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Sample records for loaded apt-nps enhanced

  1. Enhanced sensitivity fibre Bragg grating (FBG) load sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Ricardo; Chehura, Edmon; Li, Jin; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of a load sensor based on the transverse loading of a subsection of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) embedded within a cube of epoxy resin is presented. When the epoxy resin cube is loaded transverse to the axis of the fibre, its deformation transduces the load to a strain along the axis of the optical fibre, which changes the period of the embedded section of the FBG. This creates a spectral dropout within the bandwidth of the FBG, with an absolute wavelength that is linearly dependent on the applied load. This technique enhances the sensitivity of the FBG to transverse loading by a factor of 15, to 2.9 × 10 −2 ± 0.01 nm N −1 , when compared to the direct transverse loading of a bare fibre, and also protects the fibre from mechanical damage at the loading point

  2. Enhancement and suppression in the visual field under perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A; Beck, Diane M; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task-greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2, 6, or 11°) during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3 Hz) was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load) at the most proximal (2°) eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6 or 11°). Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field.

  3. Enhancement and Suppression in the Visual Field under Perceptual Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Parks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task – greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2°, 6°, or 11° during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3Hz was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load at the most proximal (2° eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6˚ or 11˚. Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field.

  4. Shock enhancement of cellular materials subjected to intensive pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Cellular materials can dissipate a large amount of energy due to their considerable stress plateau, which contributes to their extensive applications in structural design for crashworthiness. However, in some experiments with specimens subjected to intense impact loads, transmitted stress enhancement has been observed, leading to severe damage to the objects protected. Transmitted stress through two-dimensional Voronoi cellular materials as a protective device is qualitatively studied in this paper. Dimensionless parameters of material properties and loading parameters are defined to give critical conditions for shock enhancement and clarify the correlation between the deformations and stress enhancement. The effect of relative density on this amplifying phenomenon is investigated as well. In addition, local strain fields are calculated by using the optimal local deformation gradient, which gives a clear presentation of deformations and possible local non-uniformity in the crushing process. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of cellular materials as protective structures.

  5. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. TAF11 assembles RISC loading complex to enhance RNAi efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains Dicer-2(Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here, we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11−/− ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of Drosophila RLC and elucidate a novel cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. PMID:26257286

  7. Thermal loading studies using cooling enhancement and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loading studies are presented for short vertical emplacement, application of cooling enhancement, and drift ventilation. Two 25-m-long heat pipes upward oriented at 45 deg are installed at each emplacement borehole to promote heat transport into the pillar area. In addition, ventilation of the emplacement drifts is assumed for a 2- to 20-yr period. It is concluded that the maximum borehole temperature can be reduced from 230 to 136 C using only the heat pipes, and to 110 C applying the heat pipes together with moderate air cooling. The ventilation along without heat pipes can reduce the temperature to only ∼200 C. It is also demonstrated that the heat transferred from the container area to farther distances into the pillar raises rock temperatures significantly, by 10 to 20 C, and the increase in temperature remains noticeable for at least 1,000 yr. In addition, because of the more efficient heat distribution caused by the heat pipes, lower temperatures will be achieved in the container area together with improved drying and permanent as well as temporary water removal in the pillar area

  8. Developing strategies to enhance loading efficiency of erythrosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Lopez, Sandra C.; Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    For diabetics, continuous glucose monitoring and the resulting tighter control of glucose levels ameliorate serious complications from hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Diabetics measure their blood glucose levels multiple times a day by finger pricks, or use implantable monitoring devices. Still, glucose and other analytes in the blood fluctuate throughout the day and the current monitoring methods are invasive, immunogenic, and/or present biodegradation problems. Using carrier erythrocytes loaded with a fluorescent sensor, we seek to develop a biodegradable, efficient, and potentially cost effective method to continuously sense blood analytes. We aim to reintroduce sensor-loaded erythrocytes to the bloodstream and conserve the erythrocytes lifetime of 120 days in the circulatory system. Here, we compare the efficiency of two loading techniques: hypotonic dilution and electroporation. Hypotonic dilution employs hypotonic buffer to create transient pores in the erythrocyte membrane, allowing dye entrance and a hypertonic buffer to restore tonicity. Electroporation relies on controlled electrical pulses that results in reversible pores formation to allow cargo entrance, follow by incubation at 37°C to reseal. As part of the cellular characterization of loaded erythrocytes, we focus on cell size, shape, and hemoglobin content. Cell recovery, loading efficiency and cargo release measurements render optimal loading conditions. The detected fluorescent signal from sensor-loaded erythrocytes can be translated into a direct measurement of analyte levels in the blood stream. The development of a suitable protocol to engineer carrier erythrocytes has profound and lasting implications in the erythrosensor's lifespan and sensing capabilities.

  9. EEG Based Analysis of Cognitive Load Enhance Instructional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    One of the recommended approaches in instructional design methods is to optimize the value of working memory capacity and avoid cognitive overload. Educational neuroscience offers novel processes and methodologies to analyze cognitive load based on physiological measures. Observing psychophysiological changes when they occur in response to the…

  10. Enhanced catalytic activity of nanoscale platinum islands loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In the present study, different catalysts (∼ 10 nm thick) including metals, noble metals and metal oxides, were loaded in dotted island form over SnO2 thin film for LPG gas detection. A comparison of various catalysts indicated that the presence of platinum dotted islands over SnO2 thin film deposited by r.f. ...

  11. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  12. Power system security enhancement through direct non-disruptive load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Badri Narayanan

    The transition to a competitive market structure raises significant concerns regarding reliability of the power grid. A need to build tools for security assessment that produce operating limit boundaries for both static and dynamic contingencies is recognized. Besides, an increase in overall uncertainty in operating conditions makes corrective actions at times ineffective leaving the system vulnerable to instability. The tools that are in place for stability enhancement are mostly corrective and suffer from lack of robustness to operating condition changes. They often pose serious coordination challenges. With deregulation, there have also been ownership and responsibility issues associated with stability controls. However, the changing utility business model and the developments in enabling technologies such as two-way communication, metering, and control open up several new possibilities for power system security enhancement. This research proposes preventive modulation of selected loads through direct control for power system security enhancement. Two main contributions of this research are the following: development of an analysis framework and two conceptually different analysis approaches for load modulation to enhance oscillatory stability, and the development and study of algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads. The underlying analysis framework is based on the Structured Singular Value (SSV or mu) theory. Based on the above framework, two fundamentally different approaches towards analysis of the amount of load modulation for desired stability performance have been developed. Both the approaches have been tested on two different test systems: CIGRE Nordic test system and an equivalent of the Western Electric Coordinating Council test system. This research also develops algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads that use the results of the analysis. In line with some recent load management programs executed by utilities, two

  13. An Enhanced Instantaneous Circulating Current Control for Reactive power and Harmonic Load Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address inaccurate load demand sharing problems among parallel inverter-interfaced voltage-controlled distributed generation (DG) units in islanded microgrids with different DG power ratings and mismatched feeder impedances, an enhanced voltage control scheme based on actively compensation of ...

  14. Oridonin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oridonin (ORI, a famous diterpenoid from Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis and autophagy-inducing activity in human cancer therapy, while clinical application of ORI is limited by its strong hydrophobicity and rapid plasma clearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of ORI could be enhanced by loading into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. ORI-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization with narrow size distribution and good entrapment efficacy. MTT assay indicated that ORI-loaded SLNs enhanced the inhibition of proliferation against several human cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF-7 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG 2 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells compared with free ORI, while no significant enhancement of toxicity to human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown. Meanwhile, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that ORI-SLNs induced more significant cell cycle arrest at S and decreased cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells than bulk ORI solution. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI assay indicated that apoptotic rates of cells treated with ORI-loaded SLNs were higher compared with free ORI. In summary, our data indicated that SLNs may be a potential carrier for enhancing the antitumor effect of hydrophobic drug ORI.

  15. Enhancement of Orthodontic Anchor Screw Stability Under Immediate Loading by Ultraviolet Photofunctionalization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Maiko; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Mizuki; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization technology is intended to enhance the osseointegration capability of titanium implants. There are concerns about orthodontic anchor screws loosening under immediate loading protocols in adolescent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photofunctionalization on the intrabony stability of orthodontic titanium anchor screws and bone-anchor screw contact under immediate loading in growing rats. Custom-made titanium anchor screws (1.4 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length) with or without photofunctionalization pretreatment were placed on the proximal epiphysis of the tibial bone in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and were loaded immediately after placement. After 2 weeks of loading, the stability of the anchor screws was evaluated using a Periotest device, and the bone-anchor screw contact ratio (BSC) was assessed by a histomorphometric analysis using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. In the unloaded group, Periotest values (PTVs) were ~25 for UV-untreated screws and 13 for UVtreated screws (P < .01), while in the immediate-loading group, PTVs were 28 for UV-untreated screws and 16 for UV-treated screws (P < .05). Significantly less screw mobility was observed in both UV-treated groups regardless of the loading protocol. The BSC was increased ~1.8 fold for UV-treated screws, compared with UV-untreated screws, regardless of the loading protocol. Photofunctionalization enhanced the intrabony stability of orthodontic anchor screws under immediate loading in growing rats by increasing bone-anchor screw contact.

  16. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  17. Hydroxycamptothecin-loaded nanoparticles enhance target drug delivery and anticancer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT has been shown to have activity against a broad spectrum of cancers. In order to enhance its tissue-specific delivery and anticancer activity, we prepared HCPT-loaded nanoparticles made from poly(ethylene glycol-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PEG-PBLG, and then studied their release characteristics, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and anticancer effects. PEG-PBLG nanoparticles incorporating HCPT were prepared by a dialysis method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the shape and diameter of the nanoparticles. The HCPT release characteristics in vitro were evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC detection method for determining HCPT in rabbit plasma was established. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HCPT/PEG-PBLG nanoparticles were compared with those of HCPT. Results The HCPT-loaded nanoparticles had a core-shell spherical structure, with a core diameter of 200 nm and a shell thickness of 30 nm. Drug-loading capacity and drug encapsulation were 7.5 and 56.8%, respectively. The HCPT release profile was biphasic, with an initial abrupt release, followed by sustained release. The terminal elimination half-lives (t 1/2 β of HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 4.5 and 10.1 h, respectively. Peak concentrations (Cmax of HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 2627.8 and 1513.5 μg/L, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of the HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 7.3 and 20.0 L, respectively. Compared with a blank control group, Lovo cell xenografts or Tca8113 cell xenografts in HCPT or HCPT-loaded nanoparticle treated groups grew more slowly and the tumor doubling times were increased. The tumor inhibition effect in the HCPT-loaded nanosphere-treated group was significantly higher than that of the HCPT-treated group (p 0.05. Conclusion Compared to the HCPT- and control-treated groups, the HCPT-loaded nanoparticle

  18. Enhancing Photocatalytic Performance through Tuning the Interfacial Process between -Assembled and Pt-Loaded Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a simple two-step approach to rutile TiO2-assembled microspheres loaded by Pt with an aim to tune semiconductor-metal interfacial processes for enhancing the photocatalytic performance. Systematic sample characterizations and structural analysis indicate that Pt loading did not produce any significant influences on the lattice structure of TiO2-assembled microspheres. Instead, upon Pt loading, Schottky barrier was formed in the interfaces between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles, which inhabited efficiently the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs essential for the photocatalytic activities. In addition, TiO2 microspheres also showed a capacity of electrons storage and releasing as represented by a high dielectric constant, which increased the utility rate of photogenerated electrons. All these structural advantages contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light irradiation. The interfacial process between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles was further tuned through adjusting the loading Pt content of metal Pt. As a consequence, the best photocatalytic activity on TiO2 was obtained at 0.85 wt% Pt loading, above or below which photocatalytic activity was apparently decreased.

  19. Cyclodextrin-PEG conjugate-wrapped magnetic ferrite nanoparticles for enhanced drug loading and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Israel V. M. V.; Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Mohiyuddin, Shanid; Gopinath, Packirisamy; Manoharan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are envisaged to overcome the impediments in the methods of targeted drug delivery and hence cure cancer effectively. We report herein, manganese ferrite nanoparticles, coated with β-cyclodextrin-modified polyethylene glycol as a carrier for the drug, camptothecin. The particles are of the size of 100 nm and they show superparamagnetic behaviour. The saturation magnetization does not get diminished on polymer coverage of the nanoparticles. The β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol conjugates are characterized using NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. By coating the magnetic nanoparticles with the cyclodextrin-tethered polymer, the drug-loading capacity is enhanced and the observed release of the drug is slow and sustained. The cell viability of HEK293 and HCT15 cells is evaluated and the cytotoxicity is enhanced when the drug is loaded in the polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The noncovalent-binding based and enhanced drug loading on the nanoparticles and the sustained release make the nanocarrier a promising agent for carrying the payload to the target.

  20. Novel sulpiride-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with enhanced intestinal permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim WM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Waheed M Ibrahim,1 Abdullah H AlOmrani,2 Alaa Eldeen B Yassin31Drug Sector, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN, novel drug delivery carriers, can be utilized in enhancing both intestinal permeability and dissolution of poorly absorbed drugs. The aim of this work was to enhance the intestinal permeability of sulpiride by loading into SLN.Methods: A unique ultrasonic melt-emulsification method with minimum stress conditions was used for the preparation of SLN. The mixture of the drug and the melted lipids was simply dispersed in an aqueous solution of a surfactant at a temperature that was 10°C higher than the melting points of the lipids using probe sonication, and was then simultaneously dispersed in cold water. Several formulation parameters were optimized, including the drug-to-lipid ratio, and the types of lipids and surfactants used. The produced SLN were evaluated for their particle size and shape, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, crystallinity of the drug and lipids, and the drug release profile. The rat everted sac intestine model was utilized to evaluate the change in intestinal permeability of sulpiride by loading into SLN.Results: The method adopted allowed successful preparation of SLN with a monodispersed particle size of 147.8–298.8 nm. Both scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images showed uniform spherical particles and confirmed the sizes determined by the light scattering technique. Combination of triglycerides with stearic acid resulted in a marked increase in zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading; however, the particle size was increased. The type of surfactant used was critical for particle size

  1. Optimization of enhanced biological phosphorus removal after periods of low loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Haruo; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal is a well-established technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. However, increased effluent phosphorus concentrations have been reported after periods (days) of low organic loading. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different operating strategies to prevent discharge of effluent after such low-loading periods. Mechanisms leading to these operational problems have been related to the reduction of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and their storage compounds (polyhydroxy alkanoates [PHA]). Increased effluent phosphorus concentrations can be the result of an imbalance between influent loading and PAOs in the system and an imbalance between phosphorus release and uptake rates. The following operating conditions were tested in their ability to prevent a reduction of PHA and of overall biomass during low organic loading conditions: (a) unchanged operation, (b) reduced aeration time, (c) reduced sludge wastage, and (d) combination of reduced aeration time and reduced sludge wastage. Experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor, using acetate as the carbon source. Without operational adjustments, phosphorus-release rates decreased during low-loading periods but recovered rapidly. Phosphorus-uptake rates also decreased, and the recovery typically required several days to increase to normal levels. The combination of reduced aeration time and reduced sludge wastage allowed the maintenance of constant levels of both PHA and overall biomass. A mathematical model was used to explain the influence of the tested operating conditions on PAO and PHA concentrations. While experimental results were in general agreement with model predictions, the kinetic expression for phosphorus uptake deviated significantly for the first 24 hours after low-loading conditions. Mechanisms leading to these deviations need to be further investigated.

  2. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  3. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H 1 values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  4. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H{sub 1} values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  5. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1–4 μm, encapsulation efficiency 80–85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 ± 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 ± 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  6. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant, E-mail: pmishra@dbeb.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology (India)

    2013-03-15

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1-4 {mu}m, encapsulation efficiency 80-85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 {+-} 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 {+-} 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  7. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant

    2013-03-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1-4 μm, encapsulation efficiency 80-85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 ± 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 ± 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  8. Liposomes loaded with contrast material for image enhancement in computed tomography: work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.J.; Davis, M.A.; DeGaeta, L.R.; Woda, B.; Melchior, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were prepared and loaded with various radiographic contrast media. Body CT following in vivo adminstration of these vesicles in the rat demonstrated opacification of organs associated with the reticuloendothelial system. Image enhancement in the spleen and liver was dose dependent and was linearly related within the dose range investigated. Clearance of the radiographic contrast material was complete within 24 hours. Diffuse splenic lymphoma following intraperitoneal or intrasplenic injection of lymphoma cells, and solitary lymphoma nodules following intrahepatic injection were readily detected as nonenhanced areas following injection of liposomes

  9. Fullerene–epoxy nanocomposites-enhanced mechanical properties at low nanofiller loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Yavari, Fazel; Rafiee, Javad; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the mechanical properties of fullerence (C 60 ) epoxy nanocomposites at various weight fractions of fullerene additives in the epoxy matrix. The mechanical properties measured were the Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, and the material’s resistance to fatigue crack propagation. All of the above properties of the epoxy polymer were significantly enhanced by the fullerene additives at relatively low nanofiller loading fractions (∼0.1 to 1% of the epoxy matrix weight). By contrast, other forms of nanoparticle fillers such as silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles require up to an order of magnitude higher weight fraction to achieve comparable enhancement in properties.

  10. Apitherapeutics and phage-loaded nanofibers as wound dressings with enhanced wound healing and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan Me

    2017-09-01

    Develop green wound dressings which exhibit enhanced wound-healing ability and potent antibacterial effects. Honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan nanofibers were electrospun and loaded with bee venom, propolis and/or bacteriophage against the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and examined for their antibacterial, wound-healing ability and cytotoxicity. Among different formulations of nanofibers, honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan-bee venom/bacteriophage exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains (Gram-positive and -negative strains) and achieved nearly complete killing of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vivo testing revealed enhanced wound-healing results and cytotoxicity testing proved improved biocompatibility. The developed biocompatible nanofibers represent competitive wound-healing dressings with potent antibacterial and wound-healing activity.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion for enhanced oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiajia; Zheng, Qianfeng; Wang, Miaomiao; Deng, Wenwen; Li, Qiang; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Wang, Shengli; Tong, Shanshan; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2015-10-01

    Capsaicin, as a food additive, has attracted worldwide concern owing to its pungency and multiple pharmacological effects. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability have limited its application. This study aims to develop a capsaicin-loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability of the anti-neuropathic-pain component, capsaicin, which is poorly water soluble. In this study, the microemulsion consisting of Cremophor EL, ethanol, medium-chain triglycerides (oil phase) and water (external phase) was prepared and characterized (particle size, morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency). The gastric mucosa irritation test of formulated capsaicin was performed in rats to evaluate its oral feasibility, followed by the pharmacokinetic study in vivo. Under these conditions, the encapsulated capsaicin revealed a faster capsaicin release in vitro coupled with a greater absorption in vivo when compared to the free capsaicin. The oral bioavailability of the formulated capsaicin-loaded microemulsions was 2.64-fold faster than that of free capsaicin. No significant irritation was observed on the mucosa from the pathological section of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion treated stomach. These results indicate that the developed microemulsion represents a safe and orally effective carrier for poorly soluble substances. The formulation could be used for clinical trials and expand the application of capsaicin. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  13. Oleic Acid enhances all-trans retinoic Acid loading in nano-lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayachatra; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-On, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) loading in nano-lipid emulsions and stability by using oleic acid. The effect of formulation factors including initial ATRA concentration and the type of oil on the physicochemical properties, that is, percentage yield, percentage drug release, and photostability of formulations, was determined. The solubility of ATRA was increased in the order of oleic acid > MCT > soybean oil > water. The physicochemical properties of ATRA-loaded lipid emulsion, including mean particle diameter and zeta potential, were modulated by changing an initial ATRA concentration as well as the type and mixing ratio of oil and oleic acid as an oil phase. The particles of lipid emulsions had average sizes of less than 250 nm and negative zeta potential. The addition of oleic acid in lipid emulsions resulted in high loading capacity. The photodegradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial drug concentration but independent of the type of oily phase used in this study. The release rates were not affected by initial ATRA concentration but were affected by the type of oil, where oleic acid showed the highest release rate of ATRA from lipid emulsions.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future

  15. TAF11 Assembles the RISC Loading Complex to Enhance RNAi Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-09-03

    Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vestibular control of standing balance is enhanced with increased cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, Michael A; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Participants either stood quietly or executed a cognitive task (double-digit arithmetic). Surface electromyography (EMG) and anterior-posterior ground-body forces (APF) were measured in order to evaluate vestibular-evoked balance responses in the frequency (coherence and gain) and time (cumulant density) domains. Total distance traveled for anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) was assessed as a metric of balance variability. Despite similar distances traveled for COP, EVS-medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG and EVS-APF coherence and EVS-TA EMG and EVS-MG EMG gain were elevated for multiple frequencies when standing with increased cognitive load. For the time domain, medium-latency peak amplitudes increased by 13-54% for EVS-APF and EVS-EMG relationships with the cognitive task compared to without. Peak short-latency amplitudes were unchanged. These results indicate that reliance on vestibular control of balance is enhanced when cognitive load is elevated. This augmented neural strategy may act to supplement divided cortical processing resources within the balance system and compensate for the acute neuromuscular modifications associated with increased cognitive demand.

  17. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  18. Doxycycline-loaded coaxial nanofiber coating of titanium implants enhances osseointegration and inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Seta, Joseph; Chen, Liang; Bergum, Christopher; Zhou, Zhubin; Kanneganti, Praveen; Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Shen, Ming; Markel, David C; Ren, Weiping; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-07-05

    Few studies have been reported that focus on developing implant surface nanofiber (NF) coating to prevent infection and enhance osseointegration by local drug release. In this study, coaxial doxycycline (Doxy)-doped polycaprolactone/polyvinyl alcohol (PCL/PVA) NFs were directly deposited on a titanium (Ti) implant surface during electrospinning. The interaction of loaded Doxy with both PVA and PCL NFs was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The bonding strength of Doxy-doped NF coating on Ti implants was confirmed by a stand single-pass scratch test. The improved implant osseointegration by PCL/PVA NF coatings in vivo was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometry and micro computed tomography (μCT) at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. The bone contact surface (%) changes of the NF coating group (80%) is significantly higher than that of the no NF group (coating effectively inhibited bacterial infection and enhanced osseointegration in an infected (Staphylococcus aureus) tibia implantation rat model. Doxy released from NF coating inhibited bacterial growth up to 8 weeks in vivo. The maximal push-in force of the Doxy-NF coating (38 N) is much higher than that of the NF coating group (6.5 N) 8 weeks after implantation (p coating doped with Doxy and/or other drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing infection.

  19. Enhanced apoptotic and anticancer potential of paclitaxel loaded biodegradable nanoparticles based on chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Khan, Iliyas; Gothwal, Avinash; Sharma, Ashok K; Singh, Yuvraj; Chourasia, Manish K; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-05-01

    Taxanes have established and proven effectivity against different types of cancers; in particular breast cancers. However, the high hemolytic toxicity and hydrophobic nature of paclitaxel and docetaxel have always posed challenges to achieve safe and effective delivery. Use of bio-degradable materials with an added advantage of nanotechnology could possibly improve the condition so as to achieve better and safe delivery. In the present study paclitaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated and optimized using simple w/o nanoemulsion technique. The observed average size, pdi, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug loading for the optimized paclitaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticle formulation (PTX-CS-NP-10) was 226.7±0.70nm, 0.345±0.039, 37.4±0.77mV, 79.24±2.95% and 11.57±0.81%; respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized further for size by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vitro release studies exhibited sustained release pattern and more than 60% release was observed within 24h. Enhanced in vitro anticancer activity was observed as a result of MTT assay against triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. The observed IC 50 values obtained for PTX-CS-NP-10 was 9.36±1.13μM and was almost 1.6 folds (psafe as observed for haemolytic toxicity which was almost 4 folds less (psafe nanoformulation of paclitaxel was developed, characterized and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme in short-range open-access and over-loaded femtocells. It is assumed that the available orthogonal channels for the femtocell network are distributed among operating access points in close vicinity, where each of which knows its allocated channels a priori. For the case when the feedback links are capacity-limited and the available channels can be universally shared and simultaneously used, the paper presents enhanced schemes to identify a channel to serve the desired scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those of the single-threshold switched-based scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  2. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of -31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity Index, SD: Sprague-Dawley, SLNs: Solid lipid nanoparticles, STZ

  3. Photothermal enhancement of chemotherapy mediated by gold-silica nanoshell-loaded macrophages: in vitro squamous cell carcinoma study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Shih, En-Chung; Peng, Qian; Christie, Catherine; Krasieva, Tatiana; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Moderate hyperthermia (MHT) has been shown to enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in a wide variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents with MHT induced by near-infrared (NIR) activation of gold nanoshell (AuNS)-loaded macrophages (Ma). AuNS-loaded murine Ma combined with human FaDu squamous cells, in hybrid monolayers, were subjected to three cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin, bleomycin, cisplatin) with or without NIR laser irradiation. For all three drugs, efficacy was increased by NIR activation of AuNS-loaded Ma. The results of this in vitro study provide proof-of-concept for the use of AuNS-loaded Ma for photothermal enhancement of the effects of chemotherapy on squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  5. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Observation of modulation speed enhancement, frequency modulation suppression, and phase noise reduction by detuned loading in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser

    OpenAIRE

    Vahala, Kerry; Paslaski, Joel; Yariv, Amnon

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous direct modulation response enhancement, phase noise (linewidth) reduction, and frequency modulation suppression are produced in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser by the detuned loading mechanism.

  7. Curcumin-docetaxel co-loaded nanosuspension for enhanced anti-breast cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bhanu P; Hazarika, Hemanga; Bharadwaj, Rituraj; Loying, Pojul; Baishya, Rinku; Dash, Suvakanta; Das, Malay K

    2016-08-01

    A curcumin-docetaxel co-loaded nanosuspension with increased anti-breast cancer activity was developed. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent with p-glycoprotein (p-gp) inhibiting activity may be co-administered with docetaxel as a nanosuspension to enhance its anticancer effect by increasing the oral bioavailability and decreasing drug efflux. Nanosuspensions of curcumin and docetaxel were prepared by precipitation-homozenisation technique and evaluated for particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential and drug release. The in vitro MTT assay was conducted using MCF-7 for anti-breast cancer activity. The in vivo biodistribution by radiolabeling and tumor inhibition study was conducted in mice. Homogenous nanosuspensions of 80 ± 20 nm were obtained with increased solubility. The drugs as nanosuspensions showed higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line compared to their suspensions due to the increased in vitro cellular uptake. Due to this increased solubility, sensitization of tumor cells and inhibition of p-gp the in-vivo results showed greater tumor inhibition rate of up to 70% in MCF-7 treated mice. Histopathological results showed higher apoptotic activity and reduced level of angiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo study of the nanosuspensions has shown that Co-administration of Curcumin as a p-gp inhibitor with docetaxel may have the potential to increase the anti-breast cancer efficacy of both drugs.

