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Sample records for load-carrying capacity design

  1. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter bearing with tolerance on ball and raceway will lead to safe design. .... The leading manufacturers of bearing SKF (Svenska Kullagerfabriken) and .... of production will affect the various dimensions in the bearing and their housings.

  2. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  3. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  4. On load carrying capacity of frames taking into account finite displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkoaski, A.; Saran, M.

    1981-01-01

    An approximate method that takes into account the influence of finite displacements upon the load carrying capacity of planar unbraced frames is described. It is the iterative procedure where Quadratic Programming is applied for evaluation of subsequent configurations of the frame, whereas Linear Programming serves to find ultimate load factors for each configuration. Numerical tests show that the procedure gives practically acceptable results being at the same time much cheaper than the exact geometrically and physically non-linear incremental analysis. (orig.)

  5. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  6. Influence of time-dependent elastic-plastic material behaviour on the load-carrying capacity of shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present report deals with the influence of time-dependent material behavior on the load-carrying capacity of thin-walled shells of revolution. In the first part various creep-hardening hypotheses as well as the spatial and temporal discretization procedures employed are described. The adaptation of a well-tested finite element method based on ring elements to the treatment of creep problems and several time-integration procedures, in particular the iterative treatment of the coupling between creep and elastic-plastic strains as well as the important aspect of time-step-control are discussed in detail. In the second part several typical shell configurations are analyzed and a comparison with available theoretical and experimental results is made. Finally, the time-dependent load-carrying behavior of torispherical pressure vessel ends subjected to internal and external pressure is investigated and design aids for the determination of creep collapse times are proposed. (orig.) [de

  7. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  8. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC......) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...

  9. Simple Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Multi-Span Folding Bridges based on Floating Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The papers covers simple evaluation of load-carrying capacity of multi-span folding bridges based on floating supports. Combined bridges built in this approach, could be used as a temporary crossing. The methodology of this evaluation is shown graphically on the basis of designed nomograms for two existing bridge structures i.e. MS-54 and DMS-65, mounted on rigid and floating supports. These nomograms facilitate the simple and fast determination of the impact of changing fixed support into floating support with different bridge length spans on the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper also presents the influence of long-term use (enlarging the mounting backlash in the joints of these structures on the carrying capacity of the bridge.[b]Keywords[/b]: building, folding bridges, nomograms, assembly clearances

  10. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  11. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  12. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  13. Evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on compliance and load carry capacity of shaped composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, A. N.; Tatus’, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this paper is analysis of design methods for composite beams and plates with curvilinear fiber trajectories. The novelty of this approach is determined by the fact that traditional composite materials are typically formed using prepregs with rectilinear fibers only. The results application area is associated with design process for shaped composite structure element by using of biomechanical principles. One of the related problems is the evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on stiffness and load carry capacity of shaped composite element with curvilinear fiber trajectories. Equistrong beam with constant cross-section area is considered as example, and it can be produced by unidirectional fiber bunch forming, impregnated with polymer matrix. Effective elastic modulus evaluation methods for structures with curvilinear fiber trajectories are validated. Misorientation angle range (up to 5o) when material with required accuracy can be considered as homogeneous, neglecting fiber misorientation, is determined. It is shown that for the beams with height-to-width ratio small enough it is possible to consider 2D misorientation only.

  14. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  15. An Applied Method for Predicting the Load-Carrying Capacity in Compression of Thin-Wall Composite Structures with Impact Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Pavelko, I.; Varickis, S.; Vagele, A.

    2018-03-01

    The necessity for considering both strength criteria and postbuckling effects in calculating the load-carrying capacity in compression of thin-wall composite structures with impact damage is substantiated. An original applied method ensuring solution of these problems with an accuracy sufficient for practical design tasks is developed. The main advantage of the method is its applicability in terms of computing resources and the set of initial data required. The results of application of the method to solution of the problem of compression of fragments of thin-wall honeycomb panel damaged by impacts of various energies are presented. After a comparison of calculation results with experimental data, a working algorithm for calculating the reduction in the load-carrying capacity of a composite object with impact damage is adopted.

  16. Impact of the thermal effect on the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair for an aviation axial-piston pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng TANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A thermal hydraulic model based on the lumped parameter method is presented to analyze the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair in an aviation axial-piston pump under specified operating conditions. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the thermal hydraulic model. The results illustrate that the squeezing force and thermal wedge bearing force are the main factors that affect the film thickness and load-carrying capacity. At high oil temperature and high load pressure, the film thickness decreases with increasing clamping force due to a combined action of the squeezing bearing force and the thermal wedge bearing force, but the load-carrying capacity will increase. An increase of the film thickness is proven to be beneficial under high shaft rotational speed but especially dangerous as it strongly increases the ripple amplitude of the film thickness, which leads to decreasing the load-carrying capacity. The structural parameters of the slipper can be optimized to achieve desired performance, such as the slipper radius ratio and orifice length diameter ratio. To satisfy the requirement of the load-carrying capacity, the slipper radius ratio should be selected from 1.4 to 1.8, and the orifice length diameter ratio should be selected from 4 to 5. Keywords: Aviation axial piston pump, Fluid lubrication, Load-carrying capacity, Slipper pair, Thermal effect

  17. A New Methodology for Solving Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Load-Carrying Capacity of a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a direct method for obtaining the best found trajectory planning and maximum dynamic load-carrying capacity (DLCC is presented for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF hybrid robot manipulator. A nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem is formulated with four objective functions, namely, travel time, total energy involved in the motion, joint jerks, and joint acceleration. The vector of decision variables is defined by the sequence of the time-interval lengths associated with each two consecutive via-points on the desired trajectory of the 5-DOF robot generalized coordinates. Then this vector of decision variables is computed in order to minimize the cost function (which is the weighted sum of these four objective functions subject to constraints on joint positions, velocities, acceleration, jerks, forces/torques, and payload mass. Two separate approaches are proposed to deal with the trajectory planning problem and the maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF robot manipulator using an evolutionary optimization technique. The adopted evolutionary algorithm is the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. A numerical application is performed for obtaining best found solutions of trajectory planning and maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF hybrid robot manipulator.

  18. Investigation on the fiber based approach to estimate the axial load carrying capacity of the circular concrete filled steel tube (CFST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscesa, B.; Attard, M. M.; Suprobo, P.; Samani, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    External confining devices are often used to enhance the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns. Among the available external confining devices, steel tube is one of the most widely used in construction. However, steel tube has some drawbacks such as local buckling which needs to be considered when estimating the axial load carrying capacity of the concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column. To tackle this problem in design, Eurocode 4 provided guidelines to estimate the effective yield strength of the steel tube material. To study the behavior of CFST column, in this paper, a non-linear analysis using a fiber-based approach was conducted. The use of the fiber-based approach allows the engineers to predict not only the axial load carrying capacity but also the complete load-deformation curve of the CFST columns for a known confining pressure. In the proposed fiber-based approach, an inverse analysis is used to estimate the constant confining pressure similar to design-oriented models. This paper also presents comparisons between the fiber-based approach model with the experimental results and the 3D non-linear finite element analysis.

  19. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  20. Mechanical Design of a Hybrid Leg Exoskeleton to Augment Load-Carrying for Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Miao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative lower extremity exoskeleton, SJTU-EX, is demonstrated in Shanghai JiaoTong University, which mainly aims to help soldiers and workers to support a payload in motion. This paper summarizes the mechanical design of SJTU-EX. Each pseudo-anthropomorphic leg of SJTU-EX has four active joints and two passive joints, and the joint ranges are optimized in consideration of both safety factors and the realization of typical motions. Springs are applied in the leg to eliminate the effect of gravity. The results of dynamic simulations are used to determine the actuated joints and the passive joints. Novel Hy-Mo actuators are introduced for SJTU-EX and the layout of the actuator for Diamond Side 2 is described in detail as a design example.

  1. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M; Heitzer, M [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  2. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... industry or manufacturer's designation for a rim by style or code. Weather side means the surface area of... CFR 1.50) [42 FR 7144, Feb. 7, 1977] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 571...

  3. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of manufacturer's designation for a rim by style or code. Rim width means nominal distance between... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 571.111 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which...

  4. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seungnam; Han, Changsoo; Cho, Ilje

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however...

  5. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however, active joints are necessary to support walking over rough and sloped terrain such as mountains. Thus, an underactuated exoskeleton system was considered: passive joints are applied to the hip and ankle joints, and active joints are applied to the knee joints to exploit the dynamic coupling effect of the link structure and muscular activation patterns when the user is going up and down stairs. A prototype of the exoskeleton system was developed and validated through a simple stair-climbing experiment.

  6. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  7. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  8. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente en acero basado en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity studies of a steel bridge based on structural relia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la confiabilidad estructural, para un Puente en Colombia después de su monitoreo. Los resultados de este trabajo son parte de una nueva metodología para evaluar puentes existentes mediante una colaboración entre Universidad-Empresas-Gobierno Nacional. Este estudio ayuda en la toma de decisiones y en la priorización de tareas de rehabilitación. Este estudio incluyó: caracterización dinámica de las vibraciones naturales del puente; adquisición de datos de fuerzas internas debidas al tráfico por medio de tecnología de LVDT's y Strain Gages; evaluación de las fuerzas actuales comparadas contra los esfuerzos máximos permitidos; modelación estática, dinámica y estructural. Adicionalmente se hizo un estudio de amenaza sísmica y respuesta dinámica del área del puente y nueve (9 diferentes espectros de respuesta fueron obtenidos, cada uno con un periodo de retorno diferente. Se encontró que las torres del puente tienen una probabilidad de falla mayor que la permitida por los códigos. Lo anterior condujo a un reforzamiento inmediato del puente.In this document, seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity analyses are presented for a bridge in Colombia after monitoring by means of reliability of structures. Results of this work are part of a new methodology to evaluate existing bridges carried out though a partnership among University - Private Companies - and Goverment. This study helps in decision making on the priority of rehabilitation tasks. This study included: dynamic characterization of natural vibrations of the bridge; data logging of inner forces due to traffic by using LVDT's and strain gages technology; evaluation of actual forces to be compared to allowed stresses, dynamic and static structural modelling. Also, a seismic hazard and dynamic response of the local area of the bridge was developed and nine (9 different response spectra were obtained, each one varying its return period. It was found that the

  9. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  10. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  11. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model ... Keywords. Slewing bearing; Hertz theory; load distribution; nonlinear connector elements; tolerance. 1. ..... Ngoi B K A, Lim B H and Ang P S 2000 Nexus method for stack analysis of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing problems.

  12. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  13. EVALUATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH FOR UPPER SLABS OF CAISSON FOUNDATION BASED ON LOAD CARRYING MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hisamichi; Tadokoro, Toshiya; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Nishioka, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tadatomo; Maruyama, Osamu

    In upper slabs of caisson foundation, a seismic desi gn is difficult with an incr ease in earthquake load. So we carried out loading tests and FEM analysis for upper slabs of caisson foundation. As a result, we proposed a new design method which takes into co nsideration the effective width on the pull out side based on crack pattern of test specimens, which is not considered in the existing design method. Moreover, we proposed a rational design method based on load carrying mechanism for upper slabs of caisson foundation.

  14. Human Factors Evaluation of the Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The FEA was used in drafting a new user requirements document and initiating the development of a modular load-carrying system which ultimately became known as the Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment (MOLLE...

  15. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  16. Unidirectional variable stiffness hydraulic actuator for load-carrying knee exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and experimental testing of a unidirectional variable stiffness hydraulic actuator for load-carrying knee exoskeleton. The proposed actuator is designed for mimicking the high-efficiency passive behavior of biological knee and providing actively assistance in locomotion. The adjustable passive compliance of exoskeletal knee is achieved through a variable ratio lever mechanism with linear elastic element. A compact customized electrohydraulic system is also designed to accommodate application demands. Preliminary experimental results show the prototype has good performances in terms of stiffness regulation and joint torque control. The actuator is also implemented in an exoskeleton knee joint, resulting in anticipant human-like passive compliance behavior.

  17. Development of heavy load carrying vehicle for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terabayashi, Yasuharu; Oono, Hiroo; Aizu, Takao; Kawaguchi, Kaname; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Hirobe, Tamio; Inagaki, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, in order to carry out sound and stable operation, the routine inspection and regular inspection of machinery and equipment are performed, therefore, the transportation of heavy things is frequently carried out. Especially, the transportation of heavy things over the steps of passages and stairs requires much labor. Therefore, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. and Chubu Plant Service Co., Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a vehicle for transporting heavy components of nuclear power plants. In this research, it was aimed at developing a vehicle which can carry heavy components and get over a step, climb and descend stairs, and run through a narrow passage having many curves as well as running on flat ground. For this purpose, the actual state of the transportation of heavy things was investigated during the regular inspection of a nuclear power station, and on the basis of this results, a prototype vehicle was made and tested. Thereafter, a transporting vehicle of actual scale was made and tested. The investigation of actual state and the examination of the fundamental concept, the design, trial manufacture and verifying test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. A simplified model predicting the weight of the load carrying beam in a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    from 20 to 90 m. In addition, it can be seen that for a blade using glass fibre reinforced polymers, the design is controlled by the deflection and thereby the material stiffness in order to avoid the blade to hit the tower. On the other hand if using aluminium, the design will be controlled...... to predict the weight of the load carrying beam when using glassfibre reinforced polymers, carbon fibre reinforced polymers or an aluminium alloy as the construction material. Thereby, it is found that the weight of a glass fibre wind turbine blade is increased from 0.5 to 33 tons when the blade length grows...... by the fatigue resistance in orderto making the material survive the 100 to 500 million load cycles experience of the windturbine blade throughout the lifetime. The aluminium blade is also found to be considerably heavier compared with the composite blades....

  19. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  20. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which...

  1. Load-carrying capacity of lightly reinforced, prefabricated walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and evaluates the results of a coordinated testing of prefabricated, lightly reinforced walls of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure. The coordinated testing covers all wall productions in Denmark and will therefore provide a representative assessment...

  2. Effect of unbalanced voltage on windings temperature, operational life and load carrying capacity of induction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Street 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper investigates the influence of the CVUF angle on the windings temperature rise and the derating factor of an induction machine supplied with unbalanced voltage. The effect of simultaneous voltage unbalance and harmonics on its operational life is analyzed as well. The results of calculations and experimental investigations are presented for two induction cage machines of rated power 3 and 5.5 kW. (author)

  3. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  4. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la velocidad de propagación de ultrasonidos con un límite de 4.900 m/s. En este caso la clase resistente alcanzada sería FI6/E10/D380

  5. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Load-Carrying Performance of a Wind Turbine Considering the Influence of Assembly Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.

  6. Capacity subscription and its market design impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Solem, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    Capacity Subscription (CS) implies that consumers buy (subscribe to) a certain amount of capacity. Their demand is limited to this capacity when the total power system is short of capacity and the System Operator activates controllable Load Limiting Devices (LLDs). The objective is to maintain system security by avoiding involuntary load shedding. The report describes a market design with CS. As a case study, an analysis is made of the changes in the market design of the Nordic system that would be necessary to implement CS. First the present Nordic market design is described. Focus is on the various market participants, their roles within various time horizons and their interactions. So it is described how CS works, why it works and what is necessary to make it work. Subsequently the necessary changes in the Nordic market structure are described. The major changes are the installation of the LLDs, the establishment of the necessary infrastructure to control the LLDs and the rules governing their control and the establishment of a capacity market. The major rule is that the System Operator announces LLD activation when a shortage situation is expected. In the capacity market generators offer available capacity during system peak conditions, while consumers bid their need for capacity. Market participants are the same as on the spot market, while small consumers buy through retailer. Generators are obliged to offer the capacity sold on the capacity market on the spot market during LLD activation. Failure to do so results in a penalty payment. The report further discusses issues like the need for verification procedures, import and export, generation pooling, the handling of small consumers, reserves and a possible implementation path of CS. With respect to transmission constraints it is argued that market splitting can be a viable option. It is concluded that CS can be a possible solution to maintain generation adequacy, but there are some serious challenges. The

  7. Design of a Quasi-Passive Parallel Leg Exoskeleton to Augment Load Carrying for Walking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valiente, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    .... The exoskeleton structure runs parallel to the legs, transferring payload forces to the ground. In an attempt to make the exoskeleton more efficient, passive hip and ankle springs are employed to store and release energy throughout the gait cycle...

  8. Research on Water Resources Design Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Qin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC is a recently proposed management concept, which aims to support sustainable socio-economic development in a region or basin. However, the calculation of future WRCC is not well considered in most studies, because water resources and the socio-economic development mode for one area or city in the future are quite uncertain. This paper focused on the limits of traditional methods of WRCC and proposed a new concept, water resources design carrying capacity (WRDCC, which incorporated the concept of design. In WRDCC, the population size that the local water resources can support is calculated based on the balance of water supply and water consumption, under the design water supply and design socio-economic development mode. The WRDCC of Chengdu city in China is calculated. Results show that the WRDCC (population size of Chengdu city in development modeI (II, III will be 997 ×104 (770 × 104, 504 × 104 in 2020, and 934 × 104 (759 × 104, 462 × 104 in 2030. Comparing the actual population to the carrying population (WRDCC in 2020 and 2030, a bigger gap will appear, which means there will be more and more pressure on the society-economic sustainable development.

  9. Capacity market design and renewable energy: Performance incentives, qualifying capacity, and demand curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Levin, Todd; Byers, Conleigh

    2018-01-01

    A review of capacity markets in the United States in the context of increasing levels of variable renewable energy finds substantial differences with respect to incentives for operational performance, methods to calculate qualifying capacity for variable renewable energy and energy storage, and demand curves for capacity. The review also reveals large differences in historical capacity market clearing prices. The authors conclude that electricity market design must continue to evolve to achieve cost-effective policies for resource adequacy.

  10. Battery designs with high capacity anode materials and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Han, Yongbong; Deng, Haixia; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2017-10-03

    Improved high energy capacity designs for lithium ion batteries are described that take advantage of the properties of high specific capacity anode active compositions and high specific capacity cathode active compositions. In particular, specific electrode designs provide for achieving very high energy densities. Furthermore, the complex behavior of the active materials is used advantageously in a radical electrode balancing design that significantly reduced wasted electrode capacity in either electrode when cycling under realistic conditions of moderate to high discharge rates and/or over a reduced depth of discharge.

  11. Economics and Design of Capacity Markets for the Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton; Axel Ockenfels

    2012-01-01

    Capacity markets are a means to assure resource adequacy. The need for a capacity market stems from several market failures the most prominent of which is the absence of a robust demand-side. Limited demand response makes market clearing problematic in times of scarcity. We present the economic motivation for a capacity market, present one specific market design that utilizes the best design features from various resource adequacy approaches analyzed in the literature, and we discuss other in...

  12. Electronic Equipment of Self-Actuated Mobile Device for Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janecka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The device dealt in this work is determined namely for carrying invalid persons on various types of stairs or other not flat surfaces. But it can serve also to other purposes.To enable fulfilling all given demands, the design was consulted with other research workers solving the tasks of similar features.Resulting mechanical device, enabling aspects of movement required, is controlled by electronic and microprocessor circuits that obtain the input information from sensitive units investigating the terrain.

  13. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... powerplant design capacity. For the purpose of section 103 of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of... powerplant design capacity. 287.101 Section 287.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE POWERPLANT AND INDUSTRIAL FUEL USE ACT OF...

  14. Biomechanical modeling and load-carrying simulation of lower limb exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanhe; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Gangfeng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces novel modern equipment-a lower extremity exoskeleton, which can implement the mutual complement and the interaction between human intelligence and the robot's mechanical strength. In order to provide a reference for the exoskeleton structure and the drive unit, the human biomechanics were modeled and analyzed by LifeModeler and Adams software to derive each joint kinematic parameter. The control was designed to implement the zero-force interaction between human and exoskeleton. Furthermore, simulations were performed to verify the control and assist effect. In conclusion, the system scheme of lower extremity exoskeleton is demonstrated to be feasible.

  15. Load-carrying capabilities of refractory alloys for space reactor power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    To achieve sufficient thermodynamic efficiency, space nuclear power systems must operate above 1000 0 C. A quantitative evaluation of the existing mechanical properties data for the refractory alloys relevant to space nuclear power systems design lifetimes up to seven years at temperatures up to 1400 0 C is being conducted. The most important properties for space nuclear power systems are long-term high-temperature (>1000 0 C) creep strength and ductility, low-temperature ( 0 C) fracture toughness [including ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, (DBTT)], and ductility at high strain rates; of special concern are the above properties for weldments of refractory alloys, composition, applied stress, test temperature, test environment (e.g., vacuum, lithium), and thermomechanical treatment (TMT) history. Currently being evaluated are, in order of ascending mp, selected alloys of niobium (e.g., Nb-1% Zr, Nb-1% Zr-0.1% C), molybdenum (e.g., Mo-13% Re), tantalum (e.g., ASTAR-811C), and tungsten (e.g., CVD W and W-25% Re). Creep properties of these alloys have been correlated via Larson-Miller, Manson-Hafered, and other empirical parameters; creep equations have been developed from these correlations. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Designs of new plants of high capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges R, Diego A

    1999-01-01

    The Caracas electricity in their desire to lend the best service to the community is doing the necessary projects of generation expansion to fulfill and requirements of demand of next decade in to the metropolitan area. The projects of the new plants of Recifes and El Sitio, have been conceptualized in way of executing the engineering and patterns construction of highest quality and once setting in service, to reach the highest indexes of operative. To reach these goals it is planned to use the most advanced technological designs that are in the market at the moment to world in generation and transmission of power

  17. Mode change design for capacity modulation in reciprocating compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Ju; Kim, Jin Kook; Kim, Jong Bong; Chang, Young June

    2008-01-01

    Due to environmental issues, the development of low energy consumption products has become one of the main topics in the home appliance industry. The energy consumption of a refrigerator depends on the efficiency of its compressor as well as on the refrigerator cycle design, such as the capacity modulation. This study features the design of a novel capacity modulation reciprocating compressor, i.e., two-step capacity modulation (TCM). In a TCM compressor, capacity modulation is achieved by changing the dead volume in the cylinder. Instead of a concentric sleeve, an eccentric sleeve is used to change the dead volume for the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of a motor. For stable capacity modulation, a new latching system with a key, a spring, and an eccentric sleeve is introduced, and the mode change reliability is verified by dynamic analysis

  18. Economics and design of capacity markets for the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramton, Peter [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ockenfels, Axel [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2012-06-15

    Capacity markets are a means to assure resource adequacy. The need for a capacity market stems from several market failures the most prominent of which is the absence of a robust demand-side. Limited demand response makes market clearing problematic in times of scarcity. We present the economic motivation for a capacity market, present one specific market design that utilizes the best design features from various resource adequacy approaches analyzed in the literature, and we discuss other instruments to deal with the problems. We then discuss the suitability of the market for Europe and Germany in particular. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of the possibility of increasing a load - carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIOŁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of increasing the load-carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes by transferring a part of a useful load from the main truss (which transfers directly the load originated from road wheels of the crane carriage on the parallel auxiliary truss by means of increasing rigidity of truss members joining both trusses - was presented in the paper. The verification of a static relief of the main truss by the auxiliary one as a function of rigidity of transverse and skew space trusses was performed. The A. Blum method was used in analytical calculations. The obtained results were verified by means of the ANSYS 12.1 program utilising the finite element method (FEM.

  20. Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.

  1. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  2. Optimization of straight-sided spline design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using different design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown...

  3. Influence of different outdoor design conditions on design cooling load and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktacir, Mehmet Azmi; Bueyuekalaca, Orhan; Bulut, Huesamettin; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor design conditions are important parameters for energy efficiency of buildings. The result of incorrect selection of outdoor design conditions can be dramatic in view of comfort and energy consumption. In this study, the influence of different outdoor design conditions on air conditioning systems is investigated. For this purpose, cooling loads and capacities of air conditioning equipments for a sample building located in Adana, Turkey are calculated using different outdoor design conditions recommended by ASHRAE, the current design data used in Turkey and the daily maximum dry and wet bulb temperatures of July 21st, which is generally accepted as the design day. The cooling coil capacities obtained from the different outdoor design conditions considered in this study are compared with each other. The cost analysis of air conditioning systems is also performed. It is seen that the selection of outdoor design conditions is a very critical step in calculation of the building cooling loads and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage

  5. A unified approach to the analysis and design of elasto-plastic structures with mechanical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Olhoff, Niels; Taylor, John E.

    1990-01-01

    With structural design in mind, a new unified variational model has been developed which represents the mechanics of deformation elasto-plasticity with unilateral contact conditions. For a design problem formulated as maximization of the load carrying capacity of a structure under certain constraints, the unified model allows for a simultaneous analysis and design synthesis for a whole range of mechanical behavior.

  6. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  7. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedaraj, I S Rajay; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B V A

    2014-01-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  8. Biomechanical, Physiological, and Agility Performance of Soldiers Carrying Loads: A Comparison of the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment and a Lightning Packs, LLC, Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-27

    angle, hip angle, and sagittal plane hip moments. In terms of energy harvesting and production during walking, the current weight penalty of carrying...MODULAR LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD CARRYING EQUIPMENT) HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center ATTN...pack type and walking speed at a 0% grade. .......................................................35  vii Table 20: Means (SE) of the mean and

  9. Influence of stochastic geometric imperfections on the load-carrying behaviour of thin-walled structures using constrained random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Fina, M.; Wagner, W.

    2018-04-01

    Since structural engineering requires highly developed and optimized structures, the thickness dependency is one of the most controversially debated topics. This paper deals with stability analysis of lightweight thin structures combined with arbitrary geometrical imperfections. Generally known design guidelines only consider imperfections for simple shapes and loading, whereas for complex structures the lower-bound design philosophy still holds. Herein, uncertainties are considered with an empirical knockdown factor representing a lower bound of existing measurements. To fully understand and predict expected bearable loads, numerical investigations are essential, including geometrical imperfections. These are implemented into a stand-alone program code with a stochastic approach to compute random fields as geometric imperfections that are applied to nodes of the finite element mesh of selected structural examples. The stochastic approach uses the Karhunen-Loève expansion for the random field discretization. For this approach, the so-called correlation length l_c controls the random field in a powerful way. This parameter has a major influence on the buckling shape, and also on the stability load. First, the impact of the correlation length is studied for simple structures. Second, since most structures for engineering devices are more complex and combined structures, these are intensively discussed with the focus on constrained random fields for e.g. flange-web-intersections. Specific constraints for those random fields are pointed out with regard to the finite element model. Further, geometrical imperfections vanish where the structure is supported.

