamber 2 (RWCH2) and electrometer system, fabricated by CD High Tech (CDHT) Instruments Private Ltd., Bangalore, India, was in turn calibrated against RWCH1. The CDHT system (i.e. RWCH2 and CDHT electrometer system) was taken to several hospitals, in different regions of the country, to check the calibration status of 192 Ir HDR sources. The result of this calibration audit work is reported here. (author)

  20. Low-cost programmable pulse generator for particle telescope calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, S; Seisdedos, M; Meziat, D; Carbajo, M; Medina, J; Bronchalo, E; Peral, L D; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a new calibration system for particle telescopes including multipulse generator and digital controller. The calibration system generates synchronized pulses of variable height for every detector channel on the telescope. The control system is based on a commercial microcontroller linked to a personal computer through an RS-232 bidirectional line. The aim of the device is to perform laboratory calibration of multi-detector telescopes prior to calibration at accelerator. This task includes evaluation of linearity and resolution of each detector channel, as well as coincidence logic. The heights of the pulses sent to the detectors are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of telescope response to a particle flux of any desired geometry and composition.

  1. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  2. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  3. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations. Part 1: Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) calibration service for ionizing radiations has been active for 40 years in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory web. It has been the first center, in 1985, to be acknowledges by the Italian calibration service (SIT) for the two quantities for photons: exposure and air kerma. Since the Institute for the Radiation Protection of ENEA has moved to the new site in Montecuccolino (Bologna, Italy) in 1995, the whole laboratory has been renovated and all irradiation rooms together with radiation source and equipment have been reorganized according to the Χ, γ, β and neutron fields metrology requirements. The aim of this report, as the first part of a report describing all facilities available at the service, is to give a detailed description of all equipment s qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters [it

  4. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  5. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  6. Portable compact multifunction IR calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, C.L.; Jacobsen, L.; Steed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A compact portable multifunction calibrator designed for future sensor systems is described which enables a linearity calibration for all detectors simultaneously using a near small-area source, a high-resolution mapping of the focal plane with 10 microrad setability and with a blur of less than 100 microrad, system spectral response calibration (radiometer) using a Michelson interferometer source, relative spectral response (spectrometer) using high-temperature external commercial blackbody simulators, and an absolute calibration using an internal low-temperature extended-area source. 5 references

  7. BXS Re-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.

    2010-01-01

    Early in the commissioning it was noticed by Cecile Limborg that the calibration of the BXS spectrometer magnet seemed to be different from the strength of the BX01/BX02 magnets. First the BX01/BX02 currents were adjusted to 135 MeV and the beam energy was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit flat. Then BX01/BX02 magnets were switched off and BXS was adjusted to make the horizontal orbit in the spectrometer line flat, without changing the energy of the beam. The result was that about 140-141 MeV were required on the BXS magnet. This measurement was repeated several times by others with the same results. It was not clear what was causing the error: magnet strength or layout. A position error of about 19 mm of the BXS magnet could explain the difference. Because there was a significant misalignment of the vacuum chamber in the BXS line, the alignment of the whole spectrometer line was checked. The vacuum chamber was corrected, but the magnets were found to be in the proper alignment. So we were left with one (or conceivably two) magnet calibration errors. Because BXS is a wedged shaped magnet, the bend angle depends on the horizontal position of the incoming beam. As mentioned, an offset of the beam position of 19 mm would increase or decrease the bend angle roughly by the ratio of 135/141. The figure of 19 mm is special and caused a considerable confusion during the design and measurement of the BXS magnet. This is best illustrated in Figure 1 which was taken out of the BXS Traveler document. The distance between the horizontal midplanes of the poles and the apex of the beam path was chosen to be 19 mm so the beam is close to the good field region throughout its entire path. Thus it seemed possible that there was an error that resulted in the beam not being on this trajectory, or conversely, that the magnetic measurements were done on the wrong trajectory and the magnet was then mis-calibrated. Mechanical measurements of the vacuum chamber made in the tunnel

  8. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations

  11. Radioactive sources for ATLAS hadron tile calorimeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Ivanyushenkov, Yu.

