WorldWideScience

Sample records for load management techniques

  1. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  2. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    setback 0 Sequenced start-up 0 Duty cycling 0 Holiday scheduling %~. Load shedding 0 Chiller control Optimized start-stop e Boiler control Cf Enthalpy...efficiency fac- and a local 80 column serial printer. tors, building loss factors, occupancy temperature setpoint and history. The optimized start and/or...capilt, water temperature, number of chillers optimal sarut-up of heating and cool- running and the percent operating lev . ing equipment can be

  4. Managing the space-time-load continuum in TMDL planning: a case study for understanding groundwaer loads through advanced mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Harte; Marcel Belaval; Andrea Traviglia

    2016-01-01

    The lag time between groundwater recharge and discharge in a watershed and the potential groundwater load to streams is an important factor in forecasting responses to future land use practices. We call this concept managing the “space-time-load continuum.” It’s understood that in any given watershed, the response function (the load at any given time) will differ for...

  5. Muscle energy technique compared to eccentric loading exercise in the management of achilles tendinitis: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achilles tendinitis is a common overuse injury among both elite and recreational athletes involved in activities such as repetitive jumping and running. Aim: The aim of this single-blinded randomized study was to compare the efficacy of muscle energy technique (MET and eccentric loading exercise (ELE interventions on improving functional ability and pain reduction among athletes with Achilles tendinitis. Methods: A single-blinded, pilot, randomized study was conducted in the Department of Physical Therapy, Global Hospitals and Health City, India, with 6-week follow-up. A total of 30 patients with Achilles tendinitis were randomly allocated to receive either MET (n = 15 or ELE (n = 15 treatment. Treatment effects were evaluated by pre- and post-treatment assessment of visual analog scale (VAS and Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A questionnaire. Measures were performed by single-blinded evaluators at baseline and at 2, 4, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Results: Both groups showed a significant difference in VAS after 6 weeks' ELE group showed a significant improvement during treatment at 2 and 4 weeks in comparison with MET group. The VISA-A scale score significantly improved in both groups. Yet, comparison of VISA scores between groups showed marginally significant difference (P = 0.012. Conclusion: This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT showed the efficacy of ELE in reducing pain and improving functional ability among patients with Achilles tendinitis. The findings of this study provide the rationale for undertaking a large-scale RCT. A large sized trial is needed to establish evidence for clinical practice of ELE in Achilles tendinitis cases.

  6. A simplified technique for shakedown load determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H.F.; Younan, M.Y.A.; Megahed, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a simple technique is presented to determine the limit shakedown load of a structure or a component using the finite element method. Through the proposed technique, the limit shakedown load is determined without performing time consuming cyclic loading simulations or iterative elastic techniques. Instead, it is determined by performing only two analyses namely, an elastic analysis and an elastic-plastic analysis. By extracting the results of the two analyses, the limit shakedown load of the structure is determined through the calculation of the residual stresses. The technique is applied and verified using two bench mark shakedown problems namely: the two-bar structure subjected to constant axial force and cyclic thermal loading, and the Bree cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic high heat fluxes across its wall. The results of the proposed technique showed very good correlation with the, analytically determined, Bree diagrams of both structures. Moreover, the outcomes of the proposed technique showed very good results in comparison to full cyclic loading elasto-plastic finite element simulations of both structures. (authors)

  7. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO 2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO 2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  8. Bayesian techniques for surface fuel loading estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathy Gray; Robert Keane; Ryan Karpisz; Alyssa Pedersen; Rick Brown; Taylor Russell

    2016-01-01

    A study by Keane and Gray (2013) compared three sampling techniques for estimating surface fine woody fuels. Known amounts of fine woody fuel were distributed on a parking lot, and researchers estimated the loadings using different sampling techniques. An important result was that precise estimates of biomass required intensive sampling for both the planar intercept...

  9. Management of science technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byeong Han; Lee, Gap Du

    2002-08-01

    This book mentions change of environment and management of technique, business environment in information age technology and management such as classification of technology, innovation of technology and meaning of technology management, item innovation and technology about meaning of item development, innovation and item development, creation of item concept and item development, process of product innovation, product activity, product innovation product innovation and technology, development of product innovation, technology and marketing innovation, innovation of skill of marketing information system and globalization.

  10. Stargate: Energy Management Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Raghunathan; Mani Srivastava; Trevor Pering; Roy Want

    2004-01-01

    This poster presents techniques for energy efficient operation of the Stargate wireless platform. In addition to conventional power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and scaling and processor shutdown, the Stargate features several mechanisms for energy efficient operation of the communication subsystem, such as support for hierarchical radios, Bluetooth based remote wakeup, mote based wakeup, etc. Finally, design optimizations including the use of power gating, and provision for ...

  11. Project Management Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalache Anita; Salagean Liana

    2010-01-01

    Project management is a technique that can aid in the planning, scheduling, and monitoring of complex projects characterized by numerous, non repetitive jobs called activities. Examples of projects that would use project management include: - developing a mass rapid – transit system for a metropolitan area; - organizing the relocation of a corporate headquarters; - planning the production of a concert, film, or play; - developing and marketing a new automobile; - constructing a high – rise of...

  12. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  13. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  14. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    associated with leaky blood vessels. The composition and methods of the invention find particular use in diagnosing and imaging cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels in a subject. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization......Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  15. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning.......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed...... to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation...

  16. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  17. Asset management techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Joachim; Gaul, Armin J. [RWE Energy AG, Assetmanagement, Dortmund (Germany); Neumann, Claus [RWE Transportnetz Strom GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Hograefer, Juergen [SAG Energieversorgungsloesungen GmbH, Langen (Germany); Wellssow, Wolfram; Schwan, Michael [Siemens AG, Power Transmission and Distribution, Erlangen (Germany); Schnettler, Armin [RWTH-Aachen, Institut fuer Hochspannungstechnik, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Deregulation and an increasing competition in electricity markets urge energy suppliers to optimize the utilization of their equipment, focusing on technical and cost-effective aspects. As a respond to these requirements utilities introduce methods formerly used by investment managers or insurance companies. The article describes the usage of these methods, particularly with regard to asset management and risk management within electrical grids. The essential information needed to set up an appropriate asset management system and differences between asset management systems in transmission and distribution systems are discussed. The bulk of costs in electrical grids can be found in costs for maintenance and capital depreciation. A comprehensive approach for an asset management in transmission systems thus focuses on the 'life-cycle costs' of the individual equipment. The objective of the life management process is the optimal utilisation of the remaining life time regarding a given reliability of service and a constant distribution of costs for reinvestment and maintenance ensuring a suitable return. In distribution systems the high number of components would require an enormous effort for the consideration of single individuals. Therefore statistical approaches have been used successfully in practical applications. Newest insights gained by a German research project on asset management systems in distribution grids give an outlook to future developments. (author)

  18. Asset management techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Joachim; Gaul, Armin J.; Neumann, Claus; Hograefer, Juergen; Wellssow, Wolfram; Schwan, Michael; Schnettler, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Deregulation and an increasing competition in electricity markets urge energy suppliers to optimize the utilization of their equipment, focusing on technical and cost-effective aspects. As a respond to these requirements utilities introduce methods formerly used by investment managers or insurance companies. The article describes the usage of these methods, particularly with regard to asset management and risk management within electrical grids. The essential information needed to set up an appropriate asset management system and differences between asset management systems in transmission and distribution systems are discussed. The bulk of costs in electrical grids can be found in costs for maintenance and capital depreciation. A comprehensive approach for an asset management in transmission systems thus focuses on the 'life-cycle costs' of the individual equipment. The objective of the life management process is the optimal utilisation of the remaining life time regarding a given reliability of service and a constant distribution of costs for reinvestment and maintenance ensuring a suitable return. In distribution systems the high number of components would require an enormous effort for the consideration of single individuals. Therefore statistical approaches have been used successfully in practical applications. Newest insights gained by a German research project on asset management systems in distribution grids give an outlook to future developments. (author)

  19. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  20. A simplified technique for shakedown limit load determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Hany F.; Megahed, Mohammad M.; Younan, Maher Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified technique is presented to determine the shakedown limit load of a structure using the finite element method. The simplified technique determines the shakedown limit load without performing lengthy time consuming full elastic-plastic cyclic loading simulations or conventional iterative elastic techniques. Instead, the shakedown limit load is determined by performing two analyses namely: an elastic analysis and an elastic-plastic analysis. By extracting the results of the two analyses, the shakedown limit load is determined through the calculation of the residual stresses developed within the structure. The simplified technique is applied and verified using two bench mark shakedown problems namely: the two-bar structure subjected to constant axial force and cyclic thermal loading, and the Bree cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic high temperature variation across its wall. The results of the simplified technique showed very good correlation with the, analytically determined, Bree diagrams of both structures. In order to gain confidence in the simplified technique, the shakedown limit loads output by the simplified technique are used to perform full elastic-plastic cyclic loading simulations to check for shakedown behavior of both structures

  1. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  2. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensuresecurity of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak heating load can be reduced through building demand side management. The building thermal mass can be used to shift the heating supply under the circumstance withoutjeopardizing the consumer thermal co...

  3. The Potential of Combined Heat and Power Generation, Wind Power Generation and Load Management Techniques for Cost Reduction in Small Electricity Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Jeremy Hugh

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. An evaluation is made of the potential fuel and financial savings possible when a small, autonomous diesel system sized to meet the demands of an individual, domestic consumer is adapted to include: (1) combined heat and power (CHP) generation, (2) wind turbine generation, (3) direct load control. The potential of these three areas is investigated by means of time-step simulation modelling on a microcomputer. Models are used to evaluate performance and a Net Present Value analysis used to assess costs. A cost/benefit analysis then enables those areas, or combination of areas, that facilitate and greatest savings to be identified. The modelling work is supported by experience gained from the following: (1) field study of the Lundy Island wind/diesel system, (2) laboratory testing of a small diesel generator set, (3) study of a diesel based CHP unit, (4) study of a diesel based direct load control system, (5) statistical analysis of data obtained from the long-term monitoring of a large number of individual household's electricity consumption. Rather than consider the consumer's electrical demand in isolation, a more flexible approach is adopted, with consumer demand being regarded as the sum of primarily two components: a small, electricity demand for essential services and a large, reschedulable demand for heating/cooling. The results of the study indicate that: (1) operating a diesel set in a CHP mode is the best strategy for both financial and fuel savings. A simple retrofit enables overall conversion efficiencies to be increased from 25% to 60%, or greater, at little cost. (2) wind turbine generation in association with direct load control is a most effective combination. (3) a combination of both the above areas enables greatest overall financial savings, in favourable winds resulting in unit energy costs around 20% of those of diesel only operation.

  4. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  5. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from...

  6. Load Management in District Heating Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Smooth operation of district heating system will avoid installation of expensive peak heat boilers, improve plant partial load performance, increase the system redundancy for further network expansion and improve its resilience to ensure security of supply during severe heating seasons. The peak...... heating load can be reduced through building demand side management. The building thermal mass can be used to shift the heating supply under the circumstance without jeopardizing the consumer thermal comfort. In this paper, the multi-agent framework is applied to a simplified building dynamic model...

  7. Load and Flexibility Models for Distribution Grid Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos

    to advanced metering and control infrastructure investments. These investments will transform distribution networks into smarter" grids which will facilitate flexible load/generation control in return for financial and reliability benefits to electricity consumers. The theoretical idea of modernising the grid...... involve lack of generic load forecasts, need for flexible load/generation estimation techniques from smart meter measurements, deficiencies in online load distribution observability, and, finally, energy market compatible control algorithms which treat consumer flexibility in a fair manner. These modules...... congestions, is proposed. In the first step, a central controller manages flexibility proactively, whereas in the second step a decentralised control scheme deals with flexibility reactively. Both controllers are designed in such a way, that compatibility with contemporary markets is assured, while special...

  8. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined

  9. Fluvial sediment transport: Analytical techniques for measuring sediment load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    Sediment transport data are often used for the evaluation of land surface erosion, reservoir sedimentation, ecological habitat quality and coastal sediment budgets. Sediment transport by rivers is usually considered to occur in two major ways: (1) in the flow as a suspended load and (2) along the bed as a bed load. This publication provides guidance on selected techniques for the measurement of particles moving in both modes in the fluvial environment. The relative importance of the transport mode is variable and depends on the hydraulic and sedimentary conditions. The potential user is directed in the selection of an appropriate technique through the presentation of operating principles, application guidelines and estimated costs. Techniques which require laboratory analysis are grab sample, pump sample, depth sample, point integrated and radioactive tracers. Techniques which will continuously record data are optical backscattering, nuclear transmission, single frequency acoustic and laser diffraction

  10. Basic analysis on the load management in consumer section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Tetsuo; Nishikawa, Eiichi

    1988-05-01

    The load management of the energy (electric power, gas and oil products) in consumer section means to move demand characteristics in desirable directions. The demand characteristics are represented by the energy consumption characteristics along time and their annual sum. The load management is analyzed here from a more practical point of view. As the total thermal demand has been fixed to some extent from the aspect of a total system, the trade-off occurs among objectives of industries. For the quantitative consistency, the model analysis is effective. Changes in the consumers' attitude have been observed as indicated by the cogeneration, heat storage technology and automatic energy management by consumers. Techniques for changing the demand characteristics include the charging system, financial aids for equipment installation, favorable provisions in taxation, law revision and marketing. Stable supply and improved consumption are the future tasks. (2 figs, 6 tabs, 28 refs)

  11. Fusion of neural computing and PLS techniques for load estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Xue, H.; Cheng, X. [Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xi' an (China); Zhang, W. [Xi' an Inst. of Post and Telecommunication, Xi' an (China)

    2007-07-01

    A method to predict the electric load of a power system in real time was presented. The method is based on neurocomputing and partial least squares (PLS). Short-term load forecasts for power systems are generally determined by conventional statistical methods and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques such as neural computing. However, statistical modeling methods often require the input of questionable distributional assumptions, and neural computing is weak, particularly in determining topology. In order to overcome the problems associated with conventional techniques, the authors developed a CI hybrid model based on neural computation and PLS techniques. The theoretical foundation for the designed CI hybrid model was presented along with its application in a power system. The hybrid model is suitable for nonlinear modeling and latent structure extracting. It can automatically determine the optimal topology to maximize the generalization. The CI hybrid model provides faster convergence and better prediction results compared to the abductive networks model because it incorporates a load conversion technique as well as new transfer functions. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid model, load forecasting was performed on a data set obtained from the Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Compared with the abductive networks model, the CI hybrid model reduced the forecast error by 32.37 per cent on workday, and by an average of 27.18 per cent on the weekend. It was concluded that the CI hybrid model has a more powerful predictive ability. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Loading technique for dynamic response studies of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.I.; Forrestal, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    A loading technique to study the dynamic response of tuff was explored. Loading is provided by electrically exploding etched copper mesh patterns with current from a capacitor discharge. Pressure pulses with peak pressures up to 1.25 kbar and 0.10 to 0.20 ms durations were measured with a pressure bar. The upper value of peak pressure was limited by the strength of the experimental apparatus, and higher pressure generation is possible with a redesign of test hardware. 6 figures, 2 tables

  13. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Bosch, Tim; Bruins, Louis; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2004-10-22

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from a 0.05 m height with the feet behind the box, squat lifting resulted in 19.9% (SD 8.7%) higher net moments (p squat and stoop lifts, as well as the interaction with lifting height, could to a large extent be explained by changes in the horizontal L5/S1 intervertebral joint position relative to the load, the upper body acceleration, and lumbar flexion. Rotating the knees outward during squat lifts resulted in moments and compression forces that were smaller than in squat lifting but larger than in stoop lifting. Shear forces were small ( < 300 N) at the L4/L5 joint and substantial (1100 - 1400 N) but unaffected by lifting technique at the L5/S1 joint. The present results show that the effects of lifting technique on low back loading depend on the task context.

  14. Bed load determination in Parana river by radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, P.E.; Enokihara, C.T.; Rocca, H.C.C.; Bittencourt, A.V.L.

    1988-10-01

    Radioactive tracing technique with marked sand was employed to evaluate the bottom sediment drag of Parana river, near the future site for the ''Ilha Grande'' Dam in Guaira City (State of Parana). 198 Au radioisotope was employed and measurements had been performed for a period of fifteen days. A bed load rate of 952,3 t/day was obtained for a laminar layer of 0,33 m mean thickness and 1.65 m/day mean velocity. (author) [pt

  15. Asset management techniques for transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Elanien, Ahmed E.B.; Salama, M.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In a deregulated/reformed environment, the electric utilities are under constant pressure for reducing operating costs, enhancing the reliability of transmission and distribution equipments, and improving quality of power and services to the customer. Moreover, the risk involved in running the system without proper attention to assets integrity in service is quite high. Additionally, the probability of losing any equipment vital to the transmission and distribution system, such as power and distribution transformers, is increasing especially with the aging of power system's assets. Today the focus of operating the power system is changed and efforts are being directed to explore new approaches/techniques of monitoring, diagnosis, condition evaluation, maintenance, life assessment, and possibility of extending the life of existing assets. In this paper, a comprehensive illustration of the transformer asset management activities is presented. The importance of each activity together with the latest researches done in the area is highlighted. (author)

  16. Load management in electrical networks. Objectives, methods, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabioud, D.