  10. Timetable Design for Urban Rail Line with Capacity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To design an efficient and economical timetable for a heavily congested urban rail corridor, a scheduling model is proposed in this paper. The objective of the proposed model is to find the departure time of trains at the start terminal to minimize the system cost, which includes passenger waiting cost and operating cost. To evaluate the performance of the timetable, a simulation model is developed to simulate the detailed movements of passengers and trains with strict constraints of station and train capacities. It assumes that passengers who arrive early will have more chances to access a station and board a train. The accessing and boarding processes of passengers are all based on a first-come-first-serve basis. When a station is full, passengers unable to access must wait outside until the number of waiting passengers at platform falls below a given value. When a train is full, passengers unable to board must wait at the platform for the next train to arrive. Then, based on the simulation results, a two-stage genetic algorithm is introduced to find the best timetable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method.

  11. Capacity payments in imperfect electricity markets: Need and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a variety of imperfections in wholesale 'energy-only' electricity markets lead to generators earning net revenues that are inadequate to support investment in a least cost portfolio of generating capacity and to satisfy consumer preferences for reliability. Theoretical and numerical examples are used to illustrate the sources of this 'missing money' problem. Improvements in 'energy-only' wholesale electricity markets, especially those that improve pricing when capacity is fully utilized, can reduce the magnitude of the missing money problem. However, these improvements are unlikely to fully ameliorate it. Forward capacity obligations and associated auction mechanisms to determine capacity prices are necessary to restore appropriate wholesale market prices and associated investment incentives to support the optimal portfolio of generating investments. The deficiencies of the original capacity payment mechanisms adopted in the US are discussed and the necessary improvements identified. (author)

  12. Designing capacity-building in e-learning expertise: Challenges and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, J. C.; Peake, S. R.; Hardy, P.

    2008-01-01

    This research study looks at how organizations in developing countries perceive the challenge of building capacity in e-learning expertise. Data was collected on six such organizations, and a range of perceived rationales and constraints were identified. The paper hypothesizes a four-part framework to define the e-learning capacity gaps that these circumstances appear to represent: the 'instructional design capacity gap', the 'production capacity gap', the 'tutorial capacity gap' and the 'com...

  13. Refining teacher design capacity: mathematics teachers' interactions with digital curriculum resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Gueudet, G.; Trouche, L.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to develop enhanced understandings of mathematics teacher design and design capacity when interacting with digital curriculum resources. We argue that digital resources in particular offer incentives and increasing opportunities for mathematics teachers’ design,

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. A base case, reflecting the Fiscal Year 1998 process configuration, is evaluated. Parametric evaluations are also considered, investigating the impact of higher fuel retrieval system productivity and reduced shift operations at the canister storage building on total project duration

  16. Increasing the Capacity of College Counseling through Video Game Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses game design concepts suggested to foster engagement while considering the needs of underserved high school students preparing for the college admission process. The contextual nature of college counseling efforts in urban secondary school settings provides a backdrop for consideration of the manner in which game design and…

  17. Capacity Bounds and Mapping Design for Binary Symmetric Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nasiri Khormuji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity bounds for a three-node binary symmetric relay channel with orthogonal components at the destination are studied. The cut-set upper bound and the rates achievable using decode-and-forward (DF, partial DF and compress-and-forward (CF relaying are first evaluated. Then relaying strategies with finite memory-length are considered. An efficient algorithm for optimizing the relay functions is presented. The Boolean Fourier transform is then employed to unveil the structure of the optimized mappings. Interestingly, the optimized relay functions exhibit a simple structure. Numerical results illustrate that the rates achieved using the optimized low-dimensional functions are either comparable to those achieved by CF or superior to those achieved by DF relaying. In particular, the optimized low-dimensional relaying scheme can improve on DF relaying when the quality of the source-relay link is worse than or comparable to that of other links.

  18. Design and construction of a low cost 50-watt capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design and construction of a stand-by mode 50-Watt Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) as an alternative power supply for electrical and electronic appliances from local materials. The development of this UPS system (a system consisting of battery source, inverter, and switching unit) is to provide ...

  19. Design and validation of a cardiorespiratory capacity test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11.00 months), that were randomly selected from three schools in the southeast of Spain participated in this study. The 10x20m test was designed to evaluate aerobic endurance. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was selected and used for ...

  20. Effect of uncertainties on probabilistic-based design capacity of hydrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yeou-Koung

    2018-02-01

    Hydrosystems engineering designs involve analysis of hydrometric data (e.g., rainfall, floods) and use of hydrologic/hydraulic models, all of which contribute various degrees of uncertainty to the design process. Uncertainties in hydrosystem designs can be generally categorized into aleatory and epistemic types. The former arises from the natural randomness of hydrologic processes whereas the latter are due to knowledge deficiency in model formulation and model parameter specification. This study shows that the presence of epistemic uncertainties induces uncertainty in determining the design capacity. Hence, the designer needs to quantify the uncertainty features of design capacity to determine the capacity with a stipulated performance reliability under the design condition. Using detention basin design as an example, the study illustrates a methodological framework by considering aleatory uncertainty from rainfall and epistemic uncertainties from the runoff coefficient, curve number, and sampling error in design rainfall magnitude. The effects of including different items of uncertainty and performance reliability on the design detention capacity are examined. A numerical example shows that the mean value of the design capacity of the detention basin increases with the design return period and this relation is found to be practically the same regardless of the uncertainty types considered. The standard deviation associated with the design capacity, when subject to epistemic uncertainty, increases with both design frequency and items of epistemic uncertainty involved. It is found that the epistemic uncertainty due to sampling error in rainfall quantiles should not be ignored. Even with a sample size of 80 (relatively large for a hydrologic application) the inclusion of sampling error in rainfall quantiles resulted in a standard deviation about 2.5 times higher than that considering only the uncertainty of the runoff coefficient and curve number. Furthermore, the

  1. Proposal for a market design featuring privatised capacity coverage; Vorschlag fuer ein Marktdesign der privatisierten Leistungsversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, Clemens [EnBW Trading GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    An intensive discussion is currently waging in Germany about the necessity and possible designs of capacity mechanisms. Price-inelastic demand increases the risk of market failure, as does the policy of managing capacity coverage as if it were a public good. By privatising capacity management it becomes possible to solve problems of security of supply by market means. This involves charging the supplier with the ultimate responsibility of providing its customers with just the capacity they need at any given moment in time.

  2. Purex pulse column designs for capacity factor of 3.0 to 3.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, G.L.

    1955-04-12

    This memorandum indicates the Purex-Plant pulse-column and pulse- generator revisions which would be required to assure an instantaneous capacity of 25 tons U/day with a 20% capacity safety margin under Purex HW {number_sign}3 Flowsheet conditions. (The use of the Purex HW {number_sign}4 Flowsheet (6) with the revised columns would be expected to increase the capacity to 29 or 30 tons U/day.) The indicated design changes are recorded here for study and for possible reference if need for increased production capacity should arise. No recommendation for adoption at this time is made.

  3. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure would not attract sufficient investment from conventional generation (e.g., natural gas due to the increased penetration of zero marginal cost renewable generation. As a result, the Alberta government has chosen to transition to a capacity market. For consumers, a capacity market aims to ensure there is sufficient investment in new generation capacity to “keep the lights on” and reduce price swings in the wholesale market. The capacity market will also help the province meet its goals for attracting investors and transitioning away from its dependence on coal-fired electricity generation.However, a switchover is not as simple as it sounds. In an energy-only market, firms are paid solely based on the provision of electricity in hourly wholesale markets. In capacity markets, electricity-generating firms are also paid for providing generation capacity, reflecting the potential to provide electricity at some point in the future. While capacity markets can help ensure there is a reliable supply of electricity, there are several challenges in the implementation of capacity markets. This paper discusses the motivation for the adoption of capacity markets, highlights challenges regulators face when implementing this market design in the context of Alberta, and summarizes the key trade-offs associated with energy-only versus capacity market designs.Relative to an energy-only market, a capacity market is more complex and requires that regulators specify numerous

  4. Rectal temperature responses of donkeys administered with ascorbic acid and subjected to load carrying (packing) during the harmattan season in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Minka, Ndazo Salka

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of 4-h load carrying (packing) on donkeys administered with ascorbic acid (AA) during the harmattan season. Six donkeys administered orally with ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing served as experimental animals, while six others given only distilled water served as control animals. The rectal temperature (RT) of each donkey and dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) of the research pen were recorded at 0600 hours pre-packing; while post-packing, the values were obtained at 1430, 1600 and 1800 hours. The DBT values (ranges) recorded before, during and after packing were 13.7 ± 1.3 °C (11-15 °C), 28.4 ± 1.0 °C (22.7-30.3 °C) and 30.6 ± 3.0 °C (19.8-45 °C), respectively. The highest temperature-humidity index (THI) of 83.4 ± 6.9 was obtained at 1430 hours after packing, and the value decreased to 64.2 ± 5.8 at 1800 hours. The thermal environmental conditions were outside the thermoneutral zone for the donkeys. The RT values recorded immediately after packing did not differ (P > 0.05) in experimental and control donkeys; but at 1600 and 1800 hours, values obtained in control donkeys (38.48 ± 0.12 and 38.12 ± 0.12 °C, respectively) were significantly higher (P donkeys (38.16 ± 0.14 and 37.85 ± 0.14 °C, respectively). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid reduced the rise in RT due to packing and may be of value in the amelioration of adverse effects of heat stress associated with work in donkeys.

  5. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  6. The design of steel string crane with lifting capacity 10 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsurrijal Ramdja

    2007-01-01

    The steel string (sling) used for lift Crane of type of Overhead Travelling Crane, with capacities lifting 10 ton are designed. If compared to other string type, string of steel have some excellence. At this design, election of type of string become primary and the factor of safety become prima facie matter with pursuant to up to date standard. From made of design, is hence got by specification and age of steel string. (author)

  7. DESIGNING CURRICULUM, CAPACITY OF INNOVATION, AND PERFORMANCES: A STUDY ON THE PESANTRENS IN NORTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Syahbuddin Ritonga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Desain Kurikulum, Kemampuan Inovasi dan Performa: Studi Pesantren di Sumatera Utara. There have been many articles and studies on Pesantren that have been published. Unfortunately, Almost all of them discuss about the Pesantren from the perspective of Islam exclusively. This paper tries to offer a new perspective in looking at the Pesantren: as an entity of business. This is a research paper which aims to know how Pesantrens’ performances are influenced by designing curriculum at different levels of capacity of innovation. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, namely frequency, multiple regressions and hierarchical regression. This paper analyzes the influence of designing the curriculum on performances of the Pesantren and the important effects of capacity of innovation on them. This paper reveals that the influence of designing modern Islamic currciculum to the Pesantren’s performances is expected to be varied according to the levels of capacity of innovation at the Pesantren.

  8. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) [Reserved] (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity...

  9. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  10. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression......Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially...

  11. Analytical Study on the Beyond Design Seismic Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugroho, Tino Sawaldi Adi [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Ho-Seok [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The OECD-NEA has organized an international benchmarking program to better understand this critical issue. The benchmark program provides test specimen geometry, test setup, material properties, loading conditions, recorded measures, and observations of the test specimens. The main objective of this research is to assess the beyond design seismic capacity of the reinforced concrete shear walls tested at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment between 1997 and 1998 through participation in the OECD-NEA benchmark program. In this study, assessing the beyond design seismic capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls is performed analytically by comparing numerical results with experimental results. The seismic shear capacity of the reinforced concrete shear wall was predicted reasonably well using ABAQUS program. However, the proper calibration of the concrete material model was necessary for better prediction of the behavior of the reinforced concrete shear walls since the response was influenced significantly by the material constitutive model.

  12. Rubber lining design for grinding mills: influence on economy and capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillson, G

    1979-11-01

    There is a difference in design parameters between steel linings and rubber linings for grinding mills. The basic design parameters for rubber are described and a comparison is made between steel and rubber in different applications. If a rubber lining is correctly designed, it will give at least the same capacity as any other type of lining. A rubber lining can often be made thinner than other types of lining and, in such cases, the increased mill diameter will increase the capacity. What has been said above regarding capacity applies equally to grinding efficiency. The grind can sometimes be changed by altering the lifter height and lifter profile. Rubber linings of the correct quality and design will always give improved lining economy, except for large primary ball mills. We trust that new designs and rubber qualities will change the picture in the future. What is said about lining economy is especially true when taking reduced downtime and maintenance into consideration. The lining must be designed to reduce sliding over the shell, which leads to heavy wear. When used for dry grinding, the adverse effects of temperature must be observed.

  13. Optimal capacity design of LID facility for conserving natural water cycle and its sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O.; Choi, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the 20th century, urbanization has resulted in increased impermeable land surface and reduced infiltration capacity in catchment scale. Especially, when agriculture area or forest area would be developed into urban area, it can cause more runoff in the same climate condition. Such urbanization causes problems such as changes in hydrological cycle and ecosystem disturbance. Various methods have been proposed worldwide to reduce the impact of such urbanization. Among the various strategies, the low-impact development is a development strategy that aims to return to pre-development state by minimizing the change of the hydrological cycle due to urbanization. In this strategy, the infiltration and/or surface storage of stormwater runoff can be increased through the installation of various facilities. In this study, a facility capacity design strategy is proposed to return into the natural water cycle through the installation of various LID facilities. This is accomplished by determining the optimal LID facility design capacity through which flow duration curves remain the same before and after urban development. For this purpose, EPA-SWMM is constructed with a part of Busan Metropolitan City Noksan Industrial Complex as a virtual processing area. Under the various land-use scenarios, the optimum design capacity of various LID facilities capable of retaining the flow duration curve before and after development is determined. In addition, the sensitivity of the optimal design capacity of LID facilities is analyzed according to the design specifications of various LID facilities, the local rainfall characteristics, and the size of the treatment area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (2016000200002) from Public Welfare Technology Development Program funded by Ministry of Environment of Korean government.

  14. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickl, Matthias; Wirl, Franz

    2011-01-01

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: → Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. → Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. → Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. → Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. → Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. → On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  15. Experiments in engagement: Designing public engagement with science and technology for capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Cynthia; Rawlings, Kelly Campbell; de Ridder-Vignone, Kathryn; Sadowski, Jathan; Altamirano Allende, Carlo; Gano, Gretchen; Davies, Sarah R; Guston, David H

    2017-08-01

    Public engagement with science and technology is now widely used in science policy and communication. Touted as a means of enhancing democratic discussion of science and technology, analysis of public engagement with science and technology has shown that it is often weakly tied to scientific governance. In this article, we suggest that the notion of capacity building might be a way of reframing the democratic potential of public engagement with science and technology activities. Drawing on literatures from public policy and administration, we outline how public engagement with science and technology might build citizen capacity, before using the notion of capacity building to develop five principles for the design of public engagement with science and technology. We demonstrate the use of these principles through a discussion of the development and realization of the pilot for a large-scale public engagement with science and technology activity, the Futurescape City Tours, which was carried out in Arizona in 2012.

  16. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  17. Estimation of Cyclic Interstory Drift Capacity of Steel Framed Structures and Future Applications for Seismic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Bojórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions.

  18. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  19. Identifying main factors of capacity fading in lithium ion cells using orthogonal design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Caijuan; Zhang, Yakun; Li, Zhe; Song, Yang; Jin, Ting; Ma, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of seven principal factors on the aging behavior of lithium ion cells is studied. • Orthogonal design of experiments is used to reduce the experiment units. • Capacity fades linearly during the initial 10% capacity fading period. • Statistical methods are used to compare the significance of each principal factor. • A multi-factor statistical model is developed to predict the aging rate of cells. - Abstract: The aging rate under cycling conditions for lithium-ion cells is affected by many factors. Seven principal factors are systematically examined using orthogonal design of experiments, and statistical analysis was used to identify the order of principal factors in terms of strength in causing capacity fade. These seven principal factors are: the charge and discharge currents (i_1, i_2) during the constant current regime, the charge and discharge cut-off voltages (V_1, V_2) and the corresponding durations (t_1, t_2) during the constant voltage regime, and the ambient temperature (T). An orthogonal array with 18 test units was selected for the experiments. The test results show that (1) during the initial 10% capacity fading period, the capacity faded linearly with Wh-throughput for all the test conditions; (2) after the initial period, certain cycling conditions exacerbated aging rates, while the others remain the same. The statistical results show that: (1) except for t_1, the other six principal factors significantly affect the aging rate; (2) the strength of the principal factors was ranked as: i_1 > V_1 > T > t_2 > V_2 > i_2 > t_1. Finally, a multi-factor statistical aging model is developed to predict the aging rate, and the accuracy of the model is validated.

  20. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a... plans, general environmental studies, and strategies and action programs to implement plans, including...

  1. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, N.D.; Kissinger, J.A.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. The authors are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight will to be very close to this target weight

  2. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissinger, J.A.; Rickard, N.D.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. We are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight is expected to be very close to this target weight. 3 refs., 3 figs

  3. Balancing research and organizational capacity building in front-end project design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    is more complex. We identify 11 specific factors influencing front-end project management related to structure, process and relationship, and we theorize about how these factors influence the choice between research and more general capacity development activities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd......, but in order for partnerships to comply with general governance-level recommendations, a better understanding is needed of how specific context-dependent factors influence the development and execution of projects. In this article, we aim to contribute to the understanding of factors influencing the design...... phase of RCB partnerships and examine how they influence the balance between performing collaborative research and developing general organizational capacity. Data collection was based on a survey (n = 25), and individual interviews and focus group discussions with 17 Danish project managers from...

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of concrete containment capacity for beyond design basis internal pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    For beyond design basis internal pressure loading, experimental studies have demonstrated that the most probable failure mode governing the ultimate functional capacity of concrete containments is leak rather than break. Based on leak rates measured in experiments, a prediction formula for leak rate as functions of containment liner size and internal pressure has been postulated. The determination of liner tear is cast in a probabilistic framework. In calculating leakage, particular attention is paid to the evaluation of leakage versus rupture and the loading rates that may be required to leapfrog over a leakage mode. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic supply chain network design with capacity planning and multi-period pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Mahootchi, Masoud; Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a new problem in designing and planning a multi-echelon and multi-product supply chain network over a multi-period horizon in which customer zones have price-sensitive demands. Based on price-demand relationships, a generic method is presented to obtain price levels...... for products and then, a mixed-integer linear programming model is developed. Due to the problem intractability, a simulated annealing algorithm that uses some developed linear relaxation-based heuristics for capacity planning and pricing is presented. Numerical results demonstrate the significance...

  6. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  7. Optimal Spatial Design of Capacity and Quantity of Rainwater Catchment Systems for Urban Flood Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hsu, N.

    2013-12-01

    This study imports Low-Impact Development (LID) technology of rainwater catchment systems into a Storm-Water runoff Management Model (SWMM) to design the spatial capacity and quantity of rain barrel for urban flood mitigation. This study proposes a simulation-optimization model for effectively searching the optimal design. In simulation method, we design a series of regular spatial distributions of capacity and quantity of rainwater catchment facilities, and thus the reduced flooding circumstances using a variety of design forms could be simulated by SWMM. Moreover, we further calculate the net benefit that is equal to subtract facility cost from decreasing inundation loss and the best solution of simulation method would be the initial searching solution of the optimization model. In optimizing method, first we apply the outcome of simulation method and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) for developing a water level simulation model of urban drainage system in order to replace SWMM which the operating is based on a graphical user interface and is hard to combine with optimization model and method. After that we embed the BPNN-based simulation model into the developed optimization model which the objective function is minimizing the negative net benefit. Finally, we establish a tabu search-based algorithm to optimize the planning solution. This study applies the developed method in Zhonghe Dist., Taiwan. Results showed that application of tabu search and BPNN-based simulation model into the optimization model not only can find better solutions than simulation method in 12.75%, but also can resolve the limitations of previous studies. Furthermore, the optimized spatial rain barrel design can reduce 72% of inundation loss according to historical flood events.

  8. Effect of the capacity design of activated carbon cathode on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Wang, Chengyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MCMB with the optimal pre-lithiation capacity as negative electrode in LIC. • The capacity design of cathode affects the electrochemical performance of LIC. • The optimal designed capacity of positive electrode has been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) anode. The effect of AC cathode capacity design on the electrochemical performance of LIC is investigated by the galvanostatic charging-discharging and electrochemical impedance tests. As the designed capacity of AC positive electrode is lower than 50 mAh g −1 , the working potential of negative electrode is always in the low and stable plateau, which is conductive to the sufficient utilization and the working potential stability of positive electrode. When the designed capacity of positive electrode is higher than 50 mAh g −1 , the instability of negative electrode directly causes the reduced utilization and shortened working potential range of the positive electrode, which is responsible for the capacity attenuation and cycle performance deterioration of LIC. The positive electrode capacity design can realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC50 exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 92.3 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 5.5 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention of 97.0 % after 1000 cycles. The power density and cycle performance of LIC can be further improved by reducing the AC positive electrode designed capacity

  9. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  10. Generic market design issues highlighted: prices soar in Alberta as capacity tightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Many Alberta consumers, alarmed by enormous price increases, are asking questions about whether electric sector restructuring in the province has progressed far enough. The average cost of power in Alberta's spot market in October were $70.46 per MWH above the $20-$30 that consumers had paid in recent years. It is widely admitted that the high prices reflect an increasingly tight supply situation in which construction of new capacity has not kept pace with growth in demand. It is a standard case of what happens when the market design focuses on promoting short-term price competition to the detriment of creating compeition in the forward markets. A debate has been produced in Alberta with major power consumers calling for a breakup of the three major generators, and the government suggesting that such intervention would be like returning to the days before competition when government tried to control everything. Competition may not work unless divestiture is revisited. There is a hard time seeing the light at the end of the restructuring tunnel for industrial consumers. Ontario's Market Design Committee struggled with the same issue, believing that an industry composed of many smaller independent generating companies was the only way to achieve lasting and meaningful price competition. The best price protection for consumers is an active and competitive investment market for new capacity, and Alberta should not repeat Ontario's mistake and leave the work until price problems develop

  11. Conceptual design of hydrogen isotopes chromatographic separation system with super large capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Liu Yunnu; Hou Jianping

    2012-01-01

    A super large capacity hydrogen isotopes separation system, including total plan, unit (including making and purification of gas, three-grade chromatographic columns, gas loop and auto-control, and carrier recovery) and experimental scheme, had been designed on the basis of a series of hydrogen-deuterium experiments by temperature programmed de- sorption. The characteristic of the system was that desorption kinetic parameters could be directly calculated from the hydrogen isotope separation desorption spectra information. In other words, the complicated dynamic process of separation could be described by the desorption rate equation, shape parameter and desorption activation energy calculation on the condition of the experimental data and appropriate assumptions (equilibrium and adsorption, uniform surface). In previous work, an experimental series of operation to verify the successive enrichment of D 2 from a H 2 -D 2 mixture, the production of the deuterium from natural hydrogen and the recovery of tritium such as from the nuclear heavy-water were carried out using MS5A at 77 K. This work was only conceptual design, so it was necessary to identify the availability of super large capacity system by experiment. (authors)

  12. Pumping Drainage Well Layout and Optimum Capacity Design to Lower Groundwater Table in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shourian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High groundwater levels in urban areas pose major problems in construction and mining projects. A typical and effective solution in these situations is to dig drainage wells to lower the water table to the desired level through an appropriate pumping strategy. Although the method is efficient, the operating costs are relatively high and it is, therefore, of great importance to optimize the groundwater pumping system to save costs. In this paper, a simulation-based optimization approach is exploited to minimize the total costs through optimizing the layout and capacity of pumping wells. For this purpose, MODFLOW, the groundwater simulation software, is used to investigate aquifer behavior under pumping wells and the well-known Firefly Optimization Algorithm is exploited to find the optimal well layout and capacity. The proposed FOA-MODFLOW model is tested on the small urban ancient Grand Mosque region in Kerman City, southeast of Iran, to minimize the cost of the draining project. Experimental results indicate that the proposed cost-effective design noticeably outperforms the one proposed by the consulting engineers in terms of both the number of drilled wells and the associated pumping costs. The optimal strategy observes the constraints and demands by constructing only two wells with a total pumping rate of 5503 m3/day and a water table drawdown of more than 1.5 m provided the ground subsidence is within the allowable limit of less than 80 mm. Additionally, examination of the values obtained for the various design parameters shows that the proposed strategy is the best and its sensitivity to maximum permissible water level and pumping rates is highest as compared with other similar designs.

  13. Optimal Spatial Design of Capacity and Quantity of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Urban Flood Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS into a stormwater runoff management model (SWMM for the spatial design of capacities and quantities of rain barrel for urban flood mitigation. A simulation-optimization model is proposed for effectively identifying the optimal design. First of all, we particularly classified the characteristic zonal subregions for spatial design by using fuzzy C-means clustering with the investigated data of urban roof, land use and drainage system. In the simulation method, a series of regular spatial arrangements specification are designed by using statistical quartiles analysis for rooftop area and rainfall frequency analysis; accordingly, the corresponding reduced flooding circumstances can be simulated by SWMM. Moreover, the most effective solution for the simulation method is identified from the calculated net benefit, which is equivalent to the subtraction of the facility cost from the decreased inundation loss. It serves as the initially identified solution for the optimization model. In the optimization method, backpropagation neural network (BPNN are first applied for developing a water level simulation model of urban drainage systems to substitute for SWMM to conform to newly considered interdisciplinary multi-objective optimization model, and a tabu search-based algorithm is used with the embedded BPNN-based SWMM to optimize the planning solution. The developed method is applied to the Zhong-He District, Taiwan. Results demonstrate that the application of tabu search and the BPNN-based simulation model into the optimization model can effectively, accurately and fast search optimal design considering economic net benefit. Furthermore, the optimized spatial rain barrel design could reduce 72% of inundation losses according to the simulated flood events.