  8. Enhanced phosphate selectivity from wastewater using copper-loaded chelating resin functionalized with polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Nam, Juhee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Hong, Seok-Won; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2013-11-01

    In water and wastewater, phosphate is considered a critical contaminant due to cause algae blooms and eutrophication. To meet the stringent regulation of phosphate in water, a new commercial chelating resin functionalized with polyethylenimine was tested for phosphate removal by loading Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) to enhance selectivity for phosphate. Batch and column experiments showed that CR20-Cu exhibited high selectivity for phosphate over other strong anions such as sulfate. The average binary phosphate/nitrate and phosphate/sulfate factors for CR20-Cu were calculated to be 7.3 and 4.8, respectively, which were more than 0.97 and 0.22 for a commercial anion exchanger (AMP16). The optimal pH for the phosphate removal efficiency was determined to be 7. According to the fixed-bed column test, the breakthrough sequence for multiple ions was HPO4(2-)>SO4(2-)>NO3(-)>Cl(-). Saturated CR20-Cu can be regenerated using 4% NaCl at pH 7. More than 95% of the phosphate from CR20-Cu was recovered, and the phosphate uptake capacity for CR20-Cu was not reduced after 7 regeneration cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties of Ag-Loaded N-Doped Tio2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, photoluminescence (PL emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

  10. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyelectrolyte Multicomponent Colloidosomes Loaded with Nisin Z for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Foodborne Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskeen Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food grade micro- or nano-carrier systems (NCS are being developed to improve the controlled release of antimicrobial agents. To augment the stability of liposomal NCS and to overcome the limitations associated with the use of free bacteriocin (nisin in the food system, multi-component colloidosomes (MCCS were developed by electrostatic interactions between anionic alginate and cationic chitosan (multilayer around phospholipids based liposomes (core. Zeta-sizer results revealed the average diameter of 145 ± 2 nm, 596 ± 3 nm, and 643 ± 5 nm for nano-liposome (NL, chitosomes (chitosan coated NL and MCCS, respectively. Zeta potential values of NCS varied from −4.37 ± 0.16 mV to 33.3 ± 6 mV, thus both chitosomes (CS and MCCS were positively charged. Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM revealed relatively higher size of MCCS with smooth and round morphology. TGA and DSC based experiments revealed that MCCS were thermally more stable than uncoated liposomes. Encapsulation efficiency of nisin in MCCS was observed to be 82.9 ± 4.1%, which was significantly higher than NL (56.5 ± 2.5%. FTIR analyses confirmed the cross-linking between sodium alginate and chitosan layer. Both qualitative (growth kinetics and quantitative (colony forming unit antimicrobial assays revealed that nisin loaded MCCS have superior potential to control resistant foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis, (5.8, 5.4, and 6.1 Log CFUmL−1 reduction, respectively as compared to free nisin, loaded NL or CS. Controlled release kinetics data fitted with Korsmeyer–Peppas model suggested that nisin release from MCCS followed Fickian diffusion. Cytotoxic studies on human blood cells and HepG2 cell lines revealed hemocompatibility and non-toxicity of MCCS. Thus, due to enhanced controlled release, stability and biocompatibility; these multi-component colloidosomes can be useful for

  12. Methotrexate loaded polyether-copolyester dendrimers for the treatment of gliomas: enhanced efficacy and intratumoral transport capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanikula, Renu Singh; Argaw, Anteneh; Bouchard, Jean-Francois; Hildgen, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic benefit in glial tumors is often limited due to low permeability of delivery systems across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), drug resistance, and poor penetration into the tumor tissue. In an attempt to overcome these hurdles, polyether-copolyester (PEPE) dendrimers were evaluated as drug carriers for the treatment of gliomas. Dendrimers were conjugated to d-glucosamine as the ligand for enhancing BBB permeability and tumor targeting. The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX)-loaded dendrimers was established against U87 MG and U 343 MGa cells. Permeability of rhodamine-labeled dendrimers and MTX-loaded dendrimers across the in vitro BBB model and their distribution into avascular human glioma tumor spheroids was also studied. Glucosylated dendrimers were found to be endocytosed in significantly higher amounts than nonglucosylated dendrimers by both the cell lines. IC 50 of MTX after loading in dendrimers was lower than that of the free MTX, suggesting that loading MTX in PEPE dendrimers increased its potency. Similar higher activity of MTX-loaded glucosylated and nonglucosylated dendrimers was found in the reduction of tumor spheroid size. These MTX-loaded dendrimers were able to kill even MTX-resistant cells highlighting their ability to overcome MTX resistance. In addition, the amount of MTX-transported across BBB was three to five times more after loading in the dendrimers. Glucosylation further increased the cumulative permeation of dendrimers across BBB and hence increased the amount of MTX available across it. Glucosylated dendrimers distributed through out the avascular tumor spheroids within 6 h, while nonglucosylated dendrimers could do so in 12 h. The results show that glucosamine can be used as an effective ligand not only for targeting glial tumors but also for enhanced permeability across BBB. Thus, glucosylated PEPE dendrimers can serve as potential delivery system for the treatment of gliomas.

  13. Bioavailability Enhancement of Paclitaxel via a Novel Oral Drug Delivery System: Paclitaxel-Loaded Glycyrrhizic Acid Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Heng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel (PTX, taxol, a classical antitumor drug against a wide range of tumors, shows poor oral bioavailability. In order to improve the oral bioavailability of PTX, glycyrrhizic acid (GA was used as the carrier in this study. This was the first report on the preparation, characterization and the pharmacokinetic study in rats of PTX-loaded GA micelles The PTX-loaded micelles, prepared with ultrasonic dispersion method, displayed small particle sizes and spherical shapes. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC thermograms indicated that PTX was entrapped in the GA micelles and existed as an amorphous state. The encapsulation efficiency was about 90%, and the drug loading rate could reach up to 7.90%. PTX-loaded GA micelles displayed a delayed drug release compared to Taxol in the in vitro release experiment. In pharmacokinetic study via oral administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→24 h of PTX-loaded GA micelles was about six times higher than that of Taxol (p < 0.05. The significant oral absorption enhancement of PTX from PTX-loaded GA micelles could be largely due to the increased absorption in jejunum and colon intestine. All these results suggested that GA would be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of PTX.

  14. Collaborative use of virtual patients after a lecture enhances learning with minimal investment of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hesham F; Donkers, Jeroen; Al-Eraky, Mohamed M; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G

    2018-05-25

    The use of virtual patients (VPs), due to their high complexity and/or inappropriate sequencing with other instructional methods, might cause a high cognitive load, which hampers learning. To investigate the efficiency of instructional methods that involved three different applications of VPs combined with lectures. From two consecutive batches, 171 out of 183 students have participated in lecture and VPs sessions. One group received a lecture session followed by a collaborative VPs learning activity (collaborative deductive). The other two groups received a lecture session and an independent VP learning activity, which either followed the lecture session (independent deductive) or preceded it (independent inductive). All groups were administrated written knowledge acquisition and retention tests as well as transfer tests using two new VPs. All participants completed a cognitive load questionnaire, which measured intrinsic, extraneous and germane load. Mixed effect analysis of cognitive load and efficiency using the R statistical program was performed. The highest intrinsic and extraneous load was found in the independent inductive group, while the lowest intrinsic and extraneous load was seen in the collaborative deductive group. Furthermore, comparisons showed a significantly higher efficiency, that is, higher performance in combination with lower cognitive load, for the collaborative deductive group than for the other two groups. Collaborative use of VPs after a lecture is the most efficient instructional method, of those tested, as it leads to better learning and transfer combined with lower cognitive load, when compared with independent use of VPs, either before or after the lecture.

  15. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  18. Enhancement of urban heat load through social inequalities on an example of a fictional city King's Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, M.

    2017-03-01

    The numerical model MUKLIMO_3 is used to simulate the urban climate of an imaginary city as an illustrative example to demonstrate that the residential areas with deprived socio-economic conditions can exhibit an enhanced heat load at night, and thus more disadvantageous environmental conditions, compared with the areas of higher socio-economic status. The urban climate modelling simulations differentiate between orographic, natural landscape, building and social effects, where social differences are introduced by selection of location, building type and amount of vegetation. The model results show that the increase of heat load can be found in the areas inhabited by the poor population as a combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The unfavourable location in the city and the building type, consisting of high density, low housing with high fraction of pavement and small amount of vegetation contribute to the formation of excessive heat load. This abstract example shows that the enhancement of urban heat load can be linked to the concept of a socially stratified city and is independent of the historical development of any specific city.

  19. Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zeng, Huilan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Zhizhong [Department of Bone, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng [Grandhope Biotech Co., Ltd., Building D, #408, Guangzhou International Business Incubator, Guangzhou Science Park, Guangzhou 510663, Guangdong (China); Wei, Xing, E-mail: wei70@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48 h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin–Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. - Highlights: • HA can increase the adsorption of EGF to decellularized scaffolds. • HA can sustain the release of EGF from

  20. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Enhancement and Load Reduction on Wind Turbines Using Inflow Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    . The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear...... wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded...... excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator...

  3. Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensor for ISS (EDLS-ISS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) propose to develop a stand-alone 6-DOF load sensing system that collects biomechanical...

  4. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    -based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those

  5. Preparation and characterization of tungsten-loaded titanium dioxide photocatalyst for enhanced dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saepurahman; Abdullah, M.A.; Chong, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO 2 , but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading ( 3 at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO 2 was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO 3 , decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 was superior to unmodified TiO 2 with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO 3 loading.

  6. Enhanced IMC design of load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Furong

    2011-04-01

    In view of the deficiencies in existing internal model control (IMC)-based methods for load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics, a modified IMC-based controller design is proposed to deal with step- or ramp-type load disturbance that is often encountered in engineering practices. By classifying the ways through which such load disturbance enters into the process, analytical controller formulae are correspondingly developed, based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure that allows for separate optimization of load disturbance rejection from setpoint tracking. An obvious merit is that there is only a single adjustable parameter in the proposed controller, which in essence corresponds to the time constant of the closed-loop transfer function for load disturbance rejection, and can be monotonically tuned to meet a good trade-off between disturbance rejection performance and closed-loop robust stability. At the same time, robust tuning constraints are given to accommodate process uncertainties in practice. Illustrative examples from the recent literature are used to show effectiveness and merits of the proposed method for different cases of load disturbance. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Enhancing antibacterium and strength of cellulosic paper by coating triclosan-loaded nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-06

    The nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as substrates to carry triclosan (TCS), which was then applied as a coating agent for impacting antibacterial property to paper while also improving its strength. The TCS-loaded NFC material was further characterized. UV-vis spectra results showed that a characteristic absorption band at 282 nm was observed, which was attributed to triclosan, confirming its successful loading onto NFC. The antibacterial activity tests indicated that the coated paper exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, and the growth inhibition of bacteria (GIB) increased as the loading amount of triclosan coated on paper increased. The GIB can reach 98.7% when the 0.023 g TCS-loaded NFC was coated on paper. Meanwhile, the tensile and tear index of the coated paper increased by 18.0% and 26.4%, respectively compared to the blank paper. Therefore, the triclosan-loaded paper could be potentially used in the medical field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organosilane functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for enhanced loading and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Peng; Southon, Peter D; Kepert, Cameron J; Liu Zongwen

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which was found to have a substantial effect on the loading and subsequent release of a model dye molecule. APTES was mostly anchored at the internal lumen surface of halloysite through covalent grafting, forming a functionalized surface covered by aminopropyl groups. The dye loading of the functionalized halloysite was 32% greater than that of the unmodified sample, and the release from the functionalized halloysite was dramatically prolonged as compared to that from the unmodified one. Dye release was prolonged at low pH and the release at pH 3.5 was approximately three times slower than that at pH 10.0. These results demonstrate that organosilane functionalization makes pH an external trigger for controlling the loading of guest on halloysite and the subsequent controlled release. (paper)

  9. Organosilane functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for enhanced loading and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Southon, Peter D; Liu, Zongwen; Kepert, Cameron J

    2012-09-21

    The surfaces of naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which was found to have a substantial effect on the loading and subsequent release of a model dye molecule. APTES was mostly anchored at the internal lumen surface of halloysite through covalent grafting, forming a functionalized surface covered by aminopropyl groups. The dye loading of the functionalized halloysite was 32% greater than that of the unmodified sample, and the release from the functionalized halloysite was dramatically prolonged as compared to that from the unmodified one. Dye release was prolonged at low pH and the release at pH 3.5 was approximately three times slower than that at pH 10.0. These results demonstrate that organosilane functionalization makes pH an external trigger for controlling the loading of guest on halloysite and the subsequent controlled release.

  10. New load cycling strategy for enhanced durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Jeppesen, Christian; Steenberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new operational strategy to increase the lifetime of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFCs) fuel cell system by using load cycling patterns to reduce the phosphoric acid loss from the fuel cell. Four single cells were operated under.......8 Acm-2 for the higher end, were selected for the load cycling operation. The relaxation time, which is the period of time spent at low current density operation, is varied to understand how the performance over prolonged period behaves. The duration of the high current density operation is selected...... based on the relaxation time in order to have the same average current density of (0.55 Acm-2 ) for all the cells. Cell 5, with a relaxation time of 2 min performs best and shows lower degradation rate of 36 μVh-1 compared to other load cycling cells with smaller relaxation times. The cell operated...

  11. Gold nanoparticles capped with benzalkonium chloride and poly (ethylene imine) for enhanced loading and skin permeability of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Mohamed A; Soliman, Ghareb M; Sayed, Douaa; Attia, Mohamed A

    2017-11-01

    To enhance 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) permeability through the skin by loading onto gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with two cationic ligands, benzalkonium chloride (BC) or poly (ethylene imine) (PEI). Whereas 5-FU has excellent efficacy against many cancers, its poor permeability through biological membranes and several adverse effects limit its clinical benefits. BC and PEI were selected to stabilize GNPs and to load 5-FU through ionic interactions. 5-FU/BC-GNPs and 5-FU/PEI-GNPs were prepared at different 5-FU/ligand molar ratios and different pH values and were evaluated using different techniques. GNPs stability was tested as a function of salt concentration and storage time. 5-FU release from BC- and PEI-GNPs was evaluated as a function of solution pH. Ex vivo permeability studies of different 5-FU preparations were carried out using mice skin. 5-FU-loaded GNPs size and surface charge were dependent on the 5-FU/ligand molar ratios. 5-FU entrapment efficiency and loading capacity were dependent on the used ligand, 5-FU/ligand molar ratio and solution pH. Maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 59.0 ± 1.7% and 46.0 ± 1.1% were obtained for 5-FU/BC-GNPs and 5-FU/PEI-GNPs, respectively. 5-FU-loaded GNPs had good stability against salinity and after storage for 4 months at room temperature and at 4 °C. In vitro 5-FU release was pH- and ligand-dependent where slower release was observed at higher pH and for 5-FU/BC-GNPs. 5-FU permeability through mice skin was significantly higher for drug-loaded GNPs compared with drug-ligand complex or drug aqueous solution. Based on these results, BC- and PEI-GNPs might find applications as effective topical delivery systems of 5-FU.

  12. Enhanced systemic exposure of saquinavir via the concomitant use of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Sung-Whan; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2013-08-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir in rats. Solid dispersion (SD) formulation was prepared with Solutol® HS15 to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. Subsequently, its inhibition effect on P-gp mediated cellular efflux was examined by using NCI/ADR-RES cells overexpressing P-gp. Compared to the untreated curcumin, SD formulation enhanced the cellular uptake of rhodamine-123, a P-gp substrate by approximately 3 folds in NCI/ADR-RES cells. The oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir were also determined in rats with/without curcumin in the different formulations. Compared to the control given saquinavir alone, curcumin-loaded solid dispersion significantly (p<0.05) increased the oral exposure of saquinavir in rats, while it did not affect the intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. The AUC and Cmax of oral saquinavir increased by 3.8- and 2.7-folds, respectively in the presence of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion. In contrast, the untreated curcumin did not affect the oral pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. These results suggest that SD formulation of curcumin should be effective to improve the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin as an absorption enhancer, leading to the improved oral exposure of saquinavir. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioflavonoid Fisetin Loaded α-Tocopherol-Poly(lactic acid)-Based Polymeric Micelles for Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy in Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, De-Zhong; Wang, Yu-Xia

    2017-02-01

    In this study, tocopherol based polymeric micelles were successfully prepared to enhance the anticancer effect of fisetin (FIS) in breast cancer cells. The drug-loaded carrier was characterized in terms of physicochemical and in vivo parameters. Compared to FIS, FIS-TPN showed higher cellular uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells as revealed by CLSM and flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity assay results clearly showed that the free FIS and FIS-TPN exhibited a typical dose-dependent toxic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Especially, enhanced cytotoxic effect of FIS was observed when loaded in a nanocarrier. Free FIS induced a ~11% apoptosis whereas FIS-TPN induced a significantly greater apoptosis of ~20% by the end of 24 h. At 48 h, similar trend continued and free FIS showed ~30% of apoptosis whereas ~42% cell apoptosis was observed in FIS-TPN treated group. Notably, migration of cancer cell was significantly inhibited when treated with FIS-TPN formulations. The FIS-TPN significantly reduced to tumor burden and H&E staining showed the lowest tumor volume and higher cell apoptosis. All the findings suggest that the fisetin-loaded TPGS-PLA polymeric micelles serve as a potential candidate and promising alternative for the effective treatment of breast cancers.

  14. Effectively enhanced load transfer by interfacial reactions in multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Keiko; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The thermal expansion response of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced Al matrix composites was employed to discuss the improvement of the load transfer at the interface between the MWCNTs and the Al matrix. An aluminum carbide (Al_4C_3) nanostructure at the end of the MWCNTs, incorporated in the Al matrix, was produced by appropriate heat-treatment. The stress contrast around the Al_4C_3 observed in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image revealed the evidence of a trace of friction, which would lead to the enhancement of the anchor effect from the Al matrix. This anchor effect of Al_4C_3 may hinder the local interfacial slippage and constrain the deformation of the Al matrix. As a result, the thermal expansion behavior became linear and reversible under cyclic thermal load. It is concluded that the formation of Al_4C_3 could effectively enhance the load transfer in MWCNT/Al composites. The yield strength of MWCNT/Al composites was substantially increased under the appropriate quantity of Al_4C_3 produced at the MWCNT-Al interface by precisely controlled heat-treatment.

  15. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  16. Measuring Cognitive Load and Cognition: Metrics for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This critical and reflective literature review examines international research published over the last decade to summarise the different kinds of measures that have been used to explore cognitive load and critiques the strengths and limitations of those focussed on the development of direct empirical approaches. Over the last 40 years, cognitive…

  17. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  18. Performance enhancement and load reduction on wind turbines using inflow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abildgaard Kragh, K.

    2013-06-15

    Wind energy is being applied at a larger and larger scale worldwide, and is one of the technologies eligible for accommodating the increasing demand for renewable energy. However, wind energy is still not competitive compared to technologies that are based on fossil energy sources. Therefore, much wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator torque and collective pitch angle changes. Thus, classical wind turbine control schemes are based on measurements of the effects of the inflow on the turbine. Therefore, the reactions of the control system to the inflow changes are inherently delayed compared to the actual inflow changes. Because of the inherent delay of the control system, the ability of the system to react promptly to inflow changes is limited. Control schemes that are based on inflow measurements have been developed to overcome the limitations of the classical wind turbine control system. By measuring the inflow directly, actuation can be initiated instantly as the inflow changes. If the inflow is measured upstream of the turbine, actuation can be initiated prior to the occurrence of a wind speed change at the turbine. Hereby, even the actuator delay can be compensated for. Upstream inflow measurements could for example be acquired using ''Light Detection and Ranging''. In this thesis, the potentials for improving the power production and decreasing the load variations of horizontal axis upwind turbines

  19. Non-noble metal Cu-loaded TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wei Jian; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-01-21

    Here we have demonstrated the preparation of high-quality, monodispersed and tunable phases of Cu nanoparticles. Structural and chemical composition studies depict the evolution of Cu-Cu(2)O-CuO nanoparticles at various process stages. The loading of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles on TiO(2) catalyst has enhanced the photocatalytic H(2) production. Comparatively, H(2) treatment produces well-dispersed Cu nanoparticles with thin oxide shells that show the highest H(2) production amongst the samples. The relatively higher photocatalytic performance is deemed to result from reduced structural defects, higher surface area and dispersivity as well as favorable charge transfer, which inhibits recombination. The Cu nanoparticles are shown to be a promising alternative to noble metal-loaded TiO(2) catalyst systems due to their low cost and high performance in photocatalytic applications.

  20. Eye closure helps memory by reducing cognitive load and enhancing visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2011-10-01

    Closing the eyes helps memory. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the eyeclosure effect by exposing 80 eyewitnesses to different types of distraction during the witness interview: blank screen (control), eyes closed, visual distraction, and auditory distraction. We examined the cognitive load hypothesis by comparing any type of distraction (visual or auditory) with minimal distraction (blank screen or eyes closed). We found recall to be significantly better when distraction was minimal, providing evidence that eyeclosure reduces cognitive load. We examined the modality-specific interference hypothesis by comparing the effects of visual and auditory distraction on recall of visual and auditory information. Visual and auditory distraction selectively impaired memory for information presented in the same modality, supporting the role of visualisation in the eyeclosure effect. Analysis of recall in terms of grain size revealed that recall of basic information about the event was robust, whereas recall of specific details was prone to both general and modality-specific disruptions.

  1. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  2. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study th....... It can be seen that by using the proposed stabilizers, the unstable poles induced by the CPLs are forced to move into the stable region. The proposed method is verified by the MATLAB/Simulink model of multi-stage DC microgrids with three distributed power generation units.......In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study...... the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue induced by the CPLs is revealed by using the criteria of impedance matching. Meanwhile, virtual...

  3. Selective loads periodization attenuates biochemical disturbances and enhances performance in female futsal players during competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of selective loads periodization on physical performance and biochemical parameters in professional female futsal players during competitive season. Twelve elite female futsal players from Kindermann team (Brazil participated in the study. Variables of physical performance and erythrogram, leukogram, plasma cortisol, plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA in the beginning of the preparatory period (PP, in the competitive period (CP and in the final competitive period (FCP were evaluated. Using selective loads periodization, all variables of physical performance increased (p < .01 during CP and were maintained during FCP (p < .05. White blood cells did not modify during CP and the increase of FCP in 28% remained within normal ranges. Plasma cortisol also increased during CP (p < .01 and was within the normal ranges during FCP. Plasma IgA also was within the normal ranges during CP and FCP. Selective loads periodization is adequate and attends the requirements of the sport during competitive season in female futsal players.

  4. Enhanced method of fast re-routing with load balancing in software-defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Oleksandr; Yeremenko, Oleksandra

    2017-11-01

    A two-level method of fast re-routing with load balancing in a software-defined network (SDN) is proposed. The novelty of the method consists, firstly, in the introduction of a two-level hierarchy of calculating the routing variables responsible for the formation of the primary and backup paths, and secondly, in ensuring a balanced load of the communication links of the network, which meets the requirements of the traffic engineering concept. The method provides implementation of link, node, path, and bandwidth protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN. The separation in accordance with the interaction prediction principle along two hierarchical levels of the calculation functions of the primary (lower level) and backup (upper level) routes allowed to abandon the initial sufficiently large and nonlinear optimization problem by transiting to the iterative solution of linear optimization problems of half the dimension. The analysis of the proposed method confirmed its efficiency and effectiveness in terms of obtaining optimal solutions for ensuring balanced load of communication links and implementing the required network element protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN.

  5. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT–epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of −19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and −60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm −1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs–epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  6. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  7. An enhanced particle swarm optimization for dynamic economic dispatch problem considering valve-point loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriyanyong, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the use of an enhanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) model to address the problem of dynamic economic dispatch (DED). A modified heuristic search method was incorporated into the PSO model. Both smooth and non-smooth cost functions were considered. The enhanced PSO model not only utilized the basic PSO algorithm in order to seek the optimal solution for the DED problem, but it also used a modified heuristic method to deal with constraints and increase the possibility of finding a feasible solution. In order to validate the enhanced PSO model, it was used and tested on 10-unit systems considering both smooth and non-smooth cost functions characteristics. The experimental results were also compared to other methods. The proposed technique was found to be better than other approaches. The enhanced PSO model outperformed others with respect to quality, stability and reliability. 23 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  8. Enhancing Accuracy of Sediment Total Load Prediction Using Evolutionary Algorithms (Case Study: Gotoorchay River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roshangar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exact prediction of transported sediment rate by rivers in water resources projects is of utmost importance. Basically erosion and sediment transport process is one of the most complexes hydrodynamic. Although different studies have been developed on the application of intelligent models based on neural, they are not widely used because of lacking explicitness and complexity governing on choosing and architecting of proper network. In this study, a Genetic expression programming model (as an important branches of evolutionary algorithems for predicting of sediment load is selected and investigated as an intelligent approach along with other known classical and imperical methods such as Larsen´s equation, Engelund-Hansen´s equation and Bagnold´s equation. Materials and Methods: In this study, in order to improve explicit prediction of sediment load of Gotoorchay, located in Aras catchment, Northwestern Iran latitude: 38°24´33.3˝ and longitude: 44°46´13.2˝, genetic programming (GP and Genetic Algorithm (GA were applied. Moreover, the semi-empirical models for predicting of total sediment load and rating curve have been used. Finally all the methods were compared and the best ones were introduced. Two statistical measures were used to compare the performance of the different models, namely root mean square error (RMSE and determination coefficient (DC. RMSE and DC indicate the discrepancy between the observed and computed values. Results and Discussions: The statistical characteristics results obtained from the analysis of genetic programming method for both selected model groups indicated that the model 4 including the only discharge of the river, relative to other studied models had the highest DC and the least RMSE in the testing stage (DC= 0.907, RMSE= 0.067. Although there were several parameters applied in other models, these models were complicated and had weak results of prediction. Our results showed that the model 9

  9. LOAD-ENHANCED MOVEMENT QUALITY SCREENING AND TACTICAL ATHLETICISM: AN EXTENSION OF EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Schmitz, Randy J; Rhea, Christopher K; Ross, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Military organizations use movement quality screening for prediction of injury risk and performance potential. Currently, evidence of an association between movement quality and performance is limited. Recent work has demonstrated that external loading strengthens the relationship between movement screens and performance outcomes. Such loading may therefore steer us toward robust implementations of movement quality screens while maintaining their appeal as cost effective, field-expedient tools. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the effect of external load-bearing on the relationship between clinically rated movement quality and tactical performance outcomes while addressing the noted limitations. Crossover Trial. Fifty young adults (25 male, 25 female, 22.98 ± 3.09 years, 171.95 ± 11.46 cm, 71.77 ± 14.03 kg) completed the Functional Movement Screen™ with (FMS™W) and without (FMS™C) a weight vest in randomized order. Following FMS™ testing, criterion measures of tactical performance were administered, including agility T-Tests, sprints, a 400-meter run, the Mobility for Battle (MOB) course, and a simulated casualty rescue. For each performance outcome, regression models were selected via group lasso with smoothed FMS™ item scores as candidate predictor variables. For all outcomes, proportion of variance accounted for was greater in FMS™W (R 2 = ;0.22 [T-Test], 0.29 [Sprint], 0.17 [400 meter], 0.29 [MOB], and 0.11 [casualty rescue]) than in FMS™C (R 2 = ;0.00 [T-Test], 0.11 [Sprint], 0.00 [400 meter], 0.19 [MOB], and 0.00 [casualty rescue]). From the FMS™W condition, beneficial performance effects (ptactical performance ability. Future designs should seek to identify mechanisms explaining this effect. 3.

  10. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  11. Validated Loads Prediction Models for Offshore Wind Turbines for Enhanced Component Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina

    To improve the reliability of offshore wind turbines, accurate prediction of their response is required. Therefore, validation of models with site measurements is imperative. In the present thesis a 3.6MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine on a monopole foundation is built...... are used for the modification of the sub-structure/foundation design for possible material savings. First, the background of offshore wind engineering, including wind-wave conditions, support structure, blade loading and wind turbine dynamics are presented. Second, a detailed description of the site...

  12. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin/all-trans retinoic acid-loaded nanodiamonds into tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Zhenyu; Fang, Liaoqiong; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2018-03-14

    To build up a combined therapy strategy to address limitations of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy. A pH-sensitive nanocomplex for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was developed based on nanodiamonds (DOX/ATRA-NDs) to enhance intracellular retention of drugs. Meanwhile, ultrasound was employed to enhance tumor vascular penetration of DOX-ATRA-NDs. The distribution of DOX/ATRA-NDs in the tumor tissues increased threefold when ultrasound was applied at 1 MHz and 0.6 W/cm 2 . Comparing with unmodified chemotherapeutics, the combined therapy induced more tumor cells apoptosis and greater tumor growth inhibition in both liver and breast tumor models. DOX-ATRA-NDs demonstrate great potential in clinical applications.

  13. Enhancement of temozolomide stability by loading in chitosan-carboxylated polylactide-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, Antonio; Kucharczyk, Pavel; Capakova, Zdenka; Humpolicek, Petr; Sedlarik, Vladimir, E-mail: sedlarik@ft.utb.cz [Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    In the presented work, amphiphilic nanoparticles based on chitosan and carboxy-enriched polylactic acid have been prepared to improve the stability of the pro-drug temozolomide in physiological media by encapsulation. The carrier, with a diameter in the range of 150–180 nm, was able to accommodate up to 800 μg of temozolomide per mg of polymer. The obtained formulation showed good stability in physiological condition and preparation media up to 1 month. Temozolomide loaded inside the carrier exhibited greater stability than the free drug, in particular in simulated physiological solution at pH 7.4 where the hydrolysis in the inactive metabolite was clearly delayed. CS-SPLA nanoparticles demonstrated a pH-dependent TMZ release kinetics with the opportunity to increase or decrease the rate. Mass spectroscopy, UV-Vis analysis, and in vitro cell tests confirmed the improvement in temozolomide stability and effectiveness when loaded into the polymeric carrier, in comparison with the free drug.

  14. Enhancing Learners' Problem Solving Performance in Mathematics: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhlamini, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI) to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1) to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2) to test the efficacy of CBPSI…

  15. A Study of Cognitive Load for Enhancing Student’s Quantitative Literacy in Inquiry Lab Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahman, T.; Alifiani, D. P.; Khoerunnisa, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Students often find it difficult to appreciate the relevance of the role of quantitative analysis and concept attainment in the science class. This study measured student cognitive load during the inquiry lab of the respiratory system to improve quantitative literacy. Participants in this study were 40 11th graders from senior high school in Indonesia. After students learned, their feelings about the degree of mental effort that it took to complete the learning tasks were measured by 28 self-report on a 4-point Likert scale. The Task Complexity Worksheet were used to asses processing quantitative information and paper based test were applied to assess participants’ concept achievements. The results showed that inquiry instructional induced a relatively low mental effort, high processing information and high concept achievments.