    2008-01-01

    This illustrated article takes up the problems related to the variation of the load in electricity networks. How to handle the peak load? Different solutions in the energy demand management are discussed. Method based on the price, method based on the reduction of the load by electric utilities. Information systems are presented which gives the consumer the needed data to participate in the local load management.

  17. A System Architecture for Autonomous Demand Side Load Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan; Anjos, Miguel F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system architecture for load management in smart buildings which enables autonomous demand side load management in the smart grid. Being of a layered structure composed of three main modules for admission control, load balancing, and demand response management...... in multiple time-scales and allows seamless integration of diverse techniques for online operation control, optimal scheduling, and dynamic pricing. The design of a home energy manager based on this architecture is illustrated and the simulation results with Matlab/Simulink confirm the viability...

  18. A technique for measuring dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y L; Qin, J G; Chen, R; Zhao, P D; Lu, F Y

    2014-09-01

    We develop a novel setup based on the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique to test the dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading. In the setup, the major improvement is that the end of the incident bar near the specimen is wedge-shaped, which results in a combined compressive and shear loading applied to the specimen. In fact, the shear loading is caused by the interfacial friction between specimen and bars. Therefore, when the two loading force histories are measured, the friction coefficient histories can be calculated without any assumptions and theoretical derivations. The geometry of the friction pairs is simple, and can be either cuboid or cylindrical. Regarding the measurements, two quartz transducers are used to directly record the force histories, and an optical apparatus is designed to test the interfacial slip movement. By using the setup, the dynamic friction coefficient of PTFE/aluminum 7075 friction pairs was tested. The time resolved dynamic friction coefficient and slip movement histories were achieved. The results show that the friction coefficient changes during the loading process, the average data of the relatively stable flat plateau section of the friction coefficient curves is 0.137, the maximum normal pressure is 52 MPa, the maximum relative slip velocity is 1.5 m/s, and the acceleration is 8400 m(2)/s. Furthermore, the friction test was simulated using an explicit FEM code LS-DYNA. The simulation results showed that the constant pressure and slip velocity can both be obtained with a wide flat plateau incident pulse. For some special friction pairs, normal pressure up to a few hundred MPa, interfacial slip velocities up to 10 m/s, and slip movement up to centimeter-level can be expected.

  19. Management Styles and Techniques: Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Priscilla J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses strategies to improve individuals' use of time and personal satisfaction through time management. The 126-item bibliography includes citations for time management in general and special sections for career development, family and parenting, women, and home management. (CLB)

  20. Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    storage and 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) "UPWIND" within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2...... simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have...

  1. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  2. Load management through agent based coordination of flexible electricity consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Demazeau, Yves; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Demand Response (DR) offers a cost-effective and carbonfriendly way of performing load balancing. DR describes a change in the electricity consumption of flexible consumers in response to the supply situation. In DR, flexible consumers may perform their own load balancing through load management...

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Commercial Building Electrical Loads for Demand Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardino, Jonathan

    In recent years there has been a push in the electric power industry for more customer involvement in the electricity markets. Traditionally the end user has played a passive role in the planning and operation of the power grid. However, many energy markets have begun opening up opportunities to consumers who wish to commit a certain amount of their electrical load under various demand side management programs. The potential benefits of more demand participation include reduced operating costs and new revenue opportunities for the consumer, as well as more reliable and secure operations for the utilities. The management of these load resources creates challenges and opportunities to the end user that were not present in previous market structures. This work examines the behavior of commercial-type building electrical loads and their capacity for supporting demand side management actions. This work is motivated by the need for accurate and dynamic tools to aid in the advancement of demand side operations. A dynamic load model is proposed for capturing the response of controllable building loads. Building-specific load forecasting techniques are developed, with particular focus paid to the integration of building management system (BMS) information. These approaches are tested using Drexel University building data. The application of building-specific load forecasts and dynamic load modeling to the optimal scheduling of multi-building systems in the energy market is proposed. Sources of potential load uncertainty are introduced in the proposed energy management problem formulation in order to investigate the impact on the resulting load schedule.

  4. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  5. Load management: Model-based control of aggregate power for populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfumo, Cristian; Kofman, Ernesto; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Ward, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of power response of a population of air conditioners. ► Implementation of demand side management on a group of air conditioners. ► Design of a controller for the power output of a group of air conditioners. ► Quantification of comfort impact of demand side management. - Abstract: Large groups of electrical loads can be controlled as a single entity to reduce their aggregate power demand in the electricity network. This approach, known as load management (LM) or demand response, offers an alternative to the traditional paradigm in the electricity market, where matching supply and demand is achieved solely by regulating how much generation is dispatched. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs) and fridges, are particularly suitable for LM, which can be implemented using feedback control techniques to regulate their aggregate power. To achieve high performance, such feedback control techniques require an accurate mathematical model of the TCL aggregate dynamics. Although such models have been developed, they appear too complex to be effectively used in control design. In this paper we develop a mathematical model aimed at the design of a model-based feedback control strategy. The proposed model analytically characterises the aggregate power response of a population of ACs to a simultaneous step change in temperature set points. Based on this model, we then derive, and completely parametrise in terms of the ACs ensemble properties, a reduced-order mathematical model to design an internal-model controller that regulates aggregate power by broadcasting temperature set-point offset changes. The proposed controller achieves high LM performance provided the ACs are equipped with high resolution thermostats. With coarser resolution thermostats, which are typical in present commercial and residential ACs, performance deteriorates significantly. This limitation is overcome by subdividing the population

  6. Techniques for Improving Cash Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Ronald G.

    1973-01-01

    This article deals with several techniques for regulating cash inflow and outflow and investing surplus cash for short periods of time. The techniques are: (1) consolidating checking accounts, (2) determining surplus cash by examining bank balances in conjunction with the cash book, (3) selecting a minimum bank balance, (4) investing a greater…

  7. Designing an application for managing distribution transformer load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Liliana Sánchez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a software application for distribution transformer load management and calculating the elec- tricity distribution network service quality index (i.e. EDS and EFS indexes. Transformer operation state, calculating core and coil losses and selecting distribution transformers based on technical-economic criteria using daily-load curves are the load management strategies presented here. The application consists of a programme allowing to data acquisition input, an Excel-based spread-sheet having the equations for calculating load management data and a user-interface presenting the load management application’s results. The application was validated by technical-economic evaluation of three distribution transformers when supplying demand.

  8. [Optimization on trehalose loading technique as protective conditioning for lyophilization of human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Han; Zhou, Jun; Ouyang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xi-Jin; Lu, Fa-Qiang

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed to further optimize trehalose loading technique including loading temperature, loading time, loading solution and loading concentration of trehalose, based on the established parameters. Loading efficiency in plasma was compared with that in buffer at 37 degrees C; the curves of intracellular trehalose concentration versus loading time at 37 degrees C and 16 degrees C were measured; curves of mean platelet volume (MPV) versus loading time and loading concentration were investigated and compared. According to results obtained, the loaing time, loading temperature, loading solution and trehalose concentration were ascertained for high loading efficiency of trehalose into human platelet. The results showed that the loading efficiency in plasma was markedly higher than that in buffer at 37 degrees C, the loading efficiency in plasma at 37 degrees C was significantly higher than that at 16 degrees C and reached 19.51% after loading for 4 hours, but 6.16% at 16 degrees C. MPV at 16 degrees C was increased by 43.2% than that at 37 degrees C, but had no distinct changes with loading time and loading concentration. In loading at 37 degrees C, MPV increased with loading time and loading concentration positively. Loading time and loading concentration displayed synergetic effect on MPV. MPV increased with loading time and concentration while trehalose loading concentration was above 50 mmol/L. It is concluded that the optimization parameters of trehalose loading technique are 37 degrees C (temperature), 4 hours (leading time), plasma (loading solution), 50 mmol/L (feasible trehalose concentration). The trehalose concentration can be adjusted to meet the requirement of lyophilization.

  9. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  10. Groundwater pumping effects on contaminant loading management in agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Kyu; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2014-06-15

    Groundwater pumping changes the behavior of subsurface water, including the location of the water table and characteristics of the flow system, and eventually affects the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate from agricultural fertilizers. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the importance of considering the existing pumping conditions for contaminant loading management and to develop a management model to obtain a contaminant loading design more appropriate and practical for agricultural regions where groundwater pumping is common. Results from this study found that optimal designs for contaminant loading could be determined differently when the existing pumping conditions were considered. This study also showed that prediction of contamination and contaminant loading management without considering pumping activities might be unrealistic. Motivated by these results, a management model optimizing the permissible on-ground contaminant loading mass together with pumping rates was developed and applied to field investigation and monitoring data from Icheon, Korea. The analytical solution for 1-D unsaturated solute transport was integrated with the 3-D saturated solute transport model in order to approximate the fate of contaminants loaded periodically from on-ground sources. This model was further expanded to manage agricultural contaminant loading in regions where groundwater extraction tends to be concentrated in a specific period of time, such as during the rice-growing season, using a method that approximates contaminant leaching to a fluctuating water table. The results illustrated that the simultaneous management of groundwater quantity and quality was effective and appropriate to the agricultural contaminant loading management and the model developed in this study, which can consider time-variant pumping, could be used to accurately estimate and to reasonably manage contaminant loading in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, W.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  12. Local load management system and intermittent power on the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project relates to the UK's obligations on renewable energy sources. The objectives were (i) to identify contractual requirements and commercial benefits of load management under the UK's Renewable Obligation and electric power trading arrangements (ii) through modelling, demonstrate the benefits of load management to major customers operating on-site wind generators; (iii) to develop a low-cost load management system incorporating communication technologies and switching devices and (iv) to identify the social and psychological aspects of load management. The demonstration of the load management system was conducted on the Findhorn Foundation's low voltage electric power distribution network and a 75kw wind turbine. The project demonstrated suitable technology for distributed load management on a grid-connected system in order to optimize the renewable energy generated on site, and the analyses identified several areas where grid-connected management can provide financial benefits. There is much scope for exploitation of commercial opportunities. The work was conducted by Econnect Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  13. Application of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding in power systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Mohamad, Hasmaini

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The power system blackout history of last two decades is presented. • Conventional load shedding techniques, their types and limitations are presented. • Applications of intelligent techniques in load shedding are presented. • Intelligent techniques include ANN, fuzzy logic, ANFIS, genetic algorithm and PSO. • The discussion and comparison between these techniques are provided. - Abstract: Recent blackouts around the world question the reliability of conventional and adaptive load shedding techniques in avoiding such power outages. To address this issue, reliable techniques are required to provide fast and accurate load shedding to prevent collapse in the power system. Computational intelligence techniques, due to their robustness and flexibility in dealing with complex non-linear systems, could be an option in addressing this problem. Computational intelligence includes techniques like artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic control, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and particle swarm optimization. Research in these techniques is being undertaken in order to discover means for more efficient and reliable load shedding. This paper provides an overview of these techniques as applied to load shedding in a power system. This paper also compares the advantages of computational intelligence techniques over conventional load shedding techniques. Finally, this paper discusses the limitation of computational intelligence techniques, which restricts their usage in load shedding in real time

  14. Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools. ... engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, ... and teachers in their perception regarding the effects of teachers classroom ...

  15. Under-Frequency Load Shedding Technique Considering Event-Based for an Islanded Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmaini Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenge for an islanding operation is to sustain the frequency stability. A large power imbalance following islanding would cause under-frequency, hence an appropriate control is required to shed certain amount of load. The main objective of this research is to develop an adaptive under-frequency load shedding (UFLS technique for an islanding system. The technique is designed considering an event-based which includes the moment system is islanded and a tripping of any DG unit during islanding operation. A disturbance magnitude is calculated to determine the amount of load to be shed. The technique is modeled by using PSCAD simulation tool. A simulation studies on a distribution network with mini hydro generation is carried out to evaluate the UFLS model. It is performed under different load condition: peak and base load. Results show that the load shedding technique have successfully shed certain amount of load and stabilized the system frequency.

  16. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Casey, Patrick [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Du, Liang [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); He, Dawei [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions

  17. Wind power generation, load management and dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canazza, V.; Cirillo, M.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed commitment of the United States and European Union for the promotion of renewable energy sources makes some reflections on the appropriate management of dispatch priority of renewable energy in Italy [it

  18. Decree nr 2014-764 of the 3 July 2014 related to electricity load managements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene; Montebourg, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This decree issued by the Ministry of ecology, sustainable development and energy aims at defining the methodology used to establish rules of valorisation of electricity load managements. It concerns energy suppliers and load management operators. A first chapter defines what electricity load management is and who a load management operator is. The next chapter addresses the methodology, the definition of the electricity load management volume, data used for the certification of load management volumes. The third chapter describes how to calculate the premium awarded to load management operators. The last chapters indicate how the ministries define the premium amount, and some aspects related to the communication of data to load management operators

  19. Locomotion With Loads: Practical Techniques for Predicting Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J Exp Biol. 97, 1-21. Weyand, P., Smith, B., Puyau, M. and...height, weight (including load), speed, and grade algorithms proposed will allow walking metabolic rates to be predicted to within 6.0 and 12.0% in...gait, metabolism , performance, load carriage 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  20. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grein, Arne; Pehnt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  1. Load Management of Data Centers as Regulation Capacity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Ghatikar, Girish; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    are of special interest as they account for 500 GWh of consumption in Denmark or nearly 2% of the total electricity consumption. This paper performs an analysis on load management capabilities of data centers in Denmark based on the experiences in the U.S. We characterize the load management capabilities...... for transmission system operators and distribution system operators and balance errors in forecasts made by balance responsible parties. By enabling the demand-side to adapt consumption to match power generation, we can address this in a cost-effective and environmental sound way. In this context, data centers...... of the data centers based on their types, technology, and their application as grid management resources. Further, we identify demand-side entry barriers towards market participation. Our findings suggest that groups of data centers can offer dynamic load flexibility as virtual power plants, and thereby...

  2. Resource Loading by Branch-and-Price Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.

    2001-01-01

    The main contribution of this thesis is twofold. First, we propose a modeling approach that offers a generic framework to formulate various types of resource loading and RCCP problems as ILP models. Second, we propose various algorithms that can solve problems of reasonable size, i.e., typically

  3. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  4. Optimal fuel loading pattern design using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Byung Ho

    1993-01-01

    The Optimal Fuel Shuffling System (OFSS) is developed for optimal design of PWR fuel loading pattern. OFSS is a hybrid system that a rule based system, a fuzzy logic, and an artificial neural network are connected each other. The rule based system classifies loading patterns into two classes using several heuristic rules and a fuzzy rule. A fuzzy rule is introduced to achieve more effective and fast searching. Its membership function is automatically updated in accordance with the prediction results. The artificial neural network predicts core parameters for the patterns generated from the rule based system. The back-propagation network is used for fast prediction of core parameters. The artificial neural network and the fuzzy logic can be used as the tool for improvement of existing algorithm's capabilities. OFSS was demonstrated and validated for cycle 1 of Kori unit 1 PWR. (Author)

  5. Handbook of five methodologies for the assessment of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a summary description and evaluation of five methodologies that have been developed for the assessment of utility costs and benefits of load-management programs, including marginal-costing methodologies and an integrated set of utility-system planning and production costing models. Of the two basic methods, the first uses marginal-cost data to compute the cumulative reduction in utility-system costs realized in moving units of load from periods of high marginal cost to periods of low marginal cost. The present value of these cost savings may be compared directly with the costs of implementing the load-management program. The second method relies on an evaluation of future total-system costs. System planning and production-costing models are used to calculate the total fixed and variable costs of meeting baseline and alternative-load configurations. The difference between baseline system costs and the costs with load management may then be compared to the costs of implementing the program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized briefly.