  14. Investigation of structure and characteristics of soil for foundation design of gamma irradiators capacity 2 MCi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh Prayogo; Hasriyasti Saptowati

    2016-01-01

    Soil investigation conducted before the work of irradiator building structural foundation design is initiated. Intake of sample was set at some point drill at Irradiator facility site to the disturbed soil layer or not disturbed. From the results of this soil investigation will be selected as alternative / types, the depth and dimensions of the foundation of the most economical but still safe. Soil investigation method used was Deep Boring, undisturbed and disturbed sampling, SPT ( Standard Penetration Test ), CPT ( Cone Penetration Test / Sondir ). Testing conducted in the field and in the laboratory of soil mechanics to determine the mechanical properties, soil layer thickness and other physical properties for calculation of the bearing capacity of the foundation. The results of the soil investigation at the three-point drill showed the average depth of the bedrock -19.33 m and adhesion 3163.88 kg / cm’. Test boring at point BH1 found the depth of the bedrock -19.33 m and adhesion 3163.88 kg / cm’. Test boring at point BH1 found the bedrock at a depth of 32 m with a maximum SPT value 16. from the data can be determined the appropriate type of foundation is bored pile. The foundation is the upper structure support which can lead to a reduction / settlement if its bearing capacity is not able to withstand the load on it. (author)

  15. HPP Boshkov Most - upgrading of the design installed capacity from 45 MW to 70 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavleski, Vlatko; Jakimova Filipovska, Nevenka; Ivanova-Davidovicj, Jasna

    2007-01-01

    HPP Boshkov Most location will be near the town of Debar, accessible from Mavrovo-Debar road. This procject involves the tributaries that combine to make up the Mala Reka, the biggest tributary to Radika river. The watershed area is characterized as having high mountains and rich watercourses, without major settlements. The hydro system consists of: The Tresonche reservoir with 44 m high dam, with an intake to head race tunnel, also additional intakes linked by a system siphons, covered channels collect the waters from high mountains and deliver their flow to the head race tunnel. The head race tunnel ends with surge shaft and penstocks to the powerhouse. In this paper will be given differences between the Main Design prepared by HEP - Skopje in 1983, where the installed capacity is 45 MW and feasibility Study prepared by Pall C. Rizzo Ass., where installed capacity is suggested to be 70 MW, thru enlarged nominal discharge - from 14 m 3 /s to 22 m 3 /s. (Author)

  16. The impact of electricity market design upon investment under uncertainty: The effectiveness of capacity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Laurens de; Heijnen, Petra

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of different market designs under uncertainty about the future growth rate of demand. Markets for electricity generation appear to be prone to an investment cycle due to their capital-intensiveness and the long lead time of new generation facilities. We tested the stability of different capacity mechanisms in the presence of uncertainty regarding the demand growth rate with a stochastic dynamic model. Investment decisions were assumed to maximize profit, based on an assumed growth rate of demand that was equal to the rolling average of the previous five years. All capacity mechanisms proved effective in reducing the tendency towards an investment cycle, but to different degrees. Interestingly, an oligopoly that is able to raise average prices by 10% would also be able to substantially reduce price volatility and decrease the risk of shortages by increasing the reserve margin. Benefits of such a strategy for the generating companies could be that it would deter new market entrants and stave off the political attention that shortages and price spikes would bring about. However, the benefits to consumers are compromised by the lack of economic efficiency and distributional effects of an oligopoly, while the stability of such an oligopolistic strategy can be questioned. The most attractive solution is a system of reliability contracts, which can be used to stabilize both investment and prices, while reducing market power and providing more efficient operational incentives to generating companies. (author)

  17. HPP Boshkov Most - upgrading the designed installed capacity from 45 MW to 70 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavleski, Vlatko; Jakimova-Filipovska, Nevenka; Ivanova-Davidovikj, Jasna

    2004-01-01

    HPP Boskov Most location will be near the town of Debar, accessible from the Mavrovo-Debar road. This Project involves the tributaries that combine to make tip the Mala Reka, the biggest tributary to Radika river. The watershed area is characterized as having high mountains and rich watercourses, without major settlements. The hydro system consists of: The Tresonce Reservoir with 44 m high dam, with an intake to a head race tunnel, also additional intakes linked by a system of siphons, covered channels collect the waters from high mountains and deliver their flow to the head- race tunnel. The head race tunnel ends with surge shaft and pen stock to the powerhouse. In this paper will be given differences between the Main Design prepared by HEP - Skopje in 1983, where the installed capacity is 45 MW and Feasibility Study prepared by Paul C. Rizzo Ass., where installed capacity is suggested to be 70 MW through enlarged nominal discharge - from 14 m 3 /s to 22 m 3 /s. (Author)

  18. Strengthening Africa's capacity to design and implement strategies for food and nutrition security

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie; Temu, Andrew; Hendriks, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    "Among the capacity-strengthening challenges the region faces are inadequate in-country capacity, institutional weaknesses, lack of multidisciplinary approaches to problem solving, expatriates' limited incountry experience, poor governance, and failure to monitor the sustainability of development efforts and to plan for future capacity generation....The current gaps in capacity are known, but as political, environmental, technical, and social contexts change, new needs will arise. Therefore, ...

  19. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central Africa schools of public health: enhancing capacity to design and implement teaching programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of health systems research (HSR) in informing and guiding national programs and policies has been increasingly recognized. Yet, many universities in sub-Saharan African countries have relatively limited capacity to teach HSR. Seven schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa undertook an HSR institutional capacity assessment, which included a review of current HSR teaching programs. This study determines the extent to which SPHs are engaged in teaching HSR-relevant courses and assessing their capacities to effectively design and implement HSR curricula whose graduates are equipped to address HSR needs while helping to strengthen public health policy. Methods This study used a cross-sectional study design employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. An organizational profile tool was administered to senior staff across the seven SPHs to assess existing teaching programs. A self-assessment tool included nine questions relevant to teaching capacity for HSR curricula. The analysis triangulates the data, with reflections on the responses from within and across the seven SPHs. Proportions and average of values from the Likert scale are compared to determine strengths and weaknesses, while themes relevant to the objectives are identified and clustered to elicit in-depth interpretation. Results None of the SPHs offer an HSR-specific degree program; however, all seven offer courses in the Master of Public Health (MPH) degree that are relevant to HSR. The general MPH curricula partially embrace principles of competency-based education. Different strengths in curricula design and staff interest in HSR at each SPH were exhibited but a number of common constraints were identified, including out-of-date curricula, face-to-face delivery approaches, inadequate staff competencies, and limited access to materials. Opportunities to align health system priorities to teaching programs include existing networks. Conclusions Each SPH has key

  20. Analytical and experimental evaluation of the capacity of the bottom rail in partially anchored timber shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Källsner, Bo; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Vessby, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed plastic design methods for light-frame timber shear walls that can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity when the shear walls are partially anchored. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints. Since the forces in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail will be subjected to cross...

  1. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  2. Seismic capacity of a reinforced concrete frame structure without seismic detailing and limited ductility seismic design in moderate seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Kim, I. H.

    1999-01-01

    A four-story reinforced concrete frame building model is designed for the gravity loads only. Static nonlinear pushover analyses are performed in two orthogonal horizontal directions. The overall capacity curves are converted into ADRS spectra and compared with demand spectra. At several points the deformed shape, moment and shear distribution are calculated. Based on these results limited ductility seismic design concept is proposed as an alternative seismic design approach in moderate seismicity resign

  3. Evaluation of burnup credit for accommodating PWR spent nuclear fuel in high-capacity cask designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the amount of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current U.S. inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies. A prototypic 32-assembly cask and the current regulatory guidance were used as bases for this evaluation. By comparing actual pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) discharge data (i.e., fuel burnup and initial enrichment specifications for fuel assemblies discharged from U.S. PWRs) with actinide-only-based loading curves, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of SNF assemblies in high-capacity storage and transportation casks. The impact of varying selected calculational assumptions is also investigated, and considerable improvement in effectiveness is shown with the inclusion of the principal fission products (FPs) and minor actinides and the use of a bounding best-estimate approach for isotopic validation. Given sufficient data for validation, the most significant component that would improve accuracy, and subsequently enhance the utilization of burnup credit, is the inclusion of FPs. (author)

  4. Optimal design of mixed-media packet-switching networks - Routing and capacity assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, D.; Kuo, F. F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a mixed-media packet-switched computer communication network which consists of a low-delay terrestrial store-and-forward subnet combined with a low-cost high-bandwidth satellite subnet. We show how to route traffic via ground and/or satellite links by means of static, deterministic procedures and assign capacities to channels subject to a given linear cost such that the network average delay is minimized. Two operational schemes for this network model are investigated: one is a scheme in which the satellite channel is used as a slotted ALOHA channel; the other is a new multiaccess scheme we propose in which whenever a channel collision occurs, retransmission of the involved packets will route through ground links to their destinations. The performance of both schemes is evaluated and compared in terms of cost and average packet delay tradeoffs for some examples. The results offer guidelines for the design and optimal utilization of mixed-media networks.

  5. Designing Capacity-Building in E-Learning Expertise: Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aczel, J. C.; Peake, S. R.; Hardy, P.

    2008-01-01

    This research study looks at how organizations in developing countries perceive the challenge of building capacity in e-learning expertise. Data was collected on six such organizations, and a range of perceived rationales and constraints were identified. The paper hypothesizes a four-part framework to define the e-learning capacity gaps that these…

  6. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE EVENT OF THE PRE-SET RELIABILITY, REGULAR LOAD AND BEARING CAPACITY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and adequate description of external influences and of the bearing capacity of the structural material requires the employment of the probability theory methods. In this regard, the characteristic that describes the probability of failure-free operation is required. The characteristic of reliability means that the maximum stress caused by the action of the load will not exceed the bearing capacity. In this paper, the author presents a solution to the problem of calculation of structures, namely, the identification of reliability of pre-set design parameters, in particular, cross-sectional dimensions. If the load distribution pattern is available, employment of the regularities of distributed functions make it possible to find the pattern of distribution of maximum stresses over the structure. Similarly, we can proceed to the design of structures of pre-set rigidity, reliability and stability in the case of regular load distribution. We consider the element of design (a monolithic concrete slab, maximum stress S which depends linearly on load q. Within a pre-set period of time, the probability will not exceed the values according to the Poisson law. The analysis demonstrates that the variability of the bearing capacity produces a stronger effect on relative sizes of cross sections of a slab than the variability of loads. It is therefore particularly important to reduce the coefficient of variation of the load capacity. One of the methods contemplates the truncation of the bearing capacity distribution by pre-culling the construction material.

  7. Physiological, Biomechanical, and Maximal Performance Comparisons of Female Soldiers Carrying Loads Using Prototype U.S. Marine Corps Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) with Interceptor Body Armor and U.S. Army All-Purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment (ALICE) with PASGT Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harman, Everett

    1999-01-01

    The experiment evaluated the physiological, biomechanical, and maximal performance responses of 12 female soldiers carrying loads with prototype Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment with Interceptor body armor (MOLLE...

  8. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  9. The Intelcities Community of Practice: The Capacity-Building, Co-Design, Evaluation, and Monitoring of E-Government Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Mark; Lombardi, Patrizia; Cooper, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the IntelCities Community of Practice (CoP) supporting the development of the organization's capacity-building, co-design, monitoring, and evaluation of e-government services. It begins by outlining the IntelCities CoP and goes on to set out the integrated model of electronically enhanced government (e-government) services…

  10. Pedagogical Design Capacity and Underlying Knowledge Base of Curriculum Materials Use of a Hong Kong English Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Using "pedagogical design capacity" ("PDC") as the conceptual framework, this single-case study examines how an English teacher in Hong Kong perceives and mobilizes curriculum materials to teach reading comprehension to secondary one students in two stages of implementation. Relying on data collected from semi-structured…

  11. LRFD software for design and actual ultimate capacity of confined rectangular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of concrete columns using unconfined concrete models is a well established practice. On the : other hand, prediction of the actual ultimate capacity of confined concrete columns requires specialized nonlinear : analysis. Modern codes and...

  12. Capacity Market Design: Motivation and Challenges in Alberta’s Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    David Brown

    2018-01-01

    Alberta’s electricity market is currently undergoing a period of substantial transition. The province should proceed with caution as it switches from an energy-only electricity market to a capacity market by 2021. Many other jurisdictions have already made the changeover and Alberta can learn from their experiences in order to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls that can arise with the deployment of a capacity market.There were growing concerns that the existing electricity market structure wo...

  13. Eigenstructures of MIMO Fading Channel Correlation Matrices and Optimum Linear Precoding Designs for Maximum Ergodic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Bahrami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ergodic capacity of MIMO frequency-flat and -selective channels depends greatly on the eigenvalue distribution of spatial correlation matrices. Knowing the eigenstructure of correlation matrices at the transmitter is very important to enhance the capacity of the system. This fact becomes of great importance in MIMO wireless systems where because of the fast changing nature of the underlying channel, full channel knowledge is difficult to obtain at the transmitter. In this paper, we first investigate the effect of eigenvalues distribution of spatial correlation matrices on the capacity of frequency-flat and -selective channels. Next, we introduce a practical scheme known as linear precoding that can enhance the ergodic capacity of the channel by changing the eigenstructure of the channel by applying a linear transformation. We derive the structures of precoders using eigenvalue decomposition and linear algebra techniques in both cases and show their similarities from an algebraic point of view. Simulations show the ability of this technique to change the eigenstructure of the channel, and hence enhance the ergodic capacity considerably.

  14. Army Solid State Laser Program: Design, Operation, and Mission Analysis for a Heat-Capacity Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, C B; Flath, L; Rotter, M; Fochs, S; Brase, J; Bretney, K

    2001-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have held great promise for the generation of high-average-power, high-quality output beams for a number of decades. However, the inherent difficulty of scaling the active solid-state gain media while continuing to provide efficient cooling has limited demonstrated powers to 10X the diffraction limit. Challenges posed by optical distortions and depolarization arising from internal temperature gradients in the gain medium of a continuously cooled system are only increased for laser designs that would attempt to deliver the high average power in the form of high energy pulses (>25J) from a single coherent optical aperture. Although demonstrated phase-locking of multiple laser apertures may hold significant promise for the future scaling of solid-state laser systems,1 the continuing need for additional technical development and innovation coupled with the anticipated complexity of these systems effectively limits this approach for near-term multi-kW laser operation outside of a laboratory setting. We have developed and demonstrated a new operational mode for solid-state laser systems in which the cooling of the gain medium is separated in time from the lasing cycle. In ''heat-capacity'' operation, no cooling takes place during lasing. The gain medium is pumped very uniformly and the waste heat from the excitation process is stored in the solid-state gain medium. By depositing the heat on time scales that are short compared to thermal diffusion across the optical aperture, very high average power operation is possible while maintaining low optical distortions. After a lasing cycle, aggressive cooling can then take place in the absence of lasing, limited only by the fracture limit of the solid-state medium. This mode of operation is ideally suited for applications that require 1-30s engagements at very high average power. If necessary, multiple laser apertures can provide continuous operation. Land Combat mission analysis of a stressing air defense

  15. Regulatory Design of Capacity Remuneration Mechanisms in Regional and Low-Carbon Electric Power Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastropietro, P.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity remuneration mechanisms (CRMs) are “climbing” regulatory agendas in all liberalised power sectors, especially in the European Union. CRMs are introduced to improve system reliability and to minimise power shortages to an economically efficient extent. These schemes will have a central role

  16. How Do Layered Airspace Design Parameters Affect Airspace Capacity and Safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, E.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Ellerbroek, J.; Bussink, F; Vidosavljevic, A; Delhaye, D.; Nieuwenhuisen, D

    2016-01-01

    Airspace structure can be used as a procedural mechanism for a priori separation and organization of en-route air traffic. Although many studies have explored novel structuring methods to increase en-route airspace capacity, the relationship between the level of structuring of traffic and airspace

  17. A study on the characteristics of the decay heat removal capacity for a large thermal rated LMR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, J. H.; Kim, E. K.; Kim, S. O.

    2003-01-01

    The design characteristics and the decay heat removal capacity according to the type of DHR (Decay Heat Removal) system in LMR are quantitatively analyzed, and the general relationship between the rated core thermal power and decay heat removal capacity is created in this study. Based on these analyses results, a feasibility of designing a larger thermal rating KALIMER plant is investigated in view of decay heat removal capacity, and DRC (Direct Reactor Cooling) type DHR system which rejects heat from the reactor pool to air is proper to satisfy the decay heat removal capacity for a large thermal rating plant above 1,000 MWth. Some defects, however, including the heat loss under normal plant operation and the lack of reliance associated with system operation should be resolved in order to adopt the total passive concept. Therefore, the new concept of DHR system for a larger thermal rating KALIMER design, named as PDRC (passive decay heat removal circuit), is established in this study. In the newly established concept of PDRC, the Na-Na heat exchanger is located above the sodium cold pool and is prevented from the direct sodium contact during normal operation. This total passive feature has the superiority in the aspect of the minimizing the normal heat loss and the increasing the operation reliance of DHR system by removing either any operator action or any external operation signal associated with system operation. From this study, it is confirmed that the new concept of PDRC is useful to the designing of a large thermal rating power plant of KALIMER-600 in view of decay heat removal capability

  18. Design of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhoubin; Cui, Wenqi; Shen, Ran; Hu, Yishuang; Wu, Hui; Ye, Chengjin

    2018-02-01

    Variability and Uncertainties caused by renewable energy sources have called for large amount of balancing services. Demand side resources (DSRs) can be a good alternative of traditional generating units to provide balancing service. In the areas where the electricity market has not been fully established, e.g., China, DSRs can help balance the power system with incentive-based demand response programs. However, there is a lack of information about the interruption cost of consumers in these areas, making it hard to determine the rational amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for the participants of demand response programs. This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs when there lacks the information about interruption cost. Available statistical information of interruption cost in referenced areas is selected as the referenced data. Interruption cost of the targeted area is converted from the referenced area by product per electricity consumption. On this basis, capacity incentive and energy compensation are obtained to minimize the payment to consumers. Moreover, the loss of consumers is guaranteed to be covered by the revenue they earned from load serving entities.

  19. Electricity market design in the context of the energy turnaround. The role of capacity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This publication starts out by presenting the fundamentals of the liberalised electricity market and goes on to focus on price formation in the electricity wholesale market. After this it investigates the degree to which lacking willingness to invest in conventional production technologies poses a danger to long-term security of supply. The main task undertaken in this study has been to present and analyse various capacity mechanisms that could act as incentives, reviving the willingness to invest. The study closes with a summarising conclusion.

  20. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  1. Examining pre-service science teachers' developing pedagogical design capacity for planning and supporting task-based classroom discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Danielle Kristina

    Teachers face many challenges as we move forward into the age of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, Inc., 2013). The NGSS aim to develop a population of scientifically literate and talented students who can participate in the "innovation-driven economy" (p. 1). In order to meet these goals, teachers must provide students with opportunities to engage in science and engineering practices (SEPs) and learn core ideas of these disciplines. This study followed pre-service secondary science teachers as they participated in a secondary science teacher preparation program intended to support the development of their pedagogical design capacity (Brown, 2009) related to planning and supporting whole-class taskbased discussions. Teacher educators in this program designed an intervention that aimed in supporting this development. This study examined a particular dimension of PDC -- specifically, PSTs effective use of resources to plan science lessons in which students engage in a high demand task, participate in SEPs, and discuss their work in a whole-class setting. In order to examine the effectiveness of the intervention, I had to define PDC a priori. I measured PDC by documenting how/whether PSTs engaged in the following instructional planning practices: developing Learning Goals, selecting and/or designing challenging tasks, anticipating student thinking, planning for monitoring student thinking, imagining the discussion storyline, planning questions, and planning marking strategies. Analyses showed a significant difference between baseline lesson plan scores and Instructional Performance scores. These findings suggest these patterns and changes were directly linked to the teacher preparation program. The mean increase in Instructional Performance scores during the course of the teacher preparation year further supports the effect of the teacher preparation coursework. Pre-service teachers with high pedagogical design capacity continually integrated the

  2. Designing Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids as high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lu; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    A novel Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids was prepared by the co-assembly of phenol-formaldehyde resin, SiO 2 and Si nanoparticles, followed by a carbonizing process and subsequent removal of SiO 2 template. Si nanoparticle was coated with a layer of porous carbon shell with rationally designed void in between which provides the accommodating space for the volume change of Si over cycling. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited good electrochemical performances as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, showing a stable reversible capacity of 980 mAh g −1 over 80 cycles with small capacity fade of 0.17%/cycle and high rate capability (721 mAh g −1 at 2000 mA g −1 )

  3. Review of ultimate pressure capacity test of containment structure and scale model design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This study was performed to obtain the basic knowledge of the scaled model test through the review of experimental studies conducted in foreign countries. The results of this study will be used for the wall segment test planed in next year. It was concluded from the previous studies that the larger the model, the greater the trust of the community in the obtained results. It is recommended that a scale model 1/4 - 1/6 be suitable considering the characteristics of concrete, reinforcement, liner and tendon. Such a large scale model test require large amounts of time and budget. Because of these reasons, it is concluded that the containment wall segment test with analytical studies is efficient for the verification of the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structures. 57 refs., 46 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  4. Integrated System Design: Promoting the Capacity of Sociotechnical Systems for Adaptation through Extensions of Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naikar, Neelam; Elix, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrated system design, which has the intent of facilitating high levels of effectiveness in sociotechnical systems by promoting their capacity for adaptation. Building on earlier ideas and empirical observations, this approach recognizes that to create adaptive systems it is necessary to integrate the design of all of the system elements, including the interfaces, teams, training, and automation, such that workers are supported in adapting their behavior as well as their structure, or organization, in a coherent manner. Current approaches for work analysis and design are limited in regard to this fundamental objective, especially in cases when workers are confronted with unforeseen events. A suitable starting point is offered by cognitive work analysis (CWA), but while this framework can support actors in adapting their behavior, it does not necessarily accommodate adaptations in their structure. Moreover, associated design approaches generally focus on individual system elements, and those that consider multiple elements appear limited in their ability to facilitate integration, especially in the manner intended here. The proposed approach puts forward the set of possibilities for work organization in a system as the central mechanism for binding the design of its various elements, so that actors can adapt their structure as well as their behavior-in a unified fashion-to handle both familiar and novel conditions. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates how the set of possibilities for work organization in a system may be demarcated independently of the situation, through extensions of CWA, and how it may be utilized in design. This lynchpin, conceptualized in the form of a diagram of work organization possibilities (WOP), is important for preserving a system's inherent capacity for adaptation. Future research should focus on validating these concepts and establishing the feasibility of implementing them in industrial contexts.

  5. Lithium-ion battery capacity fading dynamics modelling for formulation optimization: A stochastic approach to accelerate the design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Laifa; Cheng, Yujie; Lu, Chen; Su, Yuzhuan; Chong, Jin; Jin, Haizu; Lin, Yongshou; Noktehdan, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The model is linked to known physicochemical degradation processes and material properties. •Aging dynamics of various battery formulations can be understood by the proposed model. •Large number of experiments will be reduced to accelerate the battery design process. •This approach can describe batteries under various operating conditions. •The proposed model is simple and easily implemented. -- Abstract: A five-state nonhomogeneous Markov chain model, which is an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process by investigating the capacity fading dynamics of different formulations during the battery design phase, is reported. The parameters of this model are linked to known physicochemical degradation dynamics and material properties. Herein, the states and behaviors of the active materials in Li-ion batteries are modelled. To verify the efficiency of the proposed model, a dataset from approximately 3 years of cycling capacity fading experiments of various formulations using several different materials provided by Contemporary Amperex Technology Limited (CATL), as well as a NASA dataset, are employed. The capabilities of the proposed model for different amounts (50%, 70%, and 90%) of available experimental capacity data are tested and analyzed to assist with the final design determination for manufacturers. The average relative errors of life cycling prediction acquired from these tests are less than 2.4%, 0.8%, and 0.3%, even when only 50%, 70%, and 90% of the data, respectively, is available for different anode materials, electrolyte materials, and individual batteries. Furthermore, the variance is 0.518% when only 50% of the data are available; i.e., one can save at least 50% of the total experimental time and cost with an accuracy greater than 97% in the design phase, which demonstrates an effective and promising way to accelerate the Li-ion battery design process. The qualitative and quantitative analyses

  6. Layout Design for a Low Capacity Manufacturing Line: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo De Carlo

    2013-08-01

    transportation times and costs. The result of the case study showed a slight advantage with the lean approach in considering such efficiency indicators. In addition, the lean production methods allowed the designers to identify some inefficiencies that other approaches could not see, since the latter did not focus on production in a holistic way.

  7. Strategic design and investment capacity planning of the ethanol supply chain under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Mas, Matteo; Giarola, Sara; Zamboni, Andrea; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion and the increase of greenhouse gases emissions has been pushing the search for alternative fuels for automotive transport. The European Union has identified biofuel technology as one option for reducing its dependence on imported energy. Ethanol is a promising biofuel, but great uncertainty on the business profitability has recently determined a slowdown in the industry expansion. In particular, geographical plant location, biomass price fluctuation and fuel demand variability severely constrain the economic viability of new ethanol facilities. In this work a dynamic, spatially explicit and multi-echelon Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) modeling framework is presented to help decision-makers and potential investors assessing economic performances and risk on investment of the entire biomass-based ethanol supply chain. A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production supply chain in Northern Italy is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach. The mathematical pattern addresses the issue of optimizing the ethanol supply network over a ten years' time period under uncertainty on biomass production cost and product selling price. The model allows optimizing economic performances and minimize financial risk on investment by identifying the best network topology in terms of biomass cultivation site locations, ethanol production plant capacities, location and transport logistics. -- Highlights: →A dynamic spatially explicit Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) of the entire corn-based ethanol supply chain is proposed. →Uncertainty on corn price and ethanol selling price is taken into account. →The model allows assessing and optimizing the supply chain economic performance and risk on investment. →A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production in Northern Italy demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Developing Workforce Capacity in Public Health Informatics: Core Competencies and Curriculum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Wholey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a master’s level public health informatics (PHI curriculum to support workforce development. Public health decision-making requires intensive information management to organize responses to health threats and develop effective health education and promotion. PHI competencies prepare the public health workforce to design and implement these information systems. The objective for a Master’s and Certificate in PHI is to prepare public health informaticians with the competencies to work collaboratively with colleagues in public health and other health professions to design and develop information systems that support population health improvement. The PHI competencies are drawn from computer, information, and organizational sciences. A curriculum is proposed to deliver the competencies and result of a pilot PHI program is presented. Since the public health workforce needs to use information technology effectively to improve population health, it is essential for public health academic institutions to develop and implement PHI workforce training programs.

  9. Developing Workforce Capacity in Public Health Informatics: Core Competencies and Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R.; LaVenture, Martin; Rajamani, Sripriya; Kreiger, Rob; Hedberg, Craig; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    We describe a master’s level public health informatics (PHI) curriculum to support workforce development. Public health decision-making requires intensive information management to organize responses to health threats and develop effective health education and promotion. PHI competencies prepare the public health workforce to design and implement these information systems. The objective for a Master’s and Certificate in PHI is to prepare public health informaticians with the competencies to work collaboratively with colleagues in public health and other health professions to design and develop information systems that support population health improvement. The PHI competencies are drawn from computer, information, and organizational sciences. A curriculum is proposed to deliver the competencies and result of a pilot PHI program is presented. Since the public health workforce needs to use information technology effectively to improve population health, it is essential for public health academic institutions to develop and implement PHI workforce training programs. PMID:29770321

  10. Runway exit designs for capacity improvement demonstrations. Phase 2: Computer model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A. A.; Hobeika, A. G.; Kim, B. J.; Nunna, V.; Zhong, C.