    1997-01-01

    The main requirements for radioactive sources applied in the TileCal calibration systems are formulated; technology of the sources production developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR is described. Design and characteristics of the prototype sources manufactured in Dubna and tested on ATLAS TileCal module 0 are presented

  12. Improving quantitative precision and throughput by reducing calibrator use in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Geoffrey S., E-mail: geoffrey.s.rule@aruplab.com [ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Rockwood, Alan L. [ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2100 Jones Medical Research Bldg., Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    To improve efficiency in our mass spectrometry laboratories we have made efforts to reduce the number of calibration standards utilized for quantitation over time. We often analyze three or more batches of 96 samples per day, on a single instrument, for a number of assays. With a conventional calibration scheme at six concentration levels this amounts to more than 5000 calibration points per year. Modern LC-tandem mass spectrometric instrumentation is extremely rugged however, and isotopically labelled internal standards are widely available. This made us consider whether alternative calibration strategies could be utilized to reduce the number of calibration standards analyzed while still retaining high precision and accurate quantitation. Here we demonstrate how, by utilizing a single calibration point in each sample batch, and using the resulting response factor (RF) to update an existing, historical response factor (HRF), we are able to obtain improved precision over a conventional multipoint calibration approach, as judged by quality control samples. The laboratory component of this study was conducted with an existing LC tandem mass spectrometric method for three androgen analytes in our production laboratory. Using examples from both simulated and laboratory data we illustrate several aspects of our single point alternative calibration strategy and compare it with a conventional, multipoint calibration approach. We conclude that both the cost and burden of preparing multiple calibration standards with every batch of samples can be reduced while at the same time maintaining, or even improving, analytical quality. - Highlights: • Use of a weighted single point calibration approach improves quantitative precision. • A weighted response factor approach incorporates historical calibration information. • Several scenarios are discussed with regard to their influence on quantitation.

  13. Mammography calibration qualities establishment in a Mo-Mo clinical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, E.L.; Santos, L.R. dos; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the mammography calibration qualities were established in a clinical mammography system. The objective is to provide the IPEN instruments calibration laboratory with both mammography calibration methods (using a clinical and an industrial system). The results showed a good behavior of mammography equipment, in terms of kVp, PPV and exposure time. The additional filtration of molybdenum is adequate, air-kerma rates were determined and spectra were obtained. (author)

  14. Mammography calibration qualities establishment in a Mo-Mo clinical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.L.; Santos, L.R. dos; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this study the mammography calibration qualities were established in a clinical mammography system. The objective is to provide the IPEN instruments calibration laboratory with both mammography calibration methods (using a clinical and an industrial system). The results showed a good behavior of mammography equipment, in terms of kVp, PPV and exposure time. The additional filtration of molybdenum is adequate, air-kerma rates were determined and spectra were obtained. (author)

  15. Improving quantitative precision and throughput by reducing calibrator use in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, Geoffrey S.; Rockwood, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    To improve efficiency in our mass spectrometry laboratories we have made efforts to reduce the number of calibration standards utilized for quantitation over time. We often analyze three or more batches of 96 samples per day, on a single instrument, for a number of assays. With a conventional calibration scheme at six concentration levels this amounts to more than 5000 calibration points per year. Modern LC-tandem mass spectrometric instrumentation is extremely rugged however, and isotopically labelled internal standards are widely available. This made us consider whether alternative calibration strategies could be utilized to reduce the number of calibration standards analyzed while still retaining high precision and accurate quantitation. Here we demonstrate how, by utilizing a single calibration point in each sample batch, and using the resulting response factor (RF) to update an existing, historical response factor (HRF), we are able to obtain improved precision over a conventional multipoint calibration approach, as judged by quality control samples. The laboratory component of this study was conducted with an existing LC tandem mass spectrometric method for three androgen analytes in our production laboratory. Using examples from both simulated and laboratory data we illustrate several aspects of our single point alternative calibration strategy and compare it with a conventional, multipoint calibration approach. We conclude that both the cost and burden of preparing multiple calibration standards with every batch of samples can be reduced while at the same time maintaining, or even improving, analytical quality. - Highlights: • Use of a weighted single point calibration approach improves quantitative precision. • A weighted response factor approach incorporates historical calibration information. • Several scenarios are discussed with regard to their influence on quantitation.