  16. Does cluster loading enhance lower body power development in preseason preparation of elite rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Newton, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether cluster training led to improved power training adaptations in the preseason preparation of elite level rugby union players. Eighteen highly trained athletes were divided into 2 training groups, a traditional training (TT, N = 9) group and a cluster training (CT, N = 9) group before undertaking 8 weeks of lower body resistance training. Force-velocity-power profiling in the jump squat movement was undertaken, and maximum strength was assessed in the back squat before and after the training intervention. Two-way analysis of variance and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess changes in maximum strength and force, velocity, and power values pretraining to posttraining. Both TT and CT groups significantly (p benefit of cluster type loading in training prescription for lower body power development.

  17. Sliding contact loading enhances the tensile properties of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of cartilage tissue engineering is to recapitulate the functional properties and structural features of native articular cartilage. While there has been some success in generating near-native compressive properties, the tensile properties of cell-seeded constructs remain poor, and key features of cartilage, including inhomogeneity and anisotropy, are generally absent in these engineered constructs. Therefore, in an attempt to instill these hallmark properties of cartilage in engineered cell-seeded constructs, we designed and characterized a novel sliding contact bioreactor to recapitulate the mechanical stimuli arising from physiologic joint loading (two contacting cartilage layers. Finite element modeling of this bioreactor system showed that tensile strains were direction-dependent, while both tensile strains and fluid motion were depth-dependent and highest in the region closest to the contact surface. Short-term sliding contact of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-seeded agarose improved chondrogenic gene expression in a manner dependent on both the axial strain applied and transforming growth factor-β supplementation. Using the optimized loading parameters derived from these short-term studies, long-term sliding contact was applied to MSC-seeded agarose constructs for 21 d. After 21 d, sliding contact significantly improved the tensile properties of MSC-seeded constructs and elicited alterations in type II collagen and proteoglycan accumulation as a function of depth; staining for these matrix molecules showed intense localization in the surface regions. These findings point to the potential of sliding contact to produce engineered cartilage constructs that begin to recapitulate the complex mechanical features of the native tissue.

  18. Curcumin-Loaded Blood-Stable Polymeric Micelles for Enhancing Therapeutic Effect on Erythroleukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feirong; Chen, Dan; Teng, Xin; Ge, Junhua; Ning, Xianfeng; Shen, Ya-Ling; Li, Jian; Wang, Shanfeng

    2017-08-07

    Curcumin has high potential in suppressing many types of cancer and overcoming multidrug resistance in a multifaceted manner by targeting diverse molecular targets. However, the rather low systemic bioavailability resulted from its poor solubility in water and fast metabolism/excretion in vivo has hampered its applications in cancer therapy. To increase the aqueous solubility of curcumin while retaining the stability in blood circulation, here we report curcumin-loaded copolymer micelles with excellent in vitro and in vivo stability and antitumor efficacy. The two copolymers used for comparison were methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-phenylalanine end-capped mPEG-PCL (mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc)). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against human pancreatic SW1990 cell line showed that the delivery of curcumin in mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles to cancer cells was efficient and dosage-dependent. The pharmacokinetics in ICR mice indicated that intravenous (i.v.) administration of curcumin/mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles could retain curcumin in plasma much better than curcumin/mPEG-PCL micelles. Biodistribution results in Sprague-Dawley rats also showed higher uptake and slower elimination of curcumin into liver, lung, kidney, and brain, and lower uptake into heart and spleen of mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles, as compared with mPEG-PCL micelles. Further in vivo efficacy evaluation in multidrug-resistant human erythroleukemia K562/ADR xenograft model revealed that i.v. administration of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles significantly delayed tumor growth, which was attributed to the improved stability of curcumin in the bloodstream and increased systemic bioavailability. The mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micellar system is promising in overcoming the key challenge of curcumin's to promote its applications in cancer therapy.

  19. Dry Gel Containing Optimized Felodipine-Loaded Transferosomes: a Promising Transdermal Delivery System to Enhance Drug Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed Ali; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; El Taweel, Mai Magdy

    2018-04-30

    Felodipine has a very low bioavailability due to first-pass metabolism. The aim of this study was to enhance its bioavailability by transdermal application. Felodipine-loaded transferosomes were prepared by thin-film hydration using different formulation variables. An optimized formula was designed using statistical experimental design. The independent variables were the used edge activator, its molar ratio to phosphatidylcholine, and presence or absence of cholesterol. The responses were entrapment efficiency of transferosomes, their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percent drug released after 8 h. The optimized formula was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry studies and its stability on storage at 4°C for 6 months was estimated. This formula was improved by incorporation of different permeation enhancers where ex vivo drug flux through mice skin was estimated and the best improved formula was formulated in a gel and lyophilized. The prepared gel was subjected to in vivo study using Plendil® tablets as a reference. According to the calculated desirability, the optimized transferosome formula was that containing sodium deoxycholate as edge activator at 5:1 M ratio to phosphatidylcholine and no cholesterol. The thermograms of this formula indicated the incorporation of felodipine inside the prepared vesicles. None of the tested parameters differed significantly on storage. The lyophilized gel of labrasol-containing formula was chosen for in vivo study. The relative bioavailability of felodipine from the designed gel was 1.7. In conclusion, topically applied lyophilized gel containing felodipine-loaded transferosomes is a promising transdermal delivery system to enhance its bioavailability.

  20. Enhancement of Radiotherapeutic Efficacy by Paclitaxel-Loaded ph-Sensitive Block Copolymer Micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhyang, C.; Jaesook, P.; Dong-Hoon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality for cancer treatment, but its efficacy is often compromised by the resistance caused by tumor-specific microenvironment including acidosis and hypoxia. For an effective RT, concurrent administration of radiosensitizer with RT has been emphasized. However, most anticancer agents enhancing radiotherapeutic efficacy have obstacles such as poor solubility and severe toxicity. Paclitaxel (PTX), a well-known radiosensitizer, is insoluble in water and needs toxic solvent like Cremophor EL. Nano materials in drug delivery systems have been utilized for improving the drawbacks of anti-cancer drugs. Solubilization, tumor accumulation, and toxicity attenuation of drug by nano materials are suitable for enhancement of radiotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, PTX was incorporated into ph-sensitive block copolymer micelle (psm-PTX), polyethylene glycol-graft-poly(β-amino ester), and pre clinically evaluated for its effect on RT. The size of psm-PTX was 125. 4.4±nm at ph 7.4. psm-PTX released PTX rapidly in the acidic condition (ph 6.5), while it was reasonably stable in the physiologic condition (ph 7.4). The clonogenic assay showed that psm-PTX greatly sensitized human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells to radiation. In the xenograft tumor model, the combination of psm-PTX and radiation significantly delayed the tumor growth. These results demonstrated the feasibility of psm-PTX to enhance the chemo radiotherapeutic efficacy.

  1. Enhanced performance and durability of low catalyst loading PEM water electrolyser based on a short-side chain perfluorosulfonic ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siracusano, Stefania; Baglio, Vincenzo; Van Dijk, Nicholas; Merlo, Luca; Aricò, Antonino Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    cm"−"2, showed excellent stability for the MEA with total noble metal catalyst loading of 1.6 mg·cm"−"2 (cell voltage increase ∼5 μV/h). Moderate degradation rate (cell voltage increase ∼15 μV/h) was recorded for the low loading 0.5 mg·cm"−"2, MEA. Similar stability characteristics were observed in durability tests at 3 A·cm"−"2. These high performance and stability characteristics were attributed to the enhanced proton conductivity and good stability of the novel membrane, the optimized structural properties of the Ir and Ru oxide solid solution and the enrichment of Ir species on the surface for the anodic catalyst.

  2. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were loaded on TiO 2 by chemical reduction. • TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 samples were deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). • Their performance was evaluated via methylene blue removal under visible-light. • TiO 2 /Ag/rGO presented superior activity compared to TiO 2 , TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 /rGO. - Abstract: In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO 2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO 2 /Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO 2 /Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO 2 /Ag, TiO 2 /rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO 2 /Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO 2 /Ag, 93% for TiO 2 /rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO 2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  3. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)

  4. Remote handling dynamical modelling: assessment on new approach to enhance positioning accuracy with heavy load manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarina-Sasia, T.; David, O.; Dubus, G.; Perrot, Y.; Riwain, A.

    2007-01-01

    In vessel maintenance work in Fusion Tokamak will be carried out with help several sets of robotic devices. Heavy loads handling in constrained space is identified by all players of the RH community as a key-issue in the latest Fusion Tokamak facilities. To deal with high-level dexterity tasks, high payload to mass ratio and limited operating space, RH equipment designers can only propose systems whose mechanical flexibility is no longer negligible and need to be taken into account in the control scheme. Traditional approaches where control system only includes a linear model of deformation of the structure leads to poor positioning accuracy. Uncontrolled or under evaluated errors could be damaging for in-vessel components during maintenance operations in the Tokamak facility. To address the control of complex flexible systems, we will investigate the use of specific mechanical software that combines both finite element and kinematical joints analyses, with a strong-coupled formulation, to perform system dynamics simulations. This procedure will be applied on a single axis mock up robotic joint with highly flexible structure. A comparison of experimental results with the traditional linear approach and the specified software model will be carried out. Benefits introduced by this new approach will finally be assessed in view of RH design or specification in the field of RH in Fusion Tokamak scale such as ITER. (orig.)

  5. A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameri, Saeed A.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants operate most economically at a constant power level, providing base load electric power. In an energy grid containing a high fraction of renewable power sources, nuclear reactors may be subject to significantly variable power demands. These variable power demands can negatively impact the effective capacity factor of the reactor and result in severe economic penalties. Coupling a nuclear reactor to a large thermal energy storage block will allow the reactor to better respond to variable power demands. In the system described in this paper, a Prismatic core Advanced High Temperature Reactor supplies constant power to a lithium chloride molten salt thermal energy storage block that provides thermal power as needed to a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system. During normal operation, the thermal energy storage block stores thermal energy during the night for use in the times of peak demand during the day. In this case, the nuclear reactor stays at a constant thermal power level. After a loss of forced circulation, the reactor reaches a shut down state in less than half an hour and the average fuel, graphite and coolant temperatures remain well within the design limits over the duration of the transient, demonstrating the inherent safety of the coupled system. (author)

  6. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  7. Enhanced therapeutic benefit of quercetin-loaded phytosome nanoparticles in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Abeer I; Fathy, Mohamed M; Ali, Zeinab Y; El-Garawany, Abd El-Rahman A; Mohamed, Ehsan K

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonol phytoestrogen, has many health benefits but it is poorly absorbed when administered orally. To improve its bioavailability, we prepared quercetin-loaded phytosome nanoparticles (QP) using the thin film hydration method. The prepared nano-formulations were characterized using different techniques. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the homogeneously spherical, well and uniformly dispersed, nano-sized nature of QP. Dynamic light scattering measurements of QP (70 ± 7.44 nm) also confirmed this. Stability of the formed nanoparticles was established via zeta potential determination. The prepared QP exhibited very high encapsulation efficiency (98.4%). The estrogenic activity of QP, concerning inflammation, oxidative stress, bone, lipid profile, blood glucose level and weight gain, was investigated in ovariectomized rat model using 10 and 50 mg/kg/day oral doses for 4 weeks. Treatment with QP showed significant increase in serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and glutathione content. Whereas, it significantly decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, malondialdehyde level, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and glucose level and improved lipid profile. Consequently, the results obtained confirm the superiority of QP over free quercetin at the same doses as a promising hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced load current delivery from the SHIVA Star vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental results reported here were obtained from passively integrated Rogowski coils mounted in the SHIVA Star device and B located in the load and transfer regions of the device. The integrator time constant was 100 μs. Current measurements accuracy is estimated to be 5% for the Rogowski coils and 10% for B probes. B probes indicated peak currents of 13.5 MA at the breech and 13.0 MA at the muzzle with 650 ns 10-90% rise time. B probes in the implosion region indicated a current greater than 9.4 MA inside 5.5 cm radius; at that time, the muzzle current was 10.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time was 170 ns. The innermost probe indicated 7.3 MA inside 3.2 cm; at that time, the muzzle current was 9.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time at 3.2 cm was 300 ns. Timing anomalies suggested some azimuthal current asymmetry in the implosion region. The data indicate greater than 90% current delivery from the gun muzzle to just outside the initial position implosion foil and 70-80% current delivery from the gun muzzle to the partially imploded foil

  9. Curcumin loaded nano globules for solubility enhancement: preparation, characterization and ex vivo release study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2012-11-01

    Curcumin in spite of being an effective chemotherapeutic agent against different type of cancer, suffer from the problem of low systemic bioavailability due to low aqueous solubility, extensive intestinal metabolism and first-pass metabolism when administered via the oral route. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of nano globules based nanoemulsion formulation for the solubility enhancement of curcumin. The nano globules based formulation was developed using Labrafac Lipophile WL 1349, Unitop FFT 40, PEG 400 and distilled water as an oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively using aqueous titration method. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to physical stability and consequently evaluated for ex vivo permeation using small intestine. The optimized formulation had small average globule diameter of 58 nm with zeta potential of -32 mv which indicated long-term dispersion stability. The globules were spherical in shape as observed by Transmission electron microscopy. During ex vivo study, the release of curcumin from nanoemulsion was 96.21% and 98.1% in 6 h and 12 h respectively whereas CU suspension was release up to 28.2% at the end of 12 h. This indicated the enhancement of solubility of curcumin in aqueous solution which is the rate limiting step in the absorption of curcumin in the intestine.

  10. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  12. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  13. Tadalafil inclusion in microporous silica as effective dissolution enhancer: optimization of loading procedure and molecular state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Motawaa, Adel M; Samaha, Magda W

    2011-05-01

    Tadalafil is an efficient drug used to treat erectile dysfunction characterized by poor water solubility, which has a negative influence on its bioavailability. Utilization of microporous silica represents an effective and facile technology to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Our strategy involved directly introducing tadalafil as guest molecule into microporous silica as host material by incipient wetness impregnation method. To optimize tadalafil inclusion, response surface methodology (RSM) using 3(3) factorial design was utilized. Furthermore, to investigate the molecular state of tadalafil, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermal gravimetrical analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were carried out. The results obtained pointed out that the quantity of microporous silica was the predominant factor that increased the loading efficiency. For the optimized formula, the loading efficiency was 42.50 wt %. Adsorption-desorption experiments indicated that tadalafil has been introduced into the micropores. Powder XRD and differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that tadalafil is arranged in amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution rate of tadalafil from the microporous silica was faster than that of free drug. Amorphous tadalafil occluded in microporous silica did not crystallize over 3 months. These findings contributed in opening a new strategy concerning the utilization of porous silica for the dissolution rate enhancement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Enhanced Load Power Sharing Accuracy in Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids with Both Mesh and Radial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rational power sharing among different interface converters should be determined by the converter capacity. In order to guarantee that each converter operates at the ideal condition, considering the radial and mesh configuration, a modified strategy for load power sharing accuracy enhancement in droop-controlled DC microgrid is proposed in this paper. Two compensating terms which include averaging output power control and averaging DC voltage control of neighboring converters are employed. Since only the information of the neighboring converter is used, the complexity of the communication network can be reduced. The rational distribution of load power for different line resistance conditions is realized by using modified droop control that can be regarded as a distributed approach. Low bandwidth communication is used for exchanging sampled information between different converters. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method for different network configurations and line resistances under different communication delay is analyzed in detail. Simulation results derived from a DC microgrid with three converters is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to verify the proposed approach. Experimental results from a 3 × 10 kW prototype also show the performance of the proposed modified droop control scheme.

  15. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode.

  16. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  17. Enhanced Ungual Permeation of Terbinafine HCl Delivered Through Liposome-Loaded Nail Lacquer Formulation Optimized by QbD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral H; Jobanputra, Amee

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation focused on developing, optimizing, and evaluating a novel liposome-loaded nail lacquer formulation for increasing the transungual permeation flux of terbinafine HCl for efficient treatment of onychomycosis. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed for optimizing process and formulation parameters of liposomal formulation. Liposomes were formulated by thin film hydration technique followed by sonication. Drug to lipid ratio, sonication amplitude, and sonication time were screened as independent variables while particle size, PDI, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential were selected as quality attributes for liposomal formulation. Multiple regression analysis was employed to construct a second-order quadratic polynomial equation and contour plots. Design space (overlay plot) was generated to optimize a liposomal system, with software-suggested levels of independent variables that could be transformed to desired responses. The optimized liposome formulation was characterized and dispersed in nail lacquer which was further evaluated for different parameters. Results depicted that the optimized terbinafine HCl-loaded liposome formulation exhibited particle size of 182 nm, PDI of 0.175, zeta potential of -26.8 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 80%. Transungual permeability flux of terbinafine HCl through liposome-dispersed nail lacquer formulation was observed to be significantly higher in comparison to nail lacquer with a permeation enhancer. The developed formulation was also observed to be as efficient as pure drug dispersion in its antifungal activity. Thus, it was concluded that the developed formulation can serve as an efficient tool for enhancing the permeability of terbinafine HCl across human nail plate thereby improving its therapeutic efficiency.

  18. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects...... infected with HIV-2 alone (212 vs. 724 copies/mL; P=.02). Adjusted for age, sex, and HIV status, the risk of death increased with HTLV-I provirus load; mortality hazard ratio was 1.59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2...... disease, but high HTLV-I provirus loads may contribute to mortality....

  19. Enhanced protein loading on a planar Si(111)-H surface with second generation NTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Han, Huan-Mei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2010-08-01

    A Si(111)-H surface was modified via a direct reaction between Si-H and 1-undecylenic acid (UA) under microwave irradiation to form molecular monolayers with terminal carboxyl groups. After esterifying carboxylic acid being esterified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), aminobutyl nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) was bound to the silicon surface through amidation (pH = 8.0) between its primary amino group and NHS-ester, producing nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anions. Then hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (his-tagged protein) and FITC-labeled hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (FITC-his-tagged protein) can be anchored after NTA was coordinated with Ni 2+. Furthermore, the NTA-terminated chip was acidified with 0.1 M HCl and subsequently esterified with NHS and then amidated with ANTA again to produce a second generation NTA. Thus the surface density of nitrilotriacetic acid anions was improved and resultantly that of anchored proteins was also enhanced through the iterative reactions. Both multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) and fluorescence scanning measurements demonstrated a proximate 1.63 times of anchored proteins on the second generation NTA/Ni 2+ as that on the first generation NTA/Ni 2+ monolayer.

  20. Multiscale mechanics of the lateral pressure effect on enhancing the load transfer between polymer coated CNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Fatemeh; Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2017-05-04

    While individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known as one of the strongest fibers ever known, even the strongest fabricated macroscale CNT yarns and fibers are still significantly weaker than individual nanotubes. The loss in mechanical properties is mainly because the deformation mechanism of CNT fibers is highly governed by the weak shear strength corresponding to sliding of nanotubes on each other. Adding polymer coating to the bundles, and twisting the CNT yarns to enhance the intertube interactions are both efficient methods to improve the mechanical properties of macroscale yarns. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to unravel the unknown deformation mechanism in the intertube polymer chains and also local deformations of the CNTs at the atomistic scale. Our results show that the lateral pressure can have both beneficial and adverse effects on shear strength of polymer coated CNTs, depending on the local deformations at the atomistic scale. In this paper we also introduce a bottom-up bridging strategy between a full atomistic model and a coarse-grained (CG) model. Our trained CG model is capable of incorporating the atomistic scale local deformations of each CNT to the larger scale collect behavior of bundles, which enables the model to accurately predict the effect of lateral pressure on larger CNT bundles and yarns. The developed multiscale CG model is implemented to study the effect of lateral pressure on the shear strength of straight polymer coated CNT yarns, and also the effect of twisting on the pull-out force of bundles in spun CNT yarns.

  1. Intake of tryptophan-enriched whey protein acutely enhances recall of positive loaded words in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K; Blokland, Arjan; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Jansen, Willemijn; Han, Gang; Hupperts, Raymond M

    2018-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, MS patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 17) depressed mood ingested a whey protein mixture with 4 different amounts of TRP. Mood states, total plasma TRP and plasma TRP/ΣLNAA ratio were measured during each test session and cognitive tasks were conducted three hours after dietary intake. A fast, transient and dose-dependent increase of total plasma TRP and TRP/ΣLNAA ratio was found. Ratings of negative mood decreased over time, independent of the TRP dose. Relative to whey-only, immediate word recall and delayed recognition improved after ingestion of the lowest added TRP dose and was mainly due to better recollection for positive loaded words. Executive functions were not affected by a difference in TRP availability. A moderate addition of TRP to whey protein enhances memory processes without improving the mood state in MS. ccmo-registration number is NL32316.096.10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Stannic Oxide-Titanium Dioxide Coupled Semiconductor Photocatalyst Loaded with Polyaniline for Enhanced Photocatalytic Oxidation of 1-Octene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Nur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannic oxide-titanium dioxide (SnO2–TiO2 coupled semiconductor photocatalyst loaded with polyaniline (PANI, a conducting polymer, possesses a high photocatalytic activity in oxidation of 1-octene to 1,2-epoxyoctane with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalyst was prepared by impregnation of SnO2 and followed by attachment of PANI onto a TiO2 powder to give sample PANI-SnO2–TiO2. The electrical conductivity of the system becomes high in the presence of PANI. Enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed in the case of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 compared to PANI-TiO2, SnO2–TiO2, and TiO2. A higher photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of 1-octene on PANI-SnO2–TiO2 than SnO2–TiO2, PANI-TiO2, and TiO2 can be considered as an evidence of enhanced charge separation of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 photocatalyst as confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. It suggests that photoinjected electrons are tunneled from TiO2 to SnO2 and then to PANI in order to allow wider separation of excited carriers.

  3. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation

  4. Targeted gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific magnetic resonance contrast enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Swanson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott D Swanson1, Jolanta F Kukowska-Latallo2, Anil K Patri5, Chunyan Chen6, Song Ge4, Zhengyi Cao3, Alina Kotlyar3, Andrea T East7, James R Baker31Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan Medical School, 3Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 4Applied Physics, The University of Michigan, MD, USA; 5Present address: National Cancer Institute at Frederick (Contractor, MD, USA; 6Present address: Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ, USA; 7Present address: Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, ILL, USAAbstract: A target-specific MRI contrast agent for tumor cells expressing high affinity folate receptor was synthesized using generation five (G5 of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer. Surface modified dendrimer was functionalized for targeting with folic acid (FA and the remaining terminal primary amines of the dendrimer were conjugated with the bifunctional NCS-DOTA chelator that forms stable complexes with gadolinium (Gd III. Dendrimer-DOTA conjugates were then complexed with GdCl3, followed by ICP-OES as well as MRI measurement of their longitudinal relaxivity (T1 s−1 mM−1 of water. In xenograft tumors established in immunodeficient (SCID mice with KB human epithelial cancer cells expressing folate receptor (FAR, the 3D MRI results showed specific and statistically significant signal enhancement in tumors generated with targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5-FA compared with signal generated by non-targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5 contrast nanoparticle. The targeted dendrimer contrast nanoparticles infiltrated tumor and were retained in tumor cells up to 48 hours post-injection of targeted contrast nanoparticle. The presence of folic acid on the dendrimer resulted in specific delivery of the nanoparticle to tissues and xenograft tumor cells expressing folate receptor in vivo. We present the specificity of the dendrimer

  5. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  6. Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over MoS2 nanosheets loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Xu, Mengqiu; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Zhandong

    2018-02-01

    The MoS2/CdS composites with layered MoS2 loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres were synthesized by a two-step process combination hydrothermal and solvothermal treatments, and then applied in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and photoelectrochemical tests. The effects of loading contents of MoS2 in the composites on the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity were comparatively investigated with 0.45 mol L-1 Na2S and 0.55 mol L-1 Na2SO3 as sacrificial agents. The results showed that the 5 wt% MoS2/CdS composite could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 372 μmol h-1 and apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) about 7.31% under 420 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of MoS2/CdS composite could be attributed to the effective transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and MoS2 being as a cocatalyst to facilitating photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. A tentative mechanism of MoS2/CdS composites as photocatalysts for H2 evolution was proposed.

  7. Lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles: An innovative endeavor for enhanced bioavailability of lycopene and anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Sharma, Gajanand; Ghoshal, Gargi; Kesharwani, Prashant; Singh, Bhupinder; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2018-04-28

    The work entails a novel strategy of formulating the lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles (LYC-WPI-NPs) solely using the rational blend of biomacromolecule without using equipment-intensive techniques. The LYC-WPI-NPs were fabricated as a substantial drug delivery platform, with maximum entrapment, spatial and controlled release manners, exceptional plasma concentration, and perspective for discrepancy delivery of therapeutics. Prepared nano-formulations were measured in ultra-fine size (100-350 nm) with sphere-shaped. The percent lycopene entrapment of prepared LYC-WPI-NPs was estimated in the range to 50 and 65%. In vitro percent cumulative release study demonstrated deaden and extended release i.e. approximately 75% following 16 th h. The in vitro percent cell survival (cytotoxicity study) of prepared nanoparticles was evaluated against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by MTT based colorimetric assay. Sub-cellular localization of lycopene when delivered by LYC-WPI-NPs was assessed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The WPI-NPs enhance the oral bioavailability of lycopene by controlling its release from nano-formulation and facilitating its absorption through lymphatic pathways. Prophylactic anticancer efficacy of LYC-WPI-NPs was evaluated thereafter on experimentally induced breast cancer animal model. Conclusively, it may quite reasonable that lycopene loaded protein nanoparticles are competent to improve the biopharmaceutical attributes of lycopene and demonstrated prophylactic anticancer activity, decrease tumor proliferation and increase the survival rate of treated animals, thus signifying their feasible usefulness in cancer therapeutic and intervention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enhanced intracellular delivery and antibacterial efficacy of enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles against intracellular Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Yang, Fei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Qu, Wei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-23

    Enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with different physicochemical properties were developed to enhance activity against intracellular Salmonella. Their cellular uptake, intracellular elimination and antibacterial activity were studied in RAW 264.7 cells. During the experimental period, SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin accumulated in the cells approximately 27.06-37.71 times more efficiently than free drugs at the same extracellular concentration. After incubation for 0.5 h, the intracellular enrofloxacin was enhanced from 0.336 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein as the sizes of nanoparticles were increased from 150 to 605 nm, and from 0.960 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein when the charge was improved from -8.1 to -24.9 mv. The cellular uptake was more significantly influenced by the size than it was by the charge, and was not affected by whether the charge was positive or negative. The elimination of optimal SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin from the cells was significantly slower than that of free enrofloxacin after removing extracellular drug. The inhibition effect against intracellular Salmonella CVCC541 of 0.24 and 0.06 μg/mL encapsulated enrofloxacin was stronger than 0.6 μg/mL free drug after all of the incubation periods and at 48 h, respectively. Docosanoic acid SLNs are thus considered as a promising carrier for intracellular bacterial treatment.

  9. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  10. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  11. Catalase-loaded cisplatin-prodrug-constructed liposomes to overcome tumor hypoxia for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Song, Guosheng; Chao, Yu; Yang, Yu; Yang, Kai; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer. After being loaded inside liposomes, CAT within CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome shows retained and well-protected enzyme activity, and is able to trigger decomposition of H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells, so as to produce additional oxygen for hypoxia relief. As the result, treatment of CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome induces the highest level of DNA damage in cancer cells after X-ray radiation compared to the control groups. In vivo tumor treatment further demonstrates a remarkably improved therapeutic outcome in chemo-radiotherapy with such CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome nanoparticles. Hence, an exquisite type of liposome-based nanoparticles is developed in this work by integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy and catalase-induced tumor hypoxia relief together for combined chemo-radiotherapy with great synergistic efficacy, promising for clinical translation in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Folate Receptor-targeted Bioflavonoid Genistein-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Anticancer Effect in Cervical Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Limei; Yu, Rufen; Hao, Xi; Ding, Xiangcui

    2017-08-01

    In this study, novel folic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticle was formulated for specific delivery of bioflavonoid, Genistein (GEN), to the cervical cancer cells. The prepared GEN-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GCN) and folic acid-conjugated GCN (FGCN) showed smaller size with a controlled drug release profile. FGCN exhibited enhanced internalization potential in HeLa cells than that of GCN. The specific internalization of FGCN was mainly due to the affinity of folic acid (FA) with FRs-α which is present in large numbers in HeLa cells. The results revealed that FGCN has a specific affinity towards HeLa cells that will contribute to the better treatment. Folic acid-tagged nanoformulations exhibited a superior cytotoxic effect compared to that of non-targeted formulations. Consistently, IC50 value of GEN decreased from 33.8 to 14.6 μg/ml when treated with FGCN after 24 h incubation. The apoptosis studies indicated that the FGCN nanoparticles were then either GCN or free GEN in terms of anticancer activity. Overall, results revealed that folate conjugation to the delivery system might have great effect on the survival of cervical cancers that will be beneficial for overall cancer treatment.