  6. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  7. Configuration management and load monitoring procedures for nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.L.; Skaczylo, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided engineering tool called the Load Monitoring System (LMS) that was proven effective for monitoring floor framing, loads, and structural integrity. The system links structural analysis, design investigation, and reporting and automated drafting programs with a Data Base Management System (DBMS). It provides design engineers with a powerful tool for quickly incorporating, tracking, and assessing load revisions and determining effects on steel floor framing members and connections, thereby helping to reduce design man-hours, minimize the impact of structural modifications, and maintain and document the design baseline. The major benefit to utilities are the reduction in engineering costs, assistance with plant configuration management, and assurance of structural safety throughout the operating life of a nuclear plant and at evaluation for license renewal. (orig./HP)

  8. Load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kexel, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives. Economic criteria to be used in evaluating each type of program from the perspectives of all impacted parties are provided. The impact of DSM programs on electric rates is shown to be a key focal point of a thorough evaluation

  9. Efficient lifetime estimation techniques for general multiaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuga, Jan; Halama, Radim; Fusek, Martin; Rojíček, Jaroslav; Fojtík, František; Horák, David; Pecha, Marek; Tomčala, Jiří; Čermák, Martin; Hapla, Václav; Sojka, Radim; Kružík, Jakub

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss and present our progress toward a project, which is focused on fatigue life prediction under multiaxial loading in the domain of low-cycle fatigue, i.e. cases, where the plasticity cannot be neglected. First, the elastic-plastic solution in the finite element analysis is enhanced and verified on own experiments. Second, the method by Jiang describing the instantaneous damage increase by analyses of load time by time, is in implementation phase. In addition, simplified routines for conversion of elastic stresses-strains to elastic-plastic ones as proposed by Firat and Ye et.al. are evaluated on the basis of data gathered from external sources. In order to produce high quality complex analyses, which could be feasible in an acceptable time, and allow the period for next analyses of results to be expanded; the core of PragTic fatigue solver used for all fatigue computations are being re-implemented to get the fully parallelized scalable solution.

  10. Comparison of TEAR and TFRC throughput for Drop tail and RED Queue Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminderjeet Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of throughput for TEAR (TCP emulation at receivers and TFRC TCP friendly rate control in MANETs is done with varying Active queue Management Techniques. The analysis reveals that for bandwidth constraint links, TEAR and TFRC perform far better than normal traffic propagation through TCP. In case of TEAR, the processing and route congestion algorithm load is shared by the receiver resulting in lesser load at the transmitters. In TFRC the TCP traffic is propagated via an algorithm to curb acknowledgement congestions. The effect of these two techniques is monitored on Droptail and RED, two of the most common Active Queue Management Techniques.

  11. Apt strain measurement technique for impulsive loading applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Soumya Ranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Sahoo, Niranjan

    2017-01-01

    The necessity of precise measurement of strain time history for impulsive loading applications has been addressed in the present investigation. Finite element modeling is initially carried out for a hemispherical test model and stress bar assembly to arrive at an appropriate location for strain measurement. In dynamic calibration experiments, strain measurements are performed using two wire and three wire quarter bride arrangements along with half bridge circuit. Usefulness of these arrangements has been verified by analyzing strain signals in time and frequency domains. Comparison of recovered force time histories proved that the half bridge circuit is the most suitable for such applications. Actual shock tube testing of the instrumented hemispherical test model confirmed the applicability of half bridge circuit for short duration strain measurements. (technical note)

  12. Empowerment methods and techniques for sport managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in a globalize economic, social and technological environment where organizations can be successful only if they have required resources (material resources, facilities and equipment, and human resources. The managers and the organizations should empower and enable employees to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. Empowerment has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. The aim of the present study was to present effective methods and techniques of employee empowerment which constitute for the organization a source of competitive advantage. The paper will present and explain empowerment methods and techniques such as: (a organizational culture, (b vision statements, (c organizational values, (d teamwork, (e the role of manager - leadership, (f devolving responsibility accountability, (g information sharing, (h continuous training, (i appraisal rewards, (j goal setting, and (k performance appraisal process.

  13. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  14. Optimisation models and solution methods for load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Wood Science and Technology; Roennqvist, Mikael; Claesson, Marcus [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Optimisation

    2001-02-01

    The electricity market in Sweden has changed during recent years. Electricity for industrial use can nowadays be purchased from a number of competing electricity suppliers. Hence, the price for each kilowatt-hour is significantly lower than just two years ago and the interest for electricity conservation measures has declined. Part of the electricity tariff is, however, almost the same as before, i.e. the demand cost expressed in Swedish Kronor, SEK, for each kilowatt. This has put focus on load management measures in order to decrease this specific cost. Saving one kWh might lead to monetary savings between 0.22 to 914 SEK and this paper shows how to save only those kWh which really save money. A load management system has been installed in a small carpentry factory and the device can turn off equipment due to a certain priority and for a number of minutes each hour. The question is now, what level on the electricity load is optimal in a strict mathematical sense, i.e. how many kW should be set in the load management computer in order to get the best profitability? In this paper we develop a mathematical model which can be used both as a tool to find a best profitable subscription level and as a tool to control the turn of choices. Numerical results from a case study are presented.

  15. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  16. Optimisation models and solution methods for load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge; Roennqvist, Mikael; Claesson, Marcus

    2001-02-01

    The electricity market in Sweden has changed during recent years. Electricity for industrial use can nowadays be purchased from a number of competing electricity suppliers. Hence, the price for each kilowatt-hour is significantly lower than just two years ago and the interest for electricity conservation measures has declined. Part of the electricity tariff is, however, almost the same as before, i.e. the demand cost expressed in Swedish Kronor, SEK, for each kilowatt. This has put focus on load management measures in order to decrease this specific cost. Saving one kWh might lead to monetary savings between 0.22 to 914 SEK and this paper shows how to save only those kWh which really save money. A load management system has been installed in a small carpentry factory and the device can turn off equipment due to a certain priority and for a number of minutes each hour. The question is now, what level on the electricity load is optimal in a strict mathematical sense, i.e. how many kW should be set in the load management computer in order to get the best profitability? In this paper we develop a mathematical model which can be used both as a tool to find a best profitable subscription level and as a tool to control the turn of choices. Numerical results from a case study are presented

  17. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  18. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-01-01

    SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization. Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be benefi cial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  19. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization.Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be beneficial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  20. Peptide-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Prepared through Coacervation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gallarate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to a new technique, called coacervation. The main goal of this experimental work was the entrapment of peptide drugs into SLN, which is a difficult task, since their chemical characteristics (molecular weight, hydrophilicity, and stability hamper peptide-containing formulations. Insulin and leuprolide, chosen as model peptide drugs, were encapsulated within nanoparticles after hydrophobic ion pairing with anionic surfactants. Peptide integrity was maintained after encapsulation, and nanoparticles can act in vitro as a sustained release system for peptide.

  1. The Use of Management Control Systems and Operations Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelcio Koitiro Nisiyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that both management control systems (MCSs and operations management (OM are related to firm performance; however, an integrated st udy that involves MCS and OM within the context of firm performance is still lacking. This research aimed to examine the relationships among the use of MCSs and OM techniques and firm performance in the Brazilian auto parts industry. Simons’ levers of cont rol framework was used to characterise the uses of MCSs, and OM techniques, such as total quality management (TQM and continuous improvement programmes, were adopted. The results obtained through the structural equation modelling indicated that the diagno stic use of MCSs is positively associated with the goals of cost reduction. In addition, the interactive use of MCSs is positively associated with the objectives of introducing new products, which is consistent with previous research. Additionally, OM tech niques are positively related to cost reduction but have no direct relationship with the introduction of new products.

  2. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [de

  3. Management of ground water using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Saleem

    2004-01-01

    Ground water play a major role in national economy and sustenance of life and environment. Prevalent water crisis in India includes falling water table, water quality deterioration, water logging and salinity. Keeping in view the increasing thrust on groundwater resources and the present scenario of availability vis-a vis demand there is a need to reorient our approach to ground water management. The various ground water management options require proper understanding of ground water flow system. Isotopes are increasingly being applied in hydrogeological investigations as a supplementary tool for assessment of aquifer flow and transport characteristics. Isotope techniques coupled with conventional hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods can bring in greater accuracy in the conceptualization of hydrogeological control mechanism. The use of isotope techniques in following areas can certainly be of immense help in implementing various ground water management options in an efficient manner. viz.Interaction between the surface water - groundwater systems to plan conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Establishing hydraulic interconnections between the aquifers in a multi aquifer system. Depth of circulation of water and dating of ground water. Demarcating ground water recharge and discharge areas. Plan ground water development in coastal aquifers to avoid sea water ingress. Development of flood plain aquifer. (author)

  4. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  5. Recent research in electric power pricing and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabors, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable electricity is a necessity for industrial and economic development. In the developing nations, power systems are growing rapidly. Typically, demand for electricity grows faster than either total energy demand or gross domestic product. Load management systems and innovative tariff structures offer to utilities potentially significant operating and capital cost savings through increased efficiency. Benefits must be weighed against the costs of implementation, communication, control and monitoring. When comparing developed and developing country utilities one may conclude that the developing countries may have far more to gain from direct load management and innovative tariff systems. They may be able to introduce variable (cost dependent/time dependent) reliability as opposed to the constant reliability expected in the USA and Western Europe; and many utilities may be able to design more flexible (and less costly) utility systems around a combination of load management and pricing structures, that encourage a higher level of interaction between customer and utility than is the case in the more developed utilities. (author). 84 refs

  6. Data Mining Techniques for Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Qin, Huilin

    2017-10-01

    Data mining have made customer relationship management (CRM) a new area where firms can gain a competitive advantage, and play a key role in the firms’ management decision. In this paper, we first analyze the value and application fields of data mining techniques for CRM, and further explore how data mining applied to Customer churn analysis. A new business culture is developing today. The conventional production centered and sales purposed market strategy is gradually shifting to customer centered and service purposed. Customers’ value orientation is increasingly affecting the firms’. And customer resource has become one of the most important strategic resources. Therefore, understanding customers’ needs and discriminating the most contributed customers has become the driving force of most modern business.

  7. Management techniques that keep outages on schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    During the immature operation of the Pickering Units 5 through 8, significant numbers of outages have been required to deal with warranty inspections and equipment problems. Techniques have been developed to ensure that outages are properly planned and managed so that outage time is minimized, overtime is minimized, and capacity factor is maximized, while ensuring that personnel safety is not compromised. Successful outage planning and execution requires the commitment of many on-station and off-station resources groups. Coordination of all of these groups is required both before and during the outage to ensure outage time is not lost due to unavailability of men or equipment at the time they are required. This paper details the control processes that must be used prior to, during, and after an outage to ensure that time is not lost unnecessarily during outages. Successful outage management at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station can be subdivided into three stages; preoutage planning, outage execution, and postoutage review

  8. Interaction between daily load demand curve and management of hydro-thermal generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granelli, G.; Montagna, M.; Pasini, G.; Innorta, M.; Marannino, P.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that the behaviour of the daily load demand curve has on the management of a hydro-thermal generation system is considered. The aim of this paper is to show the improvements that can be achieved by suitable load management techniques capable of flattening the load demand curve. The analysis is carried out by using a hydro-thermal scheduling program and a thermal unit dynamic dispatch procedure. The possibility of properly re-committing the available thermal units is also taken into account. The economical and technical convenience of shutting down less economical thermal units operating near the lower generations limits is verified. Finally, some considerations are made about the possible use of the thermal generation incremental costs as a tool for planning the end users' kWh prices, even in the short term. The results refer to a system with characteristics similar to those of the Italian one. In determining the daily load demand curves, the characteristics of load demand in Italy as well as in other European countries are taken into account

  9. Demand Side Management: An approach to peak load smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi

    A preliminary national-level analysis was conducted to determine whether Demand Side Management (DSM) programs introduced by electric utilities since 1992 have made any progress towards their stated goal of reducing peak load demand. Estimates implied that DSM has a very small effect on peak load reduction and there is substantial regional and end-user variability. A limited scholarly literature on DSM also provides evidence in support of a positive effect of demand response programs. Yet, none of these studies examine the question of how DSM affects peak load at the micro-level by influencing end-users' response to prices. After nearly three decades of experience with DSM, controversy remains over how effective these programs have been. This dissertation considers regional analyses that explore both demand-side solutions and supply-side interventions. On the demand side, models are estimated to provide in-depth evidence of end-user consumption patterns for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) region, helping to identify sectors in regions that have made a substantial contribution to peak load reduction. The empirical evidence supports the initial hypothesis that there is substantial regional and end-user variability of reductions in peak demand. These results are quite robust in rapidly-urbanizing regions, where air conditioning and lighting load is substantially higher, and regions where the summer peak is more pronounced than the winter peak. It is also evident from the regional experiences that active government involvement, as shaped by state regulations in the last few years, has been successful in promoting DSM programs, and perhaps for the same reason we witness an uptick in peak load reductions in the years 2008 and 2009. On the supply side, we estimate the effectiveness of DSM programs by analyzing the growth of capacity margin with the introduction of DSM programs. The results indicate that DSM has been successful in offsetting the

  10. Managing bioengineering complexity with AI techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Adler, Aaron; Yaman, Fusun

    2016-10-01

    Our capabilities for systematic design and engineering of biological systems are rapidly increasing. Effectively engineering such systems, however, requires the synthesis of a rapidly expanding and changing complex body of knowledge, protocols, and methodologies. Many of the problems in managing this complexity, however, appear susceptible to being addressed by artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, i.e., methods enabling computers to represent, acquire, and employ knowledge. Such methods can be employed to automate physical and informational "routine" work and thus better allow humans to focus their attention on the deeper scientific and engineering issues. This paper examines the potential impact of AI on the engineering of biological organisms through the lens of a typical organism engineering workflow. We identify a number of key opportunities for significant impact, as well as challenges that must be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation.......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents a load optimization method to time...

  12. Managing Cognitive Load in Adaptive ICT-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Kalyuga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of technological innovations in education has many examples of failed high expectations. To avoid becoming another one, current multimedia ICT tools need to be designed in accordance with how the human mind works. There are well established characteristics of its architecture that should be taken into account when evaluating, selecting, and using educational technology. This paper starts with a review of the most important features of human cognitive architecture and their implications for ICT-based learning. Expertise reversal effect relates to the interactions between levels of learner prior knowledge and effectiveness of different instructional techniques and procedures. Designs and techniques that are effective with low-knowledge learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences for more proficient learners. The paper describes recent empirical findings associated with the expertise reversal effect in multimedia and hypermedia learning environments, their interpretation within a cognitive load framework, and implications for the design of learner-tailored multimedia.

  13. Study of load balancing technology for EAST data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi, E-mail: lishi@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, Bingjia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yang, Fei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China); Sun, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The load balancing concept is introduced into the MDSplus data service. • The new data service system based on the LVS framework and heartbeat technologies are described. • The scheduling algorithm “WLC” is used, and a software system is developed for optimizing the weight of node server. - Abstract: With the continuous renewal and increasing number of diagnostics, the EAST tokamak routinely generates ∼3 GB of raw data per pulse of the experiment, which is transferred to a centralized data management system. In order to strengthen international cooperation, all the acquired data has been converted and stored in the MDSplus servers. During the data system operation, there are some problems when a lot of client machines connect to a single MDSplus data server. Because the server process keeps the connection until the client closes its connection, a lot of server processes use a lot of network ports and consume a large amount of memory, so that the speed of access to data is very slow, but the CPU resource is not fully utilized. To improve data management system performance, many MDSplus servers will be installed on the blade server and form a server cluster to realize load balancing and high availability by using LVS and heartbeat technology. This paper will describe the details of the design and the test results.