    1992-01-01

    The development is described of a computer simulation/optimization model to: (1) estimate the optimal locations of existing and proposed runway turnoffs; and (2) estimate the geometric design requirements associated with newly developed high speed turnoffs. The model described, named REDIM 2.0, represents a stand alone application to be used by airport planners, designers, and researchers alike to estimate optimal turnoff locations. The main procedures are described in detail which are implemented in the software package and possible applications are illustrated when using 6 major runway scenarios. The main output of the computer program is the estimation of the weighted average runway occupancy time for a user defined aircraft population. Also, the location and geometric characteristics of each turnoff are provided to the user.

  11. Layout Design for a Low Capacity Manufacturing Line: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Carlo, Filippo; Arleo, Maria Antonietta; Borgia, Orlando; Tucci, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The layout re‐arrangement of fashion production lines realizing many small batches is rarely deployed according to well‐known engineering procedures. In fact, it would often appear too complex to call a plant engineer for the proper layout design of such small production lines. Rather, it is preferred to apply empirical methodologies when considering, generally, factory know‐how, general business needs, safety requirements, and so on. In the present work, the results of a fashion manufacturin...

  12. Market Designs : A Survey and Analysis of Methods to Ensure Peak Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The production and consumption of electricity must be in balance in order to maintain the frequency in an electrical grid. During peak loads this may be troublesome to achieve due to lack of adequate production capabilities. Competitive electricity markets with price caps have a problem - insufficient revenues for peak production units which lead to mothballing or decommissioning of power plants. Inadequate production capability is solved through design of the electricity markets which render...

  13. Criticality safety and shielding design issues in the development of a high-capacity cask for truck transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) will be submitting an application for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the GA-4 and GA-9 Casks In 1992. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks are high-capacity legal weight truck casks designed to transport light water reactor spent fuel assemblies. To maintain a capacity of four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies, the GA-4 Cask uses burnup credit as part of the criticality control for initial enrichments over 3.0 wt% U-235. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Burnup Credit Program as a basis, GA has performed burnup credit analysis which is included in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The GA-9 Cask can meet the criticality safety requirements using the ''fresh fuel'' assumption. Our approach to shielding design is to optimize the GA-4 and GA-9 Cask shielding configurations for minimum weights and maximum payloads. This optimization involves the use of the most effective shielding material, square cross-section geometry with rounded corners and tapered neutron shielding sections in the non-fuel regions

  14. Design of a highly parallel board-level-interconnection with 320 Gbps capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.; Bauer, H.

    2012-01-01

    A parallel board-level interconnection design is presented consisting of 32 channels, each operating at 10 Gbps. The hardware uses available optoelectronic components (VCSEL, TIA, pin-diodes) and a combination of planarintegrated free-space optics, fiber-bundles and available MEMS-components, like the DMD™ from Texas Instruments. As a specific feature, we present a new modular inter-board interconnect, realized by 3D fiber-matrix connectors. The performance of the interconnect is evaluated with regard to optical properties and power consumption. Finally, we discuss the application of the interconnect for strongly distributed system architectures, as, for example, in high performance embedded computing systems and data centers.

  15. Correction: Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-08-02

    Correction for 'Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities' by Rodion V. Belosludov et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13503-13518.

  16. A sustainable energy market design for Germany. A capacity market with decentralized demand structure; Der Leistungsmarkt mit dezentraler Nachfrage. Ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiemarktdesign fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Julius; Herrmann, Nicolai [enervis energy advisors GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The German energy policy debate is currently focusing on different design options for a capacity mechanism. With VKU and BDEW, two leading associations in which almost all German energy market actors are represented, have positioned themselves in favor of a decidedly market-based capacity mechanism. The position of the VKU is based on the study ''A sustainable energy market design for Germany'', which was presented in March 2013. The following article describes the state of the energy market design debate in Germany and summarizes the proposed market design resulting from the VKU study. (orig.)

  17. Establishment of design concept of large capacity passive reactor KP1000 and performance evaluation of safety system for LBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O.; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-03-01

    This study was performed to establish the design concepts and to evaluate the performance of safety features of large capacity passive reactor (1000 MWe grade). The design concepts of the large capacity passive reactor `KP1000` were established to generate 1000 MW electric power based on the AP600 of Westinghouse by increasing the number of reactor coolant loop and by increasing the size of reactor internals/core. To implement the analysis of the LBLOCA for KP1000, various kinds of computer codes being considered, it was concluded that RELAP5 was the most appropriate one in availability and operations in present situation. By the analysis of the computer code `RELAP5/Mod3.2.1.2`, following conclusions were derived as described below. First, by spectrum analysis of the discharge factor of the berak part, the most conservative discharge factor C{sub D}=1.2 and the PCT value of KP1000 was 1254F, which is slightly higher than the value of AP600 but is much less than the existing active reactor `Kori 3 and 4` where blowdown PCT value is 1693.4 deg F and reflooding PCT is 1918.4 deg F. Second, after the 200 seconds from the initiation of LBLOCA, IRWST water was supplied in a stable state and the maximum temperature of clad were maintained in a saturated condition. Therefore, it was concluded that the passive safety features of KP1000 keep reactor core from being damaged for large break LOCA. (author). 11 refs., 28 tabs., 37 figs.

  18. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  19. Enhancing organizational capacity to provide cancer control programs among Latino churches: design and baseline findings of the CRUZA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idali; Tom, Laura S; Rustan, Sarah; Leyva, Bryan; Negron, Rosalyn; Linnan, Laura A; Jandorf, Lina; Ospino, Hosffman

    2015-04-09

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been successful in delivering health promotion programs for African Americans, though few studies have been conducted among Latinos. Even fewer have focused on organizational change, which is required to sustain community-based initiatives. We hypothesized that FBOs serving Latinos would be more likely to offer evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control after receiving a capacity enhancement intervention to implement health programs, and designed the CRUZA trial to test this hypothesis. This paper describes the CRUZA design and baseline findings. We identified Catholic parishes in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass (n = 65). A baseline survey assessed organizational characteristics relevant to adoption of health programs, including readiness for adoption, "fit" between innovation and organizational mission, implementation climate, and organizational culture. In the next study phase, parishes that completed the baseline assessment will be recruited to a randomized cluster trial, with the parish as the unit of analysis. Both groups will receive a Program Manual and Toolkit. Capacity Enhancement parishes will also be offered technical support, assistance forming health committees and building inter-institutional partnerships, and skills-based training. Of the 49 parishes surveyed at baseline (75%), one-third (33%) reported having provided at least one health program in the prior year. However, only two program offerings were cancer-specific. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had an active health ministry. There was a high level of organizational readiness to adopt cancer control programs, high congruence between parish missions and CRUZA objectives, moderately conducive implementation climates, and organizational cultures supportive of CRUZA programming. Having an existing health ministry was significantly associated with having offered health programs within the past year. Relationships between health program

  20. An integrated nuclear reactor unit for a floating low capacity nuclear power plant designed for power supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Gladkov, O.G.; Pavlov, V.L.; Pepa, V.N.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the conceptual design of an integrated advanced safety nuclear reactor unit for a low capacity floating, NPP designed for power supply in areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper describes the major structural and lay-out components of the steam generator and reactor units with main technical characteristics. (author)

  1. Novel shear capacity testing of ASR damaged full scale concrete bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A large number of concrete bridges in Denmark have to undergo wide-ranging maintenance work to prevent deterioration due to aggressive Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR). This destructive mechanism results in extensive cracking which is believed to affect the load carrying capacity of the structure...

  2. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M [CESI RICERCA S.p.A(Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  3. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M

    2007-06-01

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  4. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005. This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK by applying a new, practicable model. Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1 identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2 identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3 building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4 designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO, and 5 undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results: Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively, and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively. The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions: Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation

  5. An automated design and fabrication pipeline for improving the strength of 3D printed artifacts under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Can Mert; Yaman, Ulas

    2018-05-01

    In the scope of this study, an alternative automated method to the conventional design and fabrication pipeline of 3D printers is developed by using an integrated CAD/CAE/CAM approach. It increases the load carrying capacity of the parts by constructing heterogeneous infill structures. Traditional CAM software of Additive Manufacturing machinery starts with a design model in STL file format which only includes data about the outer boundary in the triangular mesh form. Depending on the given infill percentage, the algorithm running behind constructs the interior of the artifact by using homogeneous infill structures. As opposed to the current CAM software, the proposed method provides a way to construct heterogeneous infill structures with respect to the Von Misses stress field results obtained from a finite element analysis. Throughout the work, Rhinoceros3D is used for the design of the parts along with Grasshopper3D, an algorithmic design tool for Rhinoceros3D. In addition, finite element analyses are performed using Karamba3D, a plug-in for Grasshopper3D. According to the results of the tensile tests, the method offers an improvement of load carrying capacity about 50% compared to traditional slicing algorithms of 3D printing.

  6. Design of a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks for burn mass casualties at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Davis, Matthew M; Sankar, Pratap; Wong, Andrew C; Wang, Stewart C

    2013-02-01

    To design and test a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks at a large academic medical center in response to a mass-casualty incident (MCI) involving multiple burn victims. Using the simulation software ProModel, a model of patient flow and anticipated resource use, according to principles of disaster management, was developed based upon historical data from the University Hospital of the University of Michigan Health System. Model inputs included: (a) age and weight distribution for casualties, and distribution of size and depth of burns; (b) rate of arrival of casualties to the hospital, and triage to ward or critical care settings; (c) eligibility for early discharge of non-MCI inpatients at time of MCI; (d) baseline occupancy of intensive care unit (ICU), surgical step-down, and ward; (e) staff availability-number of physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, and the expected ratio of each group to patients; (f) floor and operating room resources-anticipating the need for mechanical ventilators, burn care and surgical resources, blood products, and intravenous fluids; (g) average hospital length of stay and mortality rate for patients with inhalation injury and different size burns; and (h) average number of times that different size burns undergo surgery. Key model outputs include time to bottleneck for each limiting resource and average waiting time to hospital bed availability. Given base-case model assumptions (including 100 mass casualties with an inter-arrival rate to the hospital of one patient every three minutes), hospital utilization is constrained within the first 120 minutes to 21 casualties, due to the limited number of beds. The first bottleneck is attributable to exhausting critical care beds, followed by floor beds. Given this limitation in number of patients, the temporal order of the ensuing bottlenecks is as follows: Lactated Ringer's solution (4 h), silver sulfadiazine/Silvadene (6 h), albumin (48 h), thrombin topical (72 h), type

  7. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1) identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2) identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3) building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4) designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 5) undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively), and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively). The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human resource capacity building, and

  8. Assessment of Ultimate Load Capacity for Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model of PWR Design With BARC Code ULCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.M.; Singh, R.K.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results. The present paper highlights the analysis results for Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a Round Robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd= design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete-tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd. (authors)

  9. Development document for best technology available for the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Train, R.E.; Breidenbach, A.W.; Hall, E.P.; Barnes, D.

    1976-04-01

    This document presents the findings of an extensive study of the available technology for the location, design construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures for minimizing adverse environmental impact, in compliance with and to implement Section 316(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972

  10. Design, construction and test run of a two-tonne capacity solar rice dryer with rice-husk-fired auxiliary heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloeje, O.C.; Ekechukwu, O.V.; Ezeike, G.O.I.

    1993-09-01

    The design and construction details of a two-tonne per batch capacity natural-circulation solar rice dryer and the highlights of the design of its rice-husk-fired auxiliary heating system which is still under construction are presented. The dryer measures approximately 17.7m long by 9.8m wide by 6m high. Preliminary results of a test run on the solar dryer section only is reported. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  11. Policymakers' experience of a capacity-building intervention designed to increase their use of research: a realist process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Redman, Sally; Williamson, Anna; Makkar, Steve R; Gallego, Gisselle; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-11-23

    An intervention's success depends on how participants interact with it in local settings. Process evaluation examines these interactions, indicating why an intervention was or was not effective, and how it (and similar interventions) can be improved for better contextual fit. This is particularly important for innovative trials like Supporting Policy In health with Research: an Intervention Trial (SPIRIT), where causal mechanisms are poorly understood. SPIRIT was testing a multi-component intervention designed to increase the capacity of health policymakers to use research. Our mixed-methods process evaluation sought to explain variation in observed process effects across the six agencies that participated in SPIRIT. Data collection included observations of intervention workshops (n = 59), purposively sampled interviews (n = 76) and participant feedback forms (n = 553). Using a realist approach, data was coded for context-mechanism-process effect configurations (retroductive analysis) by two authors. Intervention workshops were very well received. There was greater variation of views regarding other aspects of SPIRIT such as data collection, communication and the intervention's overall value. We identified nine inter-related mechanisms that were crucial for engaging participants in these policy settings: (1) Accepting the premise (agreeing with the study's assumptions); (2) Self-determination (participative choice); (3) The Value Proposition (seeing potential gain); (4) 'Getting good stuff' (identifying useful ideas, resources or connections); (5) Self-efficacy (believing 'we can do this!'); (6) Respect (feeling that SPIRIT understands and values one's work); (7) Confidence (believing in the study's integrity and validity); (8) Persuasive leadership (authentic and compelling advocacy from leaders); and (9) Strategic insider facilitation (local translation and mediation). These findings were used to develop tentative explanatory propositions and to revise the

  12. Fatigue Analysis of Load-Carrying Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tychsen, Jesper; Andersen, Jens Ulfkjær

    2006-01-01

    that the degree of bending (DOB) has an influence on the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue lifetime decreases significantly when increasing the bending stress. In order to take into account the effect of the bending, a new fatigue stress definition applicable for fillet welds failing through the weld is presented....... Using the test results, it is shown that the new definition of fatigue stress can be used for a wide range of DOB with a low standard deviation of the resulting SN curve....

  13. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H

    2014-05-22

    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  14. Innovations in Stream Restoration and Flood Control Design Meeting Flood Capacity and Environmental Goals on San Luis Obispo Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Peterson

    1989-01-01

    Can a natural flowing creek be increased in drainage capacity to protect an adjacent community from flooding while still maintaining a natural habitat? San Luis Obispo constructed one such project on over a mile of Creek as a part of a housing development. The City found that some of the mitigation measures included in the project worked while others did not. In the...

  15. The benefits of designing a stratification system for New York City pediatric intensive care units for use in regional surge capacity planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christiana

    2010-08-01

    Accurate assessment of New York City (NYC) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) resources and the ability to surge them during a disaster has been recognized as an important citywide emergency preparedness activity. However, while NYC hospitals with PICUs may be expected to surge in a disaster, few of them have detailed surge capacity plans. This will likely make it difficult for them to realize their full surge capacity both on individual and regional levels. If the pediatric resources that each NYC PICU hospital has can be identified prior to a disaster, this information can be used to both determine appropriate surge capacity goals for each PICU hospital and the additional resources needed to reach those goals. City agencies can then focus citywide planning efforts on making these resources available and more easily anticipate what a hospital will need during a disaster. Communication of this hospital information both prior to and during a surge situation will be aided by a stratification system familiar to both city planners and hospitals. The goal of this project was to design a NYC PICU surge stratification system that would aid physicians, hospitals and city agencies in regional surge capacity planning for critical pediatric patients. This goal was demonstrated through two objectives. The first identified major factors to consider when designing a stratification system. The second devised a preliminary system of PICU stratification based on clinical criteria and resources.

  16. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Design Capacities for Web-Based 21st Century New Culture of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Tan, Lynde; Deng, Feng; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an established body of work arguing that teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is necessary for designing ICT-integrated lessons, little is known about the relationships among teachers' beliefs about learning, their design dispositions, learning design practices and TPACK. Critical inquiry in this aspect…

  17. Nuclear electric capacity expansion in Mexico: system effects of reactor size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Abbey, D.S.; Hardie, R.W.; Enriquez, R.P.; Uria, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Mexico's electrical generation capacity could more than double over the next ten years - from about 15 GWe currently to as much as 35 GWe in 1990. While new capacity additions will be predominantly oil-fired in the 1980's, nuclear power will become increasingly important in the 1990's. This study investigated the appropriate size of new, nuclear capacity additions by assessing the implications of installing different size reactors into Mexico's electrical grid. Included in the assessments of reactor sizes are estimates of electrical generation costs and comparisons of the effective load-carrying capability of a 10 GWe nuclear capacity expansion

  18. Tourism Planning and Design Based on the Environmental Carrying Capacity%基于环境承载力的旅游规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀慧萍

    2015-01-01

    旅游的发展必然会对环境造成一定的影响,如何在发展旅游与保护环境之间取得平衡,是旅游规划设计中必须考虑的一个焦点问题. 环境承载能力又称环境容量,基于环境承载力进行旅游规划设计,能很好地确保旅游与环境间的和谐发展. 笔者对环境承载力进行了简要概述,提出了基于环境自洁能力、基于环境再生能力、基于生态足迹的旅游环境承载力的计算方法. 就基于环境承载能力的旅游规划设计进行了探讨,对地区旅游业的可持续发展、旅游资源的开发和调整、旅游环境的保护具有重要意义.%The development of tourism causes certain effect on the environment, and how to achieve a balance between tourism development and environmental protection is a focus problem, which in the tourism planning and design must be considered.Environmental carrying capacity is also called the environment capacity, tourism planning and design based on the environmental carrying capacity can ensure the harmonious development between tourism and environment.In this pa-per, tourism planning and design based on the environmental carrying capacity are discussed, which has positive signifi-cance for the sustainable development of regional tourism experience, the development of tourism resources and the adjust-ment, the protection of tourism environment .

  19. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  20. The utilization of websites for fundraising by NCI-designated cancer centers: Examining the capacity for dialogic communication with prospective donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cathleen O; Dias, Ashley M

    2016-01-01

    The study employs a dialogic public relations framework to explore the utilization of the Internet for fundraising by nonprofit health care organizations-specifically, NCI-designated cancer centers. Cancer centers have been noted for effective websites and for being highly engaged in fundraising, which is characterized as relationship marketing. Results indicate all but one cancer center use websites and social media for fundraising but are limited in capacity for two-way symmetrical dialogue. Results are discussed and recommendations are made for future research.

  1. 47 CFR 76.977 - Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated commercial leased access capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minority and educational programming used in... Cable Rate Regulation § 76.977 Minority and educational programming used in lieu of designated... of programming from a qualified minority programming source or from any qualified educational...

  2. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  3. Design method of a power management strategy for variable battery capacities range-extended electric vehicles to improve energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiuyu; Chen, Jingfu; Song, Ziyou; Gao, Mingming; Ouyang, Minggao

    2017-01-01

    Energy management strategy and battery capacity are the primary factors for the energy efficiency of range-extended electric buses (REEBs). To improve the energy efficiency of REEBs developed by Tsinghua University, an optimal design method of global optimization-based strategy is investigated. It is real-time and adaptive to variable traction battery capacities of series REEBs. For simulation, the physical model of REEB and key components are established. The optimal strategy is first extracted by the power split ratio (PSR) from REEB simulation result with dynamic program (DP) algorithm. The power distribution map is obtained by series simulations for variable battery capacity options. The control law for developing optimal strategy are achieved by cluster regression for power distribution data. To verify the effect of the proposed energy management strategy, characteristics of powertrain, energy efficiency, operating cost, and computing time are ultimately analyzed. Simulation results show that the energy efficiency of the global optimization-based strategy presented in this paper is similar to that of the DP strategy. Therefore, the overall energy efficiency can be significantly improved compared with that of the CDCS strategy, and operating costs can be substantially reduced. The feasibility of candidate control strategies is thereby assessed via the employment of variable parameters. - Highlights: • Analysis method of powertrain energy efficiency and power distribution is proposed. • The power distribution rules of strategy with variable battery capacities are achieved. • The parametric method of proposed PSR-RB strategy is presented. • The energy efficiency of powertrain is analysis by flow analysis method. • The energy management strategy is global optimization-based and real-time.

  4. Study on Predicting Axial Load Capacity of CFST Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, H.; Muthu, K. U.; Kumar, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents an analytical study and experimental study on the behaviour and ultimate load carrying capacity of axially compressed self-compacting concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Results of tests conducted by various researchers on 213 samples concrete-filled steel tubular columns are reported and present authors experimental data are reported. Two theoretical equations were derived for the prediction of the ultimate axial load strength of concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The results from prediction were compared with the experimental data. Validation to the experimental results was made.

  5. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2008-01-01

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  7. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature.

  8. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  9. Designing of monitoring setup for vibration signature analysis of steam turbine driven high capacity rotary screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, T; Vinod, J [Birla VXL Ltd., Porbandar (India)

    1998-12-31

    Tracking the behaviour by signature analysis of machines like Screw Compressor having large number of auxiliaries, high power transmissions, variation of process gas properties, changes of load condition, fluctuating revolutions is truly a challenging job. These unavoidable process conditions often disturb the whole setup and there is every possibility to miss important and relevant information. Standards for overall monitoring as well as for peak-amplitudes responsible for root cause identification are not always available because these machines are `custom designed` and manufacturer`s standards are of paramount importance to consider. The health of these machines cannot be assessed by simply comparing with the international standards unlike most common machines such as fans, pumps, motors etc. with minimum number of auxiliaries. There may also be limitations in the features of the instruments used for the purpose. In this presentation, an attempt has been made to setup a monitoring approach for screw compressor which will help the industries initially setting base-line data to implement vibration analysis based off-line predictive maintenance programme either with the help of an analyser or with a latest software. (orig.) 3 refs.

  10. Designing of monitoring setup for vibration signature analysis of steam turbine driven high capacity rotary screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, T.; Vinod, J. [Birla VXL Ltd., Porbandar (India)

    1997-12-31

    Tracking the behaviour by signature analysis of machines like Screw Compressor having large number of auxiliaries, high power transmissions, variation of process gas properties, changes of load condition, fluctuating revolutions is truly a challenging job. These unavoidable process conditions often disturb the whole setup and there is every possibility to miss important and relevant information. Standards for overall monitoring as well as for peak-amplitudes responsible for root cause identification are not always available because these machines are `custom designed` and manufacturer`s standards are of paramount importance to consider. The health of these machines cannot be assessed by simply comparing with the international standards unlike most common machines such as fans, pumps, motors etc. with minimum number of auxiliaries. There may also be limitations in the features of the instruments used for the purpose. In this presentation, an attempt has been made to setup a monitoring approach for screw compressor which will help the industries initially setting base-line data to implement vibration analysis based off-line predictive maintenance programme either with the help of an analyser or with a latest software. (orig.) 3 refs.

  11. Getting more for your money: designing community needs assessments to build collaboration and capacity in hospital system community benefit work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Dale; Diaz, Heather; Schmidtlein, Mathew C

    2013-11-01

    Most community health needs assessments (CHNAs) are unilateral in nature and fail to include a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, limiting them in their scope. Nonprofit hospitals are required to conduct CHNAs every 3 years to determine where community prevention dollars should be spent. In 2010, a CBPR CHNA approach was conducted with four hospital systems in Northern California. Merging concepts from organization development, the approach included (a) goal determination, (b) use of a guiding framework, (c) creation of a container in which to interact, (d) established feedback loops, and (e) intentional trust-building exercises. The approach was to build lasting relationships between hospital systems that would extend beyond the CHNA. Results using this approach revealed that members representing all four hospital systems (a) began to meet regularly after the CHNA was completed, (b) increased collaboration with other community organizations, (c) expanded their level of intraorganization partnerships, (d) enjoyed the process, (e) felt that their professional knowledge expanded, and (f) felt connected professionally and personally with other hospital representatives. As a result, other joint projects are underway. The results of this study indicate that using CBPR to design a CHNA can build sustained collaborative relationships between study participants that continue.

  12. Modularization for ground engineering construction in the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, with the designed annual gas processing capacity of six billion m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoming Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi Block has enormous natural gas reserves, and it is a typical three-high (high temperature, high pressure, and high flow rate sour gas field. Its ground engineering project (with the designed gas processing capacity of 60 × 108 m3/a is characterized by high processing rate of each unit, complex process control, large construction load, restricted construction site and tight schedule. Based on the traditional engineering construction mode, however, it is difficult to complete the project design and construction within 16 months. In view of this, the design concept of unit large-scale modularization was introduced to implement “normalized design, scale purchase, factory-like prefabrication and modularized construction” and develop the modularization technology of large-scale surface engineering construction. This modularization technology is performed as follows. First, the modularized units are laid out reasonably according to the technological process. Second, the layout of modularized units is usually superimposed in the multi-layer framework. Third, those equipments with the same or similar operational modes, medium properties, functional characteristics and installation requirements are concentrated in the pattern of a module. Fourth, escape passageway is specially set up. Fifth, room for installation, maintenance and repair of large equipments is reserved. And sixth, transportation and hoisting requirements of modules are taken into consideration sufficiently. This technology is contributive to the improvement of design quality, effective shortening of design period, reduction of field working load, decrease of safety management risk of on-site installation, increase of production efficiency, conservation of land occupation and diminishment of construction investment. It plays a reference role in the modularized construction of surface

  13. Research, Calculation for Designing the Technological Equipment Line of Cementation with 3,000 Tonnes of Solid Waste/Year Capacity for ZOC Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van Hoa; Ngo Van Tuyen; Nguyen Ba Tien; Le Ba Thuan; Phung Quoc Khanh; Mai Duc Lanh; Vuong Huu Anh; Luu Cao Nguyen; Duong Dinh Tho; Phung Vu Phong; Nguyen An Thai; Pham Quang Minh

    2013-01-01

    Technological process and equipment line for cementation with 3,000 tons of solid wastes/year capacity for ZOC plant was studied according to the quantity, the composition and the property of solid wastes from ZOC plant. The influence of several parameters with cementation process such as cement mixing ratio, size, moisture and NaCl content in residue, which affected to mechanical and chemical strength of waste block after cementation was evaluated. The calculation and designing for cementation equipment line were thus conducted and total investment cost of construction and installation as well as operation of this equipment line was also estimated. Radiation safety and environmental protection for waste treatment facility was calculated and the design on radiation safety and environmental protection for equipment line was proposed. Technological process and design document of this production line seemed to be reasonable because it is consistent with properties of wastes as well as it has been commonly used in the world to stabilize solid residues in nuclear industry. The advantages of this propose were simple structure of the devices, locally made, easy operation, locally available and inexpensive materials resulting in low cost of investment and operation. (author)

  14. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-03-17

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1(st) step) and solvothermal (2(nd) step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g(-1) at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g(-1), respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1) after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance.