  13. Silver-loaded nanotubular structures enhanced bactericidal efficiency of antibiotics with synergistic effect in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Xu,1,2,* Hao Cheng,3,4,* Jiangwen Xu,1 Feng Li,3 Biao Gao,1 Zi Li,3 Chenghao Gao,3 Kaifu Huo,5 Jijiang Fu,1,2 Wei Xiong3 1The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 2Institute of Biology and Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 3Orthopaedic Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major issue due to the long-term use and abuse of antibiotics in treatments in clinics. The combination therapy of antibiotics and silver (Ag nanoparticles is an effective way of both enhancing the antibacterial effect and decreasing the usage of antibiotics. Although the method has been proved to be effective in vitro, no in vivo tests have been carried out at present. Herein, we described a combination therapy of local delivery of Ag and systemic antibiotics treatment in vitro in an infection model of rat. Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube (NT arrays (Ag-NTs were fabricated on titanium implants for a customized release of Ag ion. The antibacterial properties of silver combined with antibiotics vancomycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, respectively, were tested in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay, disk diffusion assay, and antibiofilm formation test. Enhanced antibacterial activity of combination therapy was observed for all the chosen bacterial strains, including gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, gram

  14. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Choudhary, Bhavana; Rathore, Atul; Roy, Krishtey; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2015-11-15

    Curcumin has a wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, wound healing, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-carcinogenic. However, its clinical applications are limited owing to its poor aqueous solubility, multidrug pump P-gp efflux, extensive in vivo metabolism and rapid elimination due to glucuronidation/sulfation. The objective of the current work was to prepare novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles (CUR-MM) of Pluronic F-127 (PF127) and Gelucire® 44/14 (GL44) in order to enhance its oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line A549. 3(2) Factorial design was used to assess the effect of formulation variables for optimization of mixed micelle batch. CUR-MM was prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The optimized CUR-MM was evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro curcumin release, cytotoxicity and oral bioavailability in rats. The average size of CUR-MM was found to be around 188 ± 3 nm with an EE of about 76.45 ± 1.18% w/w. In vitro dissolution profile of CUR-MM revealed controlled release of curcumin. Additionally, CUR-MM showed significant improvement in cytotoxic activity (3-folds) and oral bioavailability (around 55-folds) of curcumin as compared to curcumin alone. Such significant improvement in cytotoxic activity and oral bioavailability of curcumin when formulated into mixed micelles could be attributed to solubilization of hydrophobic curcumin into micelle core along with P-gp inhibition effect of both, PF127 and GL44. Thus the present work propose the formulation of mixed micelles of PF127 and GL44 which can act as promising carrier systems for hydrophobic drugs such as curcumin with significant improvement in their oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced antidepressant-like effects of the macromolecule trefoil factor 3 by loading into negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qin,1 Xu Yang,1–3 Jia Mi,4 Jianxin Wang,1 Jia Hou,1,2 Teng Shen,1 Yongji Li,2 Bin Wang,4 Xuri Li,4 Weili Zhu5 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 5National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Immunocytes, mainly neutrophils and monocytes, exhibit an intrinsic homing property, enabling them to migrate to sites of injury and inflammation. They can thus act as Trojan horses carrying concealed drug cargoes while migrating across impermeable barriers to sites of disease, especially the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In this study, to target circulating phagocytic cells, we formulated negatively charged nanosize liposomes and loaded trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 into liposomes by the pH-gradient method. According to the optimized formulation (5:1.5 of lipid to cholesterol, 10:1 of lipid to drug, 10 mg/mL of lipid concentration, and 10 mmol/L of phosphate-buffered saline, 44.47% entrapment efficiency was obtained for TFF3 liposomes with 129.6 nm particle size and –36.6 mV zeta potential. Compared with neutrally charged liposomes, the negatively charged liposomes showed a strong binding capacity with monocytes and were effectively carried by monocytes to cross the BBB in vitro. Furthermore, enhanced antidepressant-like effects were found in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests in mice, as measured by decreased immobility time, as well as increased swimming time and reduced immobility in rats. These results suggested that negatively charged liposomes could improve the behavioral responses of TFF3, and our study opens up a new way for the development of

  16. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  17. Exercise does not enhance aged bone's impaired response to artificial loading in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Lee B; Udeh, Chinedu; Galea, Gabriel L; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2015-12-01

    Bones adapt their structure to their loading environment and so ensure that they become, and are maintained, sufficiently strong to withstand the loads to which they are habituated. The effectiveness of this process declines with age and bones become fragile fracturing with less force. This effect in humans also occurs in mice which experience age-related bone loss and reduced adaptation to loading. Exercise engenders many systemic and local muscular physiological responses as well as engendering local bone strain. To investigate whether these physiological responses influence bones' adaptive responses to mechanical strain we examined whether a period of treadmill exercise influenced the adaptive response to an associated period of artificial loading in young adult (17-week) and old (19-month) mice. After treadmill acclimatization, mice were exercised for 30 min three times per week for two weeks. Three hours after each exercise period, right tibiae were subjected to 40 cycles of non-invasive axial loading engendering peak strain of 2250 με. In both young and aged mice exercise increased cross-sectional muscle area and serum sclerostin concentration. In young mice it also increased serum IGF1. Exercise did not affect bone's adaptation to loading in any measured parameter in young or aged bone. These data demonstrate that a level of exercise sufficient to cause systemic changes in serum, and adaptive changes in local musculature, has no effect on bone's response to loading 3h later. This study provides no support for the beneficial effects of exercise on bone in the elderly being mediated by systemic or local muscle-derived effects rather than local adaptation to altered mechanical strain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Sinaporn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Khatcharin [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani 34000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Natda, E-mail: natda_we@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}. • The Fe{sup 3+} ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO{sub 4} and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO{sub 4}. Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}.

  19. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO4 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chala, Sinaporn; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO 4 particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO 4 samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO 4 . • The Fe 3+ ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO 4 and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO 4 samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO 4 shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO 4 . Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO 4 sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO 4

  20. Synthesis and their enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guanying; Du, Bin; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Yujie; Shi, Honglong; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzhwangmuc@163.com

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures were fabricated for the first time. • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures show enhanced PEC activity. • ZnO nanoparticle loading contents have significant effect on PEC water splitting. • Interaction, charge transfer and enhanced mechanism of photocatalyst were proposed. • p-n junction drives the photoexcited charges efficient separation. - Abstract: Here we report an easy and large-scale synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion (denoted as n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion) heterostructures and their photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light illumination. CuO dandelions were fabricated by a facile and cost-effective chemical strategy, in which the ribbon-like CuO nanoplates were first formed and then assembled into dandelion-like architectures. ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures were fabricated by calcining Zn(Ac){sub 2}-loaded CuO dandelions. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies demonstrate that intimate p-n junction is built between p-CuO and n-ZnO interface. The n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion photoelectrodes exhibit significant improvement in PEC water splitting to CuO dandelion photoelectrodes. The correlation between photocurrents and different loading contents of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is studied in which the n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures with loading 4.6 wt% ZnO NPs show higher photocathodic current. The efficient separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the intimate p-n junction between p-type CuO and n-type ZnO interface is mainly contributed to the enhanced photoanode current. The achieved results in the present study offer a very useful strategy for designing p-n junction photoelectrodes for efficiency and low-cost PEC cells for clean solar hydrogen production.

  1. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TiO_2 heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO_3/TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO_3 through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO_3/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang [China Jiliang University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO{sub 3} through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  3. anisotropic crack modelling of reinforced concrete structures with an enhanced kinematics: application to bidimensional elements under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishta, Ejona

    2016-01-01

    Civil engineering buildings, massive and unique, are mostly made of reinforced or prestressed concrete. Sustainability, tightness and safety are the major pillars of a building's performance. Cracking is a major phenomenon which impacts the buildings' behaviour under different loadings in terms of sustainability and structural capacity. Development of numerical models which describe accurately the response of quasi-brittle materials under complex loading remains an important research topic for the scientific community. The objective of this work is the development of a numerical model which represents explicitly cracking of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete degradation process, characterised by the appearance of several anisotropic crack families, is described by means of an anisotropic damage model accounting for oriented crack families. The kinematics of this model is enriched with a displacement jump in order to reproduce the development of cracks in the material during loading. This displacement jump is identified as the crack opening. The developed model is validated on simulations of plain concrete structures exhibiting model as well as mixed-mode failure. The performances of the enriched model are shown by the simulation of reinforced concrete structures such as a shear wall submitted to cyclic loading. (author) [fr

  4. Minocycline enhances the mesenchymal stromal/stem cell pro-healing phenotype in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties including an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and the promotion of angiogenesis via expression of growth factors in pre-clinical models. MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) (Gel-PEG-Cys) crosslinked hydrogels have led to controlled cellular presentation at wound sites with favorable wound healing outcomes. However, the therapeutic potential of MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption on the delivery matrix that could facilitate the initial adhesion of microorganisms and subsequent virulent biofilm formation. Antimicrobials loaded concurrently in the hydrogels with MSCs could reduce microbial bioburden and promote healing, but the antimicrobial effect on the MSC wound healing capacity and the antibacterial efficacy of the hydrogels is unknown. We demonstrate that minocycline specifically induces a favorable change in MSC migration capacity, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and adhesion molecule and growth factor release with subsequent increased angiogenesis. We then demonstrate that hydrogels loaded with MSCs, minocycline, vancomycin, and linezolid can significantly decrease bacterial bioburden. Our study suggests that minocycline can serve as a dual mechanism for the regenerative capacity of MSCs and the reduction of bioburden in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels. Wound healing is a complex biological process that can be hindered by bacterial infection, excessive inflammation, and inadequate microvasculature. In this study, we develop a new formulation of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinked hydrogels loaded with minocycline, vancomycin, linezolid, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells that induces a favorable wound healing phenotype in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and prevents bacterial

  5. Clarithromycin highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules prepared by high-shear melt granulation can enhance the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Mizoguchi, Midori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to develop a new gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) without a large amount of additives, 75% clarithromycin (CAM) loaded fine granules were prepared with three different hydrophobic binders by high-shear melt granulation and their properties were evaluated. Granules containing the higher hydrophobic binder showed sustained drug release and were able to float over 24h. The synchrotron X-ray CT measurement indicated that both the high hydrophobicity of the binder and the void space inside the granules might be involved in their buoyancy. In an in vivo experiment, the floating granules more effectively eradicated Helicobacter pylori than a CAM suspension by remaining in the stomach for a longer period. In short, CAM highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules can enhance the eradication efficiency of H. pylori compared with CAM alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancement of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of polymer composites with thermoplastic UHMWPE and PEEK matrices by loading carbon nanofibers/nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    For comparative evaluation of the influence of carbon nanofiber/nanotube loading in two different thermoplastic matrices (UHMWPE and PEEK), some mechanical and tribotechnical properties of the nanocomposites have been studied. It is shown that mechanical properties of nanocomposites change in various manners with increasing loading of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes. Herewith, the wear resistance of the "UHMWPE+1 wt% CNF and PEEK + 1 wt% CNF" composites under dry sliding friction is doubled. It is shown that, regardless of various effects on permolecular structure formation, the studied nanofillers enhance the wear resistance of the composites in a similar manner. A comparative analysis of the influence of nanofillers on the modification of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE- and PEEK-based matrices is made.

  7. Silk coating on a bioactive ceramic scaffold for bone regeneration: effective enhancement of mechanical and in vitro osteogenic properties towards load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao Jiao; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Kim, Kyungsook; Kaplan, David L; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive ceramic scaffolds represent competitive choices for clinical bone reconstruction, but their widespread use is restricted by inherent brittleness and weak mechanical performance under load. This study reports the development of strong and tough bioactive scaffolds suitable for use in load-bearing bone reconstruction. A strong and bioactive ceramic scaffold (strontium-hardystonite-gahnite) is combined with single and multiple coating layers of silk fibroin to enhance its toughness, producing composite scaffolds which match the mechanical properties of cancellous bone and show enhanced capacity to promote in vitro osteogenesis. Also reported for the first time is a comparison of the coating effects obtained when a polymeric material is coated on ceramic scaffolds with differing microstructures, namely the strontium-hardystonite-gahnite scaffold with high-density struts as opposed to a conventional ceramic scaffold, such as biphasic calcium phosphate, with low-density struts. The results show that silk coating on a unique ceramic scaffold can lead to simple and effective enhancement of its mechanical and biological properties to suit a wider range of applications in clinical bone reconstruction, and also establish the influence of ceramic microstructure on the effectiveness of silk coating as a method of reinforcement when applied to different types of ceramic bone graft substitutes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  9. Polyelectrolyte-based electrochemiluminescence enhancement for Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} loaded by SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle carrier and its high sensitive immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Zhi-Li; Song, Tian-Mei; Chen, Zhe [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Wu-Run [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Xie, Hong-Ping, E-mail: hpxie@suda.edu.cn [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xie, Lian, E-mail: xielian@suda.edu.cn [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-03-03

    Highlights: • Preparation of strong ECL nanoparticles PAA–Ru@SiO{sub 2}/[PAA⋯Ru&Nafion⋯Ru]. • Ion-pair macromolecule PAA–Ru formed to greatly increase the doping amount. • PAA&Nafion membrane increased the amount of ion-exchanged Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. • PAA&Nafion membrane enhanced the ability of electron transfer. • Realized antibody labeling and established a high-sensitive immunoassay. - Abstract: In this paper the strong electrochemiluminescence (ECL) nanoparticles have been prepared based on the anionic polyelectrolyte sodium polyacrylate (PAA)-ECL enhancement for Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, which were loaded by the carrier of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. There were two kinds of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} for the as-prepared nanoparticles, the doped one and the exchanged one. The former was loaded inside the ECL nanoparticles by doping, in a form of ion-pair macromolecules PAA–Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The corresponding ECL was enhanced about 2 times owing to the doping increase of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The latter was loaded on the PAA-doped Nafion membrane by ion exchange. The corresponding ECL was enhanced about 3 times owing to the ion-exchanging increase of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. At the same time, ECL intensity of the doped-inside Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} was further enhanced 13 times because polyelectrolyte PAA in the doped membrane could obviously enhance electron transfer between the doped Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and the working electrode. Furthermore, based on hydrophobic regions of the doped membrane antibody labeling could be easily realized by the as-prepared nanoparticles and then a high sensitive ECL immunoassay for HBsAg was developed. The linear range was between 1.0 and 100 pg mL{sup −1} (R{sup 2} = 0.9912). The detection limit could be as low as 0.11 pg mL{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3)

  10. Fabrication of uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for enhancing photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Junhui; Zhang, Shengsen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method, which exhibited the enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible-light irradiation due to the more effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs and faster interfacial charge transfer. - Highlights: • Highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully prepared by polyol method. • Ag NPs are uniformly loaded on the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs). • Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light. • The enhanced photocurrent is explained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method. The as-prepared Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical behaviors were investigated via photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs was evaluated by degradation of acid orange II under visible light irradiation. The results showed that photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs is more than 5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2} NTs. Comparing with the electrochemical deposition method, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs prepared by polyol method has been obviously increased.

  11. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  12. Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shovan; Celestine, Michael J; Khanal, Supreet; Huddleston, Alexis; Simms, Colin; Arca, Jessa Faye; Mitra, Amlan; Heller, Loree; Kraj, Piotr J; Ledizet, Michel; Anderson, John F; Neelakanta, Girish; Holder, Alvin A; Sultana, Hameeda

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ligand-derived from citral (compound 3) and a cobalt(III) complex with a citral-thiosemicarbazone ligand (compound 4) increased DENV2 and ZIKV replication in both mosquito C6/36 cells and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Treatment of both cell lines with compounds 2 or 4 showed increased dengue viral titers at all three tested doses. Enhanced dengue viral plaque formation was also noted at the tested dose of 100μM, suggesting higher production of infectious viral particles. Treatment with the compounds 2 or 4 enhanced ZIKV and DENV2 RNA levels in HeLa cell line and primary cultures of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Also, pre- or post treatments with conjugated compounds 2 or 4 showed higher loads of ZIKV or DENV2 envelope (E) protein in HaCaT cells. No changes in loads of E-protein were found in ZIKV-infected C6/36 cells, when compounds were treated after infection. In addition, we tested bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) chloride ([Cu(phen) 2 ]Cl 2 , (compound 5) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride ([Co(phen) 3 ]Cl 3 , (compound 6) that also showed enhanced DENV2 loads. Also, we found that copper(II) chloride dehydrate (CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O) or cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate (CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O) alone had no effects as "free" cations

  13. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  15. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  16. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipson, A.G.; Miley, G.H. [University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, lL (United States); Lipson, A.G.; Lyakhov, B.F. [lnstitute of Physical Chemistry, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Roussetski, A.S. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, The Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that, {sup 4}He doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by {sup 4}He doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals. (authors)

  17. Energetic Charged Particle Emission from Hydrogen-Loaded pd and ti Cathodes and its Enhancement by He-4 Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, A. G.; Miley, G. H.; Lipson, A. G.; Lyakhov, B. F.; Roussetski, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that He4 doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by He4 doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals.

  18. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, A.G.; Miley, G.H.; Lipson, A.G.; Lyakhov, B.F.; Roussetski, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that, 4 He doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by 4 He doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals. (authors)

  19. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA. The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  20. Enhancing load-following and/or spectral shift capability in single-sparger natural circulation boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for obtaining load-following capability in a coiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core disposed within a shroud having a shroud head and which with the RPV defines an annulus region disposed beneath the nuclear core, an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV, a core upper plenum formed within the shroud head and disposed atop the nuclear core, a chimney mounted atop the shroud head and in fluid communication with the core upper plenum and with a steam separator having a skirt which is in fluid communication with the steam dome, the region outside of the chimney defining a downcomer region, there being a water level established therein under normal operation of the BWR, and the RPV containing a feedwater inlet. It comprises: disposing a single sparger connected to the feedwater inlet above the steam separator skirt bottom about the interior circumference of the RPV at an elevation at approximately the water level established during normal operation of the BWR; and adjusting the feedwater flow through the inlet and into the sparger to vary the water level to be above, at or below the elevational location of the sparger in response to load-following need

  1. Folate decorated dual drug loaded nanoparticle: role of curcumin in enhancing therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by reversing multidrug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Das

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. Malfunctioning of many signaling pathways regulating cell survival or apoptosis, make the disease more vulnerable. Notably, resistance to chemotherapy mediated by MRP-1, lung-resistance protein (LRP is the most challenging aspect to treat this disease. Presently, much attention has been given to the recently developed anticancer drug nutlin-3a because of its non-genotoxic nature and potency to activate tumor suppressor protein p53. However, being a substrate of multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and Pgp its application has become limited. Currently, research has step towards reversing Multi drug resistance (MDR by using curcumin, however its clinical relevance is restricted by plasma instability and poor bioavailability. In the present investigation we tried to encapsulate nutlin-3a and curcumin in PLGA nanoparticle (NPs surface functionalized with folate to enhance therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by modulating MDR. We document that curcumin can inhibit the expression of MRP-1 and LRP gene/protein in a concentration dependent manner in Y79 cells. In vitro cellular cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies were done to compare the effectiveness of native drugs (single or combined and single or dual drug loaded nanoparticles (unconjugated/folate conjugated. The result demonstrated an augmented therapeutic efficacy of targeted dual drug loaded NPs (Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs over other formulation. Enhanced expression or down regulation of proapoptotic/antiapoptotic proteins respectively and down-regulation of bcl2 and NFκB gene/protein by Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs substantiate the above findings. This is the first investigation exploring the role of curcumin as MDR modulator to enhance the therapeutic potentiality of nutlin-3a, which may opens new direction for targeting cancer with multidrug resistance phenotype.

  2. Addendum to the Principles And Practices Manual. Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attenuation MSDS material safety data sheet NAVFAC ESC Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Engineering Services Center NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine...compounds (ER-1607, ER-200425, and ER- 201028). N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) is used with propellants and is a carcinogen and emerging groundwater...contaminant at a number of DoD and DOE facilities. NDMA may be amendable to enhanced in situ bioremediation (Szecsody et al., 2009; Hatzinger et al., 2008

  3. 2'-OMe-phosphorodithioate-modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H; Nagaraja, Archana S; Miyake, Takahito M; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J; Previs, Rebecca A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J; Kovvali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A J; Overwijk, Willem W; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K

    2014-03-12

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2'-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM domain containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumours following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumour effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types.

  4. 2’f-OMe-phosphorodithioate modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y.; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Miyake, Takahito M.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V.; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J.; Previs, Rebecca A.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J.; Kowali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A.J.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T.; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2’-O-Methyl (2’-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2’-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM Domain Containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumors following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumor effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types. PMID:24619206

  5. Enhancing tablet disintegration characteristics of a highly water-soluble high-drug-loading formulation by granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Levins, Christopher; Pafiakis, Steve; Zacour, Brian; Bindra, Dilbir S; Trinh, Jade; Buckley, David; Gour, Shruti; Sharif, Shasad; Stamato, Howard

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of a highly water-soluble tablet matrix by altering the manufacturing process. A high disintegration time along with high dependence of the disintegration time on tablet hardness was observed for a high drug loading (70% w/w) API when formulated using a high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) process. Keeping the formulation composition mostly constant, a fluid-bed granulation (FBG) process was explored as an alternate granulation method using a 2 (4-1) fractional factorial design with two center points. FBG batches (10 batches) were manufactured using varying disingtegrant amount, spray rate, inlet temperature (T) and atomization air pressure. The resultant final blend particle size was affected significantly by spray rate (p = .0009), inlet T (p = .0062), atomization air pressure (p = .0134) and the interaction effect between inlet T*spray rate (p = .0241). The compactibility of the final blend was affected significantly by disintegrant amount (p disintegration times than the HSWG batches, and mercury intrusion porosimetry data revealed that this was caused by the higher internal pore structure of tablets manufactured using the FBG batches.

  6. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g-1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material.

  7. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO 2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO 2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g -1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel Absorbent of Nano-Fe Loaded Biomass Char and Its Enhanced Adsorption Capacity for Phosphate in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite adsorbent of Fe loaded biomass char (Fe-BC was fabricated to treat phosphorus in water. Fe-BC was prepared by a procedure including metal complex anion incorporation and precipitation with the pyrolysis char of corn straw as supporting material. The abundant porous structures of the as-prepared sample can be easily observed from its scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. Observations by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses show that inorganic nanoiron oxides deposited in the composite could be amorphous hydrous iron oxide α-FeOOH. Adsorption of phosphate onto the Fe-BC composite and its precursor (BC from aqueous solutions were investigated and discussed. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate was described by Langmuir and Freundlich models, and Langmuir isotherm was found to be better fitted than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity for phosphate of Fe-BC was as high as 35.43 mg/g, approximately 2.3 times of BC at 25°C. The adsorption kinetics data were better fitted by pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model, indicating that the adsorption process was complex. The Fe-BC composite has been proved as an effective adsorbent of phosphate from aqueous solutions owing to its unique porous structures and the greater Lewis basicity of the α-FeOOH.

  9. Development and characterisation of electrospun timolol maleate-loaded polymeric contact lens coatings containing various permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-10-30

    Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery, anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses. Parameters used for engineering included flow rates ranging from 8 to 15μL/min and a novel EHD deposition system was used; capable of hosting four lenses, masked template and a ground electrode to direct charged atomised structures. SEM analysis of the electrospun structures confirmed the presence of smooth nano-fibers; whilst thermal analysis confirmed the stability of all formulations. In vitro release studies demonstrated a triphasic release; initial burst release with two subsequent sustained release phases with most of the drug being released after 24h (86.7%) Biological evaluation studies confirmed the tolerability of all formulations tested with release kinetics modelling results showing drug release was via quasi-Fickian or Fickian diffusion. There were evident differences (p<0.05) in TM release dependant on permeation enhancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated lipoplexes loaded with Doxorubicin for enhancing the antitumor activity against liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Tang, Bo; Liu, Guang; Liang, Xingsi

    2017-05-01

    The study was to develop poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-coated Doxorubicin (Dox) lipoplexes that enhance the antitumor activity against liver tumors. γ-PGA-coated lipoplexes were performed by electrostatistically attracting to the surface of cationic charge liposomes with anionic γ-PGA. With the increasing of γ-PGA concentration, the particle size of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased, the zeta potential from positive shifted to negative, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) were no significant change. The release rate of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased at acidic pH, the accelerated Dox release might be attributed to greater drug delivery to tumor cells, resulting in a higher antitumor activity. Especially, γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes exhibited higher cellular uptake, significant in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and improved in vivo antitumor efficacy toward HepG2 hepatoma-xenografted nude models in comparison with Dox liposomes and free Dox solution. In addition, the analysis results via flow cytometry showed that γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes induce S phase cell cycle arrest and significantly increased apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the presence of γ-PGA on the surface of Dox lipoplexes enhanced antitumor effects of liver tumors.

  11. Cystic echinococcosis therapy: Albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the oral bioavailability and efficacy in experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, Patricia E; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela; Fabbri, Julia; Ceballos, Laura; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Alvarez, Luis I; Allemandi, Daniel; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María C

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and hydatid cysts. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) represent nanocarriers designed to encapsulate lipophilic drugs, such as ABZ. The goals of the current work were: (i) to characterize the plasma and cyst drug exposure after the administration of ABZ as ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension (ABZ-SUSP) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and ii) to compare the clinical efficacies of both ABZ formulations. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) concentration profiles were obtained in plasma and cysts from ABZ-LNC treated animals. ABZSO exposure (AUC0-LOQ) was significantly higher in plasma and cyst after the ABZ-LNC treatments, both orally and subcutaneously, compared to that observed after oral administration of ABZ-SUSP. Additionally, ABZSO concentrations measured in cysts from ABZ-LNC treated mice were 1.7-fold higher than those detected in plasma. This enhanced drug availability correlated with an increased efficacy against secondary CE in mice observed for the ABZ-LNCs, while ABZ-SUSP did not reach differences with the untreated control group. This new pharmacotechnically-based strategy could be a potential alternative to improve the treatment of human CE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced sediment loading facilitates point bar growth and accelerates bank erosion along a modelled meander bend on the Sacramento River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.; Hales, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels provide a conduit through which sediment and water is routed from the uplands to the sea. Alluvial material is periodically stored and transported through the channel network as permitted by the prevailing hydrologic conditions. The lowlands are typically characterised by accumulations of sediment attached to the inner banks of meander bends (point bars). These bedforms have been identified as important for facilitating a link between in-stream sediment supplies and channel dynamism. A 2D curvilinear hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21C) was used to perform a number of experiments in which the sediment load was adjusted to investigate how changes in alluvial material fluxes affect the development of point bars and the resultant patterns of bank erosion. A doubling of the sediment load caused a longitudinal increase in the bar in the upstream direction and caused a coeval doubling of the transverse channel slope at the meander apex. The upstream growth of the point bar was accompanied by an increase in length over which lateral migration took place at the outer bank. The magnitude of outer bank erosion was 9-times greater for the high-sediment simulation. These results suggest that enhanced sediment loads (potentially the result of changes in land use or climate) can trigger greater rates of bank erosion and channel change through the sequestration of alluvial material on point bars, which encourage high-velocity fluid deflection towards the outer bank of the meander. This controls riparian habitat development and exchanges of sediment and nutrients across the channel-floodplain interface.

  13. Synergistically enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of ZnCdS by co-loading graphene quantum dots and PdS dual cocatalysts under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Su, Yanhong; Min, Shixiong; Li, Yanan; Lei, Yonggang; Hou, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report that the co-loading of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and PdS dual cocatalysts on ZnCdS surface achieves a high efficiency photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light (≥420 nm). The GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two steps: hydrothermal coupling of GQDs on ZnCdS surface followed by an in-situ chemical deposition of PdS. The resulted GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS exhibits a H2 evolution rate of 517 μmol h-1, which is 15, 7, and 1.7 times higher than that of pure ZnCdS, GQDs/ZnCdS, and ZnCdS/PdS, respectively, demonstrating the synergistic effects of GQDs and PdS dual cocatalysts. A high apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) up to 22.4% can be achieved over GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS at 420 nm. GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS also has a relatively good stability. Such a considerable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was attributable to the co-loading of the GQDs and PdS as respective reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, leading to an efficient charge separation and surface reactions.