  14. Loading pattern optimization by multi-objective simulated annealing with screening technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, K. P.; Hyun, C. L.; Hyung, K. J.; Chang, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective function which is made up of the main objective term as well as penalty terms related to the constraints. All the terms are represented in the same functional form and the coefficient of each term is normalized so that each term has equal weighting in the subsequent simulated annealing optimization calculations. The screening technique introduced in the previous work is also adopted in order to save computer time in 3-D neutronics evaluation of trial loading patterns. For numerical test of the new multi-objective function in the loading pattern optimization, the optimum loading patterns for the initial and the cycle 7 reload PWR core of Yonggwang Unit 4 are calculated by the simulated annealing algorithm with screening technique. A total of 10 optimum loading patterns are obtained for the initial core through 10 independent simulated annealing optimization runs. For the cycle 7 reload core one optimum loading pattern has been obtained from a single simulated annealing optimization run. More SA optimization runs will be conducted to optimum loading patterns for the cycle 7 reload core and results will be presented in the further work. (authors)

  15. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  16. A Novel Melt-Dispersion Technique for Simplistic Preparation of Chlorpromazine-Loaded Polycaprolactone Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiresen Govender

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design, synthesize and optimize chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ-loaded, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL based nanocapsules, intended for site specific delivery to the frontal lobe, using a novel melt-dispersion technique that is non-arduous, inexpensive and devoid of any hazardous organic solvents. Experimental trials using a central composite design were performed on 13 statistically derived formulations of various combinations of PCL (1000–3000 mg and Polysorbate 80 (2%–5% v/v on the physicochemical and physicomechanical properties and interactive effects on PCL nanocapsule formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed that there was no thermodegardation of the constituents utilized in the melt dispersion technique. Nanocapsule yields achieved were very high however entrapment of CPZ proved to be relatively low due to the highly hydrophilic nature of CPZ and the processing of the nanocapsules post synthesis. Nanocapsule sizes were in the nanotherapeutic range and varied from 132.7 ± 6.8 nm to 566.6 ± 5.5 nm. Zeta potential ranged from 15.1 ± 0.65 mV to 28.8 ± 0.84 mV revealing capsules that were of incipient to moderate stability. Transmission electron microscopy revealed nanocapsules that were spherical shape, well individualized with a moderate degree of flocculation. In vitro CPZ release was biphasic for all formulations with an initial burst release followed by pseudo-steady controlled release over 30 days. The cytotoxicity of the optimized nanocapsule system on a PC12 neuronal cell line proved to be minimal. Following incorporation of the optimized nanocapsules within a polymeric membrane, in vivo implantation of the device in a New Zealand Albino rabbit model proved the efficacy of the system in achieving prolonged more targeted CPZ levels to the brain. Extensive in vitro

  17. Microgrids: Energy management by loss minimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A.K. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Jadavpur University & 20/2, Khanpur Road, Kolkata 700047 (India); Chowdhury, S.; Chowdhury, S.P. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town & Private Bag X3, Menzies Building, Room-517, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Energy management is a techno-economic issue, which dictates, in the context of microgrids, how optimal investment in technology front could bring optimal power quality and reliability (PQR) of supply to the consumers. Investment in distributed energy resources (DERs), with their connection to the utility grid at optimal locations and with optimal sizes, saves energy in the form of line loss reduction. Line loss reduction is the indirect benefit to the microgrid owner who may recover it as an incentive from utility. The present paper focuses on planning of optimal siting and sizing of DERs based on minimization of line loss. Optimal siting is done, here, on the loss sensitivity index (LSI) method and optimal sizing by differential evolution (DE) algorithms, which is, again, compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Studies are conducted on 6-bus and 14-bus radial networks under islanded mode of operation with electric demand profile. Islanding helps planning of DER capacity of microgrid, which is self-sufficient to cater its own consumers without utility's support.

  18. Car transfer and wheelchair loading techniques in independent drivers with paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lighthall Haubert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Car transfers and wheelchair (WC loading are crucial for independent community participation in persons with complete paraplegia from spinal cord injury, but are complex, physically demanding, and known to provoke shoulder pain. This study aimed to describe techniques and factors influencing car transfer and WC loading for individuals with paraplegia driving their own vehicles and using their personal WCs. Sedans were the most common vehicle driven (59%. Just over half (52% of drivers place their right leg only into the vehicle prior to transfer. Overall, the leading hand was most frequently placed on the driver’s seat (66% prior to transfer and the trailing hand was most often place on the WC seat (48%. Vehicle height influenced leading hand placement but not leg placement such that driver’s of higher profile vehicles were more likely to place their hand on the driver’s seat than those who drove sedans. Body lift time was negatively correlated with level of injury and age and positively correlated with vehicle height and shoulder abduction strength. Drivers who transferred with their leading hand on the steering wheel had significantly higher levels of shoulder pain than those who placed their hand on the driver’s seat or overhead. The majority of participants used both hands (62% to load their WC frame and, overall, most loaded their fame into the back (62% vs. the front seat. Sedan drivers were more likely to load their frame into the front seat than drivers of higher profile vehicles (53% vs. 17%. Average time to load the WC frame (10.7 seconds was 20% of the total WC loading time and was not related to shoulder strength, frame weight or demographic characteristics. Those who loaded their WC frame into the back seat had significantly weaker right shoulder internal rotators. Understanding car transfers and WC loading in independent drivers is crucial to prevent shoulder pain and injury and preserve community participation.

  19. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  20. Intelligent techniques in engineering management theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Onar, Sezi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recently developed intelligent techniques with applications and theory in the area of engineering management. The involved applications of intelligent techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy sets, Tabu search, genetic algorithms, etc. will be useful for engineering managers, postgraduate students, researchers, and lecturers. The book has been written considering the contents of a classical engineering management book but intelligent techniques are used for handling the engineering management problem areas. This comprehensive characteristics of the book makes it an excellent reference for the solution of complex problems of engineering management. The authors of the chapters are well-known researchers with their previous works in the area of engineering management.

  1. Practical aspects of the resin bead technique for mass spectrometric sample loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.; Pritchard, C.A.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.

    1976-07-01

    Using an anion resin bead as a loading vehicle for uranium and plutonium samples which are to be analyzed isotopically in a mass spectrometer has many advantages over conventional techniques. It is applicable to any laboratory routinely performing such analyses, but should be particularly relevant for Safeguards' purposes. Because the techniques required differ markedly from those of conventional methods, this report has been written to describe them in detail to enable those unfamiliar with the technique to master it with a minimum of trouble

  2. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  3. Impact of load management on the energy management strategy of a wind-short hydro hybrid system in frequency based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakar, T.; Goswami, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a new profit centric operating strategy of a hybrid power system under market environment. • The profit is ensured by optimal coordination of RES and load management approach. • The problem is formulated as dynamic optimization problem and solved using ABC algorithm. • Comparison shows that the proposed approach results more profit for the hybrid system. - Abstract: In the post restructuring era of electrical power system, each of the generating farm or utility has its own business strategy in terms of generation planning, load management and for other decisions. The basic objective of the utility is to maximize the operational profit for a given period of time. Generation scheduling for a utility with wind farm largely depends on the accuracy of wind power prediction. Therefore, it is important to explore the suitability of load management approach in coordination with the use of energy storage facility to compensate the uncertainty in wind power generation. This paper focuses mainly the operating strategy of a grid connected small hybrid power system to maximize its profit by adopting coordination between load management technique and utilization of storage plant under frequency based pricing. The optimum load scheduling has been implemented to utilities own local load. An hourly-discretized optimization algorithm is proposed and solved using artificial bee colony algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, the optimization problem is solved for varied wind power scenarios with different demand expectations cases in a day ahead Indian electricity market. It is noted that the proposed load management approach results more profit for the hybrid system because of better power management compared to the case when load scheduling has not been incorporated. The solution of the proposed optimization algorithm gives the strategies to be followed by the hybrid system how to operate its pump storage unit and to

  4. A Few Techniques for Time Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zerihun, Dr. Temesgen Belayneh; Krishna, Dr. S Murali

    2012-01-01

    Tomorrow is always the busiest day of the week- Jonathon Lazear.Lack of time is a common complaint in western society. In response, there has been a proliferation of books, articles, and seminars on time management, along with their assertions, prescriptions and anecdotes. However, what exactly is time management? Despite the epidemic of time management training programs, there is currently a lack of agreement about the definition of time management and a dearth of literature summarizing tim...

  5. Comparison of spring-loaded, loss of resistance and hanging drop techniques in lumbar epidural blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, Güven; Akkaya, Taylan; Ozkan, Derya; Kaydul, Mehmet; Gözaydin, Orhan; Gümüş, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    The spring-loaded syringe is a loss of resistance syringe that provide a more objective sign that the epidural space has been entered compared with the traditional techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the time required to locate the epidural space and the backache incidence with the spring-loaded (SL), loss of resistance (LOR) and the hanging drop (HD) techniques for epidural blocks in patients undergoing transurethral resection procedure. Sixty patients undergoing transurethral resections were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Epidural block was performed in the first group with a spring-loaded syringe (n=20), in the second group with loss-of-resistance syringe (n=20), and in the third group with the hanging drop technique (n=20). The required time to locate the epidural space, the number of attempts, the incidence of dural puncture and the backache incidence were assessed during the procedure and for four weeks after the procedure in all patients. The required time to locate the epidural space was 29.1 ± 9.16 seconds in Group 1; 45.25 ± 19.58 seconds in Group 2, and 47.35 ± 11.42 seconds in Group 3 (p0.05). The use of SL syringe was found to have a shorter time period to locate the epidural space when compared with the LOR syringe and hanging drop technique.

  6. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  7. Optimization, formulation, and characterization of multiflavonoids-loaded flavanosome by bulk or sequential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Kura, Aminu Umar; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    This study involves adaptation of bulk or sequential technique to load multiple flavonoids in a single phytosome, which can be termed as "flavonosome". Three widely established and therapeutically valuable flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), kaempferol (K), and apigenin (A), were quantified in the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves extract and were commercially obtained and incorporated in a single flavonosome (QKA-phosphatidylcholine) through four different methods of synthesis - bulk (M1) and serialized (M2) co-sonication and bulk (M3) and sequential (M4) co-loading. The study also established an optimal formulation method based on screening the synthesized flavonosomes with respect to their size, charge, polydispersity index, morphology, drug-carrier interaction, antioxidant potential through in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics, and cytotoxicity evaluation against human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG). Furthermore, entrapment and loading efficiency of flavonoids in the optimal flavonosome have been identified. Among the four synthesis methods, sequential loading technique has been optimized as the best method for the synthesis of QKA-phosphatidylcholine flavonosome, which revealed an average diameter of 375.93±33.61 nm, with a zeta potential of -39.07±3.55 mV, and the entrapment efficiency was >98% for all the flavonoids, whereas the drug-loading capacity of Q, K, and A was 31.63%±0.17%, 34.51%±2.07%, and 31.79%±0.01%, respectively. The in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics of the flavonoids indirectly depicts the release kinetic behavior of the flavonoids from the carrier. The QKA-loaded flavonosome had no indication of toxicity toward human hepatoma cell line as shown by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide result, wherein even at the higher concentration of 200 µg/mL, the flavonosomes exert >85% of cell viability. These results suggest that sequential loading technique may be a promising

  8. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F.; Garcia-De Maria, J.M.; Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg H2 , and CO 2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  9. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Levett, Kate M; Collins, Carmel T; Armour, Mike; Dahlen, Hannah G; Suganuma, Machiko

    2018-03-28

    Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute to the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence on the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To examine the effects of mind-body relaxation techniques for pain management in labour on maternal and neonatal well-being during and after labour. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 May 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 5 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 May 2017), CINAHL (1980 to 24 May 2017), the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (18 May 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (18 May 2017), the ISRCTN Register (18 May 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (18 May 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (including quasi randomised and cluster trials) comparing relaxation methods with standard care, no treatment, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour or placebo. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We attempted to contact study authors for additional information. We assessed evidence quality with GRADE methodology. This review update includes 19 studies (2519 women), 15 of which (1731 women) contribute data. Interventions examined included relaxation, yoga, music and mindfulness. Approximately half of the studies had a low risk of bias for random sequence generation and attrition bias. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias for performance and detection bias, and unclear risk of bias for, allocation concealment, reporting bias and other bias. We assessed the evidence from these studies as ranging from low to very low quality, and

  10. In situ nonlinear ultrasonic technique for monitoring microcracking in concrete subjected to creep and cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun; Loreto, Giovanni; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly E; Wall, James J; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2018-08-01

    This research conducts in situ nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements for real time monitoring of load-induced damage in concrete. For the in situ measurements on a cylindrical specimen under sustained load, a previously developed second harmonic generation (SHG) technique with non-contact detection is adapted to a cylindrical specimen geometry. This new setup is validated by demonstrating that the measured nonlinear Rayleigh wave signals are equivalent to those in a flat half space, and thus the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β can be defined and interpreted in the same way. Both the acoustic nonlinearity parameter and strain are measured to quantitatively assess the early-age damage in a set of concrete specimens subjected to either 25 days of creep, or 11 cycles of cyclic loading at room temperature. The experimental results show that the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is sensitive to early-stage microcrack formation under both loading conditions - the measured β can be directly linked to the accumulated microscale damage. This paper demonstrates the potential of NLU for the in situ monitoring of mechanical load-induced microscale damage in concrete components. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  12. Dental anxiety: Investigative and management techniques often ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information on the pattern of dental anxiety management in Nigeria is currently not available. Aim: The study was designed to determine the awareness and frequency of application of dental anxiety assessment questionnaires as well as the current pattern in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria.

  13. Energy efficiency - The struggle for load management is raging. The French Riviera redoubles savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel; Barla, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A first article discusses the debate initiated by a decree on load management associated with the French Brottes law on energy. Load management is the possibility for consumers to reduce their consumption at peak hours. Electricity producers and suppliers are of course against, whereas new actors (load managers or aggregators) are for. The issue is then to determine who will pay this managed (and not consumed) energy. The article also evokes a controversy about the Brottes law which creates a bonus to subsidy load management, and comments the development of this load management market and its legal framework. A second article describes actions undertaken by industries of the French Riviera to manage their energy consumption

  14. Managing the supply chain with standard mixed loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, M.F.; Vlist, van der P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the complementary standard mixed loads concept (the standard mix concept in short), which allows for assembling mixed loads at an upstream echelon. These standard mixed loads are assigned to customer orders at an echelon downstream of the chain. Describes two applications of the use of the

  15. Positive Contrast MRI Techniques for Visualization of Iron-Loaded Hernia Mesh Implants in Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ciritsis

    Full Text Available In MRI, implants and devices can be delineated via susceptibility artefacts. To discriminate susceptibility voids from proton-free structures, different positive contrast techniques were implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pulse sequence-based positive contrast technique (PCSI and a post-processing susceptibility gradient mapping algorithm (SGM for visualization of iron loaded mesh implants in patients.Five patients with iron-loaded MR-visible inguinal hernia mesh implants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A gradient echo sequence (GRE; parameters: TR: 8.3ms; TE: 4.3ms; NSA:2; FA:20°; FOV:350mm² and a PCSI sequence (parameters: TR: 25ms; TE: 4.6ms; NSA:4; FA:20°; FOV:350mm² with on-resonant proton suppression were performed. SGM maps were calculated using two algorithms. Image quality and mesh delineation were independently evaluated by three radiologists.On GRE, the iron-loaded meshes generated distinct susceptibility-induced signal voids. PCSI exhibited susceptibility differences including the meshes as hyperintense signals. SGM exhibited susceptibility differences with positive contrast. Visually, the different algorithms presented no significant differences. Overall, the diagnostic value was rated best in GRE whereas PCSI and SGM were barely "sufficient".Both "positive contrast" techniques depicted implanted meshes with hyperintense signal. SGM comes without additional acquisition time and can therefore be utilized in every patient.

  16. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup −1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (∼40 μs) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

  17. Sidestep cutting technique and knee abduction loading: implications for ACL prevention exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Faul, Oliver; Bahr, Roald; Myklebust, Grethe; Krosshaug, Tron

    2014-05-01

    Sidestep cutting technique is essential in programmes to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A better understanding of how technique affects potentially harmful joint loading may improve prevention programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sidestep cutting technique on maximum knee abduction moments. Cross-sectional study. Whole-body kinematics and knee joint kinetics were calculated in 123 female handball players (mean±SD, 22.5±7.0 years, 171±7 cm, 67±7 kg) performing sidestep cutting. Three cuts from each side were analysed. Linear regression was applied between selected technique factors and maximum knee abduction moment during the first 100 ms of the contact phase. Furthermore, we investigated to what degree the abduction moment originated from the magnitude of the ground reaction force (GRF) or the knee abduction moment arm of the GRF. Technique factors explained 62% of the variance in knee abduction moments. Cut width, knee valgus, toe landing, approach speed and cutting angle were the most significant predictors. An increase in one of these factors of 1 SD increased the knee abduction moment from 12% to 19%. The effect of the moment arm of the GRF was more important than the force magnitude for maximum knee abduction moments. Lower knee abduction loads during sidestep cutting may be achieved if cuts are performed as narrow cuts with low knee valgus and toe landings. These factors may be targeted in ACL injury prevention programmes.

  18. Representation of Knowledge on Some Management Accounting Techniques in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyagina, Alena; Valuckas, Danielius

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the coverage of management accounting techniques in several popular management accounting texts, assessing each technique's claimed position within practice, its benefits and limitations, and the information sources substantiating these claims. Employing the notion of research genres, the study reveals that textbooks in their…

  19. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  20. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    The management of occupational dose exposure has been transformed in recent years though the use of facilities such as computerised databases, remote instrumentation and electronic data transfer. Use of this technology has allowed increases both in the amount of data capable of being processed and in the speed at which the data is made available to operators and Health Physics personnel. The dose management system being used in support of the UK's naval nuclear plants has incorporated advances in the areas of dosimetry, data handling and data analysis. Physical dispersion of sites servicing the nuclear plants means that effective communication links have also been vital for good dose management. This paper focuses on some of the most recent dose management technology - the use of virtual reality models linked with a predictive computer code for work planning, a remote area monitoring system with diagnostic software, a personnel dosimetry telemetry system, and electronically linked computer databases. (author)

  1. 282 Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... classroom management effectiveness is a powerful motivator of student's learning. As regards the ... attainment of organizational goals. ... reciprocal behaviour that occurs between individuals such as exchange of information ...