  15. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly enhanced electrochemical performance as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites can deliver high specific capacities of 1038 and 712 mAh g−1 at the current densities of 100 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. In addition, the SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites also exhibit 641 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 1000 mA g−1 after 900 cycles, indicating an ultra-long cycling stability under high current density. Through ex-situ TEM analysis, the excellent electrochemical performance was attributed to the catalytic effect of Co nanoparticles to promote the conversion of Sn to SnO2 and the decomposition of Li2O during the delithiation process. Based on the results, herein we propose a new method in employing the catalyst to increase the capacity of alloying-dealloying type anode material to beyond its theoretical value and enhance the electrochemical performance. PMID:25776280

  16. Diseño en ingeniería orientada a la capacidad tecnológica disponible; Engineering Design to the Available Technological Capacity Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovevo F Morejón Vizcaíno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos de los resultados de la tesis doctoral: "Primera etapa del proceso de desarrollo de unhidromotor de alto par: Conceptualización y prototipo analítico". Se analiza un nuevo enfoque de diseño deingeniería con gran interés para los países que poseen una baja capacidad tecnológica en su industriametalmecánica, denominado: Desarrollo de nuevos productos orientado a la capacidad tecnológica disponible.La característica distintiva de esta metodología es el empleo de la capacidad tecnológica contenida en losproductos normalizados para diseñar otros con el objetivo de satisfacer necesidades sociales. Asimismo, sepropone una aplicación sobre el desarrollo de un nuevo tipo de hidromotor de pistones radiales llamado,hidromotor con cilindros tubulares radiales. (HCTR, el cual posee prestaciones competitivas y puede serconstruido por los países del tercer mundo. El objetivo de este trabajo no es dar una explicación pormenorizadade la metodología, sino mostrar su existencia y la gran utilidad que esta posee.  This paper presents the work of a doctoral thesis on "First stage of the process of development of a hydro-motor of high torque: conceptualisation and analytic prototype". A new focus of design is discussed. It isconvenient for the countries that possess a low technological capacity in industry. This new focus was nominatedas the process of development of new products guided to the available technological capacity, and theirdistinctive characteristic is that it uses the technological capacity contained in the products normalised todesign products to satisfy social necessities, that in another way they are impossible to design for theirelaboration demands. In an application of this procedure, a new type of hydro-motor of radial pistons wasobtained with competitive benefits that it can be built by the countries of the third world. The objective of thispaper is not to give an itemised explanation of the methodology

  17. Compressive force-path method unified ultimate limit-state design of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kotsovos, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a method which simplifies and unifies the design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and is applicable to any structural element under both normal and seismic loading conditions. The proposed method has a sound theoretical basis and is expressed in a unified form applicable to all structural members, as well as their connections. It is applied in practice through the use of simple failure criteria derived from first principles without the need for calibration through the use of experimental data. The method is capable of predicting not only load-carrying capacity but also the locations and modes of failure, as well as safeguarding the structural performance code requirements. In this book, the concepts underlying the method are first presented for the case of simply supported RC beams. The application of the method is progressively extended so as to cover all common structural elements. For each structural element considered, evidence of the validity of the proposed method is presented t...

  18. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  19. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  20. Population Growth and Its Impact on the Design Capacity and Performance of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in Sedibeng and Soshanguve, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z.; Kamika, I.; Coetzee, M. A. A.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of population growth on the performance of the targeted wastewater treatment plants in Sedibeng District and Soshanguve peri-urban area, South Africa. The impact of population growth was assessed in terms of plant design, operational capacity (flow rate) and other treatment process constraints. Between 2001 and 2007, the number of households connected to the public sewerage service increased by 15.5, 17.2 and 37.8 % in Emfuleni, Lesedi and Midvaal Local Municipalities, respectively. Soshanguve revealed a 50 % increment in the number of households connected to the sewerage system between 1996 and 2001. Except for Sandspruit (-393.8 %), the rate of influent flows received by Meyerton increased by 6.8 ML/day (67.8 %) and 4.7 ML/day (46.8 %) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The flow rate appeared to increase during the wet season by 6.8 ML/day (19.1 %) in Leeuwkuil and during the dry season by 0.8 ML/day (3.9 %) in Rietgat. Underperformance of the existing wastewater treatment plants suggests that the rapid population growth in urban and peri-urban areas (hydraulic overloading of the wastewater treatment plants) and operational constraints (overflow rate, retention time, oxygen supply capacity of the plants and chlorine contact time) resulted in the production of poor quality effluents in both selected areas. This investigation showed that the inefficiency of Meyerton Wastewater Treatment Plant was attributed to the population growth (higher volumes of wastewater generated) and operational constraints, while the cause of underperformance in the other three treatment plants was clearly technical (operational).

  1. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  2. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  3. Optimal design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings with High Pressure Injection Pockets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    A thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic(TEHD) model based on the Reynolds equation has been used to study the effect of oil injection pockets on the performance of tilting pad thrust bearings. The optimal position of the pivot both with respect to load carrying capacity and minimal power consumption is seen...

  4. Co-Creating theories and research design for an interdisciplinary project dealing with capacity building for people with migration background in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Karin; Tscharner, Susanna; Stickler, Therese; Fuchs, Britta; Damyanovic, Doris; Hübl, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Understanding spatial and social aspects of vulnerability is of growing importance in the context of climate change and natural hazards. The interplay of structural factors, socio-demographic aspects, current risk communication strategies, spatial planning instruments and related processes and the current spatial and environmental situation, including hazards and hazard zones, geographical locations, building and settlement types, contributing to people`s vulnerabilities needs to be analysed and understood to reduce vulnerability and to foster resilience. The project "CCCapMig" (Climate change and capacity building for people with migration background in Austria) aims at linking spatial and technical, as well as organisational and social aspects of climate change and natural hazards. This paper focuses on the co-creation of the theoretical framework and concepts and outlines the research design for this interdisciplinary cross-analysis of several case studies in rural Austria. The project is designed as an inter- and transdisciplinary survey and brings together engineering sciences, spatial sciences and social sciences. Reflecting the interdisciplinary approach, a theoretical framework was developed that refers to a combination of both theories and frameworks from vulnerability research, theories of risk perception and spatial theories and methods like the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, the Protection-Motivation Theory and Landscape-Planning Theories: The "Sustainable Livelihoods Framework" adapted (by FA0) for disaster risk management offers an analytical framework to understand the emergence of vulnerabilities from the perspective of people`s livelihoods on individual and community level. It includes human, social, natural, physical and financial aspects and the role of institutions, policies and legal rights in reducing or increasing exposure to disaster risk and coping capacities. Additionally, theories on risk perception, especially Protection

  5. Bridges analysis, design, structural health monitoring, and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bakht, Baidar

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a valuable guide for practicing bridge engineers and graduate students in structural engineering; its main purpose is to present the latest concepts in bridge engineering in fairly easy-to-follow terms. The book provides details of easy-to-use computer programs for: ·      Analysing slab-on-girder bridges for live load distribution. ·      Analysing slab and other solid bridge components for live load distribution. ·      Analysing and designing concrete deck slab overhangs of girder bridges under vehicular loads. ·      Determining the failure loads of concrete deck slabs of girder bridges under concentrated wheel loads. In addition, the book includes extensive chapters dealing with the design of wood bridges and soil-steel bridges. Further, a unique chapter on structural health monitoring (SHM) will help bridge engineers determine the actual load carrying capacities of bridges, as opposed to their perceived analytical capacities. The chapter addressing structures...

  6. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets; Zukunftsfaehige Designoptionen fuer den deutschen Strommarkt. Ein Vergleich des Energy-only-Marktes mit Kapazitaetsmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hoefling, Holger; Sensfuss, Frank; Winkler, Jenny [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  7. Cocrystal solubility-pH and drug solubilization capacity of sodium dodecyl sulfate – mass action model for data analysis and simulation to improve design of experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the disposition of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; i.e., sodium lauryl sulfate, to solubilize sparingly-soluble drugs above the surfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC, as quantitated by the solubilization capacity (k. A compilation of 101 published SDS k values of mostly poorly-soluble drug molecules was used to develop a prediction model as a function of the drug’s intrinsic solubility, S0, and its calculated H-bond acceptor/donor potential. In almost all cases, the surfactant was found to solubilize the neutral form of the drug. Using the mass action model, the k values were converted to drug-micelle stoichiometric binding constants, Kn, corresponding to drug-micelle equilibria in drug-saturated solutions. An in-depth case study (data from published sources considered the micellization reactions as a function of pH of a weak base, B, (pKa 3.58, S0 52 μg/mL, where at pH 1 the BH.SDS salt was predicted to precipitate both below and above the CMC. At low SDS concentrations, two drug salts were predicted to co-precipitate: BH.Cl and BH.SDS. Solubility products of both were determined from the analysis of the reported solubility-surfactant data. Above the CMC, in a rare example, the charged form of the drug (BH+ appeared to be strongly solubilized by the surfactant. The constant for that reaction was also determined. At pH 7, the reactions were simpler, as only the neutral form of the drug was solubilized, to a significantly lesser extent than at pH 1. Case studies also featured examples of solubilization of solids in the form of cocrystals. For many cocrystal systems studied in aqueous solution, the anticipated supersaturated state is not long-lasting, as the drug component precipitates to a thermodynamically stable form, thus lowering the amount of the active ingredient available for intestinal absorption. Use of surfactant can prevent this. A recently-described method for predicting the

  8. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  9. Just-in-time Design and Additive Manufacture of Patient-specific Medical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidid, Darpan; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Brandt, Milan

    Recent advances in medical imaging and manufacturing science have enabled the design and production of complex, patient-specific orthopaedic implants. Additive Manufacture (AM) generates three-dimensional structures layer by layer, and is not subject to the constraints associated with traditional manufacturing methods. AM provides significant opportunities for the design of novel geometries and complex lattice structures with enhanced functional performance. However, the design and manufacture of patient-specific AM implant structures requires unique expertise in handling various optimization platforms. Furthermore, the design process for complex structures is computationally intensive. The primary aim of this research is to enable the just-in-time customisation of AM prosthesis; whereby AM implant design and manufacture be completed within the time constraints of a single surgical procedure, while minimising prosthesis mass and optimising the lattice structure to match the stiffness of the surrounding bone tissue. In this research, a design approach using raw CT scan data is applied to the AM manufacture of femoral prosthesis. Using the proposed just-in-time concept, the mass of the prosthesis was rapidly designed and manufactured while satisfying the associated structural requirements. Compressive testing of lattice structures manufactured using proposed method shows that the load carrying capacity of the resected composite bone can be recovered by up to 85% and the compressive stiffness of the AM prosthesis is statistically indistinguishable from the stiffness of the initial bone.

  10. Reconstruction actions carried out in order to achieve nominal design heat capacity of hot water boilers type VKSM 40; A product of TPK-Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica

    2000-01-01

    Hot water boilers with a steep turbines membranous produced by TPK-Zagreb in 1979 are projected for nominal capacity of 46.52 MW. But it was demonstrated in practice, according the performed measurements, that during the exploitation they do not give declared thermal power. In this article the chronological review of all successful performed reconstructive operations by engineering staff from Toplifikacija Joint-Stock Co. for district heating -Skopje (Macedonia) on the hot water boilers type VKSM40 with nominal capacity of 46.52 MW is given. (Authors)

  11. Rotation capacity of imperfect gable frames commonly used in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    As for real structures, initial geometric imperfections are inevitable and may have a destabilizing effect on the structures. The present research deals with the study of the imperfections and their direct influence on the load carrying capacity of various types of tapered steel frames. as such an efficient and realistic analytical model capable of dealing with non-linear behavior of steel frames with imperfections is introduced. The model is formulated within the framework of the finite element displacement approach. The frame elements are modeled through use of the conventional beam - column

  12. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  13. Network capacity auctions: promise and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Well-designed auctions work favorably for allocating idiosyncratic properties efficiently. Auctions are used to allocate entry capacity for United Kingdom gas and inter-connector capacity for electricity in several European Union countries and can work well for allocating existing capacity, though careful auction design is needed to mitigate potential market power. Using auction prices to guide investment decisions in networks is problematic if bidders fear that sub-optimal investment will be compensated by regulatory fiat, lowering future capacity values. (Author)

  14. Design assessment for the Melton Valley Storage Tanks capacity increase at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This project was initiated to find ways to increase storage capacity for the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) requirement for the transfer of LLW from existing tank systems not in full FFA compliance

  15. Design, Explanation, and Evaluation of Training Model Structures Based on Learning Organization--In the Cement Industry with a Nominal Production Capacity of Ten Thousand Tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mojtaba; Abbspour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of training based on learning organization in the staff of cement industry with production capacity over ten thousand tons. The purpose of this study is to propose a training model based on learning organization. For this purpose, the factors of organizational learning were introduced by…

  16. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 12: strengthening global capacity for evidence synthesis of quasi-experimental health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Focussed capacity markets. A new market design for the transition to a new energy system. Study for the environmental foundation WWF Deutschland; Fokussierte Kapazitaetsmaerkte. Ein neues Marktdesign fuer den Uebergang zu einem neuen Energiesystem. Studie fuer die Umweltstiftung WWF Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Schlemmermeier, Ben; Diermann, Carsten [LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany); Hammerstein, Christian von [RAUE LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-08

    The German and European power supply systems face extensive changes. With the energy policy decisions made in 2010 and 2011 Germany has set itself the goal of comprehensively reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of electricity production by the middle of this century, of shifting its basis largely to renewable energies and of phasing out the use of nuclear energy by 2022. Alongside the phase-out of over 20,000 megawatts of electricity capacity from nuclear power plants, more than 10,000 megawatts of capacity from incumbent power plants are at acute risk of decommissioning. In addition the building of approx. 5,000 mega-watts of new power plant capacity up to 2020 and at least an additional 10,000 mega-watts up to 2030 has to be ensured to flank the planned expansion of renewable energies with residual load power plants which guarantee security of supply. Germany's network is part of the interconnected Continental European power system, but a closer analysis shows that power plant capacities from abroad cannot make a significant contribution to guaranteeing security of supply in Germany in the medium term. A capacity market instrument primarily serves to guarantee security of supply; yet objectives such as maintaining competition intensity, minimising costs for electricity con-sumers and meeting at least Germany's climate policy targets also have to be taken into account. In addition a contribution has to be made to transforming the power supply system; the building of new, very flexible and low emission power plants which complement the fluctuating electricity production from wind and solar energy is essential for technical and economic reasons. In view of these criteria and the problems of the capacity market models put forward to date (strategic reserve, a comprehensive capacity market), the concept of the ''focused capacity market'' is being developed. This design option for a capacity market consists of two different segments, for

  18. Reconstruction actions in order to achieve and increase the designed nominal heat capacity of a hot-water block boiler with two flame pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Kirovski, Hristo

    2000-01-01

    All companies which are occupied with some kind of useful energy production, must realize two very important things: firstly, maximum utilization of projecting capacities of energetic plants, in condition when specific investment for projecting and erecting of new plants allude use of prominent financial capital, and secondly, the energy must be produced economically, i.e. with the highest possible coefficient of efficiency and the lowest impact of combustion process to the environment. This paper presents the chronology of reconstruction activities of a block hot water boiler with two flame tubes type BKG 200 with 16.28 MWth (made by TPK Zagreb) in order to acquire and increase its thermal capacity app. 11 % (Authors)

  19. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, JEFFREY A.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios

  20. Electricity market design in the context of the energy turnaround. The role of capacity mechanisms; Strommarktdesign im Zuge der Energiewende. Die Rolle von Kapazitaetsmechanismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Henning

    2014-07-01

    This publication starts out by presenting the fundamentals of the liberalised electricity market and goes on to focus on price formation in the electricity wholesale market. After this it investigates the degree to which lacking willingness to invest in conventional production technologies poses a danger to long-term security of supply. The main task undertaken in this study has been to present and analyse various capacity mechanisms that could act as incentives, reviving the willingness to invest. The study closes with a summarising conclusion.

  1. The dependencies for determining the cargo capacity of lng carriers with spherical tanks and membrane tanks at the initial stages of design

    OpenAIRE

    Xinshuo, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The boiling point of liquefied natural gas (LNG) reaches –163 °c, it means that it is necessary to use the special cargo tanks for the LNG carriers to ensure the safety of transport. In this article, the general classification of the cargo system in the LNG carriers at the first time of their operation is demonstrated. And the author summarizes the process of development of the two most common type of cargo tanks: the spherical Moss types and the membrane types. Moreover, the cargo capacity a...

  2. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  3. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  4. Efficient conversion of sand to nano-silicon and its energetic Si-C composite anode design for high volumetric capacity lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Raj Khatribail, Anish; Vijayalakshmi, Savithri; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an attractive anode material for Li-ion cells, which can provide energy density 30% higher than any of the today's commercial Li-ion cells. In the current study, environmentally benign, high abundant, and low cost sand (SiO2) source has been used to prepare nano-silicon via scalable metallothermic reduction method using micro wave heating. In this research, we have developed and optimized a method to synthesis high purity nano silicon powder that takes only 5 min microwave heating of sand and magnesium mixture at 800 °C. Carbon coated nano-silicon electrode material is prepared by a unique method of coating, polymerization and finally in-situ carbonization of furfuryl alcohol on to the high purity nano-silicon. The electrochemical performance of a half cell using the carbon coated high purity Si is showed a stable capacity of 1500 mAh g-1 at 6 A g-1 for over 200 cycles. A full cell is fabricated using lithium cobalt oxide having thickness ≈56 μm as cathode and carbon coated silicon thin anode of thickness ≈9 μm. The fabricated full cell of compact size exhibits excellent volumetric capacity retention of 1649 mAh cm-3 at 0.5 C rate (C = 4200 mAh g-1) and extended cycle life (600 cycles). The full cell is demonstrated on an LED lantern and LED display board.

  5. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  6. Design and Synthesis of novel CuxGeOy/Cu/C nanowires by in situ chemical reduction process with highly reversible capacity for Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Xiaozhu; Peng, Xia; Tang, Kaibin

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and use of ternary metal oxides/metal particles/carbon hybrids, especially 1D naowires composed of MGeO 3 /M/C hybrids for energy storage, remains very few reports. In this work, 1D Cu x GeO y /Cu/C NWs (x < 1, y < 3) were successfully prepared by a simple method involving chemical reduction process and simultaneous carbon coating. It was found that through the polydopamine(PDA)-assisted chemical reduction process performed on the CuGeO 3 NWs, the phase partially transformed to a mixture of crystalline Cu (∼70 nm) and amorphous Cu x GeO y NWs with carbon coating, but the nanowire-shaped morphology was maintained. Electrochemical measurements showed that the Cu x GeO y /Cu/C NWs exhibited a stable reversible capacity of ∼900 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles. Even at 800 mA g −1 , it also exhibited excellent high rate capacity of 350 mA h g −1 . The newly generated Cu x GeO y @Cu@CNWs exhibit enhanced cycle stability with high lithium-storage capability compared to that of the as-preparedCuGeO 3 NWs. (*) The in situ-synthesized Cu nanoparticles, amorphous state and carbon coating might play an important role in activating and enhancing the reversibility of the conversion reaction of Cu x GeO y . In addition, this effective synthetic method might provide the methodology for the development of other ternary metal oxides/metal particles/carbon hybrids materials for energy storage.

  7. The Role of Engineering Design in Technological and 21st Century Competencies Capacity Building: Comparative Case Study in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdulwahed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design is considered an effective means for developing engineering technical skills. Normally, engineering design is conducted in teams and is a collaborative open-ended approach under constraints. This nature of engineering design involves engagement of several interpersonal, cognitive, and management skills or competencies such as teamwork, communications, decision making, problem solving, etc. While modern engineers are supposed to be technically competent, they need to posses a wide set of interpersonal, cognitive, and management competencies to function effectively in the workplace. Increasingly there has been more deployment of engineering design competitions (EDCs in engineering education to address some gaps in current curricula system. In this study, the impact of a complex engineering design competition on developing 21st century competencies of engineering and technology talent is investigated. A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods in the approach to self-reporting perceptions were utilized. Data was collected through interviews from students and faculty, and through surveys from students. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from students and faculty indicate that the investigated EDC have positive impact on a large set of 21st century engineering and technology competencies, this has been consistent across groups of students from the EU, Middle East, and Asia, as well as across genders. This is one of the few available investigations that sheds light in further depth on the impact of engineering design on non-technical skills.

  8. Designed hybrid nanostructure with catalytic effect: beyond the theoretical capacity of SnO2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ye; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Shi, Yumeng; Wong, Jen It; Ding, Meng; Yang, Hui Ying

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal cobalt (Co) nanoparticle was designed as catalyst to promote the conversion reaction of Sn to SnO2 during the delithiation process which is deemed as an irreversible reaction. The designed nanocomposite, named as SnO2/Co3O4/reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), was synthesized by a simple two-step method composed of hydrothermal (1st step) and solvothermal (2nd step) synthesis processes. Compared to the pristine SnO2/rGO and SnO2/Co3O4 electrodes, SnO2/Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibi...

  9. An evaluation on the design optimization of large capacity tanks in the chemical and volume control system for YGN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Deuk Yoon; Ko, Yong Sang; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    The design of Yonggwang nuclear power plant units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) is referenced to that of Palo Verde nuclear power plant (Palo Verde NPP) in Arizona, USA. The reactor vessel and steam generator of YGN 3 and 4 are smaller than that of Palo Verde NPP because Palo Verde NPP produces 1,300 Mw electricity, on the other hand, YGN 3 and 4 produces 1,000 Mw electricity. However, other components and systems of YGN 3 and 4 are the same as those of Palo verde NPP. The oversized system components may be considered to ensure the safety and operability by providing sufficient design margin, but it requires unnecessary cost burden to the owner of the plant. This report focuses on the optimization of the volume of the large tanks (i.e., above 400,000 gallons) in CVCS. These tanks are refueling water tank (RWT), reactor makeup water tank (RMWT) and holdup tank (HT). It has been performed that the calculation on the required tank volume based on design requirements, comparison on the calculation results with as-built design, and estimation on the instrumentation setpoint. 19 tabs., 12 figs., 13 refs. (Author)

  10. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  11. Structural Glass Systems under Fire: Overview of Design Issues, Experimental Research, and Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Bedon, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Architectural design concepts incorporating glass beams, panels, or generally load-carrying elements and stiffeners for buildings, claddings, windows, and partitions are largely considered in modern high-rise constructions. A multitude of aspects, including motivations related to transparency, aesthetics, illumination, and energy conservation, progressively increased the use and interest for such a still rather innovative constructional material. However, compared to other traditional materia...

  12. Capacity analysis of vehicular communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the network capacity analysis of VANETs, a key topic as fundamental guidance on design and deployment of VANETs is very limited. Moreover, unique characteristics of VANETs impose distinguished challenges on such an investigation. This SpringerBrief first introduces capacity scaling laws for wireless networks and briefly reviews the prior arts in deriving the capacity of VANETs. It then studies the unicast capacity considering the socialized mobility model of VANETs. With vehicles communicating based on a two-hop relaying scheme, the unicast capacity bound is deriv

  13. Design and Proof-of-Concept Use of a Circular PMMA Platform with 16-Well Sample Capacity for Microwave-Accelerated Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Aslan, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the design and the proof-of-concept use of a new, circular poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bioassay platform (PMMA platform), which affords for the rapid processing of 16 samples at once. The circular PMMA platform (5 cm in diameter) was coated with a silver nanoparticle film to accelerate the bioassay steps by microwave heating. A model colorimetric bioassay for biotinylated albumin (using streptavidin-labeled horse radish peroxidase) was performed on the PMMA platform coated with and without silver nanoparticles (a control experiment), and at room temperature and using microwave heating. It was shown that the simulated temperature profile of the PMMA platform during microwave heating were comparable to the real-time temperature profile during actual microwave heating of the constructed PMMA platform in a commercial microwave oven. The model colorimetric bioassay for biotinylated albumin was successfully completed in ~2 min (total assay time) using microwave heating, as compared to 90 min at room temperature (total assay time), which indicates a ~45-fold decrease in assay time. Our PMMA platform design afforded for significant reduction in non-specific interactions and low background signal as compared to non-silvered PMMA surfaces when employed in a microwave-accelerated bioassay carried out in a conventional microwave cavity.

  14. High-energy components of 'designer gasoline and designer diesel fuel' I. Heat capacities, enthalpy increments, vapor pressures, critical properties, and derived thermodynamic functions for bicyclopentyl between the T=(10 and 600) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, R.D.; Steele, W.V.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the standard thermodynamic properties for gaseous bicyclopentyl (Chemicals Abstracts registry number [1636-39-1]) are reported. Experimental methods include adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature was determined by d.s.c. and the critical pressure and critical density were estimated. Standard molar entropies, standard molar enthalpies, and standard molar Gibbs free energies of formation are reported at selected temperatures between T=(298.15 and 600) K. Formation properties were calculated with a literature value for the enthalpy of combustion in the liquid phase. All results are compared with available literature values

  15. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  16. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  17. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  18. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  19. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  20. Emergency diagnostics of load-carrying structures into the works transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur BLUM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase of exploited cranes since 1970 year and implementation of European standards restricting safety factors ware cause of many breakdowns and accidents. That’s why act about technical supervision from 2000 year impose checkups of technical conditions of supporting structures every 12 months. Checkups include also welded joint and crane tracks. Aim of routine test is to find out if there are no damages which may affect on constructions safe exploitation. Routine tests give information if construction can be exploited. Article presents methodology of diagnostics inspection for defect detection of constructions and its practical application.

  1. Mechanical Stresses Induced by Compression in Castings of the Load-carrying Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the compression-induced state of stress arising in castings of the guide grates during operation in pusher-type furnaces for heat treatment. The effect of grate compression is caused by its forced movement in the furnace. The introduction of flexible segments to the grate structure changes in a significant way the stress distribution, mainly by decreasing its value, and consequently considerably extends the lifetime of the grates. The stress distribution was examined in the grates with flexible segments arranged crosswise (normal to the direction of the grate compression and lengthwise (following the direction of force. A regression equation was derived to describe the relationship between the stress level in a row of ribs in the grate and the number of flexible segments of a lengthwise orientation placed in this row. It was found that, regardless of the distribution of the flexible segments in a row, the stress values were similar in all the ribs included in this row, and in a given row of the ribs/flexible segments a similar state of stress prevailed, irrespective of the position of this row in the whole structure of the grate and of the number of the ribs/flexible segments introduced therein. Parts of the grate responsible for the stress transfer were indicated and also parts which play the role of an element bonding the structure.

  2. Force control theory and method of human load carrying exoskeleton suit

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Gui, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    This book reports on the latest advances in concepts and further development of principal component analysis (PCA), discussing in detail a number of open problems related to dimensional reduction techniques and their extensions. It brings together research findings, previously scattered throughout many scientific journal papers worldwide, and presents them in a methodologically unified form. Offering vital insights into the subject matter in self-contained chapters that balance the theory and concrete applications, and focusing on open problems, it is essential reading for all researchers and practitioners with an interest in PCA.