  14. Enhancement of load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage by static synchronous series compensator based on H ∞ control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Taeratanachai, Chanin; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in an interconnected power system is restricted to its located area. The SMES almost has no frequency stabilization effect in another interconnected area. To enhance the frequency stabilization effect of SMES, the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) can be applied as an auxiliary device. The SSSC can be used as an energy transfer device of the SMES to stabilize the frequency in another interconnected area. The proposed technique not only introduces a sophisticated frequency stabilization in deregulated power systems but also offers a smart energy management control of SMES. In addition, to take the robust stability of the controlled power system against system uncertainties into account, the H ∞ control is used to design robust frequency stabilizers of the SMES and SSSC. Simulation results in a two area interconnected power system confirm the high robustness of the frequency stabilizers SMES and SSSC against load disturbances and system uncertainties

  15. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ding Qu, Junjie He, Congyan Liu, Jing Zhou, Yan ChenKey Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549 cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer.Keywords: microemulsion, Ganoderma lucidum, triterpene, adlay seed oil, lung cancer

  16. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P; Alejandro-Osorio, Adriana L; Grorud, Kelley W; Martinez, Daniel A; Vailas, Arthur C; Grindeland, Richard E; Vanderby, Ray

    2007-01-01

    support two of our hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I or GH+IGF-I improve healing in collagenous tissue. Systemic administration of IGF-I improves healing in collagenous extracellular matrices from loaded and unloaded tissues. Growth hormone alone did not result in any significant improvement contrary to our hypothesis, while GH + IGF-I produced remarkable improvement in hindlimb unloaded animals. PMID:17386107

  17. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Daniel A

    2007-03-01

    -I. Conclusion These results support two of our hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I or GH+IGF-I improve healing in collagenous tissue. Systemic administration of IGF-I improves healing in collagenous extracellular matrices from loaded and unloaded tissues. Growth hormone alone did not result in any significant improvement contrary to our hypothesis, while GH + IGF-I produced remarkable improvement in hindlimb unloaded animals.

  18. Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singleton WG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available WG Singleton,1,2 AM Collins,3 AS Bienemann,1 CL Killick-Cole,1 HR Haynes,4 DJ Asby,1 CP Butts,5 MJ Wyatt,1 NU Barua,1,2 SS Gill1,2 1Functional Neurosurgery Research Group, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2Department of Neurosurgery, North Bristol NHS Trust, 3Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, 4Brain Tumour Research Group, School of Clinical Sciences, 5School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UKBackground: The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is a potential therapy for malignant glioma, but it is water insoluble and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when administered systemically. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel water-soluble nano-micellar formulation of panobinostat designed for administration by convection enhanced delivery (CED.Materials and methods: The in vitro efficacy of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles against rat F98, human U87-MG and M059K glioma cells and against patient-derived glioma stem cells was measured using a cell viability assay. Nano-micelle distribution in rat brain was analyzed following acute CED using rhodamine-labeled nano-micelles, and toxicity was assayed using immunofluorescent microscopy and synaptophysin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the survival of the bioluminescent syngenic F98/Fischer344 rat glioblastoma model treated by acute CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles with that of untreated and vehicle-only-treated controls.Results: Nano-micellar panobinostat is cytotoxic to rat and human glioma cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following short-time exposure to drug. Fluorescent rhodamine-labelled nano-micelles distribute with a volume of infusion/volume of distribution (Vi/Vd ratio of four and five respectively after administration by CED. Administration was not associated with any toxicity when compared to controls. CED of

  19. Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Yiyang; Wu, Yanqing; Zhao, Yingzheng; Chen, Huanwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongyu; Lu, Yingfeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaokun; Jia, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury. The delivery vehicle not only had a good affinity for large amounts of growth factors (GFs), but also controlled their release in a steady fashion, preventing degradation in vitro. In vivo, compared with HP hydrogel alone or direct GFs administration, GFs-HP hydrogel treatment is more effective at facilitating Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, leading to an increased expression of nerve associated structural proteins, enhanced axonal regeneration and remyelination, and improved recovery of motor function (all p nerve regeneration in patients with DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane/polyvinyl chloride blend by loading single walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hezma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of pure blend and nanocomposites based on polyurethane (PU and polyvinyl chloride (PVC doped with low different content of single walled-carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were studied. The nanocomposites at different concentration were prepared via casting technique. The interaction between PU/PVC and CNTs were examined via FT-IR studies. The changes in the structures of the nanocomposites were examined using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the results indicated that the amorphous domains of nanocomposites increased with increasing SWCNTs content. Transmission electron microscope (TEM observation indicated that SWCNTs surface was wrapped with the polymer with the thermal properties of nanocomposites improved. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated as a function of SWCNTs content. The main enhancement in tensile properties was observed, e.g., the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased compared with the pure blend, which may be attributed to the interaction and adhesion between CNTs and the polymer matrices due to the hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups (C=O of polymer blend chains and carboxylic acid (COOH groups of CNTs.

  1. Preventative vaccine-loaded mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles intended for nasal mucosal delivery enhance immune responses and potent tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjun; Peng, Yixing; Du, Mingzhu; Luo, Juan; Zong, Li

    2013-08-05

    Chitosan (CS) has been extensively used as a protein drug and gene delivery carrier, but its delivery efficiency is unsatisfactory. In this study, a mannose ligand was used to modify CS, which could enhance the delivery efficiency of CS via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis. A preventative anti-GRP DNA vaccine (pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2, pGRP) was condensed with mannosylated chitosan (MCS) to form MCS/pGRP nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were intranasally administered in a subcutaneous mice prostate carcinoma model to evaluate the efficacy on inhibition of the growth of tumor cells. The titers of anti-GRP IgG that lasted for 11 weeks were significantly higher than that for administration of CS/pGRP nanoparticles (p intramuscular administration of a pGRP solution (p nanoparticles could suppress the growth of tumor cells. The average tumor weight (0.79 ± 0.30 g) was significantly lower than that in the CS/pGRP nanoparticle group (1.69 ± 0.15 g) (p nanoparticles bound with C-type lectin receptors on macrophages. MCS was an efficient targeting gene delivery carrier and could be used in antitumor immunotherapy.

  2. Largely enhanced dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride binary nanocomposites by loading a few boron nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Minhao; Zhao, Hang; He, Delong; Bai, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    The ternary nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are fabricated via a combination of solution casting and extrusion-injection processes. The effects of BNNSs on the electrical conductivity, dielectric behavior, and microstructure changes of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposites are systematically investigated. A low percolation value (f_c) for the CNTs/PVDF binary system is obtained due to the integration of solution and melting blending procedures. Two kinds of CNTs/PVDF binary systems with various CNTs contents (f_C_N_T_s) as the matrix are discussed. The results reveal that compared with CNTs/PVDF binary systems at the same f_C_N_T_s, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF nanocomposites exhibit largely enhanced dielectric properties due to the improvement of the CNTs dispersion state and the conductive network. The dielectric constant of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposite with 6 vol. % CNTs (f_C_N_T_s   f_c), it displays a 43.32% improvement from 1325 to 1899 after the addition of 3 vol. % BNNSs. The presence of BNNSs facilitates the formation of the denser conductive network. Meanwhile, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF systems exhibit a low dielectric loss. The adjustable dielectric properties could be obtained by employing the ternary systems due to the microstructure changes of nanocomposites.

  3. A facile precursor route to highly loaded metal/ceramic nanofibers as a robust surface-enhanced Raman template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2017-09-01

    We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.

  4. Carnosine-graphene oxide conjugates decorated with hydroxyapatite as promising nanocarrier for ICG loading with enhanced antibacterial effects in photodynamic therapy against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibegloo, Elham; Karbasi, Ashkan; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ramazani, Ali; Akbari, Tayebeh; Bahador, Abbas; Khoobi, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been emerged as a noninvasive strategy to remove bacterial contaminants such as S. mutans from the tooth surface. Photosensitizer (PS), like indocyanine green (ICG), plays a key role in this technique which mainly suffers from the poor stability and concentration-dependent aggregation. An appropriate nanocarrier (NC) with enhanced antibacterial effects could overcome these limitations and improve the efficiency of ICG as a PS. In this study, various ICG-loaded NCs including graphene oxide (GO), GO-carnosine (Car) and GO-Car/Hydroxyapatite (HAp) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Filed Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta Potential and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). The colony forming unit and crystal violet assays were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of PSs against S. mutans. The quantitative real-time PCR approach was also applied to determine the expression ratio of the gtfB gene in S. mutans. The zeta potential analysis and UV-Vis spectrometry indicated successful loading of ICG onto/into NCs. GO-Car/HAp showed highest amount of ICG loading (57.52%) and also highest aqueous stability after one week (94%). UV-Vis spectrometry analyses disclosed a red shift from 780 to 800 nm for the characteristic peak of ICG-loaded NCs. In the lack of aPDT, GO-Car@ICG showed the highest decrease in bacterial survival (86.4%) which indicated that Car could significantly promote the antibacterial effect of GO. GO@ICG, GO-Car@ICG and GO-Car/HAp@ICG mediated aPDT, dramatically declined the count of S. mutans strains to 91.2%, 95.5% and 93.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). The GO@ICG, GO-Car@ICG, GO-Car/HAp@ICG significantly suppressed the S. mutans biofilm formation by 51.4%, 63.8%, and 56.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). The expression of gtfB gene was

  5. Suppression of Remodeling Behaviors with Arachidonic Acid Modification for Enhanced in vivo Antiatherogenic Efficacies of Lovastatin-loaded Discoidal Recombinant High Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Zhang, Mengyuan; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2015-10-01

    A series of in vitro evaluation in our previous studies had proved that arachidonic acid (AA) modification could suppress the remodeling behaviors of lovastatin-loaded discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (LT-d-rHDL) by restraining the reactivity with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for reducing undesired drug leakage. This study focuses on the investigation of AA-modified LT-d-rHDL (AA-LT-d-rHDL) in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit models to explore whether AA modification could enhance drug targeting delivery and improve antiatherogenic efficacies in vivo. After pharmacokinetics of AA-LT-d-rHDL modified with different AA amount were investigated in atherosclerotic NZW rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions targeting property was assessed by ex vivo imaging of aortic tree and drug distribution. Furthermore, their antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately evaluated and compared by typical biochemical indices. With AA modification amount augmenting, circulation time of AA-LT-d-rHDL was prolonged, and drug accumulation in the target locus was increased, eventually the significant appreciation in antiatherogenic efficacies were further supported by lower level of bad cholesterol, decreased atherosclerotic lesions areas and mean intima-media thickness (MIT), markedly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and macrophage infiltration. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that AA-LT-d-rHDL could enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion and impede atherosclerosis progression more effectively.

  6. Enhanced oral bioavailability of a sterol-loaded microemulsion formulation of Flammulina velutipes, a potential antitumor drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengxue; Zhong, Hui; Tong, Shanshan; Cao, Xia; Firempong, Caleb K; Liu, Hongfei; Fu, Min; Yang, Yan; Feng, Yingshu; Zhang, Huiyun; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the growth inhibition activity of Flammulina velutipes sterol (FVS) against certain human cancer cell lines (gastric SGC and colon LoVo) and to evaluate the optimum microemulsion prescription, as well as the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated FVS. Methods Molecules present in the FVS isolate were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The cell viability of FVS was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) bioassay. Based on the solubility study, phase diagram and stability tests, the optimum prescription of F. velutipes sterol microemulsions (FVSMs) were determined, followed by FVSMs characterization, and its in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats. Results The chemical composition of FVS was mainly ergosterol (54.8%) and 22,23-dihydroergosterol (27.9%). After 72 hours of treatment, both the FVS (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 11.99 μg · mL−1) and the standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 0.88 μg · mL−1) exhibited strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against SGC cells, with IC50 > 30.0 μg · mL−1; but the FVS performed poorly against LoVo cells (IC50 > 40.0 μg · mL−1). The optimal FVSMs prescription consisted of 3.0% medium chain triglycerides, 5.0% ethanol, 21.0% Cremophor EL and 71.0% water (w/w) with associated solubility of FVS being 0.680 mg · mL−1 as compared to free FVS (0.67 μg · mL−1). The relative oral bioavailability (area-under-the-curve values of ergosterol and 22,23-dihydroergosterol showed a 2.56-fold and 4.50-fold increase, respectively) of FVSMs (mean diameter ~ 22.9 nm) as against free FVS were greatly enhanced. Conclusion These results indicate that the FVS could be a potential candidate for the development of an anticancer drug and it is readily bioavailable via microemulsion formulations. PMID:23049254

  7. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  8. Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO_2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm"2).

  9. Enhanced anti-proliferative efficacy of epothilone B loaded with Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts on the HeLa cells by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenxing; Hao, Lujiang; Liu, Xinli; Orlando, Borrás-Hidalgo; Zhang, Yuyu

    2018-03-20

    Epothilones constitute a new class of microtubule-stabilizing anti-cancer agents with promising preclinical and clinical activity. However, its systemic application still causes some toxic side effects. To reduce these undesired effects, advanced drug delivery systems based on cell targeting carriers are needed currently. In this study, the high quality bacterial ghosts of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were prepared in a large scale and retained fully intact surface structures for specific attachment to mammalian cells. The EcN ghosts could be efficiently loaded with the low hydrophilic drug Epothilone B (Epo B) and the maximal load efficiency was approximately 2.5% (w/w). Cytotoxicity assays revealed that Epo B-ghosts exhibited enhanced anti-proliferative properties on the HeLa cells. The Epo B associated with EcN ghosts was more cytotoxic at least 10 times than the free Epo B at the same concentrations. Apoptosis assays showed that both Epo B-ghosts and free Epo B induced time course-dependent apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, respectively. While the former induced more apoptosis and necrosis than the latter. Furthermore, the cytochrome C release and the activation of caspase-3 were more remarkable after treatment with the Epo B-ghosts compared to the free Epo B, which implied that Epo B-ghosts might more effectively induce the apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, the higher anti-proliferative effects of the Epo B-ghosts on the HeLa cells were mediated by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The EcN ghosts may provide a useful drug delivery carrier for drug candidates in cancer therapy.

  10. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariyoshi, Koya; Berry, Neil; Cham, Fatim; Jaffar, Shabbar; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Jobe, Ousman; N'Gom, Pa Tamba; Larsen, Olav; Andersson, Sören; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects infected

  11. Synthesis of Spongy-Like Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite from Raw Waste Eggshells for Enhanced Dissolution of Ibuprofen Loaded via Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rauf Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cheaper and recyclable biomaterials (like eggshells to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp with better properties (small particle size, large surface area and pore volume for applications (in environmental remediation, bone augmentation and replacement, and drug delivery systems is vital since high-purity synthetic calcium sources are expensive. In this work, pure and mesoporous HAp nanopowder with large pore volume (1.4 cm3/g and surface area (284.1 m2/g was produced from raw eggshells at room temperature using a simple two-step procedure. The control of precursor droplets could stabilize the pH value of the reaction solution, because of the size of the needle (of the syringe pump used for precursor additions leading to production of HAp with high surface area and pore size. The as-produced HAp revealed high ibuprofen (as a model drug loading (1.38 g/g HAp, enhanced dissolution and controllable release of the drug via solute-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide.

  12. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  13. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  14. Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Yee Kuen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB, a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system.

  15. Synthesis of Spongy-Like Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite from Raw Waste Eggshells for Enhanced Dissolution of Ibuprofen Loaded via Supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Li, Xiangyun; Zhou, Yulan; Huang, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The use of cheaper and recyclable biomaterials (like eggshells) to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp) with better properties (small particle size, large surface area and pore volume) for applications (in environmental remediation, bone augmentation and replacement, and drug delivery systems) is vital since high-purity synthetic calcium sources are expensive. In this work, pure and mesoporous HAp nanopowder with large pore volume (1.4 cm3/g) and surface area (284.1 m2/g) was produced from raw eggshells at room temperature using a simple two-step procedure. The control of precursor droplets could stabilize the pH value of the reaction solution, because of the size of the needle (of the syringe pump used for precursor additions) leading to production of HAp with high surface area and pore size. The as-produced HAp revealed high ibuprofen (as a model drug) loading (1.38 g/g HAp), enhanced dissolution and controllable release of the drug via solute-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. PMID:25860950

  16. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  17. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  18. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  19. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  20. Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan composite scaffold with enhanced osteogenic and antibacterial property for bone engineering tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dandan; Xu, Zhengliang; Chen, Yixuan; Ke, Qinfei; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yaping

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering scaffolds for the reconstruction of large bone defects should simultaneously promote osteogenic differentiation and avoid postoperative infection. Herein, we develop, for the first time, Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan (Ag-MgSrFe/CS) composite scaffold. This scaffold exhibits three-dimensional interconnected macroporous structure with a pore size of 100-300 μm. The layered double hydroxide nanoplates in the Ag-MgSrFe/CS show lateral sizes of 200-400 nm and thicknesses of ∼50 nm, and the Ag nanoparticles with particle sizes of ∼20 nm are uniformly dispersed on the scaffold surfaces. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) present good adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold, suggesting that the Ag and Sr elements in the composite scaffold have no toxicity to hBMSCs. When compared with MgFe/CS composite scaffold, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold has better osteogenic property. The released Sr 2+ ions from the composite scaffold enhance the alkaline phosphatase activity of hBMSCs, promote the extracellular matrix mineralization, and increase the expression levels of osteogenic-related RUNX2 and BMP-2. Moreover, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold possesses good antibacterial property because the Ag nanoparticles in the composite scaffold effectively prevent biofilm formation against S. aureus. Hence, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold with excellent osteoinductivity and antibacterial property has a great potential for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 863-873, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In situ loading of Ag_2WO_4 on ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan; Song, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) with improved electron transport ability and large number of active sites are employed instead of bulk g-C_3N_4 to prepare the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts, which exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS photocatalysts were obtained by a deposition-precipitation method. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS possess large surface areas and increased lifetime of charges. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS exhibit enhanced activity on degradation of RhB and MO. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS system were investigated. - Abstract: The g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C_3N_4 (g-C_3N_4-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C_3N_4−NS with a thickness of about 2.7 nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C_3N_4, and then Ag_2WO_4 nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C_3N_4-B and Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are also investigated.

  2. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  3. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldawsari HM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibah M Aldawsari,1 Shaimaa M Badr-Eldin,1,2 Gihan S Labib,1,3 Amal H El-Kamel3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Lemongrass oil (LGO is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 µL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%. Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and

  4. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  5. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na(+) loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narendra Singh; Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Jha, Anupama; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-10-11

    Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These

  6. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly

  7. Enhancement of uranium loading on ion exchange resin from carbonate leachate by lowering pH from 8 to 6.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a laboratory study that shows the saturation ion-exchange loading of uranium from carbonate leachate can be doubled by lowering the pH of the leachate from 8 to 6.5. Small column and batch resin loading tests using Dowex 21K ion-exchange resin are described. The leachate contained 3,300 ppm chloride, 2,400 ppm carbonate, and 220 ppm U 3 O 8 , and had a pH of 8. Even at this rather mild salinity the saturation ion-exchange loading was found to be only about 3 to 4 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (48 to 64 g/dm 3 ) because of competition with the chloride ion for exchange sites on the anionic resin. Lowering the pH of the leachate to 6.5 by CO 2 gas addition, however, increased loading to about 8 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (128 g/dm 3 ). The pH-lowering effect worked especially well at relatively high salt concentration. The same leachate, with its chloride content increased to 12,000 ppm, loaded only 0.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (8 g/dm 3 ) at pH 8 but loaded 5.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (88 g/dm 3 ) at pH 6.5

  8. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  9. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  10. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  11. Remote Loading of 64Cu2+ into Liposomes without the Use of Ion Transport Enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2015-01-01

    Due to low ion permeability of lipid bilayers, it has been and still is common practice to use transporter molecules such as ionophores or lipophilic chelators to increase transmembrane diffusion rates and loading efficiencies of radionuclides into liposomes. Here, we report a novel and very simple...

  12. Enhancement of ethanol production from green liquor-ethanol-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by glucose-xylose cofermentation at high solid loadings with mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanzhi; Li, Pengfei; Lei, Fuhou; Xing, Yang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we demonstrate pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-Ethanol) by adding different GL amounts. The common Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CSC) and thermophilic S. cerevisiae (TSC) strains were used and different yeast cell mass ratios (CSC to TSC) were compared. The simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSF/SSCF) process was performed by 5-20% (w/v) dry substrate (DS) solid loadings to determine optimal conditions for the co-consumption of glucose and xylose. Compared to previous studies that tested fermentation of glucose using only the CSC, we obtained higher ethanol yield and concentration (92.80% and 23.22 g/L) with 1.5 mL GL/g-DS GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB at 5% (w/v) solid loading and a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Using 10% (w/v) solid loading under the same conditions, the ethanol concentration increased to 42.53 g/L but the ethanol yield decreased to 84.99%. In addition, an increase in the solid loading up to a certain point led to an increase in the ethanol concentration from 1.5 mL GL/g-DS-pretreated SCB. The highest ethanol concentration (68.24 g/L) was obtained with 15% (w/v) solid loading, using a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:3 (w/w). GL-Ethanol pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method for improving both glucan and xylan conversion efficiencies of SCB. There was a competitive relationship between the two yeast strains, and the glucose and xylose utilization ability of the TSC was better than that of the CSC. Ethanol concentration was obviously increased at high solid loading, but the yield decreased as a result of an increase in the viscosity and inhibitor levels in the fermentation system. Finally, the SSCF of GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB with mixed S. cerevisiae strains increased ethanol concentration and was an

  13. Estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improving low bone mineral density of cancellous bone caused by osteoporosis: Application of enhanced charged nanoparticles with iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Issei; Kobayashi, Shiori; Hida, Yukari; Makino, Kimiko

    2017-07-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis among older women, which occurs by an ovarian hormone deficiency, is one of the major public health problems. 17 β-estradiol (E2) is used to prevent and treat this disease as a drug of hormone replacement therapy. In oral administration, E2 is significantly affected by first-pass hepatic metabolism, and high dose administration must be needed to obtain drug efficacy. Therefore, alternative administration route is needed, and we have focused on the transdermal drug delivery system. In this study, we have prepared E2-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for osteoporosis by using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation. The average particle diameter of the nanoparticles was 110.0±41.0nm and the surface charge number density was 82 times higher than that of conventional E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Therapeutic evaluation of E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was carried out using ovariectomized female rats. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated to measure bone mineral density of cancellous bone using an X-ray CT system. When the E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were administrated once a week, bone mineral density was significantly higher than that of the non-treated group at 60days after the start of treatment. Also, in the group administered this nanoparticle twice a week, the bone mineral density increased significantly at 45days after the start of treatment. From these results, it was revealed that E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with iontophoresis were useful to recover bone mineral density of cancellous bone, and it was also suggested that they extend the dosing interval of E2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bulk simulation for establishing the potential within the planning of load distribution and load shifting of an enhanced number of electrical consumers; Massensimulation zur Potenzialermittlung bei der Lastverlaufsplanung und -verlagerung einer hohen Anzahl elektrischer Verbraucher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunagel, Johannes; Schaefers, Hans; Renz, Wolfgang [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg (Germany). Center for Demand Side Integration (C4DSI); Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The shift to a renewable electricity production requires a reconstruction of the current electricity supply system. In a system with a big share of fluctuating electricity producers using renewable resources the production as well as the consumption has to be able to react flexibly to the current supply situation. This applies for the grid as a whole and in particular for parts of the distribution grid. In this context there is a demand for a robust, cheap and flexible control system which enables a utility to activate large numbers of consumers in the low power range. In this context the Center for Demand Side Integration at the University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Hamburg has been contracted by Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg (EnBW) (Germany's 3{sup rd} largest utility) to conduct a study on the development of control algorithms to control a large number (several tens of thousands) of decentralized applications. These algorithms were tested in an extensive modeling and simulation approach in which the behavior of the system was analyzed. The focus was on electric heating systems like domestic heat pumps and night storage heating. Thermal models of the applications and of domestic buildings were developed using Matlab/Simulink. Compiled as dynamic-link libraries these models were transferred to the multi-agent framework Jadex. This way it was possible to test the developed control algorithms on a network of up to 100,000 consumers. The mass simulation model was analyzed in terms of potentials, scale effects and reliability of load schedules and load shifting potentials. (orig.)

  15. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  16. Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Hahn, O. J.; Nguyen, H. X.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat pipe to pulse heat load at the condenser section was experimentally investigated. A 0.457 m screen wick, sodium heat pipe with an outer diameter of 0.127 m was tested under different heat loading conditions. A major finding was that the heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time of reversal was approximately 15 to 25 seconds. The startup of the heat pipe from frozen state was also studied. It was found that during the startup process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all of the working fluid in the heat pipe was molten.

  17. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-21

    We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

  18. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  19. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  20. A core-shell albumin copolymer nanotransporter for high capacity loading and two-step release of doxorubicin with enhanced anti-leukemia activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhou; Ihme, Susann; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Kuan, Seah Ling; Eisele, Klaus; Lamla, Markus; Wang, Yanran; Buske, Christian; Weil, Tanja

    2013-06-01

    The native transportation protein serum albumin represents an attractive nano-sized transporter for drug delivery applications due to its beneficial safety profile. Existing albumin-based drug delivery systems are often limited by their low drug loading capacity as well as noticeable drug leakage into the blood circulation. Therefore, a unique albumin-derived core-shell doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system based on the protein denaturing-backfolding strategy was developed. 28 DOX molecules were covalently conjugated to the albumin polypeptide backbone via an acid sensitive hydrazone linker. Polycationic and pegylated human serum albumin formed two non-toxic and enzymatically degradable protection shells around the encapsulated DOX molecules. This core-shell delivery system possesses notable advantages, including a high drug loading capacity critical for low administration doses, a two-step drug release mechanism based on pH and the presence of proteases, an attractive biocompatibility and narrow size distribution inherited from the albumin backbone, as well as fast cellular uptake and masking of epitopes due to a high degree of pegylation. The IC50 of these nanoscopic onion-type micelles was found in the low nanomolar range for Hela cells as well as leukemia cell lines. In vivo data indicate its attractive potential as anti-leukemia treatment suggesting its promising profile as nanomedicine drug delivery system. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Efficient one-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticles loaded on N-doped multiphase TiO2 hollow nanorod arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Min; Yang Beifang; Lv Yan; Fu Zhengping; Xu Jiao; Guo Ting; Zhao Yongxun

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous Ag loaded and N-doped TiO 2 hollow nanorod arrays with various contents of silver (Ag/N-THNAs) were successfully synthesized on glass substrates by one-pot liquid phase deposition (LPD) method using ZnO nanorod arrays as template. The catalysts were characterized by Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) absorption spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that AgNO 3 additive in the precursor solutions not only can promote the anatase-to-rutile phase transition, but also influence the amount of N doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light illumination when the AgNO 3 concentration in the precursor solution was 0.03 M, due to Ag nanoparticles acting as electron sinks; When the AgNO 3 concentration was 0.07 M, the sample performed best under visible light illumination, attributed to the synergetic effects of Ag loading, N doping, and the multiphase structure (anatase/rutile).