  2. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.

    1996-01-01

    The management of occupational dose exposure has been transformed in recent years through the use of facilities such as computerized databases, remote instrumentation and electronic data transfer. Use of this technology has allowed increases both in the amount of data capable of being processed and in the speed at which the data is made available to operators and Health Physics personnel. These developments have significantly improved the quality and efficiency of dose management. The dose management system being used in support of the UK's naval nuclear plants has incorporated advances in the areas of dosimetry, data handling and data analysis. Physical dispersion of sites servicing the nuclear plants means that effective communication links have also been vital for good dose management. (author)

  3. Short term load forecasting technique based on the seasonal exponential adjustment method and the regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan; Dong, Yao; Lu, Xiaoxiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The seasonal and trend items of the data series are forecasted separately. ► Seasonal item in the data series is verified by the Kendall τ correlation testing. ► Different regression models are applied to the trend item forecasting. ► We examine the superiority of the combined models by the quartile value comparison. ► Paired-sample T test is utilized to confirm the superiority of the combined models. - Abstract: For an energy-limited economy system, it is crucial to forecast load demand accurately. This paper devotes to 1-week-ahead daily load forecasting approach in which load demand series are predicted by employing the information of days before being similar to that of the forecast day. As well as in many nonlinear systems, seasonal item and trend item are coexisting in load demand datasets. In this paper, the existing of the seasonal item in the load demand data series is firstly verified according to the Kendall τ correlation testing method. Then in the belief of the separate forecasting to the seasonal item and the trend item would improve the forecasting accuracy, hybrid models by combining seasonal exponential adjustment method (SEAM) with the regression methods are proposed in this paper, where SEAM and the regression models are employed to seasonal and trend items forecasting respectively. Comparisons of the quartile values as well as the mean absolute percentage error values demonstrate this forecasting technique can significantly improve the accuracy though models applied to the trend item forecasting are eleven different ones. This superior performance of this separate forecasting technique is further confirmed by the paired-sample T tests

  4. Group decision-making techniques for natural resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Armour, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.

  5. Economic Techniques of Occupational Health and Safety Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Aleksandr I.; Beregovaya, Irina B.; Khanzhina, Olga A.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the issues on economic techniques of occupational health and safety management. Authors’ definition of safety management is given. It is represented as a task-oriented process to identify, establish and maintain such a state of work environment in which there are no possible effects of hazardous and harmful factors, or their influence does not go beyond certain limits. It was noted that management techniques that are the part of the control mechanism, are divided into administrative, organizational and administrative, social and psychological and economic. The economic management techniques are proposed to be classified depending on the management subject, management object, in relation to an enterprise environment, depending on a control action. Technoeconomic study, feasibility study, planning, financial incentives, preferential crediting of enterprises, pricing, profit sharing and equity, preferential tax treatment for enterprises, economic regulations and standards setting have been distinguished as economic techniques.

  6. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 10(6) cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws.

  7. Power management techniques for integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ke-Horng

    2016-01-01

    This book begins with the premise that energy demands are directing scientists towards ever-greener methods of power management, so highly integrated power control ICs (integrated chip/circuit) are increasingly in demand for further reducing power consumption. * A timely and comprehensive reference guide for IC designers dealing with the increasingly widespread demand for integrated low power management * Includes new topics such as LED lighting, fast transient response, DVS-tracking and design with advanced technology nodes * Leading author (Chen) is an active and renowned contributor to the power management IC design field, and has extensive industry experience * Accompanying website includes presentation files with book illustrations, lecture notes, simulation circuits, solution manuals, instructors manuals, and program downloads.

  8. Management Competences, not Tools and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Pedersen, Keld; Hosbond, Jens Henrik

    2007-01-01

    in practice. This study, in contrast, uses a qualitative grounded theory approach to develop the basis for an alternative theoretical perspective: that of competence. A competence approach to understanding software project management places the responsibility for success firmly on the shoulders of the people...... competences and desired project outcomes, we collected data through interviews, focus groups and one large plenary meeting with most of the company's project managers. Data analysis employed content analysis for concept (variable) development and causal mapping to trace relationships between variables....... In this way we were able to build up a picture of the competences project managers use in their daily work at WM-data, which we argue is also partly generaliseable to theory. The discrepancy between the two perspectives is discussed, particularly in regard to the current orientation of the software...

  9. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  10. Generating Quasi-Isentropic Loading to Targets via Flier-Plate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiang; Su Xiaopeng; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng; Hua Jinsong; Tan Hua

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-isentropic loading technique allows investigation of material properties in a high-pressure, low-temperature regime that is inaccessible by conventional shock wave experiments. In the present paper, the layered flier-plate and graded density flier-plate, which have different variations in the density gradient along the thickness direction but the same density range, were designed and fabricated. Impact experiments were then performed on a two-stage light gas gun. VISAR-measured results show that wave profiles with an initial jump followed by a slowly-rising front to the peak velocity amplitude are generated by using both types of the flier-plate, indicating that quasi-isentropic loading to the targets have been successfully realized. The process of quasi-isentropic loading can be seen as the successive overlap of a series of small shock waves by the transient layers in the flier-plate. It is obvious that the graded density flier-plate creates a more smoothly rising front, and the compression effect must be closer to isentropic loading than that of the layered flier-plate with the same density range

  11. Development techniques of computerized maintenance Management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Kim, S D; Soong, W S; Kim, G H; Oh, W H; Kim, Y G

    2000-05-01

    Normal operation of the facility is one of the key factors in the accomplishments of research goals. As confirmed by a case study of the influence of the facility operation condition on the research results, emphasis should be put on the facility preserve management. Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and their malfunctions should be repaired as soon as possible. The purpose of this project is to make propositions on the development of the facility preserve management system which is to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance planning, and is to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement.

  12. Development techniques of computerized maintenance Management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yon Woo; Kim, S.D.; Soong, W.S.; Kim, G.H.; Oh, W.H.; Kim, Y.G.

    2000-05-01

    Normal operation of the facility is one of the key factors in the accomplishments of research goals. As confirmed by a case study of the influence of the facility operation condition on the research results, emphasis should be put on the facility preserve management. Facilities should be maintained in solid operational condition and their malfunctions should be repaired as soon as possible. The purpose of this project is to make propositions on the development of the facility preserve management system which is to maximize the efficiency of the budget execution, manpower organization and maintenance planning, and is to minimize the duration of the operational pause due to malfunctions with the least disbursement

  13. ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.

  14. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  15. Alternative techniques for environmental project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, S.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s and early 1980s, increased regulation and recognition of ground water as an important natural resource led industry to address subsurface contamination at many sites. This caused the industry's dependence on environmental consultants to increase drastically. Initially, the accepted practice for addressing environmental concerns was to rely upon consultants to determine appropriate work scope, budgets, procedures and regulatory interaction. While significant advances have been made in technology and consulting services, improvement in project management and cost containment have been limited. In order to effectively manage environmental projects, it is imperative that business risks and standardized project management practices be factored into environmental solutions. A standardized environmental project management program was developed and applied to projects at petroleum marketing facilities throughout the United States. Following development and implementation, detailed studies were conducted to measure the value of standardization in reducing costs and enhancing efficiencies. The results indicate significant improvement in both reducing project costs and in enhancing the efficiency of consultants

  16. Energy management of a university campus utilizing short-term load forecasting with an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchak, David

    Electrical load forecasting is a tool that has been utilized by distribution designers and operators as a means for resource planning and generation dispatch. The techniques employed in these predictions are proving useful in the growing market of consumer, or end-user, participation in electrical energy consumption. These predictions are based on exogenous variables, such as weather, and time variables, such as day of week and time of day as well as prior energy consumption patterns. The participation of the end-user is a cornerstone of the Smart Grid initiative presented in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and is being made possible by the emergence of enabling technologies such as advanced metering infrastructure. The optimal application of the data provided by an advanced metering infrastructure is the primary motivation for the work done in this thesis. The methodology for using this data in an energy management scheme that utilizes a short-term load forecast is presented. The objective of this research is to quantify opportunities for a range of energy management and operation cost savings of a university campus through the use of a forecasted daily electrical load profile. The proposed algorithm for short-term load forecasting is optimized for Colorado State University's main campus, and utilizes an artificial neural network that accepts weather and time variables as inputs. The performance of the predicted daily electrical load is evaluated using a number of error measurements that seek to quantify the best application of the forecast. The energy management presented utilizes historical electrical load data from the local service provider to optimize the time of day that electrical loads are being managed. Finally, the utilization of forecasts in the presented energy management scenario is evaluated based on cost and energy savings.

  17. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  18. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DC power distribution is gaining more and more importance over its AC counterpart achieving increased efficiency, greater flexibility, reduced volumes and capital cost. In this paper, a 24-120-325V two-level DC distribution system for home appliances, each including three parallel DC......-DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table......, is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed...

  19. Qualitative techniques for managing operational risk

    OpenAIRE

    Delfiner, Miguel; Pailhé, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative techniques are essential tools for identifying and assessing operational risk (OR). Their relevance in assessing OR can be understood due to the lack of a quantitative static model capable of capturing the dynamic operational risk profile which is shaped by managerial decisions. An operational risk profile obtained solely from historical loss data could further change due to corrective actions implemented by the bank after the occurrence of those events. This document introduces s...

  20. Pediatric interventional radiology: Indications, techniques, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, R.B.; Ball, W.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This course develops a practical approach to pediatric interventional radiology. Radiologic intervention in the pediatricage group is possible by attending to the care and special needs of the child. The authors also emphasize their approach to patient preparation, sedation and anesthesia, nursing care, monitoring of the patient during the procedure, and follow-up care. The course is divided into nonvascular and vascular sections. The discussion of nonvascular procedures focus on the chest and the GU and GI systems. Biopsy techniques and drainage of effusions and abscesses within the chest are discussed. A variety of GU procedures are presented including insertion of a nephrostomy tube and percutaneous tract dilation for placement of internal stents, percutaneous stone removal, and percutaneous surgery for pyeloplasty. The authors approach to percutaneous pyeloplasty is briefly discussed. Intervention within the GI system includes percutaenous aspiration, drainage, and biopsies. Emphasis is placed on the selection of embolic agents and catheter delivery systems, techniques, and current treatment concepts. The authors describe experience with embolization of vascular malformations, renovascular disease, uncontrollable hemorrhage, and selected neoplastic processes. Comments on the indications for and techniques of transluminal angioplasty and fibrinolytic therapy in children conclude the lecture

  1. Purification of Drug Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Prepared by Emulsification Solvent Evaporation Using Stirred Cell Ultrafiltration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Suresh K; Saini, T R

    2017-12-01

    The emulsifiers in an exceedingly higher level are used in the preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This creates great problem to the formulator due to their serious toxicities when it is to be administered by parenteral route. The final product is therefore required to be freed from the used surfactants by the conventional purification techniques which is a cumbersome job. The solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration unit (Millipore) was used in this study using polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane (Biomax®) having pore size of NMWL 300 KDa as the membrane filter. The purification efficiency of this technique was compared with the conventional centrifugation technique. The flow rate of ultrafiltration was optimized for removal of surfactant (polyvinyl alcohol) impurities to the acceptable levels in 1-3.5 h from the nanoparticle dispersion of tamoxifen prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. The present investigations demonstrate the application of solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration technique for removal of toxic impurities of surfactant (PVA) from the polymeric drug nanoparticles (tamoxifen) prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This technique offers added benefit of producing more concentrated nanoparticles dispersion without causing significant particle size growth which is observed in other purification techniques, e.g., centrifugation and ultracentrifugation.

  2. The reactions of loaded carbon nanotubes, studied by novel electron microscope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawcliffe, A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel electron microscope technique, controlled environment transmission electron microscopy (CETEM), has been used to investigate the reaction of materials loaded within the internal cavities of carbon nanotubes. CETEM allows the introduction of up to 20 mbar of gas around an electron microscope sample, while maintaining a high resolution imaging capability. The microscope is stable, flexible and reliable under these conditions and high resolution images of encapsulated transmission metal oxide reduction have been recorded at 460 deg. C. Recently discovered carbon nanotubes have in theory many applications, many of which will require controlled reliable loading of the internal cavity. However, at present, there is little experimental evidence to confirm theoretical descriptions of the fundamental mechanisms which govern both the extent of loading and the state in which it is found. Similarly, reaction within the cavity and the effect of encapsulation on the nano-scale particle distribution must also be understood, and CETEM proves to be an ideal technique for the study of these processes. Nanotubes have been loaded from aqueous solution with (NH 4 ) 2 IrCI 6 and with molten MoO 3 or K 2 WO 4 /WO 3 . Bulk samples of the first salt are known to decompose spontaneously in air at 200 deg. C, and the bulk oxides are partially reduced at temperature under hydrogen to give potentially useful conducting phases. Comparing the reaction of these materials it is thus possible to: investigate the effect of loading on their reaction; compare the reaction of these materials in- and out-side the tube cavity; and assess the result of violent loading processes on the tubes themselves. Fortuitously, a spontaneous decomposition, a solid-gas reduction and a phase rearrangement were all recorded, allowing mechanistic implications of encapsulation to be considered for each of these reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, the results can be largely interpreted using the reported bulk

  3. Optimization, formulation, and characterization of multiflavonoids-loaded flavanosome by bulk or sequential technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthivashan G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Govindarajan Karthivashan,1 Mas Jaffri Masarudin,2 Aminu Umar Kura,1 Faridah Abas,3,4 Sharida Fakurazi1,5 1Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 4Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, 5Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: This study involves adaptation of bulk or sequential technique to load multiple flavonoids in a single phytosome, which can be termed as “flavonosome”. Three widely established and therapeutically valuable flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q, kaempferol (K, and apigenin (A, were quantified in the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves extract and were commercially obtained and incorporated in a single flavonosome (QKA–phosphatidylcholine through four different methods of synthesis – bulk (M1 and serialized (M2 co-sonication and bulk (M3 and sequential (M4 co-loading. The study also established an optimal formulation method based on screening the synthesized flavonosomes with respect to their size, charge, polydispersity index, morphology, drug–carrier interaction, antioxidant potential through in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics, and cytotoxicity evaluation against human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG. Furthermore, entrapment and loading efficiency of flavonoids in the optimal flavonosome have been identified. Among the four synthesis methods, sequential loading technique has been optimized as the best method for the synthesis of QKA–phosphatidylcholine flavonosome, which revealed an average diameter of 375.93±33.61 nm, with a zeta potential of -39.07±3.55 mV, and the entrapment efficiency was >98% for all the flavonoids, whereas the drug-loading capacity of Q, K, and A was 31.63%±0

  4. Transforming dose management techniques through technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Morrissey, M.

    1995-01-01

    The development of real-time radiation dosimetry, improved remote monitoring capability and the use of computerized databases and electronic data transfer has led to a significant improvement in effective dose management. This paper describes how these advances have improved occupational dose control for personnel supporting the United Kingdom's naval nuclear plants. Until recently health physics personnel have experienced high levels of occupational exposure compared to other groups, because of manual survey work, but new technology, such as virtual reality models linked with predictive computer codes and other computer based innovations in remote monitoring and telemetry based dosimetry, is reversing this situation. (UK)

  5. Management of the flabby ridge using a modified window technique and polyvinylsiloxane impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Labban

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flabby ridge is a common clinical finding affecting the alveolar ridges of the mandibular or maxillary arches. The anterior region of maxilla is the most affected area in edentulous patients. Dentures on flabby ridges have compromised stability, support, and retention unless adequate measures for its management are employed. Methods applied for flabby ridge management, include surgical removal and augmentation, special impression techniques, balanced distribution of occlusal loads and implant therapy. Special impressions often involve window technique for static impression of flabby area, which present multiple challenges. The purpose of this technique report is to present a modified window technique for the impression of anterior maxillary flabby tissues for improved and controlled application of polyvinylsiloxane impression material that are routinely available in dental practice.

  6. Modeling for the management of peak loads on a radiology image management network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.J.; Cox, G.G.; Templeton, A.W.; Cook, L.T.; Anderson, W.H.; Hensley, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a radiology image management network for a radiology department can now be assisted by a queueing model. The queueing model requires that the designers specify the following parameters: the number of tasks to be accomplished (acquisition of image data, transmission of data, archiving of data, displaying and manipulation of data, and generation of hard copies); the average times to complete each task; the patient scheduled arrival times; and the number/type of computer nodes interfaced to the network (acquisition nodes, interactive diagnostic display stations, archiving nodes, hard copy nodes, and gateways to hospital systems). The outcomes from the queuering model include mean throughput data rates and identified bottlenecks, and peak throughput data rates and identified bottlenecks. This exhibit presents the queueing model and illustrates its use in managing peak loads on an image management network

  7. Analysis of a piping system under seismic load using incremental hinge technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kiran, A.; Agrawal, M.K.; Reddy, G.R.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Ramesh Babu, R.