  16. Exposure-rate calibration using large-area calibration pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, E.F.

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) at the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) in Grand Junction, Colorado, to standardize, calibrate, and compare measurements made in support of DOE remedial action programs. A set of large-area, radioelement-enriched concrete pads was constructed by the DOE in 1978 at the Walker Field Airport in Grand Junction for use as calibration standards for airborne gamma-ray spectrometer systems. The use of these pads was investigated by the TMC as potential calibration standards for portable scintillometers employed in measuring gamma-ray exposure rates at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project sites. Data acquired on the pads using a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC) and three scintillometers are presented as an illustration of an instrumental calibration. Conclusions and recommended calibration procedures are discussed, based on the results of these data

  17. Replication and load balancing strategy of STAR's relational database management system (RDBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M; Lauret, J; Kopytine, M [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Kent State University, Kent Ohio 44242 (United States)], E-mail: jlauret@bnl.gov

    2008-07-15

    Database demand resulting from offline analysis and production of data at the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has steadily increased over the last six years of data taking activities. With each year, STAR more than doubles the number of events recorded with an anticipation of reaching a billion event capabilities as early as next year. The challenges faced from producing and analyzing this magnitude of events in parallel have raised issues with regard to the distribution of calibrations and geometry data, via databases, to STAR's growing global collaboration. Rapid distribution, availability, ensured synchronization and load balancing have become paramount considerations. Both conventional technology and novel approaches are used in parallel to realize these goals. This paper discusses how STAR uses load balancing to optimize database usage. It discusses distribution methods via MySQL master slave replication; the synchronization issues that arise from this type of distribution and solutions, mostly homegrown, put forth to overcome these issues. A novel approach toward load balancing between slave nodes that assists in maintaining a high availability rate for a veracious community is discussed in detail. This load balancing addresses both, pools of nodes internal to a given location, as well as balancing the load for remote users between different available locations. Challenges, trade-offs, rationale for decisions and paths forward will be discussed in all cases, presenting a solid production environment with a vision for scalable growth.

  18. Replication and load balancing strategy of STAR's relational database management system (RDBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePhillips, M; Lauret, J; Kopytine, M

    2008-01-01

    Database demand resulting from offline analysis and production of data at the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has steadily increased over the last six years of data taking activities. With each year, STAR more than doubles the number of events recorded with an anticipation of reaching a billion event capabilities as early as next year. The challenges faced from producing and analyzing this magnitude of events in parallel have raised issues with regard to the distribution of calibrations and geometry data, via databases, to STAR's growing global collaboration. Rapid distribution, availability, ensured synchronization and load balancing have become paramount considerations. Both conventional technology and novel approaches are used in parallel to realize these goals. This paper discusses how STAR uses load balancing to optimize database usage. It discusses distribution methods via MySQL master slave replication; the synchronization issues that arise from this type of distribution and solutions, mostly homegrown, put forth to overcome these issues. A novel approach toward load balancing between slave nodes that assists in maintaining a high availability rate for a veracious community is discussed in detail. This load balancing addresses both, pools of nodes internal to a given location, as well as balancing the load for remote users between different available locations. Challenges, trade-offs, rationale for decisions and paths forward will be discussed in all cases, presenting a solid production environment with a vision for scalable growth

  19. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Reliability analysis of structures for the purpose of code calibration or reliability verification of specific structures requires that the relevant failure modes are represented and analyzed. For structural timber, sustaining a life load, two failure cases for each failure mode have......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...... to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades...

  20. A new systematic calibration method of ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Qun; Xiong, Zhenyu; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    Inertial navigation system has been the core component of both military and civil navigation systems. Before the INS is put into application, it is supposed to be calibrated in the laboratory in order to compensate repeatability error caused by manufacturing. Discrete calibration method cannot fulfill requirements of high-accurate calibration of the mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope navigation system with shock absorbers. This paper has analyzed theories of error inspiration and separation in detail and presented a new systematic calibration method for ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system. Error models and equations of calibrated Inertial Measurement Unit are given. Then proper rotation arrangement orders are depicted in order to establish the linear relationships between the change of velocity errors and calibrated parameter errors. Experiments have been set up to compare the systematic errors calculated by filtering calibration result with those obtained by discrete calibration result. The largest position error and velocity error of filtering calibration result are only 0.18 miles and 0.26m/s compared with 2 miles and 1.46m/s of discrete calibration result. These results have validated the new systematic calibration method and proved its importance for optimal design and accuracy improvement of calibration of mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.