  2. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-01

    Ni2P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni2P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation. The porous Ni2P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni2P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni2P, H2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h- 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h- 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni2P-Cd0.5Zn0.5S composites. The effect of Ni2P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni2P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  3. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide-based methotrexate-loaded implants on sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Li Gao,1,2 Lunyang Xia,3 Ruhui Zhang,1 Dandan Duan,3 Xiuxiu Liu,2 Jianjian Xu,2 Lan Luo1 1State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2School of Biological and Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Research, Anhui Zhongren Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Methotrexate is widely used in chemotherapy for a variety of malignancies. However, severe toxicity, poor pharmacokinetics, and narrow safety margin of methotrexate limit its clinical application. The aim of this study was to develop sustained-release methotrexate-loaded implants and evaluate antitumor activity of the implants after intratumoral implantation. Materials and methods: We prepared the implants containing methotrexate, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, and polyethylene glycol 4000 with the melt-molding technique. The implants were characterized with regards to drug content, morphology, in vitro, and in vivo release profiles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of the implants. Furthermore, the antitumor activity of the implants was tested in a sarcoma 180 mouse model. Results: The implants were prepared as solid rods. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth surface of the implant, suggesting that methotrexate was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. The results of DSC and FTIR indicated that no significant interaction between methotrexate and the polymer was observed in the implants. Both in vitro and in vivo release profiles of the implants were characterized by burst release followed by sustained release of methotrexate. Intratumoral implantation of methotrexate-loaded implants could efficiently delay tumor growth. Moreover, an increase in the dose of implants led to a higher tumor

  6. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-02

    Ni 2 P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H 2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni 2 P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H 2 generation. The porous Ni 2 P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni 2 P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni 2 P, H 2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h - 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h - 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni 2 P-Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S composites. The effect of Ni 2 P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni 2 P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  7. High sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis of drugs in biological samples using 4-column multidimensional micro-UHPLC-MS enabling enhanced sample loading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Vereyken, Liesbeth; François, Isabelle; Dillen, Lieve; Vreeken, Rob J; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-10-09

    Sensitivity is often a critical parameter in quantitative bioanalyses in drug development. For liquid-chromatography-based methods, sensitivity can be improved by reducing the column diameter, but practical sensitivity gains are limited by the reduced sample loading capacity on small internal diameter (I.D.) columns. We developed a set-up that has overcome these limitations in sample loading capacity. The set-up uses 4 columns with gradually decreasing column diameters along the flow-path (2.1 → 1 → 0.5 → 0.15 mm). Samples are pre-concentrated on-line on a 2.1 mm I.D. trapping column and back flushed to a 1 mm I.D. UHPLC analytical column and separated. The peak(s) of interest are transferred using heartcutting to a second trapping column (0.5 mm I.D.), which is back-flushed to a 0.15 mm I.D. micro-UHPLC analytical column for orthogonal separation. The proof of concept of the set-up was demonstrated by the simultaneous analysis of midazolam and 1'-hydroxy midazolam in plasma by injection of 80 μL of protein precipitated plasma. The 4-column funnel set-up proved to be robust and resulted in a 10-50 times better sensitivity compared to a trap-elute approach and 250-500 fold better compared to direct micro-UHPLC analysis. A lower limit of quantification of 100 fg/mL in plasma was obtained for both probe compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  9. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Nightingale, Philp D.; Turner, Suzanne M.; Liss, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H 2 O 2 . •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  11. Low elastic modulus Ti-Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteven, Jazmin; Kannan, M Bobby; Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis; Choe, Han-Choel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium-tantalum (Ti-Ta) alloys (10-30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti-Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3×10(-4) mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2×10(-3) mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4×10(-3) mm/y). All the Ti-Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8×10(-3) mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1×10(-4) mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ~22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ~48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8×10(-3) mm/y) showed ~53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres amalgamated with thermosensitive gel offered sustained release and enhanced cytotoxicity in THP-1, human leukemia cells: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vivek; Kush, Preeti; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2016-04-01

    Vincristine sulfate (VCS) is a drug of choice for the treatment of childhood and adult acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as solid tumors including sarcomas. However, poor biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic traits of VCS like short serum half-life (12 min), high dosing frequency (1.4 mg/m(2) per week for 4 weeks) and extensive protein binding (75%) limit the clinical potential of VCS in cancer therapy. In present investigation, injectable vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres (VCS-Dextran-MSs) were prepared and amalgamated with chitosan-β-glycerophosphate gel (VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel) to surmount the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations of VCS that consequently induced synergistic sustained release pattern of the drug. Particle size and zeta-potential of VCS-Dextran-MSs were measured to be 6.8 ± 2.4 μm and -18.3 ± 0.11 mV along with the encapsulation efficiency of about 60.4 ± 4.5%. Furthermore, VCS-Dextran-MSs and VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel exhibited slow release pattern and 94.7% and 95.8% of the drug was released in 72 h and 720 h, respectively. Results from cell viability assay and pharmacokinetic as well as histopathological analysis in mice indicated that VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel offers superior therapeutic potential and higher AUClast than VCS-Dextran-MSs and drug solution. In conclusion, VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel warrants further preclinical tumor growth study to scale up the technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable curcumin-loaded polymeric micellar formulation for enhancing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity to FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Singkome; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Berkland, Cory; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to develop a stable polymeric micellar formulation of curcumin (CM) with improved solubility and stability, and that is suitable for clinical applications in leukemia patients. CM-loaded polymeric micelles (CM-micelles) were prepared using poloxamers. The chemical structure of the polymers influenced micellar properties. The best formulation of CM-micelles, namely CM-P407, was obtained from poloxamer 407 at drug to polymer ratio of 1:30 and rehydrated with phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. CM-P407 exhibited the smallest size of 30.3±1.3nm and highest entrapment efficiency of 88.4±4.1%. When stored at -80°C for 60days, CM-P407 retained high protection of CM and had no significant size change. In comparison with CM solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (CM-DMSO), CM kinetic degradation in both formulations followed a pseudo-first-order reaction, but the half-life of CM in CM-P407 was approx. 200 times longer than in CM-DMSO. Regarding the activity against FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells, CM-P407 showed higher cytotoxicity than CM-DMSO. Moreover, intracellular uptake to leukemic cells of CM-P407 was 2-3 times greater than that of CM-DMSO. These promising results for CM-P407 will be further investigated in rodents and in clinical studies for leukemia treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Wen-Lin Yeh,2 Chien-Lin Chao,1 Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Yi-Hsun Yu,1,2 Jan-Kan Chen,3 Shih-Jung Liu1,2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. Keywords: polylactide–polyglycolide nanofibers, PLGA, collagen, 3D printing, polylactide, PLA, bone-anchoring bolts, tendon healing

  15. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Hong [School of Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nano-ceria was successfully encapsulated into MIL-100(Fe) for the SCR of NO{sub x}. • The incorporated ceria in MIL-100(Fe) showed high content of chemisorbed oxygen. • The added ceria into MIL-100(Fe) improved the formation of adsorbed NO{sub 2} species. • The addition of ceria into MIL-100(Fe) enhanced SCR activity at low temperature. - Abstract: The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO{sub 2}/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NO{sub x} conversion ranges from 196 to 300 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO{sub 2} species responsible for fast SCR reactions.

  16. Horseradish peroxidase-loaded nanospheres attached to hollow gold nanoparticles as signal enhancers in an ultrasensitive immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ya; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Yuxia

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemical signal amplification strategy for use in immunoassays. The highly responsive immunoelectrode was constructed in the following way: (1) The surface of a gold electrode was covered with a layer single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chitosane functionalized with L-cysteine; (2) Gold nanoparticles containing protein A and anti-alpha-fetoprotein (anti-AFP) were then covalently attached to the surface via the thiol groups of the chitosane. The electrode is then exposed to the analyte (AFP) which then is bound by the antibody. In the next step, a gold-conjugated secondary antibody is added that was prepared in the following way: (1) Horseradish peroxidase was crosslinked and the resulting spheres were coated with hollow gold nanoparticles (hollow Au-NPs) to give nanospheres of ∼100 nm in diameter. (2) These were the coated with thionine and, in a last step, with secondary antibody. The use of these materials has several attractive features: The HRP-NPs functionalized with hollow Au-NPs possess a large surface area that can load the large amount of secondary antibody. Thionine (Thi) is highly redox active and improves the intensity of the signal. Carbon nanotubes were used because they possess an excellent electron transfer rate and large surface area. Following incubation of the modified electrode (a) with a sample containing AFP, (b) then with the secondary antibody, and (c) with washing buffer, the electrode is placed in a solution containing H 2 O 2 . The HRP in the smart secondary antibody causes the catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 and the results in an electrical current that is linearly related to the concentration of AFP in the 0.025 to 5.0 ng mL −1 concentration range. The detection limit for AFP is as low as 8.3 pg mL −1 . We believe that this novel kind of immunoassay represents a promising tool for use in sensitive clinical assays. (author)

  17. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  18. Haptic-Based Perception-Empathy Biofeedback Enhances Postural Motor Learning During High-Cognitive Load Task in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Saichi, Kenta; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2018-01-01

    Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems, and sensory input impairment in older adults results in significant limitations in feedback-type postural control. A haptic-based biofeedback (BF) system can be used for augmenting somatosensory input in older adults, and the application of this BF system can increase the objectivity of the feedback and encourage comparison with that provided by a trainer. Nevertheless, an optimal BF system that focuses on interpersonal feedback for balance training in older adults has not been proposed. Thus, we proposed a haptic-based perception-empathy BF system that provides information regarding the older adult's center-of-foot pressure pattern to the trainee and trainer for refining the motor learning effect. The first objective of this study was to examine the effect of this balance training regimen in healthy older adults performing a postural learning task. Second, this study aimed to determine whether BF training required high cognitive load to clarify its practicability in real-life settings. Twenty older adults were assigned to two groups: BF and control groups. Participants in both groups tried balance training in the single-leg stance while performing a cognitive task (i.e., serial subtraction task). Retention was tested 24 h later. Testing comprised balance performance measures (i.e., 95% confidence ellipse area and mean velocity of sway) and dual-task performance (number of responses and correct answers). Measurements of postural control using a force plate revealed that the stability of the single-leg stance was significantly lower in the BF group than in the control group during the balance task. The BF group retained the improvement in the 95% confidence ellipse area 24 h after the retention test. Results of dual-task performance during the balance task were not different between the two groups. These results confirmed the potential benefit of the proposed balance training regimen in

  19. Haptic-Based Perception-Empathy Biofeedback Enhances Postural Motor Learning During High-Cognitive Load Task in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yasuda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems, and sensory input impairment in older adults results in significant limitations in feedback-type postural control. A haptic-based biofeedback (BF system can be used for augmenting somatosensory input in older adults, and the application of this BF system can increase the objectivity of the feedback and encourage comparison with that provided by a trainer. Nevertheless, an optimal BF system that focuses on interpersonal feedback for balance training in older adults has not been proposed. Thus, we proposed a haptic-based perception-empathy BF system that provides information regarding the older adult's center-of-foot pressure pattern to the trainee and trainer for refining the motor learning effect. The first objective of this study was to examine the effect of this balance training regimen in healthy older adults performing a postural learning task. Second, this study aimed to determine whether BF training required high cognitive load to clarify its practicability in real-life settings. Twenty older adults were assigned to two groups: BF and control groups. Participants in both groups tried balance training in the single-leg stance while performing a cognitive task (i.e., serial subtraction task. Retention was tested 24 h later. Testing comprised balance performance measures (i.e., 95% confidence ellipse area and mean velocity of sway and dual-task performance (number of responses and correct answers. Measurements of postural control using a force plate revealed that the stability of the single-leg stance was significantly lower in the BF group than in the control group during the balance task. The BF group retained the improvement in the 95% confidence ellipse area 24 h after the retention test. Results of dual-task performance during the balance task were not different between the two groups. These results confirmed the potential benefit of the proposed balance training

  20. iRGD-modified lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles loaded with isoliquiritigenin to enhance anti-breast cancer effect and tumor-targeting ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fei Gao,1–3 Jinming Zhang,3 Chaomei Fu,3 Xiaoming Xie,4 Fu Peng,1–3 Jieshu You,1,2 Hailin Tang,1,2,4 Zhiyu Wang,5 Peng Li,6 Jianping Chen1–3 1School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 3College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 5Department of Mammary Disease, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 6State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL, a natural anti-breast cancer dietary compound, has poor delivery characteristics and low bioavailability. In order to promote the therapeutic outcome of ISL, a tumor-targeting lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticle (NP system modified by tumor-homing iRGD peptides has been developed. The hybrid NPs were prepared by a modified single-step nanoprecipitation method to encapsulate ISL. iRGD peptides were anchored on the surface by a postinsertion method (ISL-iRGD NPs. The stable lipid–polymer structure of ISL-iRGD NPs, with high encapsulation and loading efficiency, was confirmed. Compared to free ISL and non-iRGD-modified counterparts, ISL-iRGD NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis against the different type of breast cancer cells. This was attributable to higher cellular accumulation mediated by the iRGD-integrin recognition and the nanoscale effect. More importantly, based on the active tumor-tissue accumulation by iRGD peptides and the prolonged in vivo circulation by the stealth nanostructure, ISL-iRGD NPs displayed higher tumor-growth inhibition efficiency in 4T1-bearing breast-tumor mouse

  1. A comparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ 3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed comparison between the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. A correlation plot of the PTR-MS versus GC-FID toluene measurements was described by the least squares regression equation y=(1.13± 0.02x−(0.008±0.003 ppbv, suggesting a small ~13% positive bias in the PTR-MS measurements. The bias corresponded with a ~0.055 ppbv difference at the highest measured toluene level. The two systems agreed quantitatively within the combined 1σ measurement precisions for 60% of the measurements. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by

  2. Cellulose Derivatives Enhanced Stability of Alginate-Based Beads Loaded with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 against Low pH, High Temperature and Prolonged Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareez, Ismail M; Lim, Siong Meng; Zulkefli, Nurul Aida Ashyqin; Mishra, Rakesh K; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-05-10

    The susceptibility of probiotics to low pH and high temperature has limited their use as nutraceuticals. In this study, enhanced protection of probiotics via microencapsulation was achieved. Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 were immobilised within polymeric matrix comprised of alginate (Alg) with supplementation of cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)). L. plantarum LAB12 encapsulated in Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) elicited improved survivability (91%) in simulated gastric conditions and facilitated maximal release (∼100%) in simulated intestinal condition. Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) significantly reduced (P 7 log CFU g -1 . Alg-MC and Alg-HPMC improved the survival of LAB12 against simulated gastric condition (9.24 and 9.55 log CFU g -1 , respectively), temperature up to 90 °C (9.54 and 9.86 log CFU g -1 , respectively) and 4-week of storage at 4 °C (8.61 and 9.23 log CFU g -1 , respectively) with sustained release of probiotic in intestinal condition (>9 log CFU g -1 ). These findings strongly suggest the potential of cellulose derivatives supplemented Alg bead as protective micro-transport for probiotic strains. They can be safely incorporated into new functional food or nutraceutical products.

  3. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast preparation of Bi2GeO5 nanoflakes via a microwave-hydrothermal process and enhanced photocatalytic activity after loading with Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Lin, Xin-Shan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted solution-phase approach. ► Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. ► Catalytic activity of the Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite in the photo-degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was much higher than that of pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . -- Abstract: In this work, a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed to prepare Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes. Ag nanoparticles were subsequently deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. The phases and morphologies of the products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under UV light irradiation in comparison to pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . The amount of Ag in the nanocomposite affects the catalytic activity, and 3 wt% Ag showed the highest photodegradation efficiency. Moreover, the catalyst remains active after four consecutive tests. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles loaded with MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes by self-assembly approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattikuti, S.V. Prabhakar, E-mail: vsvprabu@gmail.com; Byon, Chan, E-mail: cbyon@ynu.ac.kr; Jeon, Sora

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid consisting of ZnS nanoparticles supported on layered MoS{sub 2}−ZnS was synthesized by a hydrothermal method based on self-assembly technique without using a template. XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HR-TEM, TG-DTA, XPS, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, and UV–Vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the structural features, morphology, and composition of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid. The results show that the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid is mainly ZnS nanoparticles on layered MoS{sub 2} with a thickness of ca. 5–20 nm. The combination of the MoS{sub 2} and ZnS hybrid structure is beneficial for enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. A possible photoreaction mechanism of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid in the degradation is proposed. The photoexcited electrons from the ZnS could easily transfer to the conduction band of MoS{sub 2}, thus decreasing the recombination of photoinduced carriers and enabling the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation.

  6. Enhancing Macrophage Drug Delivery Efficiency via Co-Localization of Cells and Drug-Loaded Microcarriers in 3D Resonant Ultrasound Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel synthetic 3D molecular transfer system which involved the use of model drug calcein-AM-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (CAPMs) and resonant ultrasound field (RUF) with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for macrophage drug delivery was explored. We hypothesized that the efficiency of CAPMs-mediated drug delivery aided by RUF can be promoted by increasing the contact opportunities between cells and the micrometer-sized drug carriers due to effects of acoustic radiation forces generated by RUF. Through the fluoromicroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, our results showed that both DH82 macrophages and CAPMs can be quickly brought to acoustic pressure nodes within 20 sec under RUF exposure, and were consequently aggregated throughout the time course. The efficacy of cellular uptake of CAPMs was enhanced with increased RUF exposure time where a 3-fold augmentation (P CAPM delivery efficiency was mainly contributed by the co-localization of cells and CAPMs resulting from the application of the RUF, rather than from sonoporation. In summary, the developed molecular delivery approach provides a feasible means for macrophage drug delivery.

  7. Sodium Mercaptoethane Sulfonate Reduces Collagenolytic Degradation and Synergistically Enhances Antimicrobial Durability in an Antibiotic-Loaded Biopolymer Film for Prevention of Surgical-Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rosenblatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M and rifampin (R was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection. Adding MeSNA to the M/R biopolymer, antimicrobial film extended the duration for which biofilm formation by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA was prevented on silicone surfaces in the model. M/R films with and without MeSNA were effective in preventing colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Independent experiments revealed that MeSNA directly inhibited proteolytic digestion of the biopolymer film and synergistically enhanced antimicrobial potency of M/R against MDR-PA. Incubation of the MeSNA containing films with L929 fibroblasts revealed no impairment of cellular metabolic activity or viability.

  8. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-28

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn(2+) linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.

  9. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH₃ at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Sun, Hong; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-15

    The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO2 and H2O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO2/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NOx conversion ranges from 196 to 300°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO2 species responsible for fast SCR reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of radiotherapy efficacy by miR-200c-loaded gelatinase-stimuli PEG-Pep-PCL nanoparticles in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui FB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fang-bo Cui,1,* Qin Liu,1,* Ru-Tian Li,1 Jie Shen,1 Pu-yuan Wu,1 Li-Xia Yu,1 Wen-jing Hu,1 Feng-lei Wu,2 Chun-Ping Jiang,1 Guo-feng Yue,2 Xiao-Ping Qian,1 Xi-Qun Jiang,3 Bao-Rui Liu11The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Nanjing Medical University, 3Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Radiotherapy is the main locoregional control modality for many types of unresectable tumors, including gastric cancer. However, many patients fail radiotherapy due to intrinsic radioresistance of cancer cells, which has been found to be strongly associated with cancer stem cell (CSC-like properties. In this study, we developed a nanoparticle formulation to deliver miR-200c, which is reported to inhibit CSC-like properties, and then evaluated its potential activity as a radiosensitizer. miR-200c nanoparticles significantly augmented radiosensitivity in three gastric cancer cell lines (sensitization enhancement ratio 1.13–1.25, but only slightly in GES-1 cells (1.06. In addition to radioenhancement, miR-200c nanoparticles reduced the expression of CD44, a putative CSC marker, and the percentage of CD44+ BGC823 cells. Meanwhile, other CSC-like properties, including invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis, could be suppressed by miR-200c nanoparticles. CSC-associated radioresistance mechanisms, involving reactive oxygen species levels and DNA repair capacity, were also attenuated. We have demonstrated that miR-200c nanoparticles are an effective radiosensitizer in gastric cancer cells and induce little radiosensitization in normal cells, which suggests that they are as a promising candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation

  11. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  12. Synthesis of TiO2-loaded Co0.85Se thin films with heterostructure and their enhanced catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Yong; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    P-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrazine hydrate are considered to be highly toxic pollutants in wastewater, and it is of great importance to remove them. Herein, TiO 2 -loaded Co 0.85 Se thin films with heterostructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate that TiO 2 nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are easily loaded on the surface of graphene-like Co 0.85 Se nanofilms, and the NH 3  · H 2 O plays an important role in the generation and crystallization of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement shows that the obtained nanocomposites have a larger specific surface area (199.3 m 2 g −1 ) than that of Co 0.85 Se nanofilms (55.17 m 2 g −1 ) and TiO 2 nanoparticles (19.49 m 2 g −1 ). The catalytic tests indicate Co 0.85 Se–TiO 2 nanofilms have the highest activity for 4-NP reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition within 10 min and 8 min, respectively, compared with the corresponding precursor Co 0.85 Se nanofilms and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the larger specific surface area and higher rate of interfacial charge transfer in the heterojunction than that of the single components. In addition, recycling tests show that the as-synthesized sample presents stable conversion efficiency for 4-NP reduction. (paper)

  13. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  14. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  15. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou

    2015-01-01

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL −1 with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO 2 particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors

  16. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO{sub 2} particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors.

  17. Enhancing learners’ problem solving performance in mathematics: A cognitive load perspective - See more at: http://www.lectitopublishing.nl/Article/List/88/11/15#sthash.gmkglGIQ.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Dhlamini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1 to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2 to test the efficacy of CBPSI in relation to learners’ problem solving performance. In this paper CBPSI refers to a teaching approach in which everyday problem solving knowledge and practices are uncovered when learners are exposed to tasks that give meaning to their everyday experiences. Given that the design of a pilot study lacked the inclusion of a control group, it is reasonable to conclude that the current design embraced elements of a pre-experimental research approach in which a one-group pre-test post-test design was followed. Participants consisted of a convenient sample of 57 Grade 10 learners who performed poorly in mathematics problem solving. The results of the study informed various conceptual and methodological revisions to strengthen the design of the main study, however, this paper reports only the effect of CBPSI on participants’ problem solving performance. The post-intervention achievement test suggested that CBPSI was effective in substantially accelerating learners’ problem solving performance (p<0.05. Using a cognitive load theory, it is possible to explain aspects of growth in learners’ problem solving performance in relation to the conceptual notion of human cognitive architecture.

  18. Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: application of Box-Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation and in-vivo skin deposition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Aly A; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2015-05-15

    Psoriasis, a skin disorder characterized by impaired epidermal differentiation, is regularly treated by systemic methotrexate (MTX), an effective cytotoxic drug but with numerous side effects. The aim of this work was to design topical MTX loaded niosomes for management of psoriasis to avoid systemic toxicity. To achieve this goal, MTX niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique. A Box-Behnken (BB) design, using Design-Expert(®) software, was employed to statistically optimize formulation variables. Three independent variables were evaluated: MTX concentration in hydration medium (X1), total weight of niosomal components (X2) and surfactant: cholesterol ratio (X3). The encapsulation efficiency percent (Y1: EE%) and particle size (Y2: PS) were selected as dependent variables. The optimal formulation (F12) displayed spherical morphology under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optimum particle size of 1375.00 nm and high EE% of 78.66%. In-vivo skin deposition study showed that the highest value of percentage drug deposited (22.45%) and AUC0-10 (1.15 mg.h/cm(2)) of MTX from niosomes were significantly greater than that of drug solution (13.87% and 0.49 mg.h/cm(2), respectively). Moreover, in-vivo histopathological studies confirmed safety of topically applied niosomes. Concisely, the results showed that targeted MTX delivery might be achieved using topically applied niosomes for enhanced treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transmission Lines Loading Enhancement Using ADPSO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahdavi; H. Monsef; A. Bagheri

    2010-01-01

    Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is a powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm that is used to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard DPSO algorithm has premature convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like transmission expansion planning (TEP). To resolve this problem an advanced discrete particle swarm optimization (ADPSO) is proposed in this paper. The simulation res...

  20. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  1. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  2. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  3. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  4. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  5. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  6. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  7. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  8. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  9. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  11. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  12. In situ loading of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} on ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun [Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Xing, Yan, E-mail: xingy202@nenu.edu.cn [Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Song, Shuyan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS) with improved electron transport ability and large number of active sites are employed instead of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to prepare the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS heterostructured photocatalysts, which exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS photocatalysts were obtained by a deposition-precipitation method. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS possess large surface areas and increased lifetime of charges. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS exhibit enhanced activity on degradation of RhB and MO. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS system were investigated. - Abstract: The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS with a thickness of about 2.7 nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and then Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B and Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight

  13. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  14. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  15. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaeli, Reza; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shahoon, Hossein; Hooshmand, Behzad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein; Khoshroo, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  16. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaeli, Reza [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat, E-mail: jafarzat@sina.tums.ac.ir [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rakhshan, Vahid [Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahoon, Hossein [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmand, Behzad [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshroo, Kimia [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  17. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  18. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  19. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  20. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  1. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  3. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  4. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  5. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  6. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Crack closure and growth behavior of short fatigue cracks under random loading (part I : details of crack closure behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Young; Song, Ji Ho

    2000-01-01

    Crack closure and growth behavior of physically short fatigue cracks under random loading are investigated by performing narrow-and wide-band random loading tests for various stress ratios. Artificially prepared two-dimensional, short through-thickness cracks are used. The closure behavior of short cracks under random loading is discussed, comparing with that of short cracks under constant-amplitude loading and also that of long cracks under random loading. Irrespective of random loading spectrum or block length, the crack opening load of short cracks is much lower under random loading than under constant-amplitude loading corresponding to the largest load cycle in a random load history, contrary to the behavior of long cracks that the crack opening load under random loading is nearly the same as or slightly higher than constant-amplitude results. This result indicates that the largest load cycle in a random load history has an effect to enhance crack opening of short cracks

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Balanced KNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianlong; Cheng, Xingong; YanShuang; Tang, Yan-mei

    2018-03-01

    To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, a short-term load forecasting model based on balanced KNN algorithm is proposed; According to the load characteristics, the historical data of massive power load are divided into scenes by the K-means algorithm; In view of unbalanced load scenes, the balanced KNN algorithm is proposed to classify the scene accurately; The local weighted linear regression algorithm is used to fitting and predict the load; Adopting the Apache Hadoop programming framework of cloud computing, the proposed algorithm model is parallelized and improved to enhance its ability of dealing with massive and high-dimension data. The analysis of the household electricity consumption data for a residential district is done by 23-nodes cloud computing cluster, and experimental results show that the load forecasting accuracy and execution time by the proposed model are the better than those of traditional forecasting algorithm.

  11. Perceptual load-dependent neural correlates of distractor interference inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory.We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high. Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN, striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load.Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.

  12. Perceptual load-dependent neural correlates of distractor interference inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Monterosso, John; Kober, Hedy; Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-01-18

    The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing) at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits) is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory. We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high). Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN), striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load. Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.

  13. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  14. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  15. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  16. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  17. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  18. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  19. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  20. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  1. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Hwa; Oh, Soo Yul; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom`s N4 plant, KWU`s plants, ABB-CE`s Systems 80+, and Westinghouse`s AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author).

  2. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  3. DYNAMIC LOAD DAMPER MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.

  4. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  5. Capability of parasulfonato calix[6]arene, as an anion dopant, and organic solvents in enhancing the sensitivity and loading of glucose oxidase (GOx) on polypyrrole film in a biosensor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnavadeh, Vahideh; Zare, Karim; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effects of two solvents (acetonitrile and water) and an anion dopant (para sulfonato calix[6]arene ((C[6]S)(-6))), on the manufacturing and properties of a polypyrrole (Ppy)-based, glucose oxidase amperometric biosensor were studied. Pyrrole was polymerized using galvanostatic mode in two different solvents, and the effect of (C[6]S)(-6) was studied in aqueous solution. The morphology of the obtained polypyrrole films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glucose oxidase (GOx) was adsorbed on the Ppy films via cross-linking method. Then the amperometric responses of the Pt/Ppy/GOx electrodes were measured using the amperometric method at the potential of 0.7 V in steps of adding a glucose solution to a potassium phosphate buffer. We found that acetonitrile and (C[6]S)(-6) increase the sensitivity of the enzyme electrode up to 79.30 µA M(-1)cm(-2) in comparison with 31.60 μA M(-1)cm(-2) for the electrode synthesized in calixarene free aqueous solvent. Also (C[6]S)(-6) has the main role in preventing leaching the enzyme from the electrode. This fact increases loading of the enzyme and stability of the biosensor. So that the steady state current density of the aforementioned electrode increases linearly with increasing glucose concentration up to 190 mM. Whereas the linearity was observed up to 61 mM and 80 mM for the electrodes made using calixarene free acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres enhance osteogenic potential of gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate cryogel composite for alveolar ridge augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chieh Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Sufficient bony support is essential to ensure the success of dental implant osseointegration. However, the reconstruction of vertical ridge deficiencies is still a major challenge for dental implants. This study introduced a novel treatment strategy by infusing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 within a gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/HA/β-TCP cryogel composite to facilitate supra-alveolar ridge augmentation. Methods: The gelatin scaffold was crosslinked using cryogel technique, and HA/β-TCP particles were mechanically entrapped to form the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite. Co-axial electrohydrodynamic atomization technology was used to fabricate PLGA microspheres encapsulating BMP-2. The composites of gelatin/HA/β-TCP alone, with infusion of BMP-2 solution (BMPi or microspheres (BMPm, were fixed on rat mandibles using a titanium mini-implant for 4 weeks, and the therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, bone fluorochrome, and histology. Results: The gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite was homogenously porous, and BMP-2 was sustained release from the microspheres without initial burst release. Ridge augmentation was noted in all specimens treated with the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite, and greater bone deposition ratio were noted in Groups BMPi and BMPm. Compared with Group BMPi, specimens in Group BMPm showed significantly greater early osteogenesis and evident osseointegration in the supra-alveolar level. Conclusion: BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres effectively promoted osteogenic potential of the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite and facilitated supra-alveolar ridge augmentation in vivo. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, dental implant, tissue engineering, tissue scaffolds

  7. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  8. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  9. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  10. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  11. Loading device for incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempelmann, W.

    1983-01-01

    An incinerator for radioactive waste is described. Heat radiation from the incinerator into the loading device is reduced by the design of the slider with a ceramic plate and the conical widening of the pot, and also by fixing a metal plate between the pot and the floor. (PW) [de

  12. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  13. EQUATING FACULTY LOADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OOSTING, KENNETH W.