    2008-01-01

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code treats piping system as a series of components but not as an overall structural system. Limit analyses and collapse tests at component level are used to establish stress allowables on seismic stresses. The code does not consider the load redistributions and structural redundancy existing in piping systems that prevent system collapse even when one or more individual components loaded beyond their collapse levels. This necessitates a simple analytical method for evaluation of inelastic seismic response at system level. The present paper presents a simplified analytical procedure for predicting inelastic response of a typical piping system subjected to seismic load. The analytical method known as incremental hinge technique is based on plastic system behavior in which the yielded components are replaced with hinge models when a critical hinge moment is reached. It also takes into account the inelastic response spectrum reduction factors and displacement ductility. The analytical method is used to obtain the inelastic response, location of hinge formation and level of base excitation needed for hinge formation. The predicted hinge locations and hinge ordering is compared with the results of a shake table test conducted on the piping system. (author)

  8. Economic effects of access management techniques in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    The NCDOT has made significant strides to reduce collisions and increase capacity along : strategic highway corridors across the state. Efforts have led to the implementation of many : different access management techniques along corridors, such as i...

  9. Applied Knowledge Management to Mitigate Cognitive Load in Network-Enabled Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-22

    ARL-TN-0859 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Applied Knowledge Management to Mitigate Cognitive Load in Network-Enabled...Applied Knowledge Management to Mitigate Cognitive Load in Network-Enabled Mission Command by John K Hawley Human Research and Engineering...REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 May 2016–20 April 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Applied Knowledge Management to Mitigate

  10. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are diff...

  11. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of suchstructures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealingan in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and thehydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakageis caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficu...

  12. Methods and techniques of nuclear in-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, A.J. de.

    1992-04-01

    Review of methods of nuclear in-core fuel management (the minimal critical mass problem, minimal power peaking) and calculational techniques: reactorphysical calculations (point reactivity models, continuous refueling, empirical methods, depletion perturbation theory, nodal computer programs); optimization techniques (stochastic search, linear programming, heuristic parameter optimization). (orig./HP)

  13. Understanding Pupil Behaviour: Classroom Management Techniques for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    This book describes a system of successful classroom behaviour management techniques developed by the author over more than twenty-five years. It outlines the difficulties confronting teachers trying to manage pupils' misbehaviour in schools and describes four types of pupil who can be helped to behave responsibly. In "Understanding Pupil…

  14. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  15. Building Alliance Capability: Management Techniques for Superior Alliance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J. Draulans (Johan); A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDespite the fact that they represent a growing element of business strategy, alliances between organisations quite often result in failure. This is partly due to the fact that firms have not built up adequate capabilities to manage alliances. Special management techniques have to be

  16. Building alliance capability : management techniques for superior alliance performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draulans, J.; Man, de A.P.; Volberda, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the fact that they represent a growing element of business strategy, alliances between organisations quite often result in failure. This is partly due to the fact that firms have not built up adequate capabilities to manage alliances. Special management techniques have to be implemented in

  17. Competency mapping and visualisation techniques in change management

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel , Joachim; Creusot , Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The article describes techniques that may facilitate change management in the library. Approach: The paper is based on practical experience and evidence from the INIST library department in France. Findings: Based on standard inventories of LIS professions and competencies, we present techniques for the mapping and visualisation of individual or team-centred job functions and skills. These techniques can help and facilitate communication, information and participation and are useful ...

  18. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  19. A Review of the Usefulness of R & D Management Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Logistics Air Force Institute of Technology, WAFB, OH I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE N-34E AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Department of Communication and Humanities...First, upper level managers sometimes fail to accurately translate their understanding of corporate objectives and goals into the technical envi...could also be classified as a "style" of management. A management technique according to John Argenti is "a recognized method of analyzing or solving a

  20. Development of a self-managed loaded exercise programme for rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a self-managed loaded exercise programme which has been designed to address the pain and disability associated with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention has been developed with reference to current self-management theory and with reference to the emerging benefit of loaded exercise for tendinopathy. This self-managed loaded exercise programme is being evaluated within the mixed methods SELF study (ISRCTN 84709751) which includes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted within the UK National Health Service. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  2. Employing 3R Techniques in Managing Cement Industry Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Mohammed Dawood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management conserves human health, ownership, environment, and keeps valuable natural resources. Lean-green waste of an organization’s operations can be decreased through implementation 3R (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling techniques by reduction of manufacturing system wastes. This research aims to integrate lean-green waste of the manufacturing system throughout employing 3R techniques and weighted properties method in order to manage waste. Al-Kufa cement plant is employed as a case study. Results are generated using Edraw Max Version 7 and Excel. Overall results show reduce technique of lean-green waste management has major contribution of 55 % and recycling technique has minor contribution 18 %. Defects waste has major integration of lean-green waste, while air emissions waste has minor integration of lean-green waste.

  3. Construction techniques and management methods for BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yohji; Tateishi, Mizuo; Hayashi, Yoshishige

    1989-01-01

    Toshiba is constantly striving for safer and more efficient plant construction to realize high-quality BWR plants within a short construction period. To achieve these aims, Toshiba has developed and improved a large number of construction techniques and construction management methods. In the area of installation, various techniques have been applied such as the modularization of piping and equipment, shop installation of reactor internals, etc. Further, installation management has been upgraded by the use of pre-installation review programs, the development of installation control systems, etc. For commissioning, improvements in commissioning management have been achieved through the use of computer systems, and testing methods have also been upgraded by the development of computer systems for the recording and analysis of test data and the automatic adjustment of controllers in the main control system of the BWR. This paper outlines these construction techniques and management methods. (author)

  4. Application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian and Coefficient Diagram Techniques to Distributed Load Frequency Control of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hassan Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented both the linear quadratic Gaussian technique (LQG and the coefficient diagram method (CDM as load frequency controllers in a multi-area power system to deal with the problem of variations in system parameters and load demand change. The full states of the system including the area frequency deviation have been estimated using the Kalman filter technique. The efficiency of the proposed control method has been checked using a digital simulation. Simulation results indicated that, with the proposed CDM + LQG technique, the system is robust in the face of parameter uncertainties and load disturbances. A comparison between the proposed technique and other schemes is carried out, confirming the superiority of the proposed CDM + LQG technique.

  5. Advanced Power Management of a Telehandler using Electronic Load Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2009-01-01

    New possibilities within electronic control of mobile hydraulic systems are becoming available as hydraulic components are implemented with more electrical sensors and actuators. This paper presents how the traditional hydro-mechanical load sensing (HLS) control of a specific mobile hydraulic...... application, a telehandler, can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The motivation for ELS is the potentials of better dynamic performance and system utilization, along with reduced mechanical complexity by transferring features as pump pressure control, flow...

  6. Development and characterization of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dheeraj; Singh, Manpreet; Kumar, Punnet; Vikram, Vir; Mishra, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize intranasal delivery of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's diseases. After intranasal delivery, brain and blood drug concentrations were found to be higher for optimized morin hydrate loaded microemulsion as compared to plain morin hydrate. Significant (P microemulsion as compared to sham control group. Daily chronic treatment with morin loaded microemulsion till the 21st day significantly increased the memory in wistar rats with STZ-induced dementia.

  7. Management of broken instrument by file bypass technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Parveen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Different devices and techniques have been developed to retrieve fractured instruments during the endodontic procedures. This case report describes the management of a broken instrument, which was accidentally broken during cleaning and shaping of the root canal in right 2nd molar tooth. A # 25 stainless steel K-file was separated in mesiobuccal canal of the treated tooth. At first, a radiograph was taken to confirm the level of separation of the instrument. The instrument was found to be separated at the apical 3rd of the mesial canal and then file bypass technique was performed. Calcium hydroxide dressing was given for 7 days followed by obturation with guttapercha cone and zinc oxide eugenol sealer in lateral condensation technique. It can be concluded that bypass technique can be considered as simple and effective technique for the management of broken instrument into the root canal.

  8. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2002-12-13

    Restructuring is attempting to bring the economic efficiency of competitive markets to the electric power industry. To at least some extent it is succeeding. New generation is being built in most areas of the country reversing the decades-long trend of declining reserve margins. Competition among generators is typically robust, holding down wholesale energy prices. Generators have shown that they are very responsive to price signals in both the short and long term. But a market that is responsive only on the supply side is only half a market. Demand response (elasticity) is necessary to gain the full economic advantages that restructuring can offer. Electricity is a form of energy that is difficult to store economically in large quantities. However, loads often have some ability to (1) conveniently store thermal energy and (2) defer electricity consumption. These inherent storage and control capabilities can be exploited to help reduce peak electric system consumption. In some cases they can also be used to provide system reliability reserves. Fortunately too, technology is helping. Advances in communications and control technologies are making it possible for loads ranging from residential through commercial and industrial to respond to economic signals. When we buy bananas, we don't simply take a dozen and wait a month to find out what the price was. We always ask about the price before we decide how many bananas we want. Technology is beginning to allow at least some customers to think about their electricity consumption the same way they think about most of their other purchases. And power system operators and regulators are beginning to understand that customers need to remain in control of their own destinies. Many customers (residential through industrial) are willing to respond to price signals. Most customers are not able to commit to specific responses months or years in advance. Electricity is a fluid market commodity with a volatile value to both

  9. Load Management in Residential Buildings Considering Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-12-01

    Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policy maker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn't express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might

  10. Strategic Management Tools and Techniques Usage: a Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Berisha Qehaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few studies to review the empirical literature on strategic management tools and techniques usage. There are many techniques, tools and methods, models, frameworks, approaches and methodologies, available to support strategic managers in decision making. They are developed and designed to support managers in all stages of strategic management process to achieve better performance. Management schools provide knowledge of these tools. But their use in organizations should be seen in practice‑based context. Consequently, some questions arise: Do they use these strategic tools and techniques in their workplace? Which strategic tools and techniques are used more in organizations? To answer these questions we have made a review of empirical studies using textual narrative synthesis method. Initially, this study presents a tabulation with a summary of empirical research for the period 1990–2015. The included studies are organized clustering them by enterprise size and sector and by country level development. A synopsis of the ten most used strategic tools and techniques worldwide resulted as follows: SWOT analysis, benchmarking, PEST analysis, “what if” analysis, vision and mission statements, Porter’s five forces analysis, business financial analysis, key success factors analysis, cost‑benefit analysis and customer satisfaction.

  11. Supply chain management under fuzziness recent developments and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Öztayşi, Başar

    2014-01-01

    Supply Chain Management Under Fuzziness presents recently developed fuzzy models and techniques for supply chain management. These include: fuzzy PROMETHEE, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy ANP, fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy clustering, fuzzy linear programming, and fuzzy inference systems. The book covers both practical applications and new developments concerning these methods. This book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in supply chain management and logistics, and will provide them with new suggestions and directions for future research. Moreover, it will support graduate students in their university courses, such as specialized courses on supply chains and logistics, as well as related courses in the fields of industrial engineering, engineering management and business administration.

  12. Multi-Drug-Loaded Microcapsules with Controlled Release for Management of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Choo, Chee Chong; Qian, Cheng; Tan, Nguan Soon; Shen, Zexiang; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disease of the nervous system, and is currently managed through commercial tablets that do not sufficiently enable controlled, sustained release capabilities. It is hypothesized that a drug delivery system that provides controlled and sustained release of PD drugs would afford better management of PD. Hollow microcapsules composed of poly-l-lactide (PLLA) and poly (caprolactone) (PCL) are prepared through a modified double-emulsion technique. They are loaded with three PD drugs, i.e., levodopa (LD), carbidopa (CD), and entacapone (ENT), at a ratio of 4:1:8, similar to commercial PD tablets. LD and CD are localized in both the hollow cavity and PLLA/PCL shell, while ENT is localized in the PLLA/PCL shell. Release kinetics of hydrophobic ENT is observed to be relatively slow as compared to the other hydrophilic drugs. It is further hypothesized that encapsulating ENT into PCL as a surface coating onto these microcapsules can aid in accelerating its release. Now, these spray-coated hollow microcapsules exhibit similar release kinetics, according to Higuchi's rate, for all three drugs. The results suggest that multiple drug encapsulation of LD, CD, and ENT in gastric floating microcapsules could be further developed for in vivo evaluation for the management of PD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Urinary morbidity with a modified peripheral loading technique of transperineal 125i prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Douglas; Colonias, Athanasios; Miller, Ralph; Benoit, Ronald; Cohen, Jeffrey; Arshoun, Youssef; Galloway, Michael; Karlovits, Stephen; Wu, Andrew; Johnson, Mark; Quinn, Annette; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of urinary morbidity within the first 12 months following a modified peripheral loading technique for permanent transperineal transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided 125 I prostate implantation and comparison of urinary morbidity with various clinical and implant parameters. Materials and Methods: Between October 1, 1996, and March 11, 1998, 87 patients with favorable, early stage prostate cancer were treated with permanent transperineal TRUS guided 125 I prostate implantation. A peripheral loading technique was utilized for source placement with 75-80% source distribution in the periphery and 20-25% source distribution centrally. A mean total activity of 38 mCi of 125 I was implanted (range, 19-66 mCi). The mean source activity was 0.43 mCi/source (range, 0.26-0.61 mCi/source) and the mean number of sources implanted was 88 (range, 56-134). The minimum prescribed dose to the prostate was 145 Gy. The median D 90 , V 100 , and V 150 were 152 Gy (range, 104-211 Gy), 92% (range, 71-99%), and 61% (range, 11-89%), respectively. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 12-29 months). Urinary morbidity was scored at 3 weeks and then at 3-month intervals for the first 2 years using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system (scale 0-5). Results: Most patients developed at least minor urinary symptoms with frequency or nocturia being the most common. Overall, 79% (69/87) of patients experienced urinary morbidity with 21% (18/87) reporting no symptoms. The incidence of overall Grade 1 urinary morbidity was 37% (32/87); Grade 2 morbidity was 37% (32/87); and Grade 3 morbidity was 6% (5/87). There was no Grade 4 or 5 morbidity. The incidence of Grade 0 frequency/nocturia was 36% (31/87); Grade 1 was 33% (29/87); Grade 2 was 30% (26/87); and Grade 3 was 1% (1/87). Grade 0 dysuria was seen in 56% (49/87) of patients; 32% (28/87) had Grade 1; 10% (9/87) Grade 2; and 1% (1/87) Grade 3 dysuria. Most urinary symptoms started a few weeks

  14. Hysteresis current control technique of VSI for compensation of grid-connected unbalanced loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    interconnection issues that usually arise as DG units connect to the electric grid. The proposed strategy, implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment in different operating scenarios, provides compensation for active, reactive, unbalanced, and harmonic current components of grid-connected nonlinear unbalanced...... resources as they connect to the exiting power grid could provoke many power quality problems on the grid side. For this reason, due considerations must be given to power generation and safe running before DG units is actually integrated into the power grid. The main aim of this paper is to address the grid...... loads. The simulation results obtained in this study demonstrate the level of accuracy of the proposed technique, which ensure a balance in the overall grid phase currents, injection of maximum available power from DG resources to the grid, improvement of the utility grid power factor, and a reduction...

  15. Limitations of transient power loads on DEMO and analysis of mitigation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maviglia, F., E-mail: francesco.maviglia@euro-fusion.org [EUROfusion Consortium, PPPT Department, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Consorzio CREATE, University Napoli Federico II – DIETI, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Federici, G. [EUROfusion Consortium, PPPT Department, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Strohmayer, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [EUROfusion Consortium, PPPT Department, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, PPPT Department, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Albanese, R. [Consorzio CREATE, University Napoli Federico II – DIETI, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosino, R. [Consorzio CREATE University Napoli Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Li, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Loschiavo, V.P. [Consorzio CREATE, University Napoli Federico II – DIETI, 80125 Napoli (Italy); You, J.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany); Zani, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A parametric thermo-hydraulic analysis of the candidate DEMO divertor is presented. • The operational space assessment is presented under static and transient heat loads. • Strike points sweeping is analyzed as a divertor power exhaust mitigation technique. • Results are presented on sweeping installed power required, AC losses and thermal fatigue. - Abstract: The present European standard DEMO divertor target technology is based on a water-cooled tungsten mono-block with a copper alloy heat sink. This paper presents the assessment of the operational space of this technology under static and transient heat loads. A transient thermo-hydraulic analysis was performed using the code RACLETTE, which allowed a broad parametric scan of the target geometry and coolant conditions. The limiting factors considered were the coolant critical heat flux (CHF), and the temperature limits of the materials. The second part of the work is devoted to the study of the plasma strike point sweeping as a mitigation technique for the divertor power exhaust. The RACLETTE code was used to evaluate the impact of a large range of sweeping frequencies and amplitudes. A reduced subset of cases, which complied with the constraints, was benchmarked with a 3D FEM model. A reduction of the heat flux to the coolant, up to a factor ∼4, and lower material temperatures were found for an incident heat flux in the range (15–30) MW/m{sup 2}. Finally, preliminary assessments were performed on the installed power required for the sweeping, the AC losses in the superconductors and thermal fatigue analysis. No evident show stoppers were found.