  3. The Metabolic Cost of Load-Carrying: A Discussion of Experimental Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-02-01

    walking -tivo (PA) :or After M.oal Kgm Cm Square Kilo- ൒troe/ Ygm (AN) metros calor- iain • • lvel treadmIll Smith R.D.B 57.0 173 1.66 1.1e2 4.12.15...random causes. The assignable causes of these data are W, L ard V, and it is the object of analysis to:- (a) determine a mathematical law that...estimated by .017336eO 3 9 2 5V 0 1 7 0V/ 2 5 B.11. Conclusion It is suggested that the mathematical law * .. 008300 + W + L)ev/° adequately describes

  4. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  5. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  6. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  7. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  8. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  9. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181...

  10. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  11. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  12. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  13. Relevance of normative values for functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Geertzen, J.; Groothoff, J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, P.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) are evaluations designed to measure capacity to perform activities and are used to make recommendations for participation in work. Normative values of healthy working subjects' performances are unavailable, thus patients' performances cannot be

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  15. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  16. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  17. Graphene with outstanding anti-irradiation capacity as multialkylated cyclopentanes additive toward space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Multialkylated cyclopentanes (MACs), a class of synthetic hydrocarbon fluid have attracted intensive interest as possible space lubricants due to a series of unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we used graphene with high mechanical strength and chemical inertness as lubricant additive to explore its potential for space application. The effects of space irradiation on graphene and the tribological properties of graphene as lubricant additive were firstly investigated in detail under simulated space environment composed of high vacuum, high/low temperature and irradiation. Results demonstrate that graphene not only possesses outstanding anti-irradiation capacity but also significantly improves the space performance and tribological properties of MACs, which depends on the excellent physicochemical properties and high load-carrying ability of graphene as well as more effective separation of the sliding surfaces.

  18. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig...... by providing ideas about future research for investigating mobilities in situ as a kind of “staging,” which he notes is influenced by the “material turn” in social sciences....... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  19. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  20. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  1. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  2. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  3. Generation capacity adequacy in interdependent electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in regional electricity markets with transmission constraints. Differences between regulatory policies and market designs in terms of generation adequacy policies may distort the normal functioning of the neighboring markets, as well as the reliability of supply. We test the effect of heterogeneous regulatory design between two interdependent markets: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. We rely on a long-term market simulation model in system dynamics that characterizes expansion decision in a competitive regime. The results show that differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. We examine both the short and long terms effect, and how free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other. The main finding is that the lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. - Research highlights: → We model the long-term dynamic of two interdependent markets. → We examine both the short and long terms effect of heterogeneous regulatory design: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. → Differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. → Lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. → Free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other.

  4. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  5. Capacity mechanisms and effects on market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina; Kranz, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Liberalized electricity markets are characterized by fluctuating priceinelastic demand of non-storable electricity, often defined by a substantial market share held by one or few incumbent firms. These characteristics have led to a controversial discussion concerning the need for and the design of capacity mechanisms, which combine some form of capacity payments with price caps in the spot market. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of capacity mechanisms on the market structure. We consider a model with dominant firms and a competitive fringe and investigate the impact of price caps and capacity payments on investment incentives and market concentration. While lower price caps reduce the potential for the exercise of market power in static models, we find that in the dynamic model with endogenous investments, lower price caps result in an increase in market concentration, the frequency of capacity withholding and the profits of the dominant firms.

  6. Attitude development in designers' education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, E.; Moes, N.; Fain, N.

    Modern academic design and engineering education adopted the issues and goals of holistic development of design competence. Holistic design competence is a combination of generic capacities: capability, knowledge, skill, experience and attitude. All capacities should be addressed in academic

  7. High Capacity cylinder roller bearing; High Capacity Zylinderrollenlager. Ein vollrolliges Lager mit Kaefig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Baum, J. [SKF, Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The high capacity cylinder roller bearing is an example for continuous development of SKF products and does an effective contribution to increase operational safety and offers the possibility to reduce weight and compact design. (GL)

  8. Throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    An engineering assessment is presented for factors that could significantly limit the throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit. The assessment focuses mainly on volumetric throughput capacity (and related mass rate and feed density), and energy input. Important conclusions that were reached during this assessment are that the throughput is limited by feed densification capability and that the design energy input rating appears to be adequate

  9. Measures of Financial Capacity: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquiere, Angela R; McAfee, Caitlin; Burnett, Jason

    2017-05-23

    Capacity to manage finances and make financial decisions can affect risk for financial exploitation and is often the basis for legal determinations of conservatorship/guardianship. Several structured assessments of financial capacity have been developed, but have not been compared regarding their focus, validity, or reliability. Therefore, we conducted a review of financial capacity measures to examine these factors. We searched electronic databases, reference lists in identified articles, conference proceedings and other grey literature for measures of financial capacity. We then extracted data on the length and domains of each measure, the population for which they were intended, and their validity and reliability. We identified 10 structured measures of financial capacity. Most measures could be completed in 25-30 min, and were designed to be administered to older adults with some level of cognitive impairment. Reliability and validity were high for most. Measurement of financial capacity is complex and multidimensional. When selecting a measure of financial capacity, consideration should be made of the population of focus and the domains of capacity to be assessed. More work is needed on the cultural sensitivity of financial capacity measures, their acceptability, and their use in clinical work. Better understanding of when, and to whom, to administer different financial capacity measures could enhance the ability to accurately detect those suffering from impaired financial capacity, and prevent related negative outcomes like financial exploitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  11. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  12. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  13. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  14. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  15. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  16. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  17. Shear capacity of in service prestressed concrete bridge girders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    The design of prestressed concrete bridge girders has changed significantly over the past several : decades. Specifically, the design procedure to calculate the shear capacity of bridge girders that : was used forty years ago is very different than t...

  18. Regeneration limit of classical Shannon capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, M. A.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Since Shannon derived the seminal formula for the capacity of the additive linear white Gaussian noise channel, it has commonly been interpreted as the ultimate limit of error-free information transmission rate. However, the capacity above the corresponding linear channel limit can be achieved when noise is suppressed using nonlinear elements; that is, the regenerative function not available in linear systems. Regeneration is a fundamental concept that extends from biology to optical communications. All-optical regeneration of coherent signal has attracted particular attention. Surprisingly, the quantitative impact of regeneration on the Shannon capacity has remained unstudied. Here we propose a new method of designing regenerative transmission systems with capacity that is higher than the corresponding linear channel, and illustrate it by proposing application of the Fourier transform for efficient regeneration of multilevel multidimensional signals. The regenerative Shannon limit—the upper bound of regeneration efficiency—is derived.

  19. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  20. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  1. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  3. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  4. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  5. Design and analysis of reactor containment of steel-concrete composite laminated shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, K.; Isobata, O.; Kawamata, S.

    1977-01-01

    A new scheme of containment consisting of steel-concrete laminated shell is being developed. In the main part of a cylindrical vessel, the shell consists of two layers of thin steel plates located at the inner and outer surfaces, and a layer of concrete core into which both the steel plates are anchored. Because of the compressive and shearing resistance of the concrete core, the layers behave as a composite solid shell. Membrane forces are shared by steel plates and partly by concrete core. Bending moment is effectively resisted by the section with extreme layers of steel. Therefore, both surfaces can be designed as extremely thin plates: the inner plate, which is a load carrying members as well as a liner, can be welded without the laborious process of stress-relieving, and various jointing methods can be applied to the outer plate which is free from the need for leak tightness. The capability of the composite layers of behaving as a unified solid shell section depends largely on the shearing rigidity of the concrete core. However, as its resisting capacity to transverse shearing force is comparatively low, a device for reducing the shearing stress at the junction to the base mat is needed. In the new scheme, this part of the cylindrical shell is divided into multiple layers of the same kind of composite shell. This device makes the stiffness of the bottom of the cylindrical shell to lateral movement minimum while maintaining the proper resistance to membrane forces. The analysis shows that the transverse shearing stress can be reduced to less than 1√n of the ordinary case by dividing the thickness of the shell into n layers which are able to slip against each other at the contact surface. In order to validate the feasibility and safety of this new design, the results of analysis on the basis of up-to-date design loads are presented

  6. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  7. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  8. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  9. Normative Values for a Functional Capacity Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Rehabilitation center. Participants: Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180

  10. Capacity adequacy in power markets facing energy transition: A comparison of scarcity pricing and capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a capacity mechanism can address security of supply objectives in a power market undergoing an energy transition that combines energy efficiency efforts to stabilise demand and a rapid increase in the proportion of renewables. To analyse this situation, power markets are simulated over the long term with a System Dynamics model integrating new investment and closure decisions. This last trait is relevant to studying investment in power generation in mature markets undergoing policy shocks. The energy-only market design with a price cap, with and without a capacity mechanism, is compared to scarcity pricing in two investment behaviour scenarios with and without risk aversion. The results show that the three market designs lead to different levels of risk for peaking unit investment and results thus differ according to which risk aversion hypothesis is adopted. Assuming a risk-neutral investor, the results indicate that compared to an energy-only market with a price cap at 3 000 €/MWh, an energy-only market with scarcity pricing and the market design with a capacity mechanism are two efficient options to reach similar levels of load loss. But under the hypothesis of risk aversion, the results highlight the advantage of the capacity mechanism over scarcity pricing. - Highlights: • Investment decisions in electricity markets are simulated by a System Dynamics model. • Capacity mechanism enhances capacity adequacy compared to the energy-only market. • With no risk aversion, capacity mechanism or scarcity pricing provide similar results. • With risk aversion, capacity mechanism appears to be the preferable market design.

  11. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  12. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  13. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  14. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  15. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  16. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  17. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  18. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  19. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  20. Model-Based Control Design for Flexible Rotors Supported by Active Gas Bearings - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo

    , abundant and clean. Nevertheless, this technology has important drawbacks: the low viscosity of the lubricant results in a low load carrying capacity and gas bearings also presents low damping properties, which often lead to a reduced stability range and make dangerous running close to, or across...... theoretical model for active gas bearings, with special attention to the modelling of the injection system. Secondly, experimentally validate the improved mathematical model in terms of static properties (journal equilibrium position and resulting aerodynamic forces) and dynamic properties (natural...

  1. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  2. Locational electricity capacity markets: Alternatives to restore the missing signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Amparo D.; Fraser, Hamish

    2007-03-15

    In the absence of a properly functioning electricity demand side, well-designed capacity payment mechanisms hold more promise for signaling the value of capacity than non-CPM alternatives. Locational CPMs that rely on market-based principles, such as forward capacity auctions, are superior to cost-based payments directed to specific must-run generators, as CPMs at least provide a meaningful price signal about the economic value of resources to potential investors. (author)

  3. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  4. Energy modelling and capacity building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Planning and Economic Studies Section of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy is focusing on building analytical capacity in MS for energy-environmental-economic assessments and for the elaboration of sustainable energy strategies. It offers a variety of analytical models specifically designed for use in developing countries for (i) evaluating alternative energy strategies; (ii) assessing environmental, economic and financial impacts of energy options; (iii) assessing infrastructure needs; (iv) evaluating regional development possibilities and energy trade; (v) assessing the role of nuclear power in addressing priority issues (climate change, energy security, etc.). These models can be used for analysing energy or electricity systems, and to assess possible implications of different energy, environmental or financial policies that affect the energy sector and energy systems. The models vary in complexity and data requirements, and so can be adapted to the available data, statistics and analytical needs of different countries. These models are constantly updated to reflect changes in the real world and in the concerns that drive energy system choices. They can provide thoughtfully informed choices for policy makers over a broader range of circumstances and interests. For example, they can readily reflect the workings of competitive energy and electricity markets, and cover such topics as external costs. The IAEA further offers training in the use of these models and -just as important- in the interpretation and critical evaluation of results. Training of national teams to develop national competence over the full spectrum of models, is a high priority. The IAEA maintains a broad spectrum of databanks relevant to energy, economic and environmental analysis in MS, and make these data available to analysts in MS for use in their own analytical work. The Reference Technology Data Base (RTDB) and the Reference Data Series (RDS-1) are the major vehicles by which we

  5. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  6. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  7. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  8. The Zone of Inertia: Absorptive Capacity and Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godkin, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how interruptions in organizational learning effect institutional absorptive capacity and contribute to organizational inertia. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory model is presented as a heuristic to describe how interruptions in organizational learning affect absorptive capacity.…

  9. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty. MNCH policy ... search, lack of actionable messages in research reports, and limited ... of research evidence is but one factor influencing all stag- es of what ... However, in order to design an effective capacity en-.

  10. Uncertainty in Seismic Capacity of Masonry Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Augenti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a significant influence of modeling parameters on seismic vulnerability. However, confidence in mechanical properties of existing masonry buildings is much lower than in the case of reinforcing steel and concrete. This paper is aimed at assessing whether and how uncertainty propagates from material properties to seismic capacity of an entire masonry structure. A typical two-story unreinforced masonry building is analyzed. Based on previous statistical characterization of mechanical properties of existing masonry types, the following random variables have been considered in this study: unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength at zero confining stress, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and available ductility in shear. Probability density functions were implemented to generate a significant number of realizations and static pushover analysis of the case-study building was performed for each vector of realizations, load combination and lateral load pattern. Analysis results show a large dispersion in displacement capacity and lower dispersion in spectral acceleration capacity. This can directly affect decision-making because both design and retrofit solutions depend on seismic capacity predictions. Therefore, engineering judgment should always be used when assessing structural safety of existing masonry constructions against design earthquakes, based on a series of seismic analyses under uncertain parameters.

  11. High capacity getter pump for UHV operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, P.; Marino, M.; Belloni, F.; Porro, M.

    1993-01-01

    UHV pumps based on non-evaporable getter coated strips find widespread use in particle accelerators, synchrotron radiation machines and nuclear fusion experimental devices. Depending on the geometric constraints, pressure operation conditions and the foreseen gas loads, optimized getter structures, such as modules and cartridges, can be designed and assembled into a high-efficiency pump. In the present paper, the design and performance of a newly conceived High Capacity Getter Pump (HCGP) based on sintered getter bodies, in the shape of blades instead of strips, is illustrated. The porosity and the specific surface area of the blades and their arrangement in the cartridge have been optimized to significantly increase sorption capacity at a given speed. These pumps are well suited for those applications where a very high gas load is expected during the machine operation. The sintered getter bodies increase surface area and capacity, requiring less frequent reactivation and facilitating greater overall life of the pump. A discussion of the experimental results in terms of sorption speed and capacity for various gases is presented

  12. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  13. Strengthening Capacity in Environmental Economics and Policy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will extend CEEPA's capacity-building work by supporting a series of ... support through a competitive grants program; - design and implement basic ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.

  14. 46 CFR 108.419 - Fire main capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.419 Fire main capacity. The diameter of the fire... pumps operating simultaneously. ...

  15. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  16. Absorptive capacity and mass customization capability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Xiande; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Guo, Hangfei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of a manufacturer’s absorptive capacity (AC) on its mass customization capability (MCC). Design/methodology/approach The authors conceptualize AC within the supply chain context as four processes: knowledge acquisition from customers, knowledge acquisition from suppliers, knowledge assimilation, and knowledge application. The authors then propose and empirically test a model on the relationships among AC processes and MCC using s...

  17. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  18. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  19. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  20. Advancing leadership capacity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine S; Miles, Jane

    2013-01-01

    To address the potential shortage of nurse leaders, the profession must evaluate current strategies in both education and practice. While many new graduates dream of becoming a nurse practitioner or nurse anesthetist, few transition into practice with the goal of becoming a nurse leader. To increase the number of nurses capable of leadership, the profession must address 2 critical issues. First, effort must be made to augment faculty and students' conceptualization of nursing such that leadership is seen as a dimension of practice for all nurses, not just those in formal leadership roles. In so doing, leadership identity development would be seen as a part of becoming an expert nurse. Second, a comprehensive conceptual framework for lifelong leadership development of nurses needs to be designed. This framework should allow for baseline leadership capacity building in all nurses and advanced leadership development for those in formal administrative and advanced practice roles. The knowledge and skill requirements for quality improvement and patient safety have been explored and recommendations made for Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, but parallel work needs to be done to outline educational content, objectives, and effective pedagogy for advancing leadership development in nursing students at all levels.

  1. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  2. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  3. Building Capacity for Protected Area Management in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Johnson, Arlyne; Spence, Kelly; Sypasong, Ahnsany; Bynum, Nora; Sterling, Eleanor; Phimminith, Thavy; Praxaysombath, Bounthob

    2014-04-01

    Declining biodiversity in protected areas in Laos is attributed to unsustainable exploitation of natural resources. At a basic level, an important need is to develop capacity in academic and professional training institutions to provide relevant training to conservation professionals. The paper (a) describes the capacity building approach undertaken to achieve this goal, (b) evaluates the effectiveness of the approach in building capacity for implementing conservation and (c) reviews implementation outcomes. Strong linkages between organizations implementing field conservation, professional training institutions, and relevant Government agencies are central to enhancing effectiveness of capacity building initiatives aimed at improving the practice of conservation. Protected area management technical capacity needs will need to directly influence curriculum design to insure both relevance and effectiveness of training in improving protected area management. Sustainability of capacity building initiatives is largely dependent on the level of interest and commitment by host-country institutions within a supportive Government policy framework in addition to engagement of organizations implementing conservation.

  4. A Comparison of the Scorpion Load Carriage System (SLCS) to the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment (MOLLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    volunteer was asked to report wearing Battle Dress Uniform or Under Armor Undergarment) because the reflective markers used for motion capture needed to be...data collection sessions wearing Under Armor Undergarment, combat boots, integrated body armor and Scorpion helmet. Subjects were given time to

  5. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...... design we verify that this relationship is not only a correlation but rather a causal relationship. Fourth, as innovation is in its essence a combination of different knowledge, the pattern and type of communication between individuals, firms and institutions, is an important part of explaining...... innovative behaviour....

  6. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  7. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  8. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  9. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  10. Modelling of Rotational Capacity in Reinforced Linear Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Lars; Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    on the rotational capacity of the plastic hinges. The documentation of ductility can be a difficult task as modelling of rotational capacity in plastic hinges of frames is not fully developed. On the basis of the Theory of Plasticity a model is developed to determine rotational capacity in plastic hinges in linear......The Capacity Design Method forms the basis of several seismic design codes. This design philosophy allows plastic deformations in order to decrease seismic demands in structures. However, these plastic deformations must be localized in certain zones where ductility requirements can be documented...... reinforced concrete elements. The model is taking several important parameters into account. Empirical values is avoided which is considered an advantage compared to previous models. Furthermore, the model includes force variations in the reinforcement due to moment distributions and shear as well...

  11. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  13. Fundamentos para la determinación de la capacidad de carga de un remolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño // Basics for the determination of load capacity of a sugar cane trailer during its design process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra como determinar el valor racional de la capacidad de carga de unremolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño, de modo que en el momento de su explotación losgastos de la actividad de transporte tiendan a un mínimo.El principio que se ha seguido para ello es el de modelar matemáticamente su requerimientofuncional fundamental, capacidad de carga, en función de los gastos de explotación con los que sevincula, que son los costos del combustible y los gastos de amortización.Como restricciones del modelo se analizaron: La potencia efectiva del motor (Ne, el tiemposumario de traslado (Ttras y la fuerza tangencial de tracción máxima (Pφ.Palabras claves: diseño, remolque cañero, eficiencia, capacidad de carga, costos mínimos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this work it is shown how to determine the rational value of load capacity in a CANE trolleyduring its design process, so at the exploitation moment the transportation costs are minimized.The principle followed in this research was the mathematical modeling of their fundamentalfunctional requirement (load capacity as a function of the exploitation and other related expenses.For the restrictions of the model the following aspects were considered: The effective power of theengine (Ne, the summary time of transfer of the sugar cane (Ttras and the maximum tangentialforce of traction (Pφ.Key words: design, sugar cane trolley, efficiency, load capacity, minimum costs

  14. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  15. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  16. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  17. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  18. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  19. Robotic Design Choice Overview using Co-simulation and Design Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    . Simulations are used to evaluate the robot model output response in relation to operational demands. An example of a load carrying challenge in relation to the feeding robot is presented and a design space is defined with candidate solutions in both the mechanical and software domains. Simulation results......Rapid robotic system development has created a demand for multi-disciplinary methods and tools to explore and compare design alternatives. In this paper, we present a collaborative modelling technique that combines discrete-event models of controller software with continuous-time models of physical...... robot components. The proposed co-modelling method utilises Vienna Development Method (VDM) and Matlab for discrete-event modelling and 20-sim for continuous-time modelling. The model-based development of a mobile robot mink feeding system is used to illustrate the collaborative modelling method...

  20. Post-Earthquake Traffic Capacity of Modern Bridges in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of the capacity of a bridge to carry self-weight and traffic loads after an earthquake is essential for a : safe and timely re-opening of the bridge. In California, modern highway bridges designed using the Caltrans : Seismic Design Criter...

  1. Increasing Secondary Teachers' Capacity to Integrate the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Byron; Treichel, Christa J.

    2013-01-01

    Examples from a team of collaborating secondary teachers--one visual arts teacher and one science teacher--highlight key aspects of this professional development project in arts integration. The article traces a regional network designed to build teacher capacity with implications for the design, effectiveness, and sustainability of professional…

  2. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  3. Decline of functional capacity in healthy aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the natural decline in functional capacity (FC) of healthy aging workers; (2) to compare FC to categories of workload; and (3) to study the differences in decline between men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: A rehabilitation center at a university medical

  4. Understanding and Measuring Evaluation Capacity: A Model and Instrument Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Henry, David B.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Evaluation Capacity Assessment Instrument (ECAI), a measure designed to assess evaluation capacity among staff of nonprofit organizations that is based on a synthesis model of evaluation capacity. One hundred and sixty-nine staff of nonprofit organizations completed the ECAI. The 68-item…

  5. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  6. Investigation of suction anchor pullout capacity under undrained conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarand, Pollestad

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Floating units are dependent on reliable mooring systems to ensure safety during marine operations. Suction anchors have proved to be a technologically viable and cost-effective concept. They are capable of precision installation, re-use, and provide large resistive capacity. This thesis investigates load capacity and failure modes of suction anchors subjected to vertical, horizontal (lateral), and incline loading. Suction anchor design co...

  7. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  8. Anomalous heat capacity of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.N.; Vinogradov, G.A.; Alymov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of nanosized particles exceeds (from few to tenth percents) the same values of the corresponding bulk materials, and this difference increases with the diminishing of the sizes. In the present Letter we give an explanation of this phenomenon on an example of a nanocrystal with simple cubic lattice and an arbitrary shape. The simplest harmonic interaction potential of the nearest neighbors is used. A qualitative agreement with experimental data is obtained. The decisive role is attributed to the choice of boundary conditions: free boundaries provide the 'softening' of vibrational spectrum thus giving larger contribution to the heat capacity. The increase in heat capacity depends on the particle size, shape and sample perfection

  9. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  10. On risk and decisional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched.

  11. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...

  12. Computational Chemistry Capacity Building in an Underprivileged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap with the other continents requires the identification of capacity ... university in South Africa), where computational chemistry research capacity has ... testifies the feasibility of such capacity building also in conditions of limited ...

  13. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  14. Free energy and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy and heat capacity of actinide elements and compounds are important properties for the evaluation of the safety and reliable performance of nuclear fuel. They are essential inputs for models that describe complex phenomena that govern the behaviour of actinide compounds during nuclear fuels fabrication and irradiation. This chapter introduces various experimental methods to measure free energy and heat capacity to serve as inputs for models and to validate computer simulations. This is followed by a discussion of computer simulation of these properties, and recent simulations of thermophysical properties of nuclear fuel are briefly reviewed. (authors)

  15. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  16. Building Capacity in Ethical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    review to ensure the protection of human subjects participating in research. Drawing on fieldwork with the Forum for Ethical Review Committees in the Asian and Western Pacific Region, I explore two distinct forms taken by capacity building within that organization to support and train members of ethics...... review committees. The first, with an emphasis on standards and measurability, takes as its priority international accountability for clinical trial research. e second explores how the organization goes about persuading trainees to see and do ‘ethics’ differently. is distinction between forms of capacity...

  17. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  18. Increasing transmission capacity : case studies and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R.A. [Laminated Wood Systems, NE (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Many companies are stretching the capacities of their mature transmission lines as a result of deregulation in the electric utility industry. Since electric utilities are no longer in control of new generation locations or capacities, their mission has changed from supplying electricity to regional customers to that of the movement of power over their grid. There will also be even more pressure to maximize the thermal capacity of existing transmission lines once the regional transmission operators (RTOs) are in place. Various methods including conductor replacement or increasing structure height are available options to accomplish this. This paper discussed the available methods to increase ground clearance, including structure changeouts; pole top extensions; nip and tuck conductor; adding mid-span structures; and raising structures. Because the actual cost of line outages for maintenance of rebuild work will make many present day work procedures obsolete, the industry is changing to methods of safely increasing the existing structure heights without removing the line from service. The paper also presented the Phaiseraiser product which is a patented system, consisting of double steel members that are either single or multiple piece units which are used to support the raised structure. The paper discussed the product development of the Phaiseraiser product, with reference to wood stubs; pier foundation; pole enforcer methodology; testing; designs; and ordering requirements. Last, the paper discussed a custom designed installation tool package developed by Laminated Wood Systems (LWS); LWS structural analysis; estimated cost for Phaiseraiser installation on an h-frame; labor resources and training; maintenance considerations; completed Phaiseraiser projects; and a case study on the Omaha Public Power District. figs.

  19. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  20. Hybrid Heat Capacity - Moving Slab Laser Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stappaerts, E A

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid configuration of a heat capacity laser (HCL) and a moving slab laser (MSL) has been studied. Multiple volumes of solid-state laser material are sequentially diode-pumped and their energy extracted. When a volume reaches a maximum temperature after a ''sub-magazine depth'', it is moved out of the pumping region into a cooling region, and a new volume is introduced. The total magazine depth equals the submagazine depth times the number of volumes. The design parameters are chosen to provide high duty factor operation, resulting in effective use of the diode arrays. The concept significantly reduces diode array cost over conventional heat capacity lasers, and it is considered enabling for many potential applications. A conceptual design study of the hybrid configuration has been carried out. Three concepts were evaluated using CAD tools. The concepts are described and their relative merits discussed. Because of reduced disk size and diode cost, the hybrid concept may allow scaling to average powers on the order of 0.5 MW/module

  1. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  2. Prediction of Liquid Specific Heat Capacity of Food Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyi; Phinney, David M; Paluri, Sravanti; Heldman, Dennis R

    2018-04-01

    Specific heat capacity (c p ) is a temperature dependent physical property of foods. Lipid-being a macromolecular component of food-provides some fraction of the food's overall heat capacity. Fats/oils are complex chemicals that are generally defined by carbon length and degree of unsaturation. The objective of this investigation was to use advanced specific heat capacity measurement to determine the effect of fatty acid chemical structure on specific heat capacity of food lipids. In this investigation, the specific heat capacity of a series of triacylglycerols were measured to quantify the influence of fatty acid composition on specific heat capacity based on two parameters; the -average carbon number (C) and the average number of double bonds (U). A prediction model for specific heat capacity of food lipids as a function of C, U and temperature (T) has been developed. A multiple linear regression to the three-parameter model (R 2 = 0.87) provided a good fit to the experimental data. The prediction model was evaluated by comparison with previously published specific heat capacity values of vegetable oils. It was found that the model provided a 0.53% error, while three other models from the literature predicted c p values with 0.85% to 1.83% average relative deviation from experimental data. The outcomes from this research confirm that the thermophysical properties of fat present in foods are directly related to the physical chemical properties. The specific heat capacity of food products is widely used in process design. Improvements of current models to predict specific heat capacity of food products will assist in the development of efficient processes and in the control of food quality and safety. Furthermore, the understanding of how changes in chemical structure of macromolecular components of foods effect thermophysical properties may begin to allude to models that are not just empirical, but represent portions of the differences in chemistry. © 2018

  3. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  4. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  5. Research projects and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A World Bank long-term perspective study on Sub-Saharan Africa highlighted the need to build human and institutional capacity in virtually all sectors and countries. In South Africa, establishment of a democratic government in 1994 saw increased...