    AT ALPENA COMMUNITY COLLEGE, A NORMAL TEACHING LOAD FOR ANY FACULTY MEMBER IS 14-16 SEMESTER HOURS, WITH 75-125 STUDENTS AND 2-3 PREPARATIONS. VARIATIONS FROM THE SCHEDULE ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SPECIFIC FORMULAS RELATING TO TOTAL MEMBERS OF STUDENTS, NUMBERS OF PREPARATIONS, ASSIGNMENT TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION CLASSES, NEW COURSES, AND CLASSES…

  14. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  15. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  16. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  17. Temoporfin-loaded liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Freisleben, Ines; Steiniger, Frank

    2010-01-01

    . In contrast, if phospholipids with longer fatty acid chains (distearoylphosphatidylcholine/-glycerol) were used, phase transitions were well above body temperature even at high drug load. Size and thermal behavior were not distinctly influenced by the addition of pegylated lipids but cryo-electron microscopic...

  18. Distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, V.; Andonov, D.; Gagovski, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the interactive distribution load forecast application that performs the distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads. It consists of two major parts implemented in Fortran and Visual Basic. The Fortran part is used for the forecasts computations. It consists of two methods: Load Transfer Coupling Curve Fitting (LTCCF) and load Forecast Using Curve Shape Clustering (FUCSC). LTCCF is used to 'correct' the contaminated data because of load transfer among neighboring distribution areas. FUCSC uses curve shape clustering to forecast the distribution loads of small areas. The forecast for each small area is achieved by using the shape of corresponding cluster curve. The comparison of forecasted loads of the area with historical data will be used as a tool for the correction of the estimated horizon load. The Visual Basic part is used to provide flexible interactive user-friendly environment. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  20. PEMBELAJARAN BERBANTUAN MULTIMEDIA BERDASARKAN COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY PADA PELAJARAN MATEMATIKA SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissa Prima Kurniawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia is media that combine two or more elements are composed of text, graphics, images, photographs, audio, video, and animation are integrated. In multimedia-assisted learning, students are given the opportunity to learn not only of learning resources such as teachers, but give the opportunity to students to develop better cognitive, creative, and innovative. Cognitive Load Theory is a theory that was introduced as a teaching theory based on the knowledge of human cognitive architecture that we have. The main principle of Cognitive Load Theory is the quality of learning is enhanced if attention is concentrated on the role and limitations of working memory. Three cognitive load in working memory, which is intrinsic cognitive load, Germany cognitive load, and extraneous cognitive load.   Keywords: Multimedia, Cognitive Load Theory, intrinsic cognitive load, Germany cognitive load, and extraneous cognitive load.

  1. Investigation on effectiveness of a prefabricated vertical drain during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indraratna, B; Ni, J; Rujikiatkamjorn, C

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) in enhancing the stability of soft soils during cyclic loading was investigated using triaxial cyclic loading tests. Both undrained and with PVD tests were employed to study the associated excess pore pressure and accumulated strain under the repeated loading condition. The loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio have been chosen to be the variables which influence the performance of soft clays. The experimental results illustrate that with PVDs, the excess pore water pressure generation during cyclic loading decreases significantly. It is found that the excess pore water pressure build up depends on both loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio. The excess pore water pressure will increase when each of them is increased. Furthermore, when the loading frequency is 0.1 Hz, the ratio of coefficient of consolidation under cyclic loading to that under static loading is almost one. With the increasing loading frequency, this ratio increases accordingly.

  2. Nano-biphasic calcium phosphate/polyvinyl alcohol composites with enhanced bioactivity for bone repair via low-temperature three-dimensional printing and loading with platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Lin, Kaifeng; He, Shu; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Donglin; Wang, Jimeng; Cao, Tianqing; Bi, Long; Pei, Guoxian

    2018-01-01

    As a newly emerging three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, low-temperature robocasting can be used to fabricate geometrically complex ceramic scaffolds at low temperatures. Here, we aimed to fabricate 3D printed ceramic scaffolds composed of nano-biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) at a low temperature without the addition of toxic chemicals. Corresponding nonprinted scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Compared with the nonprinted scaffolds, the printed scaffolds had specific shapes and well-connected internal structures. The incorporation of PRF enabled both the sustained release of bioactive factors from the scaffolds and improved biocompatibility and biological activity toward bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Additionally, the printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds promoted significantly better BMSC adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro than the printed BCP/PVA scaffolds. In vivo, the printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds induced a greater extent of appropriate bone formation than the printed BCP/PVA scaffolds and nonprinted scaffolds in a critical-size segmental bone defect model in rabbits. These experiments indicate that low-temperature robocasting could potentially be used to fabricate 3D printed BCP/PVA/PRF scaffolds with desired shapes and internal structures and incorporated bioactive factors to enhance the repair of segmental bone defects.

  3. Novel HBV recombinants between genotypes B and C in 3'-terminal reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences are associated with enhanced viral DNA load, higher RT point mutation rates and place of birth among Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoming; Yang, Jing-Xian; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui; Li, Tong

    2018-01-01

    As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region. However, their frequency and clinical significance is poorly understood. Here full-length HBV RT sequences from 201 Chinese chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were amplified and sequenced, among which 31.34% (63/201) were genotype B whereas 68.66% (138/201) genotype C. Although no intergenotypic recombination was detected among C-genotype HBV, 38.10% (24/63) of B-genotype HBV had recombination with genotype C in the 3'-terminal RT sequences. The patients with B/C intergenotypic recombinants had significantly (Pdistribution feature in China. Our findings provide novel insight into the virological, clinical and epidemiological features of new HBV B/C intergenotypic recombinants at the 3' end of RT sequences among Chinese CHB patients. The highly complex genetic background of the novel recombinant HBV carrying new mutations affecting RT protein may contribute to an enhanced heterogeneity in treatment response or prognosis among CHB patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Load handling gripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus for releasably engaging and moving workpieces comprises pivotable gripper jaws with a spring-loaded plunger to maintain the jaws in a closed condition. The plunger is slidable in a bore in a housing and the end of the plunger remote from the jaws cooperates with a blind end of the bore to provide a gas cushion. A rod in conjunction with a backplate (not shown) are provided to cause the jaws to open and release a workpiece on axial movement of the housing in a first direction through a predetermined distance and releasable locking means maintain the jaws in an open condition. On axial movement of the housing in the reverse direction the locking means are released to allow the spring-loaded plunger to return to a position to close to jaws. (author)

  6. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal....... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer......-related lymphedema symptoms (heaviness, swelling, pain, tightness) reported using a numeric rating scale (0-10). Order of low- versus heavy-load was randomized. All outcomes were assessed pre-, immediately post-, and 24- and 72-hours post-exercise. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes over...

  7. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  8. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  9. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  10. Plastic limit loads for cylindrical shell intersections under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinsky, V.N.; Berkov, N.A.; Vogov, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, applied methods of nonlinear analysis and results of determining the plastic limit loads for shell intersection configurations under combined internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loadings are presented. The numerical analysis of shell intersections is performed using the finite element method, geometrically nonlinear shell theory in quadratic approximation and plasticity theory. For determining the load parameter of proportional combined loading, the developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. The graphical results for model of cylindrical shell intersection under different two-parameter combined loadings (as generalized plastic limit load curves) and three-parameter combined loading (as generalized plastic limit load surface) are presented on the assumption that the internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loads were applied in a proportional manner. - Highlights: • This paper presents nonlinear two-dimensional FE analysis for shell intersections. • Determining the plastic limit loads under combined loading is considered. • Developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. • Plastic deformation mechanism in shell intersections is discussed. • Results for generalized plastic limit load curves of branch intersection are presented

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. Cognitive Load and Strategic Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...

  13. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  14. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  15. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF m...

  16. The integrity of CANDU fuel during load following

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.; Manzer, A.M.; Sejnoha, R.; Hains, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes data and analyses of integrity and of physics of CANDU fuel during load following. Measurements of irradiated fuel show that power cycles do not enhance release of fission gas. Data from research reactors show that the power cycles cause cyclic strains in the sheath. Finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath. The stresses and the strains are well into the plastic range. The cyclic loads 'use up' some fraction of the sheath's resistance to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC), depending on the details of the fuel design and of then power cycles. The balance of the sheath's resistance to EAC continues to be available to counteract static loads. Thousands of fuel bundles have experienced many power cycles in research and in commercial reactors. Overall integrity of fuel bundles is well over 99%. Thus, CANDU fuel continues to show good performance in both base-load and load-following reactors

  17. Loading direction regulates the affinity of ADP for kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Sotaro; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2003-04-01

    Kinesin is an ATP-driven molecular motor that moves processively along a microtubule. Processivity has been explained as a mechanism that involves alternating single- and double-headed binding of kinesin to microtubules coupled to the ATPase cycle of the motor. The internal load imposed between the two bound heads has been proposed to be a key factor regulating the ATPase cycle in each head. Here we show that external load imposed along the direction of motility on a single kinesin molecule enhances the binding affinity of ADP for kinesin, whereas an external load imposed against the direction of motility decreases it. This coupling between loading direction and enzymatic activity is in accord with the idea that the internal load plays a key role in the unidirectional and cooperative movement of processive motors.

  18. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  19. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  20. Spreading the load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Greg

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the management of power demand by the regional electricity companies in the United Kingdom so that consumers use most power at times when the pool price is at its lowest. The use of teleswitching for load management, the control of the heating of large residential buildings, the power demand of supermarkets with 24hr opening, financial incentives, and the forecasting of demand are discussed. Details are given of the work of the operational forecasting team, and the matching of demand with generators availability by the scheduling team of the National Grid. (UK)

  1. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Containing 12 new chapters, this second edition contains offers increased-coverage of weather correction and normalization of forecasts, anticipation of redevelopment, determining the validity of announced developments, and minimizing risk from over- or under-planning. It provides specific examples and detailed explanations of key points to consider for both standard and unusual utility forecasting situations, information on new algorithms and concepts in forecasting, a review of forecasting pitfalls and mistakes, case studies depicting challenging forecast environments, and load models illustrating various types of demand.

  2. Dynamic stability under sudden loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simitses, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of dynamic stability of elastic structures subjected to sudden (step) loads is discussed. The various criteria and related methodologies for estimating critical conditions are presented with the emphasis on their similarities and differences. These are demonstrated by employing a simple mechanical model. Several structural configurations are analyzed, for demonstration purposes, with the intention of comparing critical dynamic loads to critical static loads. These configurations include shallow arches and shallow spherical caps, two bar frames, and imperfect cylindrical shells of metallic as well as laminated composite construction. In the demonstration examples, the effect of static pre loading on the dynamic critical load is presented

  3. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  4. Design and Evaluation of Autonomous Hybrid Frequency-Voltage Sensitive Load Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sossan, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces an algorithm for control of autonomous loads without digital communication interfaces to provide both frequency regulation and voltage regulation services. This hybrid controller can be used to enhance frequency sensitive loads to mitigate line overload arising from reduced l...... load diversity. Numerical simulations of the hybrid controller in a representative distribution system show the peak system load was reduced by 12% compared to a purely frequency sensitive load controller.......The paper introduces an algorithm for control of autonomous loads without digital communication interfaces to provide both frequency regulation and voltage regulation services. This hybrid controller can be used to enhance frequency sensitive loads to mitigate line overload arising from reduced...

  5. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  6. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  7. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  8. Dynamical load factor of impact loaded shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamical loaded structures can be analysed by spectral representations, which usually lead to an enormous computational effort. If it is possible to find a fitting dynamical load factor, the dynamical problem can be reduced to a statical one. The computation of this statical problem is much simpler. The disadvantage is that the dynamical load factor usually leads to a very rough approximation. In this paper it will be shown, that by combination of these two methods, the approximation of the dynamical load factor can be improved and the consumption of computation time can be enormously reduced. (Auth.)

  9. Enhanced catalytic activity of nanoscale platinum islands loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    usage of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has increased the ... ing the power consumption. ... 7⋅4 × 102 for trace level detection of 50 ppm of LPG at .... 2(ads). The stabilization is achieved when an equilibrium concentration of adsorbed species ...

  10. Enhanced Estimation of Terrestrial Loadings for TMDLs: Normalization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMDL implementation plans to remediate pathogen-impaired streams are usually based on deterministic terrestrial fate and transport (DTFT) models. A novel protocol is proposed that can effectively, efficiently, and explicitly capture the predictive uncertainty of DTFT models used to establish terres...

  11. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  12. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  13. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning.......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed...... to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation...

  14. High thermal load structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.)

  15. High thermal load structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Seiichi; Toyota, Masahiko

    1995-06-16

    A highly thermal load structure applied to a plasma-opposed equipment of a thermonuclear device comprises heat resistant protection tiles and a cooling tube disposed in the protection tiles. As the protection tiles, a carbon/carbon composite material is used. The carbon/carbon composite material on the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers disposed in one direction (one dimensionally) arranged from the heat receiving surface toward the cooling tube. The carbon/carbon composite material on the side opposite to the heat receiving surface comprises carbon fibers arranged two-dimensionally in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of the cooling tube. Then, the cooling tube is interposed between the one-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material and the two-dimensional carbon/carbon composite material, and they are joined with each other by vacuum brazing. This can improve heat removing performance. In addition, thermal stresses at the joined portion is reduced. Further, electromagnetic force generated in the thermonuclear device is reduced. (I.N.).

  16. Improving the Quality of Online Discussion: The Effects of Strategies Designed Based on Cognitive Load Theory Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…

  17. Transfection Agent Induced Nanoparticle Cell Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Montet-Abou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Loading cells with magnetic nanoparticles, and tracking their fate in vivo by high resolution MRI, is an attractive approach for enhancing the efficacy of cell-based therapies including those utilizing hematopoietic stem cells, neuroprogenitor cells, and T cells. The transfection agent (internalization agent assisted loading with the Feridex IV® nanoparticle is an attractive method of loading because of the low cost of materials, and possible low regulatory barriers for eventual clinical use. We therefore explored the interaction between Feridex IV® and three internalization agents protamine (PRO, polylysine (PLL, and lipofectamine (LFA. Feridex reacted with internalization agents to form aggregates, except when either the internalization agent or Feridex was present in large excess. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with Feridex/LFA or Feridex/PRO mixtures, and washed by centrifugation, nanoparticle aggregates co-purified with cells. With C17.2 cells large iron oxide particles adhered to the cell surface. At 30 μg/mL Feridex and 3 μg/mL LFA, internalization was largely mediated by LFA and was largely cytoplasmic. However, we found that the conditions used to label cells with Feridex and transfection agents need to be carefully selected to avoid the problems of surface adsorption and nanoparticle precipitation.

  18. Loads as a Resource: Frequency Responsive Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elizondo, Marcelo A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moya, Christian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Frequency control plays an important role in preserving the power balance of a multi-machine power system. Generators modify their power output when a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to restore power balance across the network. However, with plans for large-scale penetration of renewable energy resources, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive, but also technically difficult. Frequency control from the demand side or load control presents a novel and viable way for providing the desired frequency response. Loads can measure frequency locally and change their power consumption after a non-zero frequency deviation is presented in order to achieve power balance between generation and consumption. The specific objectives of this project are to: •Provide a framework to facilitate large-scale deployment of frequency responsive end-use devices •Systematically design decentralized frequency-based load control strategies for enhanced stability performance •Ensure applicability over wide range of operating conditions while accounting for unpredictable end-use behavior and physical device constraints •Test and validate control strategy using large-scale simulations and field demonstrations •Create a level-playing field for smart grid assets with conventional generators

  19. Characterization of Celecoxib-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system with several advantages, including enhanced physical stability, dual loading ability for lipophilic and .... where kp is the release rate constant at the elapsed time t, n is a constant, where the value of n ≤ 0.45 indicates .... CXB and the hydrocarbon chain of the esterified fatty acids in the lipids. Upon emulsification CXB.

  20. Using the internet of things to enable electrical load optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available about itself and also allowing the object to be controlled by some process. This paper describes a research project in balancing the electrical load in the kitchens of an IT organisation. Ten kitchen appliances were enhanced with digital intelligence...

  1. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information.

  2. Controlling Buffeting Loads by Rudder and Piezo-Actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Galea, Stephen C.; Manokaran, Donald S.; Zimcik, David G.; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Pitt, Dale M.; Gamble, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    High performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails, encounter unsteady buffet loads when flying at high angles of attack. These stochastic loads result in significant stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. An international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States, conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) contributed resources toward a program that coalesced a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active Buffet Load Alleviation ( ) control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration. The research team investigated the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads by applying advanced directional piezoelectric actuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers, and advanced control strategies on an F/A-18 aircraft empennage. Some results of the full-scale investigation are presented herein.

  3. Solution quality improvement in chiller loading optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geem, Zong Woo

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission, we can energy-efficiently operate a multiple chiller system using optimization techniques. So far, various optimization techniques have been proposed to the optimal chiller loading problem. Most of those techniques are meta-heuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, and particle swarm optimization. However, this study applied a gradient-based method, named generalized reduced gradient, and then obtains better results when compared with other approaches. When two additional approaches (hybridization between meta-heuristic algorithm and gradient-based algorithm; and reformulation of optimization structure by adding a binary variable which denotes chiller's operating status) were introduced, generalized reduced gradient found even better solutions. - Highlights: → Chiller loading problem is optimized by generalized reduced gradient (GRG) method. → Results are compared with meta-heuristic algorithms such as genetic algorithm. → Results are even enhanced by hybridizing meta-heuristic and gradient techniques. → Results are even enhanced by modifying the optimization formulation.

  4. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  5. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  6. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  7. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  8. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  9. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v, respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30 nm and 110 nm with a mean diameter of 50 nm. The curcumin loading capacity of SM as a function of loading duration was investigated using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The loading of curcumin onto SM increased rapidly initially with loading duration, and the curcumin loading capacity of 15 mg/g was reached within 12 hours. CurSM nanoparticles exhibited substantially higher water solubility of 6.0 × 10−2 mg/mL which is about 300 times higher than that of pure curcumin. With enhanced water solubility and bioaccessibility of curcumin, the potential utility of CurSM nanoparticles in various biomedical applications is therefore envisaged.

  10. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  11. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  12. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  13. Dependence of loading time on control parameters in a standard vapour—loaded magneto—optical trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi-Chi; Wu Ji-Zhou; Li Yu-Qing; Ma Jie; Wang Li-Rong; Zhao Yan-Ting; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    Loading time is one of the most important dynamic characteristics of a magneto—optical trap. In this paper, we primarily report on a detailed experimental study of the effects of some magneto—optical trap control parameters on loading time, including the background vacuum pressure, the magnetic field gradient, and the intensities of trapping and repumping lasers. We compare the results with previous theoretical and experimental results, and give qualitative analysis. These experimental investigations offer some useful guidelines to control the loading time of magneto—optical traps. The controllable loading time achieved is helpful to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of photoassociation spectroscopy, which is remarkably improved from 7 to 28.6. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Cognitive Load Theory: How Many Types of Load Does It Really Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been traditionally described as involving three separate and additive types of load. Germane load is considered as a learning-relevant load complementing extraneous and intrinsic load. This article argues that, in its traditional treatment, germane load is essentially indistinguishable from intrinsic load, and therefore…

  15. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  16. Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Vandewaetere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.

  17. +Gz load and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Marcin P; Tarnowski, Adam; Lengsfeld, Kamila; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Dereń, Miroslaw

    2013-05-01

    Pilots are constantly exposed to a number of environmental factors, which include +Gz load. Physiological changes evoked by +Gz stimuli have already been well investigated in aviation medicine. However, the influence of +Gz stimulation on executive functions in pilots has not yet been thoroughly explored. There were 20 pilot cadets between the ages of 19 and 22 yr who volunteered to participate in the experiment. The subjects were divided into two groups: the G-load group, which was exposed to accelerations in the centrifuge, and the control group, which did not undergo this stimulation. Executive functions were assessed by means of the Schulte tables and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test. +Gz load exposure significantly improved attention switching. This relationship was valid for performance speed (M = 268.09 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 228.09 s in the posttest in the G-load group) and for the cumulative time of mistakes (M = 26.73 s in the pretest in the G-load group; M = 12 s in the posttest in the G-load group), whereas reproduction of visuospatial stimuli from memory deteriorated significantly under the influence of +Gz stimulation (M = 17.18 points in the posttest in the G-load group; M = 28.18 points in the posttest in the control group). These results suggest that the impact of +Gz load is not homogenous and unidirectional, since it improves attention switching but visuospatial working memory decreases under its influence. These aspects are particularly important for understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining situational awareness during the flight.

  18. Limit load assessment of centre cracked plates under biaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, C.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fitness-for-service of equipment and components containing defects is generally assessed using procedures such as BS 7910, API 579 and R6. There is currently little detailed advice in these procedures on the effects of biaxial and triaxial loading on fracture. This poster shows some theoretical bounding solutions of the plastic limit load for centre cracked plates under a variety of biaxial loading ratios and compares the estimates with those found by numerical methods using finite element (FE) analysis using Abacus CAE modelling software. The limit load of a structure is the maximum load that it can carry before plastic collapse occurs; this is often when the plastic zone has become large enough to spread from the crack tip to a remote boundary. For an elastic-perfectly plastic material, the irreversible deformation will continue at stresses no higher than the yield stress. The model for these limit load solutions is a bi-axially loaded plate of width 2W and height 2H, a centre crack of width 2a, acted on by remotely applied uniform stresses σ 2 perpendicular to the crack and Bσ 2 parallel to the crack, where B is the biaxial loading ratio, it means the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular stress. A quarter plate of an elastic-perfectly plastic material has been modelled. The results show that an exact solution has been found for negative and low positive values of B. For B > 1, the lower bound solution is conservative for all values of a/W and B

  19. Beam loading in high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1974-06-01

    The analysis of beam loading in the RF systems of high-energy storage rings (for example, the PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring) is complicated by the fact that the time, T/sub b/, between the passage of successive bunches is comparable to the cavity filling time, T/sub b/. In this paper, beam loading expressions are first summarized for the usual case in which T/sub b/ /much lt/ T/sub f/. The theory of phase oscillations in the heavily-beam-loaded case is considered, and the dependence of the synchrotron frequency and damping constant for the oscillations on beam current and cavity tuning is calculated. Expressions for beam loading are then derived which are valid for any value of the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/. It is shown that, for the proposed PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring parameters, the klystron power required is increased by about 3% over that calculated using the standard beam loading expressions. Finally, the analysis is extended to take into account the additional losses associated with the excitation of higher-order cavity modes. A rough numerical estimate is made of the loss enhancement to be expected for PEP RF system. It is concluded that this loss enhancement might be substantial unless appropriate measures are taken in the design and tuning of the accelerating structure

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  1. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  2. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  3. Dissociable Roles of Different Types of Working Memory Load in Visual Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Lavie, Nilli

    2013-01-01

    We contrasted the effects of different types of working memory (WM) load on detection. Considering the sensory-recruitment hypothesis of visual short-term memory (VSTM) within load theory (e.g., Lavie, 2010) led us to predict that VSTM load would reduce visual-representation capacity, thus leading to reduced detection sensitivity during maintenance, whereas load on WM cognitive control processes would reduce priority-based control, thus leading to enhanced detection sensitivity for a low-priority stimulus. During the retention interval of a WM task, participants performed a visual-search task while also asked to detect a masked stimulus in the periphery. Loading WM cognitive control processes (with the demand to maintain a random digit order [vs. fixed in conditions of low load]) led to enhanced detection sensitivity. In contrast, loading VSTM (with the demand to maintain the color and positions of six squares [vs. one in conditions of low load]) reduced detection sensitivity, an effect comparable with that found for manipulating perceptual load in the search task. The results confirmed our predictions and established a new functional dissociation between the roles of different types of WM load in the fundamental visual perception process of detection. PMID:23713796

  4. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  5. Fuel rod pellet loading head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    An assembly for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a fuel rod comprising a loading head for feeding pellets into the open end of the rod is described. The pellets rest in a perforated substantially V-shaped seat through which air may be drawn for removal of chips and dust. The rod is held in place in an adjustable notched locator which permits alignment with the pellets

  6. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 μ g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 μ m and 150-250 μ m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  7. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO 2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO 2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  8. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  9. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads

  10. Power Load Prediction Based on Fractal Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Kai, Liang; Cattani, Carlo; Wan-Qing, Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic theories of load forecasting on the power system are summarized. Fractal theory, which is a new algorithm applied to load forecasting, is introduced. Based on the fractal dimension and fractal interpolation function theories, the correlation algorithms are applied to the model of short-term load forecasting. According to the process of load forecasting, the steps of every process are designed, including load data preprocessing, similar day selecting, short-term load forecasting, and...

  11. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF DENTAL IMPLANT SYSTEM IN IMMEDIATE LOADING IMPLANT CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Damayanti Marpaung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immediate loading of dental implant has been researched intensively in the development of Branemark’s early concept of 2 stages implant placement. This was embarked from both patients and practiitioner’s convenience towards a simpler protocol and shorter time frame. Many recent researchers later found that micromotions derived from occlusal loading for a certain degree, instead of resulting a fibrous tissue encapsulation, can enhance the osseointegration process. Dental Implant system enhancement towards maximizing the primary stability held a key factor in Branemark’s concept development. Surgical protocol and implant design was found to give a significant contribution to the prognosis of immediate-loading implants.

  12. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Plate Tearing Under Mixed Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Grau; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Felter, Christian Lotz

    2016-01-01

    the mesh cannot accurately capture the localization process that precedes ductile failure. To fertilize accurate predictions of such sheet tearing, the energy dissipated during localization must, therefore, be accounted for in the cohesive traction-separation law. The fact is that the local thinning...... that takes place in front of an advancing crack can significantly enhance the crack growth resistanceas the energy going into thinning the sheet typically dominates the total fracture energy.This has been investigated in great details for the case of pure Mode I tearing and both the energy dissipation, peak...... stress, and shape of the cohesive traction-separation law have been laid out. In a similar fashion, the present study resolves the sequence of failure details related to steady-state sheet tearing under mixed mode loading by employing the micro-mechanics based Gurson model. But, the fracture process...

  14. Experimental creep behaviour determination of cladding tube materials under multi-axial loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, Catherine; Poquillon, Dominique; Salabura, Jean-Claude; Cloue, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    Cladding tubes are structural parts of nuclear plants, submitted to complex thermomechanical loadings. Thus, it is necessary to know and predict their behaviour to preserve their integrity and to enhance their lifetime. Therefore, a new experimental device has been developed to control the load path under multi-axial load conditions. The apparatus is designed to determine the thermomechanical behaviour of zirconium alloys used for cladding tubes. First results are presented. Creep tests with different biaxial loadings were performed. Results are analysed in terms of thermal expansion and of creep strain. The anisotropy of the material is revealed and iso-creep strain curves are given.

  15. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  16. Pattern fuel assembly loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.J.; Gerkey, K.S.; Miller, T.W.; Wylie, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an interactive system for facilitating preloading of fuel rods into magazines, which comprises: an operator work station adapted for positioning between a supply of fuel rods of predetermined types, and the magazine defining grid locations for a predetermined fuel assembly; display means associated with the work station; scanner means associated with the work station and adapted for reading predetermined information accompanying the fuel rods; a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; prompter/detector means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of a fuel rod into the magazine; and processing means responsive to the scanner means and the sensing means for prompting the operator via the display means to pre-load the fuel rods into desired grid locations in the magazine. An apparatus is described for facilitating pre-loading of fuel rods in predetermined grid locations of a fuel assembly loading magazine, comprising: a rectangular frame adapted for attachment to one end of the fuel assembly loading magazine; and means associated with the frame for detecting insertion of fuel rods into the magazine

  17. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  18. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  19. Equipment improvements for performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaestel, P.; Guesnon, H.; Sauze, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to enhance the reactor availability, several improvements on reactor equipment have been developed: design optimization for stator maintenance replacement in the main alternator; adjustment modification of stator coils in the main alternator for an easier maintenance; improvement of the fuel handling line (pole crane, transfer equipment, loading machine); development of a loose part trapping system in the steam generator secondary circuit. 1 tab

  20. Fifty years of genetic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate

  1. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  2. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3.1 Maximum range selection of input and output variables: ..... Wong K. P., Li A., and Law M.Y., “ Advanced Constrained Genetic Algorithm Load Flow Method”, IEE Proc. ... Dr. Parimal Acharjee passed B.E.E. from North Bengal University ...

  3. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    scattered nature of the area and low load factor. In this ... employment and allow decentralized production of the ... and viable concept from energy production and .... VII Yr. ×. kWh. VIII Yr. ×. kWh. IX Yr. ×. kWh. X Yr. ×. kWh. 1. Residential. 147.

  4. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  5. SPEAR 2 RF SYSTEM LOADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design and performance of higher order mode (HOM) dampers for the SPEAR 2 RF system is presented. The SPEAR beam had experienced occasional periods of instability due to transverse oscillations which were driven by HOMs in the RF cavities. A substantial fraction of this RF energy was coupled out of the cavity into the waveguide connecting the cavity to the klystron. This waveguide was modified by adding a stub of smaller cross section, terminated by a ferrite tile load, to the system. Design considerations of the load, and its effect on HOMs and beam stability will be discussed

  6. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  7. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  8. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system

  9. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders are...