  16. Alternative approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Гавриленко

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability was proposed in the article. The improvement of the concept of operational and strategic management of load flow in engineering networks was considered. The verbal statement of the problem for thesis research is defined, namely, the problem of development of information technology for exact calculation of the functional reliability of the network, or the risk of short delivery of purpose-oriented product for consumers

  17. Peak-load management, the security of supply warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Even if France owns an efficient power generation park, largely exporting and clean (90% with no CO 2 emission), it encounters some difficulties during peak-load periods. The successive peak power demand records which are recorded each year represent as many alerts about a possible collapse of the power system. In order to warrant the electricity supply, the present day regulatory framework must be changed to allow the industrial players to carry out the necessary investments

  18. A loading pattern optimization method for nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reload of PWR core leads to the search of an optimal nuclear fuel assemblies distribution, namely of loading pattern. This large discrete optimization problem is here expressed as a cost function minimization. To deal with this problem, an approach based on gradient information is used to direct the search in the patterns discrete space. A method using an adjoint state formulation is then developed, and final results of complete patterns search tests by this method are presented. (author)

  19. An optimal control model for load shifting - With application in the energy management of a colliery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelberg, Arno; Zhang Jiangfeng; Xia Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal control model for the load shifting problem in energy management and its application in a South African colliery. It is illustrated in the colliery scenario that how the optimal control model can be applied to optimize load shifting and improve energy efficiency through the control of conveyor belts. The time-of-use electricity tariff is used as an input to the objective function in order to obtain a solution that minimizes electricity costs and thus maximizes load shifting. The case study yields promising results that show the potential of applying this optimal control model to other industrial Demand Side Management initiatives

  20. Hoshin Kanri: a technique for strategic quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, C; Roberts, P A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for Strategic Quality Management (SQM), known as Hoshin Kanri, which has been operated as a management system in many Japanese companies since the 1960s. It represents a core aspect of Japanese companies' management systems, and is stated as: the means by which the overall control system and Total Quality Management (TQM) are deployed. Hoshin Kanri is not particularly unique in its concept of establishing and tracking individual goals and objectives, but the manner in which the objectives and the means to achieve them are developed and deployed is. The problem with applying the concept of Strategic Quality Management (SQM) using Hoshin Kanri, is that it can tend to challenge the traditional authoritarian strategic planning models, which have become the paradigms of modern business. Yet Hoshin Kanri provides an appropriate tool for declaration of the strategic vision for the business while integrating goals and targets in a single holistic model. There have been various adaptations of Hoshin Kanri to align the technique to Western thinking and management approaches, yet outside Japan its significance has gone largely unreported. It is proposed that Hoshin Kanri is an effective methodology for SQM, which has a number of benefits over the more conventional planning techniques. The benefits of Hoshin Kanri as a tool for Strategic Quality Management (SQM) compared to conventional planning systems include: integration of strategic objectives with tactical daily management, the application of the plan-do-check-act cycle to business process management, parallel planning and execution methodology, company wide approach, improvements in communication, increased consensus and buy-in to goal setting, and cross-functional-management integration.

  1. An intelligent content discovery technique for health portal content management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Daswin; Burstein, Frada

    2014-04-23

    Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and its contribution towards effective

  2. Wetland management and rice farming strategies to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation and loads from the Cosumnes River Preserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Fleck, Jacob; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; McQuillen, Harry; Heim, Wes

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) concentrations in caged fish (deployed for 30 days) and water from agricultural wetland (rice fields), managed wetland, slough, and river habitats in the Cosumnes River Preserve, California. We also implemented experimental hydrological regimes on managed wetlands and post-harvest rice straw management techniques on rice fields in order to evaluate potential Best Management Practices to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation within wetlands and loads to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Total Hg concentrations in caged fish were twice as high in rice fields as in managed wetland, slough, or riverine habitats, including seasonal managed wetlands subjected to identical hydrological regimes. Caged fish Hg concentrations also differed among managed wetland treatments and post-harvest rice straw treatments. Specifically, Hg concentrations in caged fish decreased from inlets to outlets in seasonal managed wetlands with either a single (fall-only) or dual (fall and spring) drawdown and flood-up events, whereas Hg concentrations increased slightly from inlets to outlets in permanent managed wetlands. In rice fields, experimental post-harvest straw management did not decrease Hg concentrations in caged fish. In fact, in fields in which rice straw was chopped and either disked into the soil or baled and removed from the fields, fish Hg concentrations increased from inlets to outlets and were higher than Hg concentrations in fish from rice fields subjected to the more standard post-harvest practice of simply chopping rice straw prior to fall flood-up. Finally, aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and export were highly variable, and seasonal trends in particular were often opposite to those of caged fish. Aqueous MeHg concentrations and loads were substantially higher in winter than in summer, whereas caged fish Hg concentrations were relatively low in winter and substantially higher in summer. Together, our results highlight the

  3. Effect of different weed management techniques on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weed management techniques included slashing at 8-weekly intervals, mulching alone, glyphosate + slashing, glyphosate + mulching, glyphosate alone and a weed-free control. Glyphosate + mulching proved to have the greatest positive influence on plant height, plant girth, leaf area and number of leaves throughout ...

  4. A Rationale and Bibliography for Classroom Management and Intervention Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This 51-item bibliography offers a selection of writings on issues and problems related to classroom management and discipline. Most citations concern works written between 1972-1983. Intervention techniques in dealing with deviant behavior are highlighted along with discipline and control in the classroom. Articles on methods of behavior…

  5. Using Powerpoint Animations to Teach Operations Management Techniques and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the value of using complex animated PowerPoint presentations to teach operations management techniques and concepts. To provide context, literature covering the use of PowerPoint animations in business education is briefly reviewed. The specific animations employed in this study are identified and their expected benefits to…

  6. Self Management Techniques and Disclosure of Sero Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaye, Ajibola; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke

    2015-01-01

    This study looked at using Self Management Technique (SMT) to promote self-disclosure of Sero status in Kwara State, Nigeria. A pre-test, post-test and control group quasi experimental design using a 2x2x2 factorial matrix was adopted. Sixty participants were sampled by balloting from two HIV/AIDS screening centres. Four instruments were used such…

  7. Spatial optimization of watershed management practices for nitrogen load reduction using a modeling-optimization framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best management practices (BMPs) are perceived as being effective in reducing nutrient loads transported from non-point sources (NPS) to receiving water bodies. The objective of this study was to develop a modeling-optimization framework that can be used by watershed management p...

  8. Dynamic load management in a smart home to participate in demand response events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Filipe; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    In future power systems, in the smart grid and microgrids operation paradigms, consumers can be seen as an energy resource with decentralized and autonomous decisions in the energy management. It is expected that each consumer will manage not only the loads, but also small generation units, heat...

  9. Safety management: a few techniques and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundararajan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial safety practice has grown in its stature tremendously since the age of industrial revolution. A number of modern techniques are available to strengthen design safety features, to review operational safety, and to critically appraise and upgrade practices of occupational safety and health management. This talk focuses on three prominent yet simple techniques and their usefulness in the overall safety management of a workplace. Any industrial set-up undergoes different stages in its life cycle-conceptual design, actual design, construction, fabrication and installation, commissioning, operation, shutdown/re-start up and decommissioning. Checklist procedure is a safety tool that can be applied at any of these stages. Thus it is a quite useful technique in safety management and accident prevention. It can serve as a form of approval from one step to another in the course of any routine or specific task. Safety Audit or Safety Review is a critical safety management appraisal tool. It gives a reasonable indication of how well a company's safety programme works, how hazards are recognised, how well employees are motivated and so on. It gives a clear picture about where a company stands as far as framing and implementation of its SHE policy is concerned. Each of the above tools is complementing each other and required to be applied at appropriate juncture in sustaining good safety management system at the workplace

  10. Contribution of the radioactive tracer techniques to the littoral management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alami, R.

    1994-01-01

    The construction of a harbor or its extending, the management of entrance channels and their maintenance (e.g. dredging works), the littoral development for industrial or tourist purposes, the management of urban or industrial rejects are very expensive and have a great impact on the environment, the optimization of which requires to begin with understanding and making sure of the sedimentary mechanisms occurring under the natural conditions. The tracer techniques are, in such cases, a precious tool and a unique help to the decision makers. The profits made by using such techniques in Morocco, which is a seaboard country, have led the C entre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires (CNESTEN) to set up a unit which is operational in this field. 7 figs., 8 refs (F.M.)

  11. Development of automatic techniques for GPS data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Pil Ho

    2001-06-01

    It is necessary for GPS center to establish automatization as effective management of GPS network including data gathering, data transformation, data backup, data sending to IGS (International GPS Service for geodynamics), and precise ephemerides gathering. The operating program of GPS center has been adopted at KCSC (Korea Cadastral Survey Corporation), NGI (National Geography Institute), MOMAF (Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) without self-development of core technique. The automatic management of GPS network is consists of GPS data management and data processing. It is also fundamental technique, which should be accomplished by every GPS centers. Therefore, this study carried out analyzing of Japanese GPS center, which has accomplished automatization by module considering applicability for domestic GPS centers

  12. Road traffic management based on self-load-balancing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most challenging problems for nowadays cities. Several contributions mainly based on V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication have been published, but most of them have never been applied due to their communication related problems and costs. In this article, a novel cost-effective approach is introduced inspired by social life of insects where direct (V2V communication does not exist anymore. Vehicles are equipped with devices that perform simple tasks, but their interactions with the environment through RSUs (Road Side Units allow the creation of an intelligence which notifies drivers about congested road segments to avoid them. We call this emerging behavior self-load balancing. Description of the fundamentals of this approach and its performance are detailed in this work.

  13. Optimized load sharing control by means of thermal reliability management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    time and system cost. However, due to non-ideal parts each converter unit deviates from the ideal case, which makes a power system comprised of parallel-connected converters a rather poor performing system. To account for the non-ideal parts some form of load sharing is needed, whereby it is ensured......With new applications for high-current low-output voltage power systems emerging nearly every day the need for new and cost-efficient power system designs is a matter of course. As output voltage levels continue to decrease an approach that seems more and more attractive is the implementation...... that each converter in the configuration delivers its share of the total output power. In other words parallel-operation of multiple converters is employed when specifications require a highly reliable system, designable within a very short time frame and at low costs. However, to make full use...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Bbbbbb... - Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Loading Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits, and Management Practices for Loading Racks 2 Table 2 to Subpart BBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of... Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Loading Racks If you own or operate Then you must 1. A gasoline loading rack(s) at a bulk gasoline terminal with a gasoline throughput of 250,000 gallons...

  15. Operation and Management of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Regulation Services to Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanouni, Maziar

    The notion of demand-side participation in power systems operation and control is on the verge of realization because of the advancement in the required technologies an tools like communications, smart meters, sensor networks, large data management techniques, large scale optimization method, etc. Therefore, demand-response (DR) programs can be one of the prosperous solutions to accommodate part of the increasing demand for load balancing services which is brought about by the high penetration of intermittent renewable energies in power systems. This dissertation studies different aspects of the DR programs that utilized the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide load balancing services. The importance of TCLs among the other loads lie on their flexibility in power consumption pattern while the customer/end-user comfort is not (or minimally) impacted. Chapter 2 discussed a previously presented direct load control (DLC) to control the power consumption of aggregated TCLs. The DLC method performs a power tracking control and based on central approach where a central controller broadcasts the control command to the dispersed TCLs to toggle them on/off. The central controller receives measurement feedback from the TCLs once per couple of minutes to run a successful forecast process. The performance evaluation criteria to evaluate the load balancing service provided by the TCLs are presented. The results are discussed under different scenarios and situation. The numerical results show the proper performance of the DLC method. This DLC method is used as the control method in all the studies in this dissertation. Chapter 3 presents performance improvements for the original method in Chapter 2 by communicating two more pieces of information called forecast parameters (FPs). Communicating improves the forecast process in the DLC and hence, both performance accuracy and the amount of tear-and-wear imposed on the TCLs. Chapter 4 formulates a stochastic

  16. Modulation format identification enabled by the digital frequency-offset loading technique for hitless coherent transceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Songnian; Xu, Zuying; Lu, Jianing; Jiang, Hexun; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Zhouyi; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Chan, Calvin Chun-Kit

    2018-03-19

    We propose a blind and fast modulation format identification (MFI) enabled by the digital frequency-offset (FO) loading technique for hitless coherent transceiver. Since modulation format information is encoded to the FO distribution during digital signal processing (DSP) at the transmitter side (Tx), we can use the fast Fourier transformation based FO estimation (FFT-FOE) method to obtain the FO distribution of individual data block after constant modulus algorithm (CMA) pre-equalization at the receiver side, in order to realize non-data-aided (NDA) and fast MFI. The obtained FO can be also used for subsequent FO compensation (FOC), without additional complexity. We numerically investigate and experimentally verify the proposed MFI with high accuracy and fast format switching among 28 Gbaud dual-polarization (DP)-4/8/16/64QAM, time domain hybrid-4/16QAM, and set partitioning (SP)-128QAM. In particular, the proposed MFI brings no performance degradation, in term of tolerance of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, laser linewidth, and fiber nonlinearity. Finally, a hitless coherent transceiver enabled by the proposed MFI with switching-block of only 2048 symbols is demonstrated over 1500 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) transmission.

  17. Bevacizumab loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the coacervation technique: preliminary in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Solazzi, Ilaria; Giordano, Susanna Marzia Adele; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Riganti, Chiara; Dianzani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer—an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.

  18. Hands on versus remote techniques in waste management and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry has many requirements for planned and uplanned physical interactions with radioactive materials or their environment. In each case a choice must be made as to whether the interaction should be made directly by the operator using a 'hands on' technique, wearing any necessary protective clothing, or by entirely remote techniques. In facilities where remote handling equipment has already been provided and planned for, remote techniques are usually the obvious choice. However in radioactive waste management and decommissioning there are many cases where unexpected requirements emerge, often for relatively short term activities, where the choice is more complex. This paper takes a look at the various factors which should be considered in order to make these decisions, an overview of the types of remote equipment available in the UK and some examples of the benefits which have resulted when remote techniques have been adopted in Britain

  19. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  20. TECHNIQUE OF OPTIMAL AUDIT PLANNING FOR INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Shago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complication of information security management systems leads to the necessity of improving the scientific and methodological apparatus for these systems auditing. Planning is an important and determining part of information security management systems auditing. Efficiency of audit will be defined by the relation of the reached quality indicators to the spent resources. Thus, there is an important and urgent task of developing methods and techniques for optimization of the audit planning, making it possible to increase its effectiveness. The proposed technique gives the possibility to implement optimal distribution for planning time and material resources on audit stages on the basis of dynamics model for the ISMS quality. Special feature of the proposed approach is the usage of a priori data as well as a posteriori data for the initial audit planning, and also the plan adjustment after each audit event. This gives the possibility to optimize the usage of audit resources in accordance with the selected criteria. Application examples of the technique are given while planning audit information security management system of the organization. The result of computational experiment based on the proposed technique showed that the time (cost audit costs can be reduced by 10-15% and, consequently, quality assessments obtained through audit resources allocation can be improved with respect to well-known methods of audit planning.

  1. Online forecasting of electrical load for distributed management of plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu , Kaustav; Ovalle , Andres; Guo , Baoling; Hably , Ahmad; Bacha , Seddik; Hajar , Khaled

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The paper aims at making online forecast of electrical load at the MV-LV transformer level. Optimal management of the Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) charging requires the forecast of the electrical load for future hours. The forecasting module needs to be online (i.e update and make forecast for the future hours, every hour). The inputs to the predictor are historical electrical and weather data. Various data driven machine learning algorithms are compared to derive t...

  2. Nefopam hydrochloride loaded microspheres for post-operative pain management: synthesis, physicochemical characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelam; Arora, Sandeep; Madan, Jitender

    2018-02-01

    Once-daily oral dosage of nefopam hydrochloride loaded sustained release microspheres (NPH-MS) was investigated as novel therapeutic strategy for post-operative pain management. Microspheres were synthesized using poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. NPH-MS were characterized through FTIR, PXRD and SEM. In-vitro drug release study revealed sustained behavior till 24 h. Haemolysis was pain model, reversal of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by NPH-MS was statistically significant (p < .001) as compared with NPH till 24 h post-dose.