  6. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox's H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  7. Building adaptive capacity in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Banerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A starting point for adapting to longer-term climate change could be adaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events. Making more informed choices about the use of remittances can enhance the adaptive capacity of remittance-receiving households.

  8. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  9. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass...

  10. Capacity Planning and Leadtime management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.; Buitenhek, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a framework for capacity planning and lead time management in manufacturing companies, with an emphasis on the machine shop. First we show how queueing models can be used to find approximations of the mean and the variance of manufacturing shop lead times. These quantities

  11. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  12. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  13. Bearing Capacity of Foundations subjected to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    1996-01-01

    In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless it is com......In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless...

  14. Transformational capacity and the influence of place and identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, N A; Park, S E; Howden, S M; Adger, W N; Brown, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is altering the productivity of natural resources with far-reaching implications for those who depend on them. Resource-dependent industries and communities need the capacity to adapt to a range of climate risks if they are to remain viable. In some instances, the scale and nature of the likely impacts means that transformations of function or structure will be required. Transformations represent a switch to a distinct new system where a different suite of factors become important in the design and implementation of response strategies. There is a critical gap in knowledge on understanding transformational capacity and its influences. On the basis of current knowledge on adaptive capacity we propose four foundations for measuring transformational capacity: (1) how risks and uncertainty are managed, (2) the extent of skills in planning, learning and reorganizing, (3) the level of financial and psychological flexibility to undertake change and (4) the willingness to undertake change. We test the influence of place attachment and occupational identity on transformational capacity using the Australian peanut industry, which is presently assessing significant structural change in response to predicted climatic changes. Survey data from 88% of peanut farmers in Queensland show a strong negative correlation between transformational capacity and both place attachment and occupational attachment, suggesting that whilst these factors may be important positive influences on the capacity to adapt to incremental change, they act as barriers to transformational change. (letter)

  15. Transformational capacity and the influence of place and identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. A.; Park, S. E.; Adger, W. N.; Brown, K.; Howden, S. M.

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is altering the productivity of natural resources with far-reaching implications for those who depend on them. Resource-dependent industries and communities need the capacity to adapt to a range of climate risks if they are to remain viable. In some instances, the scale and nature of the likely impacts means that transformations of function or structure will be required. Transformations represent a switch to a distinct new system where a different suite of factors become important in the design and implementation of response strategies. There is a critical gap in knowledge on understanding transformational capacity and its influences. On the basis of current knowledge on adaptive capacity we propose four foundations for measuring transformational capacity: (1) how risks and uncertainty are managed, (2) the extent of skills in planning, learning and reorganizing, (3) the level of financial and psychological flexibility to undertake change and (4) the willingness to undertake change. We test the influence of place attachment and occupational identity on transformational capacity using the Australian peanut industry, which is presently assessing significant structural change in response to predicted climatic changes. Survey data from 88% of peanut farmers in Queensland show a strong negative correlation between transformational capacity and both place attachment and occupational attachment, suggesting that whilst these factors may be important positive influences on the capacity to adapt to incremental change, they act as barriers to transformational change.

  16. Missing money and missing markets: Reliability, capacity auctions and interconnectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbery, David

    2016-01-01

    In the energy trilemma of reliability, sustainability and affordability, politicians treat reliability as over-riding. The EU assumes the energy-only Target Electricity Model will deliver reliability but the UK argues that a capacity remuneration mechanism is needed. This paper argues that capacity auctions tend to over-procure capacity, exacerbating the missing money problem they were designed to address. The bias is further exacerbated by failing to address some of the missing market problems also neglected in the debate. It examines the case for, criticisms of, and outcome of the first GB capacity auction and problems of trading between different capacity markets. - Highlights: •Energy-only markets can work if they avoid missing money and missing market problems. •Policy makers over-estimate the cost of so-called “loss of load events”. •Policy makers tend to over-procure capacity, exacerbating the missing money problem. •Rectifying missing market problems simplifies trade between different capacity markets. •Addressing missing market problems makes under-procurement cheaper than over-procurement.

  17. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  18. Which Instruments Can Detect Submaximal Physical and Functional Capacity in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Back Pain? A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Trippolini, Maurizio A.; van der Palen, Job; Verhoeven, Jan; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Systematic review. Objective. To evaluate the validity of instruments that claim to detect submaximal capacity when maximal capacity is requested in patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Summary of Background Data. Several instruments have been developed to measure

  19. Supporting Capacity Development for Sustainable Land Administration Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    and for identifying an adequate response to these needs at societal, organisational and individual levels. The paper examines the capacity building concept and underpins the need for institutional development to facilitate the design and implementation of efficient Land Administration Models and to support good......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems are institutional......, the national capacity to manage land rights, restrictions and responsibilities is not well developed in terms of mature institutions and the necessary human resources and skills. In this regard, the capacity building concept offers some guidance for analysing and assessing the capacity needs...

  20. Capacity Management as a Service for Enterprise Standard Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Müller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity management approaches optimize component utilization from a strong technical perspective. In fact, the quality of involved services is considered implicitly by linking it to resource capacity values. This practice hinders to evaluate design alternatives with respect to given service levels that are expressed in user-centric metrics such as the mean response time for a business transaction. We argue that utilized historical workload traces often contain a variety of performance-related information that allows for the integration of performance prediction techniques through machine learning. Since enterprise applications excessively make use of standard software that is shipped by large software vendors to a wide range of customers, standardized prediction models can be trained and provisioned as part of a capacity management service which we propose in this article. Therefore, we integrate knowledge discovery activities into well-known capacity planning steps, which we adapt to the special characteristics of enterprise applications. Using a real-world example, we demonstrate how prediction models that were trained on a large scale of monitoring data enable cost-efficient measurement-based prediction techniques to be used in early design and redesign phases of planned or running applications. Finally, based on the trained model, we demonstrate how to simulate and analyze future workload scenarios. Using a Pareto approach, we were able to identify cost-effective design alternatives for an enterprise application whose capacity is being managed.

  1. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  2. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... and professionals for implementing the new land policy. The curriculum combines the diploma and the bachelor level and it combines the key areas of land surveying, land management and physical planning....

  3. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  4. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  5. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, K J; Araújo, N A M; Ziff, R M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-06-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  6. Retention capacity of correlated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the water retention model [C. L. Knecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045703 (2012)] to correlated random surfaces. We find that the retention capacity of discrete random landscapes is strongly affected by spatial correlations among the heights. This phenomenon is related to the emergence of power-law scaling in the lake volume distribution. We also solve the uncorrelated case exactly for a small lattice and present bounds on the retention of uncorrelated landscapes.

  7. Capacity glut grows despite cancellations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Fereidoon P.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in the US electricity sector have created a challenging business environment for many players. The factors contributing to the current crisis include excess capacity in many regions amidst a sluggish economy, resulting in low wholesale prices. The situation has been aggravated by lack of investor confidence in the sector following the fall of Enron and subsequent disclosures about accounting and reporting irregularities in major trading companies. (Author)

  8. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  9. Heat capacity of solid parahydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagatskij, M I; Minchina, I Ya; Manzhelij, V G [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur

    1984-10-01

    A vacuum adiabatic calorimeter has been developed to investigate cryocrystals and their solutions in the range 0.4-300 K. Heat capacity of hydrogen with the orthomodification concentration 5 x 10/sup -3/ at.% between 0.5 and 8 K has been investigated. The limiting Debye temperature at T ..-->.. 0 has been obtained: (THETA/sub 0/=118.5 +- 0.5 K). It has been shown that heat capacity of solid parahydrogen, as that of other cryocrystals with the central interaction and closely packed lattices (/sup 4/He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), low temperatures is given by the universal relation proposed by Barron and Morrison Csub(V) AT/sup 3/(1+..cap alpha../sub 1/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 2/ + ..cap alpha../sub 2/(T/THETA/sub 0/)/sup 4/ ...). The effect of the sample time prehistory on the experimental heat capacity values of hydrogen with g.21 at.% orthomodification has been studied, and the times during which configurational equilibration in this solution is reached have been estimated.

  10. [Assessment of Functioning when Conducting Occupational Capacity Evaluations--What is "Evidence-Based"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Carlos; Schleifer, Roman; Dube, Anish; Hengartner, Michael P; Ebner, Gerhard; Seifritz, Erich; Liebrenz, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Occupational capacity evaluations have previously been subject to criticism for lacking in quality and consistency. To the authors' knowledge, there is no clear consensus on the best way to formally assess functioning within capacity evaluations. In this review we investigated different instruments that are used to assess functioning in occupational capacity evaluations. Systematic review of the literature. Though several instruments that assess functional capacity were found in our search, a specific validated instrument assessing occupational capacity as part of a larger psychiatric evaluation was not found. The limitations of the existing instruments on assessing functional capacity are discussed. Medical experts relying on instruments to conduct functional capacity evaluations should be cognizant of their limitations. The findings call for the development and use of an instrument specifically designed to assess the functional and occupational capacity of psychiatric patients, which is also likely to improve the quality of these reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  12. Capacity enhancement of indigenous expansion engine based helium liquefier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doohan, R. S.; Kush, P. K.; Maheshwari, G.

    2017-02-01

    Development of technology and understanding for large capacity helium refrigeration and liquefaction at helium temperature is indispensable for coming-up projects. A new version of helium liquefier designed and built to provide approximately 35 liters of liquid helium per hour. The refrigeration capacity of this reciprocating type expansion engine machine has been increased from its predecessor version with continuous improvement and deficiency debugging. The helium liquefier has been built using components by local industries including cryogenic Aluminum plate fin heat exchangers. Two compressors with nearly identical capacity have been deployed for the operation of system. Together they consume about 110 kW of electric power. The system employs liquid Nitrogen precooling to enhance liquid Helium yield. This paper describes details of the cryogenic expander design improvements, reconfiguration of heat exchangers, performance simulation and their experimental validation.

  13. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    There is considerable debate about the degree to which restructured markets perform successfully in their use of capacity markets. In providing appropriate incentives for new and existing generation to meet reliability requirements, a variety of capacity market designs have developed across RTOs and ISOs in the United States and internationally. Growing levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because VREs suppress energy prices while providing relatively little capacity, with these effects increase with VRE penetration. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets under consideration using variable resource requirement (VRR) demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers, including where there substantive differences in opinion. Third, we consider some of the challenges that may be specific to higher penetration levels of VRE. While the well known 'merit order' effect from VRE can be expected to suppress wholesale energy prices and revenue, this may be partly mitigated by increased capacity payments and the greater importance of AS payments for flexible capacity. The potential for greater reliance on capacity markets for generator revenues may amplify any inefficiency and costs associated with capacity price volatility and other suboptimal market design choices. Regulatory intervention to ensure adequate capacity payments and ancillary service revenue may become more prevalent under current market designs as the timescale for market signals shifts increasingly from near term (e.g., day-ahead in wholesale electricity markets) to longer term (annual intervals in capacity markets). Our review and discussion with market participants suggest substantive challenges may

  14. Models and Methods for Structural Topology Optimization with Discrete Design Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    in the conceptual design phase to find innovative designs. The strength of topology optimization is the capability of determining both the optimal shape and the topology of the structure. In some cases also the optimal material properties can be determined. Optimal structural design problems are modeled...... such as bridges, airplanes, wind turbines, cars, etc. Topology optimization is a collection of theory, mathematical models, and numerical methods and is often used in the conceptual design phase to find innovative designs. The strength of topology optimization is the capability of determining both the optimal......Structural topology optimization is a multi-disciplinary research field covering optimal design of load carrying mechanical structures such as bridges, airplanes, wind turbines, cars, etc. Topology optimization is a collection of theory, mathematical models, and numerical methods and is often used...

  15. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  16. Building Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A relatively small number of African sites have the clinical and laboratory capacity to design, manage and carry out HIV/AIDS prevention trials. This project is based on the premise that many of the required skills are already present at additional locations, but need further development. The grant will facilitate interaction ...

  17. Collective Trust: A Social Indicator of Instructional Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to test the validity of using collective trust as a social indicator of instructional capacity. Design/methodology/approach: A hypothesized model was advanced for the empirical investigation. Collective trust was specified as a latent construct with observable indicators being principal trust in faculty (PTF),…

  18. South African dietary total antioxidant capacity based on secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the average adult South African dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was estimated using secondary data and was evaluated against that determined for dietary intake recommendations. Design: The average adult South African dietary TAC was estimated using a report published by ...

  19. Nonlinear superheat and capacity control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design of a nonlinear controller. The stability of the proposed method is validated theoretically by Lyapunov...

  20. Building the capacity of agricultural extension personnel for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper strongly recommends immediate recruitment of new hands as well as full implementation of a well-designed capacity building programme so as to ensure a sustainable extension service delivery system where extension personnel can operate in the expected commercial (agriculture-driven) economy. Keywords: ...

  1. Capacity, delay and mobility in wireless ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Liu, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Network throughput and packet delay are two important parameters in the design and the evaluation of routing protocols for ad-hoc networks. While mobility has been shown to increase the capacity of a network, it is not clear whether the delay can be kept low without trading off the throughput. We

  2. Capacity of Community-Based Organisations to disseminate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the capacity of established community based organisations (CBOs) to disseminate information on sleeping sickness control. Design: Participatory interview process administered to randomly selected CBOs in a tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic area. Setting: Busia district, Western, Kenya. Results: ...

  3. Interventions in entrepreneurial learning: Blended learning and ICT capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Burgess; Scott Bingley; Rafael Paguio; Carolyn Woodley

    2018-01-01

    The effective use of information and communications technologies (ICT) can benefit most small businesses. This article examines the design, development and delivery of a pilot blended learning program for entrepreneurial learning that targets the use of ICT by tradespeople. The study involves a case study of tradespeople in Australia who participated in a program designed to build their capacity to identify, use and evaluate ICT to enhance their business practices. The program combined tradit...

  4. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  5. Installation Capacity Assessment of Damaged Deepwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide exploration and development of subsea and deepwater reservoirs has laid down some new and old engineering challenges to the offshore pipeline industry. This requires large D/t pipelines to be installed at water depths in the vicinity of up to 2700m. The deepwater collapse and buckle propagation event is almost unavoidable as the pipe wall thickness cannot be always determined from the codes and standards due to the limit state criteria. These codes also do not consider any fabrication imperfections and sustained damages emanating from transportation and handling. The objective of this paper is to present the Finite Element Analysis (FEA of dented pipes with D/t ratio more than 45, which is outside the applicability of current design codes, and to investigate the effects on installation capacity of these various damage sizes in terms of collapse and buckle propagation.

  6. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  7. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  8. Virginia Power's capacity acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Power is a utility with a growing demand for electricity. To meet that growth it has embarked on an aggressive program to encourage the construction of privately-owned generating plants. In 1988 it conducted the largest competitive acquisition program by any utility to date. Virginia Power has retained the option to build plants if the bids it receives are too costly or do not meet the needs of its customers. This paper describes the situation at Virginia Power, the program it has implemented, and the capacity additions which are scheduled between 1989 and 1995

  9. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  10. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  11. Geographic information system datasets of regolith-thickness data, regolith-thickness contours, raster-based regolith thickness, and aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick

    2010-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082-Hydrogeology and Steady-State Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. The datasets were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Geological Survey. The four datasets are described as follows and methods used to develop the datasets are further described in Scientific-Investigations Report 2010-5082: (1) ds507_regolith_data: This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith (unconsolidated sediment) thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Data were compiled from published reports, consultant reports, and from lithologic logs of wells and test holes on file with the U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center and the Colorado Division of Water Resources. (2) ds507_regthick_contours: This dataset consists of contours showing generalized lines of equal regolith thickness overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness was contoured manually on the basis of information provided in the dataset ds507_regolith_data. (3) ds507_regthick_grid: This dataset consists of raster-based generalized thickness of regolith overlying bedrock in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado. Regolith thickness in this dataset was derived from contours presented in the dataset ds507_regthick_contours. (4) ds507_welltest_data: This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and

  12. Implementing Estimation of Capacity for Freeway Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stochastic concept for freeway capacity, the procedure of capacity estimation is developed. Due to the fact that it is impossible to observe the value of the capacity and to obtain the probability distribution of the capacity, the product-limit method is used in this paper to estimate the capacity. In order to implement estimation of capacity using this technology, the lifetime table based on statistical methods for lifetime data analysis is introduced and the corresponding procedure is developed. Simulated data based on freeway sections in Beijing, China, were analyzed and the results indicate that the methodology and procedure are applicable and validated.

  13. Capacity of Fading Channels in the Low Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    The low power regime has attracted various researchers in the information theory and communication communities to understand the performance limits of wireless systems. Indeed, the energy consumption is becoming one of the major limiting factors in wireless systems. As such, energy-efficient wireless systems are of major importance to the next generation wireless systems designers. The capacity is a metric that measures the performance limit of a wireless system. The study of the ergodic capacity of some fading channels in the low power regime is the main subject of this thesis. In our study, we consider that the receiver has always a full knowledge of the channel state information. However, we assume that the transmitter has possibly imperfect knowledge of the channel state information, i.e. he knows either perfectly the channel or only an estimated version of the channel. Both radio frequency and free space optical communication channel models are considered. The main contribution of this work is the explicit characterization of how the capacity scales as function of the signal-to-noise ratio in the low power regime. This allows us to characterize the gain due to the perfect knowledge compared to no knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter. In particular, we show that the gain increases logarithmically for radio frequency communication. However, the gain increases as log2(Pavg) or log4(Pavg) for free-space optical communication, where Pavg is the average power constraint imposed to the input. Furthermore, we characterize the capacity of cascaded fading channels and we applied the result to Rayleigh-product fading channel and to a free-space optical link over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence in the presence of pointing errors. Finally, we study the capacity of Nakagami-m fading channel under quality of service constraints, namely the effective capacity. We have shown that the effective capacity converges to Shannon capacity in the very low

  14. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  15. UN OPEN GIS CAPACITY BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albertella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UN Open GIS Initiative is to identify and develop, under UN guidance, an Open Source GIS bundle that meets the requirements of UN operations, taking full advantage of the expertise of mission partners (partner nations, technology contributing countries, international organizations, academia, NGO’s, private sector. The project, started in 2016, is composed by 4 working groups. One of the working group is specifically related to Capacity Building, given its importance for the success of the project. UN Open GIS will be based on some existing open source geospatial software (packages and libraries with many extensions specifically developed. The users of the platform will be the UN staff supporting with mapping and GIS the peacekeeping missions. Therefore, they are generally expert of this specific domain, even if they are currently using proprietary software. UN Open GIS Capacity Building is specifically thought for covering this gap, providing them the suitable background about open source geospatial software in general and the education tailored to the solution that has been being developed within the project itself.

  16. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed.

  17. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... ... initiative is improving evaluation capacities of researchers studying Information and ... Capacity in ICTD (DECI) provides researchers from five IDRC-funded projects in ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia.

  18. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  19. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  20. Why Are We Talking About Capacity Markets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2017-06-28

    Revenue sufficiency or 'missing money' concerns in wholesale electricity markets are important because they could lead to resource (or capacity) adequacy shortfalls. Capacity markets or other capacity-based payments are among the proposed solutions to remedy these challenges. This presentation provides a high-level overview of the importance of and process for ensuring resource adequacy, and then discusses considerations for capacity markets under futures with high penetrations of variable resources such as wind and solar.

  1. Design of hoisting device used in nuclear power plants. KTA safety engineering code. Draft amendment, as of 6/98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The draft amendment specifies, according to the hazards involved, (a) the general provisions, (b) additional provisions supplementing the general provisions, (c) more stringent provisions relating to aggravated risks, applicable to lifting gear, and (d) additional requirements for elevators in reactor containments and refuelling equipment, to be taken into account in the design of hoisting device used in nuclear power plants. The term hoisting device in this context covers elevators, cranes, winches, trolleys, load carrying equipment, and LWR refuelling machines as are used in nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [de

  2. The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    When designing pile foundations, static design equations, pile driving formulae, static loading tests or stress wave analyses can be employed to estimate the axial capacity of single piles. Both laboratory and field tests show that soil exhibits time-dependent behaviour. An important result...... based on a set of static loading tests. In the literature it is suggested that the pile capacity increases with the logarithm to time after installation which is confirmed in this thesis. In continuation of this, it is analysed whether the magnitude of the set-up is related to the properties of the clay...... circumstances (e.g. load specifications, length of pile, pile material). In order to evaluate the design methods for piles in clay, it is necessary to correct for time between pile driving and pile testing. Results of testing the calculation procedures against the available data by employing different time...

  3. Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is to determine the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory planning decisions...

  4. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  5. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  6. Specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The assumed cooling process and the method used to calculate the specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen are described, and the simple equation fitted to the calculated specific cooling capacity data, together with the graphical form calculated values of the specific cooling capacity of nitrogen for stagnation temperatures from saturation to 350 K and stagnation pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres, are given.

  7. Future High Capacity Backbone Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan

    are proposed. The work focuses on energy efficient routing algorithms in a dynamic optical core network environment, with Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching (GMPLS) as the control plane. Energy ef- ficient routing algorithms for energy savings and CO2 savings are proposed, and their performance...... aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may increase the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile. In the second half of the thesis, the conflict between energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) is addressed by introducing a novel software defined......This thesis - Future High Capacity Backbone Networks - deals with the energy efficiency problems associated with the development of future optical networks. In the first half of the thesis, novel approaches for using multiple/single alternative energy sources for improving energy efficiency...

  8. Large-capacity current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarino, A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding superconducting magnets with reliable low-loss devices is a key issue for any cryo-electrical system. Conventional or HTS current leads can be used, and cooling methods, materials, and geometries can be chosen to optimize the thermo-electrical performance of the system. The LHC magnets are powered via more than 3000 current leads transporting altogether about 3 MA of current. With thousands of leads, the LHC lead project represents today the largest project of its kind ever undertaken. Following a review of the LHC lead project, an overview of the choices that can be made for the optimization of large capacity current leads is presented. Examples are given of other leads for large scale magnet systems for which the use of HTS is being envisaged

  9. High current capacity electrical connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Watts, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a ''sandwiched'' configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with contact buttons in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors

  10. Community Capacity Building for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Traverso-Yepez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of literature examining the benefits and relevance of community participation and community capacity building in health promotion and disease prevention endeavors. Academic literature embracing principles and commitment to community participation in health promotion practices often neglects the complexities involved and the flexibility required to work within this approach. This article addresses some of these challenges through a case study of two projects funded by Provincial Wellness Grants in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province in Canada with a strong tradition of community ties and support systems. In addition to addressing the unique circumstances of the community groups, this research allowed the authors to examine the situational context and power relations involved in the provision of services as well as the particular forms of subjectivity and citizenship that the institutional practices support. Recognizing this complex interdependency is an important step in creating more effective intervention practices.

  11. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  12. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  13. Reinventing oversight in the twenty-first century: the question of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosso, Christopher; DeLeo, Rob A.; Kay, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a key question emerging from this project based at the University of Minnesota: the fundamental capacity of government to engage in “dynamic oversight” of emergent technologies. This conception of oversight requires additional or new types of capacity for government agencies that must arbitrate conflicts and endow any outcomes with necessary democratic legitimacy. Rethinking oversight thus also requires consideration of the fundamental design and organizational capacity of the regulatory regime in the democratic state.

  14. Building the UPPA high capacity tensiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Joao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High capacity tensiometers (HCTs are sensors capable of directly measuring tensile pore water pressure (suction in soils. HCTs are typically composed of a casing that encapsulates a high air entry value ceramic filter, a water reservoir and a pressure sensing element. Since the creation of the first HCT by Ridley and Burland in 1993 at Imperial College London, HCTs have been almost exclusively built and used in academic research. The limited use in industrial applications can be explained by a lack of unsaturated soil mechanics knowledge among engineering practitioners but also by the technical difficulties associated to the direct measurement of tensile water pressures beyond the cavitation limit of -100kPa. In this paper, we present the recent design and manufacture of a new HCT at the Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour (UPPA in France. Different prototypes were tried by changing the main components of the device including the type of ceramic filter, pressure transducer and geometry of the external casing. In particular, two ceramic filters of distinct porosity, three pressure transducers with distinct materials/geometries and four casing designs were tested.

  15. Analysis of india and Pakistan's nuclear capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin

    1999-07-01

    The development and capacity of both India and Pakistan's nuclear weapons are described in production of weapon-grade materials, nuclear testing, weaponization engineering and delivery systems. India is capable of designing and manufacturing both small yield tactic nuclear weapons and big yield strategic ones and also possesses the technique to design and manufacture H-bombs. Weapon-grade plutonium constitutes the primary fission material for India's nuclear weapon and it has plutonium enough to make 70 to 100 nuclear weapons. India can also produce some tritium. India has already possessed delivery systems but it has not yet mounted nuclear warheads on its ballistic missiles even though its missiles, which India has already owned or is under development, have the ability to carry nuclear warheads. Pakistan also has the ability to make both tactic nuclear weapons and strategic ones. With its weapon-grade uranium, 20 to 30 nuclear weapons can be made. Besides the uranium production facility. Pakistan also has the facility to produce tritium. It is supposed that Pakistan has the ability to carry nuclear weapons with airplane, but it has a long way to go if it wants to mount nuclear weapon, especially bit yield ones, on its own missile. As a whole, India's nuclear force is stronger than Pakistan's, and its development far more advanced than Pakistan's

  16. Market design and supply security in imperfect power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Supply security in imperfect power markets is modelled under different market designs. In a uniform price auction for electricity with two firms, strategic behaviour may leave firms offering too few capacities and unable to supply all realized demand. Market design that relies on capacity markets increases available generation capacities for sufficiently high capacity prices and consequently decreases energy prices. However, equilibrium capacity prices are non-competitive. Capacity markets can increase security of supply, but cannot mitigate market power, which is exercised in the capacity market instead of the energy market. - Highlights: • I model two power generating firms who compete to serve stochastic demand in a multiunit uniform price auction. • In equilibrium, blackout probabilities can arise through capacity withholding. • Capacity mechanisms decrease capacity withholding and the expected energy price. • With dominant firms, capacity mechanisms are only effective if capacity prices are non-competitive and include a mark-up for leaving the energy-only market optimum

  17. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  18. Capacity Analysis for Parallel Runway through Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel runway is the mainstream structure of China hub airport, runway is often the bottleneck of an airport, and the evaluation of its capacity is of great importance to airport management. This study outlines a model, multiagent architecture, implementation approach, and software prototype of a simulation system for evaluating runway capacity. Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML is applied to illustrate the inbound and departing procedure of planes and design the agent-based model. The model is evaluated experimentally, and the quality is studied in comparison with models, created by SIMMOD and Arena. The results seem to be highly efficient, so the method can be applied to parallel runway capacity evaluation and the model propose favorable flexibility and extensibility.