  10. Working memory load can both improve and impair selective attention: evidence from the Navon paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-10-01

    Selective attention to relevant targets has been shown to depend on the availability of working memory (WM). Under conditions of high WM load, processing of irrelevant distractors is enhanced. Here we showed that this detrimental effect of WM load on selective attention efficiency is reversed when the task requires global- rather than local-level processing. Participants were asked to attend to either the local or the global level of a hierarchical Navon stimulus while keeping either a low or a high load in WM. In line with previous findings, during attention to the local level, distractors at the global level produced more interference under high than under low WM load. By contrast, loading WM had the opposite effect of improving selective attention during attention to the global level. The findings demonstrate that the impact of WM load on selective attention is not invariant, but rather is dependent on the level of the to-be-attended information.

  11. Aeroelastic model identification of winglet loads from flight test data

    OpenAIRE

    Reijerkerk, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical computational methods are getting more and more sophisticated every day, enabling more accurate aircraft load predictions. In the structural design of aircraft higher levels of flexibility can be tolerated to arrive at a substantial weight reduction. The result is that aircraft of the future can be bigger, have better performance and less mass. The performance of an aircraft can be even further enhanced by the use of winglets or other wing tip devices. A more flexible structure in c...

  12. Nutrient Loading Fosters Seagrass Productivity Under Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaglioli, Chiara; Lauritano, Chiara; Buia, Maria Cristina; Balestri, Elena; Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Pardi, Giuseppina; Tamburello, Laura; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bulleri, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate change are likely to be dependent on local settings. Nonetheless, the compounded effects of global and regional stressors remain poorly understood. Here, we used CO2 vents to assess how the effects of ocean acidification on the seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, and the associated epiphytic community can be modified by enhanced nutrient loading. P. oceanica at ambient and low pH sites was exposed to three nutrient levels for 16 months. The response of P. oceanica to experime...

  13. TIME LOAD UPON STUDENTS IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time load upon students is a central issue in the context of the overall load placed upon students. Most authors dealing with the issue of load upon students mainly approach this issue from the aspect of the time the students need to respond to the requirements posed by the school and otherwise concerning school. Such load is called time load. In our research, we investigated exactly this kind of time load placed upon students in the nine-year primary education in Macedonia. The main goal of our research was getting insight what is the students’ time load like and how big it is.

  14. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (HRE vs. BFR, respectively. Leg press training loads were 44 +/- 7 kg in HRE compared to 11 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Similarly, calf raise training loads were 81 +/- 11 kg in HRE and 16 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Pre to post-ULLS training adaptations in the unloaded leg are shown in the table. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest when HRE is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle size and strength are preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle endurance. In contrast, when BFR exercise is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle endurance is preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle size and strength

  15. Handling load with less stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Gamarnik, D.

    2006-01-01

    We study how the average performance of a system degrades as the load nears its peak capacity. We restrict our attention to the performance measures of average sojourn time and the large deviation rates of buffer overflow probabilities. We first show that for certain queueing systems, the average

  16. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    75th percentiles. Results and Discussion: As an example, Figure 2 shows the median of the extracted HRE from the frontal channels in scale 5, for...the extracted HRE are able to distinguish the seven task loads better with q closer to 1, as it consistently reveals a decreasing median with

  17. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  18. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    It is important to include the contribution of the slamming-induced response in the structural design of large vessels with a significant bow flare. At the same time it is a challenge to develop rational tools to determine the slamming-induced loads and the prediction of their occurrence. Today i...

  19. Working memory load improves early stages of independent visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Toepel, Ulrike; De Lucia, Marzia; Martuzzi, Roberto; Wood, Stephen J; Carter, Olivia; Murray, Micah M

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that working memory and perceptual processes are dynamically interrelated due to modulating activity in overlapping brain networks. However, the direct influence of working memory on the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of behaviorally relevant intervening information remains unclear. To investigate this issue, subjects performed a visual proximity grid perception task under three different visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) load conditions. VSWM load was manipulated by asking subjects to memorize the spatial locations of 6 or 3 disks. The grid was always presented between the encoding and recognition of the disk pattern. As a baseline condition, grid stimuli were presented without a VSWM context. VSWM load altered both perceptual performance and neural networks active during intervening grid encoding. Participants performed faster and more accurately on a challenging perceptual task under high VSWM load as compared to the low load and the baseline condition. Visual evoked potential (VEP) analyses identified changes in the configuration of the underlying sources in one particular period occurring 160-190 ms post-stimulus onset. Source analyses further showed an occipito-parietal down-regulation concurrent to the increased involvement of temporal and frontal resources in the high VSWM context. Together, these data suggest that cognitive control mechanisms supporting working memory may selectively enhance concurrent visual processing related to an independent goal. More broadly, our findings are in line with theoretical models implicating the engagement of frontal regions in synchronizing and optimizing mnemonic and perceptual resources towards multiple goals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Load-induced modulation of signal transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ventura, Alejandra C; Sontag, Eduardo D; Merajver, Sofia D; Ninfa, Alexander J; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2011-10-11

    Biological signal transduction networks are commonly viewed as circuits that pass along information--in the process amplifying signals, enhancing sensitivity, or performing other signal-processing tasks--to transcriptional and other components. Here, we report on a "reverse-causality" phenomenon, which we call load-induced modulation. Through a combination of analytical and experimental tools, we discovered that signaling was modulated, in a surprising way, by downstream targets that receive the signal and, in doing so, apply what in physics is called a load. Specifically, we found that non-intuitive changes in response dynamics occurred for a covalent modification cycle when load was present. Loading altered the response time of a system, depending on whether the activity of one of the enzymes was maximal and the other was operating at its minimal rate or whether both enzymes were operating at submaximal rates. These two conditions, which we call "limit regime" and "intermediate regime," were associated with increased or decreased response times, respectively. The bandwidth, the range of frequency in which the system can process information, decreased in the presence of load, suggesting that downstream targets participate in establishing a balance between noise-filtering capabilities and a circuit's ability to process high-frequency stimulation. Nodes in a signaling network are not independent relay devices, but rather are modulated by their downstream targets.

  1. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  2. Calculation and mapping of critical loads in Europe: Status report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.J.; Hettelingh, J.P.; De Smet, P.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The work of the RIVM Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) and National Focal Centers (NFCs) for Mapping over the past two years is summarized. The primary task of the critical loads mapping program during this period was to compute and map critical loads of sulphur in Europe. Efforts were undertaken to enhance the scientific foundations and policy relevance of the critical load program, and to foster consensus among producers and users of this information by means of three workshops. The applied calculation methods are described, as well as the resulting critical loads maps, based upon the outcomes of the workshops. Chapter 2 contains the most recent maps (May 1993) of the critical load of acidity as well as the critical load of sulphur and critical sulphur deposition, which are derived from the critical load of acidity. The chapter also contains maps of the sulphur deposition in Europe in 1980 and 1990, and the resulting exceedances. In chapter 3 the methods and equations used to derive the maps of critical loads and exceedances of acidity and sulphur are described with emphasis on the advances in the calculation methods used since the first European critical loads maps were produced in 1991. In chapter 4 the methods to be used to compute and map critical loads in the future are presented. In chapter 5 an overview of the data inputs is given, and the methods of data handling performed by the CCE to produce the current European maps of critical loads. In chapter 6 the results of an uncertainty analysis is described, which was performed on the critical loads computation methodology to assess the reliability of the computation results and the importance of the various input variables. Chapter 7 provides some conclusions and recommendations resulting from the critical load mapping activities. In Appendix 1 the reports of the can be found, with additional maps of critical loads and background variables in Appendix 2. 15 figs., 11 tabs., 156 refs

  3. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  4. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  5. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  6. Peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads in structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, G.R.; Lindberg, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    In presenting the characterization scheme, some general features are described first. A detailed analysis is given for the rigid-plastic system of one degree of freedom to illustrate the calculation of critical load curves in terms of peak load and impulse. This is followed by the presentation of critical load curves for uniformly loaded rigid-plastic beams and plates and for dynamic buckling of cylindrical shells under uniform lateral loads. The peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads is compared with the dynamic load factor characterization, and some aspects of the history of the peak load-pulse scheme are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  8. The Effects of Load Distribution and Gradient on Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    been reported in association with load carriage (Knapik & Reynolds, 1997). This injury causes trauma to the brachial plexus and has occurred in...Reynolds, 1997). Bessen et al., (1987) conducted an examination of 18 soldiers in basic training who suffered from brachial plexus injuries . Fifteen of...heads. Again, the importance of weight distribution on the human body is emphasized. Physical and occupational therapy are the first lines of

  9. Enhanced delivery of biodegradable mPEG-PLGA-PLL ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... effectively down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of PDGF‐BB thanNPs plus US (P=0.014 and P=0.007, respectively). Histology showed no evident tissue damage after UTMDmediatedNPs loading siRNA transfection. UTMD could be used safely to enhance the delivery of mPEG-PLGAPLLNPs loading siRNA ...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  11. Physiologically Distributed Loading Patterns Drive the Formation of Zonally Organized Collagen Structures in Tissue-Engineered Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puetzer, Jennifer L; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    The meniscus is a dense fibrocartilage tissue that withstands the complex loads of the knee via a unique organization of collagen fibers. Attempts to condition engineered menisci with compression or tensile loading alone have failed to reproduce complex structure on the microscale or anatomic scale. Here we show that axial loading of anatomically shaped tissue-engineered meniscus constructs produced spatial distributions of local strain similar to those seen in the meniscus when the knee is loaded at full extension. Such loading drove formation of tissue with large organized collagen fibers, levels of mechanical anisotropy, and compressive moduli that match native tissue. Loading accelerated the development of native-sized and aligned circumferential and radial collagen fibers. These loading patterns contained both tensile and compressive components that enhanced the major biochemical and functional properties of the meniscus, with loading significantly improved glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation 200-250%, collagen accumulation 40-55%, equilibrium modulus 1000-1800%, and tensile moduli 500-1200% (radial and circumferential). Furthermore, this study demonstrates local changes in mechanical environment drive heterogeneous tissue development and organization within individual constructs, highlighting the importance of recapitulating native loading environments. Loaded menisci developed cartilage-like tissue with rounded cells, a dense collagen matrix, and increased GAG accumulation in the more compressively loaded horns, and fibrous collagen-rich tissue in the more tensile loaded outer 2/3, similar to native menisci. Loaded constructs reached a level of organization not seen in any previous engineered menisci and demonstrate great promise as meniscal replacements.

  12. Climate control loads prediction of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ziqi; Li, Wanyong; Zhang, Chengquan; Chen, Jiangping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of vehicle climate control loads is proposed based on experiments. • Main climate control loads of the modeled vehicle are quantitatively analyzed. • Range reductions of the modeled vehicle under different conditions are simulated. - Abstract: A new model of electric vehicle climate control loads is provided in this paper. The mathematical formulations of the major climate control loads are developed, and the coefficients of the formulations are experimentally determined. Then, the detailed climate control loads are analyzed, and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) range reductions due to these loads are calculated under different conditions. It is found that in an electric vehicle, the total climate control loads vary with the vehicle speed, HVAC mode and blower level. The ventilation load is the largest climate control load, followed by the solar radiation load. These two add up to more than 80% of total climate control load in summer. The ventilation load accounts for 70.7–83.9% of total heating load under the winter condition. The climate control loads will cause a 17.2–37.1% reduction of NEDC range in summer, and a 17.1–54.1% reduction in winter, compared to the AC off condition. The heat pump system has an advantage in range extension. A heat pump system with an average heating COP of 1.7 will extend the range by 7.6–21.1% based on the simulation conditions.

  13. Phosphorous loads evaluation from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzanotte, V.

    1996-01-01

    With reference to the well known difficulty of quantifying non point phosphorous loads, as well as to their growing relative importance where point source leads decrease, a literature review has been carried out concerning soil export coefficients. On such basis, the values which seem to be the most appropriate for Italy have been estimated for different land use categories. The main mechanisms determining non point phosphorous load generation and the factors affecting their importance are also described. In the end, criteria for estimating the importance of non point sources in a basin are suggested to be used for deciding whether a traditional, parametric assessment (inevitably involving a certain error) can be acceptable or experimental measures are needed

  14. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...... for handling the non-linear relations and that after applying an auto-regressive noise model the one-step ahead residuals do not contain further significant information....... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  15. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-09-01

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  17. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horáček, Jan; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 046002. ISSN 0029-5515 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : DEMO * power loads * first wall Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fb4

  18. Modelling the pile load test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from experiment.

  19. Modelling the pile load test

    OpenAIRE

    Prekop Ľubomír

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of the load test of horizontal resistance of reinforced concrete piles. The pile belongs to group of piles with reinforced concrete heads. The head is pressed with steel arches of a bridge on motorway D1 Jablonov - Studenec. Pile model was created in ANSYS with several models of foundation having properties found out from geotechnical survey. Finally some crucial results obtained from computer models are presented and compared with these obtained from exper...

  20. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  1. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  2. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  3. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.; Macivergan, R.; Mckenzie, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus incorporating a microprocessor control is provided for automatically loading nuclear fuel pellets into fuel rods commonly used in nuclear reactor cores. The apparatus comprises a split ''v'' trough for assembling segments of fuel pellets in rows and a shuttle to receive the fuel pellets from the split ''v'' trough when the two sides of the split ''v'' trough are opened. The pellets are weighed while in the shuttle, and the shuttle then moves the pellets into alignment with a fuel rod. A guide bushing is provided to assist the transfer of the pellets into the fuel rod. A rod carousel which holds a plurality of fuel rods presents the proper rod to the guide bushing at the appropriate stage in the loading sequence. The bushing advances to engage the fuel rod, and the shuttle advances to engage the guide bushing. The pellets are then loaded into the fuel rod by a motor operated push rod. The guide bushing includes a photocell utilized in conjunction with the push rod to measure the length of the row of fuel pellets inserted in the fuel rod

  4. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  6. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  7. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  8. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  9. Deuterium retention in tungsten under combined high cycle ELM-like heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huber

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions at power densities close to the threshold for damaging. It is shown that blisters are not mainly responsible for the pronounced increase of the D retention.

  10. The concept of target and critical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established? For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs

  11. Application of the robust design concept for fuel loading pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro; Ohori, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Application of the robust design concept for fuel loading pattern design is proposed as a new approach to improve the prediction accuracy of core characteristics. The robust design is a design concept that establishes a resistant (robust) system for perturbations or noises, by properly setting design variables. In order to apply the concept of robust design to fuel loading pattern design, we focus on a theoretical approach based on the higher order perturbation method. This approach indicates that the eigenvalue separation is one of the effective indices to measure the robustness of a designed fuel loading pattern. In order to verify the effectiveness of the eigenvalue separation as an index of robustness, numerical analysis is carried out for typical 3-loop PWR cores, and we evaluated the correlation between the eigenvalue separation and the variation of relative assembly power due to the perturbation of the cross section. The numerical results show that the variation of relative power decreases as the eigenvalue separation increases; thus, it is confirmed that the eigenvalue separation is an effective index of robustness. Based on the eigenvalue separation of a fuel loading pattern, we discuss design guidelines of a fuel loading pattern to improve the robustness. For example, if each fuel assembly has independent uncertainty on its cross section, the robustness of the core can be enhanced by increasing the relative power at the center of the core. The proposed guidelines will be useful to design a loading pattern that has robustness for uncertainties due to cross section, calculation method, and so on. (author)

  12. Cognitive Load Alters Neuronal Processing of Food Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Hensel, Sonja Maria; Sijben, Rik; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-10-31

    Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing. Low- and high-caloric food odors were presented in combination with either low or high cognitive loads utilizing a memory task. The efficacy of the memory task was verified by a decrease in participant recall accuracy and an increase in skin conductance response during high cognitive load. Our behavioral data reveal a diminished perceived intensity for low- but not high-caloric food odors during high cognitive load. For low-caloric food odors, bilateral orbitofrontal (OFC) and piriform cortices (pirC) showed significantly lower activity during high compared with low cognitive load. For high-caloric food odors, a similar effect was established in pirC, but not in OFC. Insula activity correlates with higher intensity ratings found during the low cognitive load condition. We conclude lower activity in pirC and OFC to be responsible for diminished intensity perception, comparable to results in olfactory impaired patients and elderly. Further studies should investigate the influence of olfactory/gustatory intensities on food choices under distraction with special regards to low-caloric food. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Does Tracing Worked Examples Enhance Geometry Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang-Tzu; Ginns, Paul; Bobis, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive load theory seeks to generate novel instructional designs through a focus on human cognitive architecture including a limited working memory; however, the potential for enhancing learning through non-visual or non-auditory working memory channels is yet to be evaluated. This exploratory experiment tested whether explicit instructions to…

  14. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  15. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  16. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  17. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  18. Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.

  19. Predicting Ultimate Loads for Wind Turbine Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P. H.; Pierce, K.; Buhl, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical uncertainty of loads prediction using structural dynamics simulation codes and the requirements for the number and duration of simulations for obtaining robust load estimates

  20. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  1. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  2. Fabrication of interconnected microporous biomaterials with high hydroxyapatite nanoparticle loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Yao Donggang; Zhang Qingwei; Lelkes, Peter I; Zhou, Jack G

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to promote osteogenicity and enhance the mechanical properties of biopolymers. However, incorporating a large amount of HA into a porous biopolymer still remains a challenge. In the present work, a new method was developed to produce interconnected microporous poly(glycolic-co-lactic acid) (PLGA) with high HA nanoparticle loading. First, a ternary blend comprising PLGA/PS (polystyrene)/HA (40/40/20 wt%) was prepared by melt blending under conditions for formation of a co-continuous phase structure. Next, a dynamic annealing stage under small-strain oscillation was applied to the blend to facilitate nanoparticle redistribution. Finally, the PS phase was sacrificially extracted, leaving a porous matrix. The results from different characterizations suggested that the applied small-strain oscillation substantially accelerated the migration of HA nanoparticles during annealing from the PS phase to the PLGA phase; nearly all HA particles were uniformly presented in the PLGA phase after a short period of annealing. After dissolution of the PS phase, a PLGA material with interconnected microporous structure was successfully produced, with a high HA loading above 30 wt%. The mechanisms beneath the experimental observations, particularly on the enhanced particle migration process, were discussed, and strategies for producing highly particle loaded biopolymers with interconnected microporous structures were proposed.

  3. A piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Shao, Shubao; Xu, Minglong; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Under certain application conditions like nanoindentation technology and the mechanical property measurement of soft materials, the elastic deformation of strain-type load sensors affects their displacement measurement accuracy. In this work, a piezoelectric-based infinite stiffness generation method for strain-type load sensors that compensates for this elastic deformation is presented. The piezoelectric material-based deformation compensation method is proposed. An Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH (HBM) Z30A/50N load sensor acts as the foundation of the method presented in this work. The piezoelectric stack is selected based on its size, maximum deformation value, blocking force and stiffness. Then, a clamping and fixing structure is designed to integrate the HBM sensor with the piezoelectric stack. The clamping and fixing structure, piezoelectric stack and HBM load sensor comprise the sensing part of the enhanced load sensor. The load-deformation curve and the voltage-deformation curve of the enhanced load sensor are then investigated experimentally. Because a hysteresis effect exists in the piezoelectric structure, the relationship between the control signal and the deformation value of the piezoelectric material is nonlinear. The hysteresis characteristic in a quasi-static condition is studied and fitted using a quadratic polynomial, and its coefficients are analyzed to enable control signal prediction. Applied arithmetic based on current theory and the fitted data is developed to predict the control signal. Finally, the experimental effects of the proposed method are presented. It is shown that when a quasi-static load is exerted on this enhanced strain-type load sensor, the deformation is reduced and the equivalent stiffness appears to be almost infinite. (paper)

  4. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  5. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  6. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  7. Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies

  8. Stateful load balancing for parallel stream processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan

    2018-01-01

    -objective optimization problem, namely Minimum-Cost-Load-Balance (MCLB). We address MCLB with two approximate algorithms by a certain relaxation of the objectives: (1) a greedy algorithm ELB performs load balancing eagerly but relaxes the objective of load imbalance to a range; and (2) a periodic algorithm CLB aims...

  9. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated by ...

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  11. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  12. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  13. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  14. Aeroelastic tailoring for gust load alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancelot, P.M.G.J.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the equivalent static load method applied to gust response optimisation of an aircraft wing. Through the different optimisation runs, it is assessed that gust load cases can be critical and are difficult to constrain with the sole use of static load cases.

  15. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  16. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  17. Two Stage Secure Dynamic Load Balancing Architecture for SIP Server Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vennila

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol emerged with an aim to enhance the IP network capabilities in terms of complex service provision. SIP server scalability with load balancing has a greater concern due to the dramatic increase in SIP service demand. Load balancing of session method (request/response and security measures optimizes the SIP server to regulate of network traffic in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP. Establishing a honeywall prior to the load balancer significantly reduces SIP traffic and drops inbound malicious load. In this paper, we propose Active Least Call in SIP Server (ALC_Server algorithm fulfills objectives like congestion avoidance, improved response times, throughput, resource utilization, reducing server faults, scalability and protection of SIP call from DoS attacks. From the test bed, the proposed two-tier architecture demonstrates that the ALC_Server method dynamically controls the overload and provides robust security, uniform load distribution for SIP servers.

  18. Characteristic study of high-Tc superconducting maglev under side-loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Wang Jiasu; Liu Wei; Zheng Jun; Lin Qunxu; Pan Siting; Deng Zigang; Ma Guangtong; Wang Suyu

    2009-01-01

    In practical application of High-T c Superconducting (HTS) maglev, slant is an observable defect. It was caused by constantly one side on and off the vehicle by passengers. So far, this phenomenon has not been reported yet. In order to understand its influence on the stability of the HTS maglev, we experimentally studied the dynamic characteristic and slant effect of HTS maglev under center-load and side-load. It was found that load destabilizes the vehicle, and the side-load can obviously slant the vehicle body. In the end, the pre-load method was proposed to enhance the dynamic stability and suppress the slant, which proved to be considerably effective. These results are critical in practical running of HTS maglev

  19. Perceptual load manipulation reveals sensitivity of the face-selective N170 to attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarik N; Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2009-05-27

    It has been controversial whether the face-sensitive N170 is affected by selective attention. We manipulated attention sensu Lavie's perceptual load theory to short (200 ms) presentations of task-irrelevant unfamiliar faces or houses, while participants identified superimposed target letters 'X' versus 'N'. These targets were strings of either six identical (low load) or six different letters (high load). Under low load, we found a prominent face-selective N170 response. Under high load, however, we not only observed a dramatic reduction of the face N170 but also an unexpected enhancement of the house N170, such that face selectivity was almost completely lost. We conclude that the early stages of face processing indexed by the N170 strongly depend on selective attention.

  20. Characteristic study of high-T{sub c} superconducting maglev under side-loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: frank.weiwang@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn; Liu Wei; Zheng Jun; Lin Qunxu; Pan Siting; Deng Zigang; Ma Guangtong; Wang Suyu [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-15

    In practical application of High-T{sub c} Superconducting (HTS) maglev, slant is an observable defect. It was caused by constantly one side on and off the vehicle by passengers. So far, this phenomenon has not been reported yet. In order to understand its influence on the stability of the HTS maglev, we experimentally studied the dynamic characteristic and slant effect of HTS maglev under center-load and side-load. It was found that load destabilizes the vehicle, and the side-load can obviously slant the vehicle body. In the end, the pre-load method was proposed to enhance the dynamic stability and suppress the slant, which proved to be considerably effective. These results are critical in practical running of HTS maglev.

  1. Investigation on the improvement of genetic algorithm for PWR loading pattern search and its benchmark verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianqian; Jiang Xiaofeng; Zhang Shaohong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the age technique, the concepts of relativeness degree and worth function are exploited to improve the performance of genetic algorithm (GA) for PWR loading pattern search. Among them, the age technique endows the algorithm be capable of learning from previous search 'experience' and guides it to do a better search in the vicinity ora local optimal; the introduction of the relativeness degree checks the relativeness of two loading patterns before performing crossover between them, which can significantly reduce the possibility of prematurity of the algorithm; while the application of the worth function makes the algorithm be capable of generating new loading patterns based on the statistics of common features of evaluated good loading patterns. Numerical verification against a loading pattern search benchmark problem ora two-loop reactor demonstrates that the adoption of these techniques is able to significantly enhance the efficiency of the genetic algorithm while improves the quality of the final solution as well. (authors)

  2. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  3. Wind integration in self-regulating electric load distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, Simon; Wang, Dan; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, STN CSC, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce and assess an alternative method of mitigating short-term wind energy production variability through the control of electric loads. In particular, co-located populations of electric vehicles and heat pumps are targeted to provide regulation-based ancillary services, as the inherent operational flexibility and autonomous device-level control strategy associated with these load-types provide an ideal platform to mitigate enhanced variability within the power system. An optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing these grid-side objectives with those typically expected on the demand-side is introduced. End-use digital communication hardware is used to track and control population dynamics through the development of online aggregate load models equivalent to conventional dispatchable generation. The viability of the proposed load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased online regulation reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...... it to be an important alternative to PC....

  5. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1...... per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes....

  6. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  7. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  8. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  9. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  11. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Alexander, E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shoshin, Andrey [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ{sub target} = 2.5–4.0 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, ion energy on surface E{sub ion} = 60 eV, T{sub e} ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m{sup 2}, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m{sup 2}. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  12. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alexander; Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel; Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander; Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Shoshin, Andrey; Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ_t_a_r_g_e_t = 2.5–4.0 × 10"2"1 m"−"2 s"−"1, ion energy on surface E_i_o_n = 60 eV, T_e ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m"2, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m"2. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  13. Lambda-Based Data Processing Architecture for Two-Level Load Forecasting in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gde Dharma Nugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Building energy management systems (BEMS have been intensively used to manage the electricity consumption of residential buildings more efficiently. However, the dynamic behavior of the occupants introduces uncertainty problems that affect the performance of the BEMS. To address this uncertainty problem, the BEMS may implement load forecasting as one of the BEMS modules. Load forecasting utilizes historical load data to compute model predictions for a specific time in the future. Recently, smart meters have been introduced to collect electricity consumption data. Smart meters not only capture aggregation data, but also individual data that is more frequently close to real-time. The processing of both smart meter data types for load forecasting can enhance the performance of the BEMS when confronted with uncertainty problems. The collection of smart meter data can be processed using a batch approach for short-term load forecasting, while the real-time smart meter data can be processed for very short-term load forecasting, which adjusts the short-term load forecasting to adapt to the dynamic behavior of the occupants. This approach requires different data processing techniques for aggregation and individual of smart meter data. In this paper, we propose Lambda-based data processing architecture to process the different types of smart meter data and implement the two-level load forecasting approach, which combines short-term and very short-term load forecasting techniques on top of our proposed data processing architecture. The proposed approach is expected to enhance the BEMS to address the uncertainty problem in order to process data in less time. Our experiment showed that the proposed approaches improved the accuracy by 7% compared to a typical BEMS with only one load forecasting technique, and had the lowest computation time when processing the smart meter data.

  14. Task Performance induced Work Load in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: High workload may lead to increase human errors, compromise quality and safety of care, and reduce the nurses’ quality of working life. The aim of this study is to determine the task-induced workload in nursing. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. All of 214 nurses of one of the educational hospital took part in. After obtaining informed consent from participants, data were collected based on NASA-TLX questionnaire and the desired level assumed less than 50%. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistics and Anova in SPSS software (version 11. 0 at significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that perceived mental pressure for nurses is more than other NASA-TLX subscales (P< .001. Also, the mean perceived workload was more than 50%. However, mean workload score of NASA-TLX showed significant correlation with age (P< .001, work experience (P< .001, shift work (P< .02, and department (P< .001. Conclusion: The results show that effective programs will be required to reduce the work load, and to enhance nurses' performance

  15. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  16. Pollution loads from stormwater overflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the volume of combined effluents outflowing from overflows is not enough to allow a direct evaluation of polluting loads discharged into final receptors; the hypothesis of complete mixing between sewage and stormwater flow, fed in at a pollutant concentration level equal to zero, hasn't proved to be successful. The amount of the outflowing loads largely depends on the contamination of the stormwater runoff before inflow into the drainage system and on sedimentation and resuspension phenomena. This paper reports the main aspects connected with wet and dry atmospheric deposition of pollutants and with paved surface wash-out phenomena. The origin of pollutants flush, due to the resuspension and mass transport of polluting substances stored up in the sewer during draughts, is also described. Attention is drawn to the importance of the behaviour of the different pollutants with respect to the sedimentation phenomena. Reference is made to evaluations conducted on a drainage system for the recovery of a small pre-alpine lake

  17. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  18. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  19. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  20. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…