  19. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  20. Mammalian cell culture capacity for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Dawn M; Ransohoff, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    : With worldwide sales of biopharmaceuticals increasing each year and continuing growth on the horizon, the manufacture of mammalian biopharmaceuticals has become a major global enterprise. We describe the current and future industry wide supply of manufacturing capacity with regard to capacity type, distribution, and geographic location. Bioreactor capacity and the use of single-use products for biomanufacturing are also profiled. An analysis of the use of this capacity is performed, including a discussion of current trends that will influence capacity growth, availability, and utilization in the coming years.

  1. Auctions of capacity in network industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.; Turvey, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the key issues arising for auctions of network capacity including (i) the ability of auctions to handle long-run capacity expansion issues as well as short run capacity allocation; (ii) the definition of 'capacity' on networks; (iii) auction revenues and revenue reallocation to regulated network operators; and (iv) alternative market-based mechanisms to provide signals for capacity expansion. The paper covers some simple analytics before introducing various complications such as the use of auctions in complex networks. The paper discusses implications and provides a context within which to consider the other papers in this issue of Utilities Policy. (Author)

  2. Developing clinical teaching capacities of midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Sharon; Sweet, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Competency Standards in Australia articulate that the midwife must be able to contribute to the professional development of themselves and others. Few undergraduate health professional curricula currently incorporate content for the development of specific knowledge and skills required for clinical teaching. This project aimed to understand and enhance midwifery students' preparedness to assume their future clinical teaching responsibilities. Design-based research was used to implement an educational intervention aimed at developing clinical teaching skills through a peer education session between 1st and 3rd year students. The perspectives of 30 undergraduate midwifery students about their preparedness for their teaching role and the intervention were obtained through 3 focus groups. A thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Three themes were identified encompassing the research aims and objectives; 'Co-creating a culture for learning', 'reciprocal teaching and learning' and 'developing clinical teaching capacities'. The findings indicate that the midwifery students had a holistic understanding of their responsibilities in clinical teaching in the workplace. They were able to identify ways in which their teaching capacities were being developed through their clinical experiences and the curriculum, both intended and hidden. Despite limited educational activities for clinical teaching, the midwifery students made explicit connections of the relational interdependence of workplace-based experiences and their learning. Students were clearly able to identify ways in which their own learning experiences and the culture in which this learning is embedded, assists them to develop clinical teaching skills, ready to support the next generation of midwifery students. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  4. The dynamic capacity calculation method and the flood control ability of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Jing, Zhu; Yi, Yujun; Wu, Yu; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the flood control ability of a river-type reservoir, an accurate simulation method for the flood storage, discharge process, and dynamic capacity of the reservoir is important. As the world's largest reservoir, the storage capacity and flood control capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has attracted widespread interest and academic debate for nearly 20 years. In this study, a model for calculating the dynamic capacity of a river-type reservoir is established based on data from 394 river cross sections and 2.5-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data of the TGR area. The storage capacity and flood control capacity of the TGR were analysed based on the scheduling procedures of a normal impoundment period. The results show that the static capacity of the TGR is 43.43 billion m3, the dynamic flood control capacity is 22.45 billion m3, and the maximum floodwater flow regulated by the dynamic capacity at Zhicheng is no more than 67,700 m3/s. This study supply new simulation method and up-to-date high-precision data to discuss the 20 years debate, and the results reveal the TGR design is conservative for flood control according to the Preliminary Design Report of the Three Gorges Project. The dynamic capacity calculation method used here can provide a reference for flood regulation of large river-type reservoirs.

  5. Investment, managerial capacity, and bias in public health preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, James R; DelliFraine, Jami L; Tyson, Sandra; Emert, Jamie M; Herbold, John

    2009-01-01

    Nearly $7 billion has been invested through national cooperative funding since 2002 to strengthen state and local response capacity. Yet, very little outcome evidence exists to analyze funding effectiveness. The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between investment (funding) and capacity (readiness) for public health preparedness (PHP). The aim of the authors is to use a management framework to evaluate capacity, and to explore the "immediacy bias" impact on investment stability. This study employs a longitudinal study design, incorporating survey research of the entire population of 68 health departments in the state of Texas. The authors assessed the investment-capacity relationship through several statistical methods. The authors created a structural measure of managerial capacity through principal components analysis, factorizing 10 independent variables and augment this with a perceived readiness level reported from PHP managers. The authors then employ analysis of variance, correlation analyses, and other descriptive statistics. There has been a 539 percent coefficient of variation in funding at the local level between the years 2004 and 2008, and a 63 percent reduction in total resources since the peak of funding, using paired sample data. Results suggest that investment is positively associated with readiness and managerial capacity in local health departments. The authors also find that investment was related to greater community collaboration, higher adoption of Incident Command System (ICS) structure, and more frequent operational drills and exercises. Greater investment is associated with higher levels of capacity and readiness. The authors conclude from this that investment should be stabilized and continued, and not be influenced by historical cognitive biases.

  6. Design of a fibrous composite preform for wind turbine rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl; Kofoed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work addresses the different factors and challenges one must cope with in the design process of a composite preform used for the load-carrying main laminate of a wind turbine rotor blade. The design process is split up into different key elements, each of which are presented...... and discussed separately. The key elements are all interconnected, which complicate the design process and involves an iterative procedure. The aim is to provide an overview of the process that governs the design of composite preforms for wind turbine blades. The survey can be used as an information source...... on composite preform manufacturing. Basic knowledge on wind turbine blade technology and composites is assumed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, C.F.; de Groot, S.; Post, M.W.; Hoekstra, T.; van Asbeck, F.W.; Bongers, H.; Lindeman, E.; van der Woude, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  8. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  9. Reserve seismic capacity determination of a nuclear power plant braced frame with piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been asked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate the inelastic behavior of a representative non-category I structure to determine the amount of reserve seismic capacity that is available beyond elastic design levels. This reserve capacity can be an important consideration when evaluating the ability of existing structures to withstand upgraded seismic hazards. (orig.)

  10. Sufficient Flexibility and Capacity in Electricity Markets with Renewables: A Review of Innovative Market Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekamane, Jonas Khubute; Katz, Jonas; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature collects innovative market mechanisms that tend to get overlooked in the discussion of whether unassisted energy-only markets can ensure sufficient capacity or if capacity remuneration mechanisms are required. The paper complements existing literature reviews...... and pinpoints advantageous research areas relating to the market design of electricity systems with high shares of variable renewable energy...

  11. Efficient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Dataflow Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Bekooij, Marco J.G.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    A key step in the design of cyclo-static real-time systems is the determination of buffer capacities. In our multi-processor system, we apply back-pressure, which means that tasks wait for space in output buffers. Consequently buffer capacities affect the throughput. This requires the derivation of

  12. Efficient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Dataflow Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    A key step in the design of cyclo-static real-time systems is the determination of buffer capacities. In our multi-processor system, we apply back-pressure, which means that tasks wait for space in output buffers. Consequently buffer capacities affect the throughput. This requires the derivation of

  13. Assessing capacity for sustainability of effective programs and policies in local health departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Context Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Objective Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Design Case study interviews from June-July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Setting Six geographically diverse LHD’s (selected from three high- and three low-capacity) Participants 35 LHD practitioners Main Outcome Measures Thematic reports explored the eight domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. Results High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training compared to low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High

  14. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Novelty, Adaptive Capacity, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a conceptual framework that explores some of the forces creating innovation and novelty in complex systems. Understanding the sources of variability and novelty may help us better understand complex systems. Understanding complex phenomena such as invasions, migration, and nomadism may provide insight into the structure of ecosystems and other complex systems, and aid our attempts to cope with and mitigate these phenomena, in the case of invasions, and better understand and or predict them. Our model is broadly applicable to ecological theory, including community ecology, resilience, restoration, and policy. Characterizing the link between landscape change and the composition of species communities may help policymakers in their decision-making processes. Understanding how variability is related to system structure, and how that generates novelty, may help us understand how resilience is generated. We suggest that there are three primary opportunities for the generation of novelty into complex systems. These sources of novelty are inherent in the cross-scale structure of complex systems, and are critical for creating adaptive capacity. Novelty originates from the inherent variability present in cross scale structures, within scale reorganization associated with adaptive cycles, and whole-scale transformations resulting from regime shifts. Although speculative, our ideas are grounded in research and observation, and they may provide insight into the evolution of complex systems.

  16. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  17. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  18. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  19. Effects of foundation conditions on plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehasz, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Design considerations for nuclear plant foundations are examined including site stability, bearing capacity and settlement, dynamic response, and structural modeling techniques for dynamic analysis. (U.S.)

  20. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  1. Seismic capacities of existing nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Narver, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents a discussion of the more important conservatisms and some of the results obtained when this methodology has been applied to various nuclear plants. Results are shown for both BWR and PWR plants, on both rock and soil sites, and for plants and soil sites, and for plants that were designed in the late 1960s to plants that have yet to load fuel. Safe shutdown earthquake design levels of 0.1 g to 0.25 g were used for these plants. Overall median structural factors of safety for the lowest significant seismic failure capacity at each plant ranged from 3.5 to 8.5. The lowest containment-related failure capacity at each plant ranged from 4.6 to 31. The types of failure corresponding to each safety factor are also tabulated. (orig./HP)

  2. Geotechnical LFRD calculations of settlement and bearing capacity of GDOT shallow bridge foundations and retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    The AASHTO codes for Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) regarding shallow bridge foundations : and walls have been implemented into a set of spreadsheet algorithms to facilitate the calculations of bearing : capacity and footing settlements on na...

  3. Longitudinal Association Between Gross Motor Capacity and Neuromusculoskeletal Function in Children and Youth With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke C.; Becher, Jules G.; Voorman, Jeanine M.; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Eck, Mirjam; van Meeteren, Jetty; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Twisk, Jos W.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Objective: To examine associations over longitudinal measurements between neuromusculoskeletal function and gross motor capacity in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation departments of university medical centers and rehabilitations

  4. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  5. Managing nuclear predominant generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouget, Y.H.; Carbonnier, D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common believe, associated with nuclear power plant, leads to the conclusion that it can only operate, as a base load plant. This observation can be reversed, by just looking at large generating capacity, using an important nuclear generation mix. Nuclear plants may certainly load follow and contribute to the grid frequency control. The French example illustrates these possibilities. The reactor control of French units has been customized to accommodate the grid requests. Managing such a large nuclear plant fleet requires to take various actions, ranging from a daily basis to a multi-annual prospective standpoint. The paper describes the various contributions leading to safe, reliable, well accepted and cost competitive nuclear plants in France. The combination of all aspects related to operations, maintenance scheduling, nuclear safety management, are presented. The use of PWR units carries considerable weight in economic terms, with several hundred million francs tied in with outage scheduling every year. This necessitates a global view of the entire generating system which can be mobilized to meet demand. There is considerable interaction between units as, on the one hand, they are competing to satisfy the same need, and, on the other hand, reducing maintenance costs means sharing the necessary resources, and thus a coordinated staggering of outages. In addition, nuclear fuel is an energy reserve which remains in the reactor for 3 or 4 years, with some of the fuel renewed each year. Due to the memory effect, the fuel retains a memory of past use, so that today's choices impact upon the future. A medium-term view of fuel management is also necessary. The coordination systems implemented by EDF aim to control these parameters for the benefit of electricity consumers. (author)

  6. Primal and dual approaches to fishing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstens, Kristiaan; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Application of primal non-parametric approaches to estimation of fishing capacity provides useful disaggregated information about fishing firm’s capacities utilizations. A potentially serious issue is that the estimated capacity utilization rates can be relatively low. This may call for reductions...... in the fishing fleet that are political impossible to defend. In this paper two modifications of the traditional approach are explored. First, non-convex technologies are introduced and it is shown how the primal non-parametric approach leads to different capacity utilization rates. Then capacity utilization...... measures using cost functions are specified for both convex and non-convex technologies. It is illustrated how the convexity assumption impacts capacity utilization rates and how this dual approach differs from the primal approach. Second, the effect of utilizing these different convex versus non...

  7. Effective capacity of correlated MISO channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an analytical performance investigation of the capacity limits of correlated multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels in the presence of quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Exact closed-form expression for the effective capacity of correlated MISO channels is derived. In addition, simple expressions are obtained at the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes, which provide insights into the impact of various system parameters on the effective capacity of the system. Also, a complete characterization of the impact of spatial correlation on the effective capacity is provided with the aid of a majorization theory result. The findings suggest that antenna correlation reduce the effective capacity of the channels. Moreover, a stringent QoS requirement causes a significant reduction in the effective capacity but this can be effectively alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on research and development of key technologies for superconducting generator. Research and development of key technologies to increase density, research and development of key technologies to increase capacity, research and development of design technologies, and research of technologies; 2000 nendo chodendo hatsudenki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Komitsudoka kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / daiyoryoka kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / gijutsu chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made to increase density of 200,000-kW class generator and to increase capacity of 600,000-kW class generator necessary for putting superconducting generator into practical use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the study of increasing densities of superconductors and field windings, strands were fabricated, in which aging heat treatment conditions, number of aging, and processing degrees between each aging were varied, to increase the critical current of Nb-Ti strand, wherein as high critical current as corresponding to about 90% of the target was obtained. Possibility of increasing the critical current with the final processing degree in the range of 4 to 5 was verified from the relationship between the final processing degree and the critical current. In the study of increasing capacities of superconductors and field windings, findings were acquired on enhancement of conductor stability and reduction in AC loss, with regard to superconductor strands well balanced in the two elements. Prospects were obtained in achieving the AC loss of 200 kW/m{sup 3} in the targeted superconductor. The residual resistance ratio was found to be 200, showing sufficiently high value, and sufficient function was verified in the stabilized copper. In the research of design technologies, primary basic design was performed. (NEDO)

  9. SE Capstone Project: Building Systems Engineering Education and Workforce Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This project developed a system to improve fuel efficiency by means of regenerative braking . The team designed a simple system that allows "bolt-on...air traffic control, social networking, credit/debit cards, and anti-lock brakes are only a few functions enabled by complex systems of systems . We...Building Systems Engineering Education and Workforce Capacity SE Capstone Project APRIL 2012 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704

  10. World nuclear generating capacity 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the annual summary of world nuclear generating capacity for 1994. A global summary is first provided, reviewing total installed capacity and growth in installed capacity over the next five years. A more detailed discussion of the nuclear efforts in 34 countries follows, with a tabular listing of nuclear projects in each of these countries. The listing includes reactor supplier, reactor type, size, current status, and date of commercial operation

  11. Narrative medicine and decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Higher education and capacity building in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higher education has recently been recognised as a key driver for societal growth in the Global South and capacity building of African universities is now widely included in donor policies. The question is; how do capacity-building projects affect African universities, researchers and students? U...... is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in education, development studies, African studies and human geography, as well as anthropology and history.......? Universities and their scientific knowledges are often seen to have universal qualities; therefore, capacity building may appear straightforward. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa contests such universalistic notions. Inspired by ideas about the ‘geography of scientific knowledge’ it explores...

  13. ASSERT: Augmentation Grant on Working Memory Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engle, Randall

    2000-01-01

    .... That work has resulted in numerous publications and conference presentations demonstrating that individuals who score in the bottom quartile on measures of working memory capacity show more errors...

  14. Relay selection from an effective capacity perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we consider a cooperative network where multiple relay nodes having different modulation capabilities assist the end-to-end communication between a source and its destination. Firstly, we evaluate the effective capacity (EC) performance of the network under study. According to the analysis, an EC-based relay selection criterion is proposed. Based on the proposed selection rule and half-duplex decode-and-forward protocol, the activated relays cooperatively help with the packet transmission from the source. At the destination, packet combining is taken into account to improve the quality of service. Compared to the popular scheme, opportunistic relay selection, numerical results are provided to prove the validity and advantages of our proposed scheme in certain scenarios. Moreover, the analysis presented herein offers a convenient tool to the relaying transmission design, specifically on which relay selection scheme should be used as well as how to choose the receiving strategy between with and without packet combining at the destination. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Vertical barriers with increased sorption capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradl, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical barriers are commonly used for the containment of contaminated areas. Due to the very small permeability of the barrier material which is usually in the order of magnitude of 10-10 m/s or less the advective contaminant transport can be more or less neglected. Nevertheless, there will always be a diffusive contaminant transport through the barrier which is caused by the concentration gradient. Investigations have been made to increase the sorption capacity of the barrier material by adding substances such as organoclays, zeolites, inorganic oxides and fly ashes. The contaminants taken into account where heavy metals (Pb) and for organic contaminants Toluole and Phenantrene. The paper presents results of model calculations and experiments. As a result, barrier materials can be designed 'tailor-made' depending on the individual contaminant range of each site (e.g. landfills, gasworks etc.). The parameters relevant for construction such as rheological properties, compressive strength and permeability are not affected by the addition of the sorbents

  17. A multi-sector assessment of community organizational capacity for promotion of Chinese immigrant worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny H-C; Thompson, Elaine A

    2017-12-01

    Community-based collaborative approaches have received increased attention as a means for addressing occupational health disparities. Organizational capacity, highly relevant to engaging and sustaining community partnerships, however, is rarely considered in occupational health research. To characterize community organizational capacity specifically relevant to Chinese immigrant worker health, we used a cross-sectional, descriptive design with 36 agencies from six community sectors in King County, Washington. Joint interviews, conducted with two representatives from each agency, addressed three dimensions of organizational capacity: organizational commitment, resources, and flexibility. Descriptive statistics were used to capture the patterning of these dimensions by community sector. Organizational capacity varied widely across and within sectors. Chinese and Pan-Asian service sectors indicated higher capacity for Chinese immigrant worker health than did Chinese faith-based, labor union, public, and Pan-ethnic nonprofit sectors. Variation in organizational capacity in community sectors can inform selection of collaborators for community-based, immigrant worker health interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers.......ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...

  19. Capacity Payments in Restructured Markets under Low and High Penetration Levels of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Jenkin, Philipp Beiter, and Robert Margolis

    2016-02-01

    Growing levels of variable renewable energy resources arguably create new challenges for capacity market designs, because variable renewable energy suppresses wholesale energy prices while providing relatively little capacity. This effect becomes more pronounced the higher the variable renewable energy penetration in a market. The purpose of this report is threefold. First, we provide a brief outline of the purpose and design of various capacity markets using administratively determined capacity demand curves. Second, we discuss some of the main challenges raised in existing literature and a set of interviews that we conducted with market participants, regulators, and observers. Third, we consider some of the challenges to capacity markets that arise with higher variable renewable energy penetration.

  20. Specific Heat Capacity of Alloy 690 for Simulating Neutron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Gyu; Kim, Hee Moon; Song, Woong Sub; Baik, Seung Je; Joo, Young Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Won Jae; Ryu, Woo Seok

    2011-01-01

    The KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing new type of nuclear reactor, so called 'SMART'(System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which has many features of small power and system integrated modular type. Alloy 690 was selected as the candidate material for the heat exchanger tube of the steam generator of SMART. The SMART R and D is now facing the stage of engineering verification and approval of standard design to apply to DEMO reactors. Therefore, the material performance under the relevant environment is required to be evaluated. The important material performance issues are mechanical properties i.e. (fracture toughness, tensile and hardness) and thermal properties i.e. (thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) for which the engineering database is necessary to design a steam generator. However, the neutron post irradiation characteristics of the alloy 690 are barely known. As a result, PIE(Post Irradiation Examination) of thermal properties are planed and performed successfully. But specific heat capacity measurement is not performed because of not having proper test system for irradiated materials. Therefore in order to verify the effect of neutron irradiation for alloy 690, simulation method is adopted. In general, high energy neutron bombardment in material bring about lattice defects i.e. void, pore and dislocation. Dominant factor to impact to heat capacity is mainly dislocation in material. Therefore, simulation of neutron irradiation is devised by material rolling method in order to make artificial dislocation in alloy 690 as same effect of neutron irradiation. After preparing test specimens, heat capacity measurements are performed and results are compared with rolled materials and un-rolled materials to verify the effect of neutron irradiation simulation. Main interest of simulation is that heat capacity value is changed by neutron irradiation

  1. Introduction : Designing for behavioural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke; Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke

    2017-01-01

    Design impacts every part of our lives. The design of products and services we encounter in all areas and walks of life influences the way we go about our daily activities. It is hard to imagine any activity of our daily lives that is not dependent on a designed artefact in some capacity. Our

  2. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  3. Investigating the impact of non-linear geometrical effects on wind turbine blades—Part 1: Current status of design and test methods and future challenges in design optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Puri, Amit S.; Dear, John P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first part of a three-article series and it deals with full-scale tests of a load-carrying box girder. The two other articles present more details on smaller sub-component levels as well as cap specimens (article 2) and shear webs (article 3). This article also links to the two...... may also have a significant impact on present wind turbine blades. In this article, a 34 m long load-carrying box girder has been tested in static flap-wise bending, and it has been demonstrated that, for this design, the Brazier effect is a critical phenomenon of great relevance for the ultimate...... failure strength. The box girder has been evaluated with and without a cap (wire) reinforcement. The cap reinforcement is one out of seven inventions Risø DTU published in 2008, which are all intended to result in a lighter and more reliable blade design. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Strengthening our approaches to building capacity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    and capacity building mandate. A number of ... of CCAA capacity building: participatory action research (PAR) mentoring ... project, to ensure its application in planning, monitoring ... community volunteers who use climate information in emergency response ... has expertise in monitoring and evaluation, and the Department.

  5. Inventory management with advance capacity information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaksic, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.; Kok, de A.G.; Rusjan, B.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important aspects of supply chain management is dealing with demand and supply uncertainty. The uncertainty of future supply can be reduced, if a company is able to obtain advance capacity information (ACI) on future supply/production capacity availability from its supplier. We address a

  6. A capacity assessment towards more resilient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Social capacity building for natural hazards is a topic increasingly gaining relevance not only for so-called developing countries but also for European welfare states which are continuously challenged by the social, economic and ecological impacts of natural hazards. Following an outline of recent governance changes with regard to natural hazards, we develop a heuristic model of social capacity building by taking into account a wide range of existing expertise from different fields of research. Particular attention is paid to social vulnerability and its assessment, as well as to risk communication and risk education as specific strategies of social capacity building. We propose to distinguish between interventionist and participatory approaches, thus enabling for a better understanding of existing practices of social capacity building as well as their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is from this typology the presentation will develop two kinds of operational social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  7. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  8. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Lv

    2014-01-01

    leader under greater uncertainty. Furthermore, both firms will provide more outputs in the face of increasing uncertainty and the growth rate of the follower’s capacity will exceed that of the leader’s. In addition, this paper finds that the follower will end up with a larger capacity than the leader.

  9. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  10. A Capacity Supply Model for Virtualized Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander PINNOW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the capacity supply for virtualized servers. First, a server is modeled as a queue based on a Markov chain. Then, the effect of server virtualization on the capacity supply will be analyzed with the distribution function of the server load.

  11. Liberating Leadership Capacity: Pathways to Educational Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Linda; Zimmerman, Diane P.; Gardner, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    During the past quarter century, conceptions of leadership have evolved in concert with breakthrough discoveries in science and generative learning. "Liberating Leadership Capacity" captures these new ideas through the integration of the authors' earlier works in constructivist leadership and leadership capacity. What emerges is a…

  12. The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…

  13. Working Memory Capacity, Confidence and Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmadi, Fatheya; Oraif, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity is now well established as a rate determining factor in much learning and assessment, especially in the sciences. Most of the research has focussed on performance in tests and examinations in subject areas. This paper outlines some exploratory work in which other outcomes are related to working memory capacity. Confidence…

  14. Unveiling the Microfoundations of Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    2017-01-01

    to absorptive capacity at the organizational level and that this relationship is mediated through a microlevel process. The findings reveal that knowledge workers’ cognitive process of perspective taking and their creative behavior are important microfoundations of absorptive capacity. Moreover, the results...... emphasize the critical role of key employees in explaining firm-level heterogeneity in building organizational capabilities....

  15. Storage capacity of the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Gordon, Mirta B.

    2001-01-01

    The storage capacity of an incremental learning algorithm for the parity machine, the Tilinglike Learning Algorithm, is analytically determined in the limit of a large number of hidden perceptrons. Different learning rules for the simple perceptron are investigated. The usual Gardner-Derrida rule leads to a storage capacity close to the upper bound, which is independent of the learning algorithm considered

  16. Gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Gomes, L.R.; Schröder, B.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid (BA) was proven using the experimental technique called the "in vacuum sublimation/vaporization Calvet microcalorimetry drop method". To overcome known experimental shortfalls, the gaseous phase heat capacity of BA monomer was estimated by ab initio

  17. Time to reassess capacity-building partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Lauten

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 the Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict has worked with local civil society organisations, child protection networks and grassroots organisations to build capacity to monitor and respond to abuses of children’s rights. Through our capacity-building partnerships, we work to shift the power structure that defines the roles of national and international NGO's in humanitarian programming.

  18. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has mental...

  19. Inventory management with advance capacity information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaksic, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.; Kok, de A.G.; Rusjan, B.

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of supply chain management is dealing with demand and supply uncertainty. The uncertainty of future supply can be reduced if a company is able to obtain advance capacity information (ACI) about future supply/production capacity availability from its supplier. We address a

  20. Capacity building for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2006-01-01

    Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development - Mission: To build capacity in Member States (MS) for comprehensive energy system, economic and environmental analyses to assist in: - making informed policy decisions for sustainable energy development; - assessing the role of nuclear power; - understanding environmental and climate change issues related to energy production and use