  3. Risk Management Techniques and Practice Workshop Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, T; Zosel, M

    2008-12-02

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day Risk Management Techniques and Practice (RMTAP) workshop held September 18-19 at the Hotel Nikko in San Francisco. The purpose of the workshop, which was sponsored by the SC/Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)/Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, was to assess current and emerging techniques, practices, and lessons learned for effectively identifying, understanding, managing, and mitigating the risks associated with acquiring leading-edge computing systems at high-performance computing centers (HPCCs). Representatives from fifteen high-performance computing (HPC) organizations, four HPC vendor partners, and three government agencies attended the workshop. The overall workshop findings were: (1) Standard risk management techniques and tools are in the aggregate applicable to projects at HPCCs and are commonly employed by the HPC community; (2) HPC projects have characteristics that necessitate a tailoring of the standard risk management practices; (3) All HPCC acquisition projects can benefit by employing risk management, but the specific choice of risk management processes and tools is less important to the success of the project; (4) The special relationship between the HPCCs and HPC vendors must be reflected in the risk management strategy; (5) Best practices findings include developing a prioritized risk register with special attention to the top risks, establishing a practice of regular meetings and status updates with the platform partner, supporting regular and open reviews that engage the interests and expertise of a wide range of staff and stakeholders, and documenting and sharing the acquisition/build/deployment experience; and (6) Top risk categories include system scaling issues, request for proposal/contract and acceptance testing, and

  4. Management of excessive gingival display: Lip repositioning technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Sthapak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lips form the frame of a smile and define the esthetic zone. Excessive gingival display during smile is often referred to as "gummy smile". A successful management of excessive gingival display with lip repositioning procedure has shown excellent results. The procedure involves removing a strip of partial thickness mucosa from maxillary vestibule, then suturing it back to the lip mucosa at the level of mucogingival junction. This technique results in restricted muscle pull and a narrow vestibule, thereby reducing the gingival display. In this case gummy smile was treated by modification of Rubinstein and Kostianovsky′s surgical lip repositioning technique which resulted in a harmonious smile.

  5. Hot Melt Extrusion as Solvent-Free Technique for a Continuous Manufacturing of Drug-Loaded Mesoporous Silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Hadi, Batol; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore hot melt extrusion (HME) as a solvent-free drug loading technique for preparation of stable amorphous solid dispersions using mesoporous silica (PSi). Ibuprofen and carvedilol were used as poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Due to the high...... friction of an API:PSi mixture below the loading limit of the API, it was necessary to add the polymer Soluplus(®) (SOL) in order to enable the extrusion process. As a result, the APIs were distributed between the PSi and SOL phase after HME. Due to its higher affinity to PSi, ibuprofen was mainly adsorbed...... into the PSi, whereas carvedilol was mainly found in the SOL phase. Intrinsic dissolution rate was highest for HME formulations, containing PSi, compared to pure crystalline (amorphous) APIs and HME formulations without PSi. HME is a feasible solvent-free drug loading technique for preparation of PSi...

  6. Can martial arts techniques reduce fall severity? An in vivo study of femoral loading configurations in sideways falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijden, A.M. van der; Groen, B.E.; Tanck, E.J.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sideways falls onto the hip are a major cause of femoral fractures in the elderly. Martial arts (MA) fall techniques decrease hip impact forces in sideways falls. The femoral fracture risk, however, also depends on the femoral loading configuration (direction and point of application of the force).

  7. Investigation of Load Prediction on the Mexico Rotor Using the Technique of Determination of the Angle of Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2012-01-01

    Blade element moment (BEM) is a widely used technique for prediction of wind turbine aerodynamics performance, the reliability of airfoil data is an important factor to improve the prediction accuracy of aerodynamic loads and power using a BEM code. The method of determination of angle of attack ...

  8. Power Management Based Current Control Technique for Photovoltaic-Battery Assisted Wind-Hydro Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.

    2013-07-01

    This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  9. Work package 1B.2 under the European Commission: Integrated wind turbine design (UPWIND): Specification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Cutululis, N.; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-02-15

    The present report is the 12 month intermediate report of the UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion. It describes the developed measurement technique for long-term load measurement technique, presents the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. (au)

  10. Real-time emergency forecasting technique for situation management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytov, V. V.; Kharechkin, P. V.; Naumenko, V. V.; Tretyak, R. S.; Tebueva, F. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the real-time emergency forecasting technique that allows increasing accuracy and reliability of forecasting results of any emergency computational model applied for decision making in situation management systems. Computational models are improved by the Improved Brown’s method applying fractal dimension to forecast short time series data being received from sensors and control systems. Reliability of emergency forecasting results is ensured by the invalid sensed data filtering according to the methods of correlation analysis.

  11. Genetic algorithm for the optimization of the loading pattern for reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sheng; Hu Yongming; zheng Wenxiang

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of a genetic algorithm to the optimization of the loading pattern for in-core fuel management with the NP characteristics. The algorithm develops a matrix model for the fuel assembly loading pattern. The burnable poisons matrix was assigned randomly considering the distributed nature of the poisons. A method based on the traveling salesman problem was used to solve the problem. A integrated code for in-core fuel management was formed by combining this code with a reactor physics code

  12. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 1, The proposed technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A general framework for solving the dynamic load distribution when two manipulators hold a rigid object is proposed. The underspecified problem of solving for the contact forces and torques based on the object`s equations of motion is transformed into a well specified problem. This is accomplished by augmenting the object`s equations of motion with additional equations which relate a new vector variable quantifying the internal contact force and torque degrees of freedom (DOF) as a linear function of the contact forces and torques. The resulting augmented system yields a well specified solution for the contact forces and torques in which they are separated into their motion inducing and internal components. A particular solution is suggested which enables the designer to conveniently specify what portion of the payload`s mass each manipulator is to bear. It is also shown that the results of the previous work are just a special case of the general load distribution framework described here.

  13. Outcome of 7-S, TQM technique for healthcare waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Junaid Habib; Ahmed, Rashid; Malik, Javed Iqbal; Khan, M Amanullah

    2011-12-01

    To assess the present waste management system of healthcare facilities (HCFs) attached with Shalamar Hospital, Lahore by applying the 7-S technique of Total Quality Management (TQM) and to find out the outcome after imparting training. Interventional quasi-experimental study. The Shalamar Hospital, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, November, 2009 to November, 2010. Mckinsey's 7-S, technique of TQM was applied to assess the 220 HCFs from Lahore, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts for segregation, collection, transportation and disposal (SCTD) of hospital waste. Direct interview method was applied. Trainings were provided in each institution. After one year action period, the status of four areas of concern was compared before and after training. The parameters studied were segregation, collection, transportation and disposal systems in the 220 HCFs. Each of these were further elaborated by strategy, structure, system, staff, skill, style and stakeholder/shared value factors. Standard error of difference of proportion was applied to assess significance using 95% confidence level. There was marked improvement in all these areas ranging from 20% to 77% following a training program of 3 months. In case of disposal of the waste strategy, structure and system an increase of 60%, 65% and 75% was observed after training. The 7-S technique played a vital role in assessing the hospital waste management system. Training for the healthcare workers played a significant role in healthcare facilities.

  14. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  16. A multi-objective genetic approach to domestic load scheduling in an energy management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Ana; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Oliveira, Carlos; Gomes, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to solve a multi-objective model to optimize the time allocation of domestic loads within a planning period of 36 h, in a smart grid context. The management of controllable domestic loads is aimed at minimizing the electricity bill and the end-user’s dissatisfaction concerning two different aspects: the preferred time slots for load operation and the risk of interruption of the energy supply. The genetic algorithm is similar to the Elitist NSGA-II (Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II), in which some changes have been introduced to adapt it to the physical characteristics of the load scheduling problem and improve usability of results. The mathematical model explicitly considers economical, technical, quality of service and comfort aspects. Illustrative results are presented and the characteristics of different solutions are analyzed. - Highlights: • A genetic algorithm similar to the NSGA-II is used to solve a multi-objective model. • The optimized time allocation of domestic loads in a smart grid context is achieved. • A variable preference profile for the operation of the managed loads is included. • A safety margin is used to account for the quality of the energy services provided. • A non-dominated front with the solutions in the two-objective space is obtained

  17. Effect of Load Model Using Ranking Identification Technique for Multi Type DG Incorporating Embedded Meta EP-Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Siti Rafidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of load model prior to the distributed generation (DG planning in distribution system. In achieving optimal allocation and placement of DG, a ranking identification technique was proposed in order to study the DG planning using pre-developed Embedded Meta Evolutionary Programming–Firefly Algorithm. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of different type of DG in order to reduce the total losses considering load factor. To realize the effectiveness of the proposed technique, the IEEE 33 bus test systems was utilized as the test specimen. In this study, the proposed techniques were used to determine the DG sizing and the suitable location for DG planning. The results produced are utilized for the optimization process of DG for the benefit of power system operators and planners in the utility. The power system planner can choose the suitable size and location from the result obtained in this study with the appropriate company’s budget. The modeling of voltage dependent loads has been presented and the results show the voltage dependent load models have a significant effect on total losses of a distribution system for different DG type.

  18. Applications of Graph Spectral Techniques to Water Distribution Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando di Nardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities depend on multiple heterogeneous, interconnected infrastructures to provide safe water to consumers. Given this complexity, efficient numerical techniques are needed to support optimal control and management of a water distribution network (WDN. This paper introduces a holistic analysis framework to support water utilities on the decision making process for an efficient supply management. The proposal is based on graph spectral techniques that take advantage of eigenvalues and eigenvectors properties of matrices that are associated with graphs. Instances of these matrices are the adjacency matrix and the Laplacian, among others. The interest for this application is to work on a graph that specifically represents a WDN. This is a complex network that is made by nodes corresponding to water sources and consumption points and links corresponding to pipes and valves. The aim is to face new challenges on urban water supply, ranging from computing approximations for network performance assessment to setting device positioning for efficient and automatic WDN division into district metered areas. It is consequently created a novel tool-set of graph spectral techniques adapted to improve main water management tasks and to simplify the identification of water losses through the definition of an optimal network partitioning. Two WDNs are used to analyze the proposed methodology. Firstly, the well-known network of C-Town is investigated for benchmarking of the proposed graph spectral framework. This allows for comparing the obtained results with others coming from previously proposed approaches in literature. The second case-study corresponds to an operational network. It shows the usefulness and optimality of the proposal to effectively manage a WDN.

  19. Gynecomastia: evolving paradigm of management and comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Paul M; Solomon, Matthias; Buchel, Edward W; Tran, Nho V

    2010-05-01

    Since 1997, the authors have used a minimally invasive technique for the management of gynecomastia using ultrasound-assisted liposuction and the arthroscopic shaver to remove breast tissue through a remote incision. This technique has allowed for a consistent, refined, "unoperated" postoperative appearance in this patient population. This study analyzes the outcomes of this procedure and compares the procedure against established techniques. A retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent surgery for gynecomastia at the authors' institution between January of 1988 and October of 2007. A total of 227 patients were divided into four groups: group 1, open excision only (n = 45); group 2, open excision plus liposuction (n = 56); group 3, liposuction only (n = 50); and group 4, liposuction plus arthroscopic shaver (n = 76). Medical records and photographs were used to compare groups for complications and results. Complications using the liposuction plus arthroscopic shaver technique included seroma (n = 2), hematoma (n = 1), scar revision (n = 1), and skin buttonhole from the arthroscopic shaver (n = 1). There was no difference between groups in the overall incidence of complications (p liposuction plus arthroscopic shaver) had the overall highest mean score, with statistical significance between group 2 (open excision plus liposuction) and group 4 (p gynecomastia is a safe and effective technique, with excellent cosmetic results and an acceptable complication rate.

  20. Correlation of Mission Type to Cyclic Loading as a Basis for Agile Military Aircraft Asset Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2016-01-01

    Military attack aircraft are susceptible to the harmful effects of widespread fatigue damage caused by cyclic loading of structural components, which leads to airframe retirement. Modern structural health monitoring techniques use a multitude of sensors and high data collection rates. Some legacy

  1. Virtual Power Plant and Microgrids controller for Energy Management based on optimization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher G. M. Abdolrasol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss virtual power plant (VPP and Microgrid controller for energy management system (EMS based on optimization techniques by using two optimization techniques namely Backtracking search algorithm (BSA and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO. The research proposes use of multi Microgrid in the distribution networks to aggregate the power form distribution generation and form it into single Microgrid and let these Microgrid deal directly with the central organizer called virtual power plant. VPP duties are price forecast, demand forecast, weather forecast, production forecast, shedding loads, make intelligent decision and for aggregate & optimizes the data. This huge system has been tested and simulated by using Matlab simulink. These paper shows optimizations of two methods were really significant in the results. But BSA is better than PSO to search for better parameters which could make more power saving as in the results and the discussion.

  2. Establishment of windows-based load management system for electricity cost savings in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hur, D.

    2007-01-01

    For electricity markets to function in a truly competitive and efficient manner, it is not enough to focus solely on improving the efficiencies of power supply. To recognize price-responsive load as a reliability resource, the customer must be provided with price signals and an instrument to respond to these signals, preferably automatically. This paper attempts to develop the Windows-based load management system in competitive electricity markets, allowing the user to monitor the current energy consumption or billing information, to analyze the historical data, and to implement the consumption strategy for cost savings with nine possible scenarios adopted. Finally, this modeling framework will serve as a template containing the basic concepts that any load management system should address. (author)

  3. Application of dotmocracy technique in assessment and management of unsafe behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Industrial accident is one of the most minatory elements for worker’s health, productivity and organizational performance. Unsafe behavior is the main reason associated with occurrence of accidents. The main goal of this study was application of participatory techniques to achieve control measures of these behaviors. .Material and Method: Using safety behavior sampling technique in this study, behaviors of staffs were evaluated and then the most risky behaviors were determined by paired comparison method. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy in six steps, controlling ideas were derived by participation of operators, supervisors, engineers, HSE team and managers. .Result: 48.8% of the behaviors were unsafe. Misuse or notusing of the personal protective equipments with 63.4% was the most frequent unsafe behavior. Awkward postures, aggregation or passing under suspended loads were also followed by the unsafe behaviors. By application of participatory approach of dotmocracy, several applicable ideas in personal protective equipment, education, reinforcementand punishment, aggregation or passing under suspended loads and other ideas were achieved. . Conclusion: Dotmocracy participatory technique is an effective way to achieve various practical solutions in control of worker’s unsafe behaviors.

  4. An effective Load shedding technique for micro-grids using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foday Conteh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of renewable energy sources in micro-grids has become an effectivemeans of power decentralization especially in remote areas where the extension of the main power gridis an impediment. Despite the huge deposit of natural resources in Africa, the continent still remains inenergy poverty. Majority of the African countries could not meet the electricity demand of their people.Therefore, the power system is prone to frequent black out as a result of either excess load to the systemor generation failure. The imbalance of power generation and load demand has been a major factor inmaintaining the stability of the power systems and is usually responsible for the under frequency andunder voltage in power systems. Currently, load shedding is the most widely used method to balancebetween load and demand in order to prevent the system from collapsing. But the conventional methodof under frequency or under voltage load shedding faces many challenges and may not perform asexpected. This may lead to over shedding or under shedding, causing system blackout or equipmentdamage. To prevent system cascade or equipment damage, appropriate amount of load must beintentionally and automatically curtailed during instability. In this paper, an effective load sheddingtechnique for micro-grids using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system isproposed. The combined techniques take into account the actual system state and the exact amount ofload needs to be curtailed at a faster rate as compared to the conventional method. Also, this methodis able to carry out optimal load shedding for any input range other than the trained data. Simulationresults obtained from this work, corroborate the merit of this algorithm.

  5. Energy management for vehicle power net with flexible electric load demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Koot, M.W.T.; Jager, de A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The electric power demand in road vehicles increases rapidly and to supply all electric loads efficiently, energy management (EM) turns out to be a necessity. In general, EM exploits the storage capacity of a buffer connected to the vehicle's power net, such that energy is stored or retrieved at

  6. The loaded surface profile: a new technique for the investigation of contact surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Contact between rough surfaces produces a complex contact profile. The contact area is usually estimated according to roughness statistics in conjunction withsurface models or by examining the surfaces before and after contact. Most of the existing literature on loaded surface profiles is theoretical or numerical in nature. This paper presents a methodology for a new system to measure the loaded surface profile, based on a non-contact 3D laser profiler. The system allows the measurement of...

  7. Management accounting techniques and corporate performance of manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rasyid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is to investigate that some factors that affect the new adoption in management accounting techniques on the Indonesia manufacturing industries, specifically in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi regions. The research can give a clearer portrait of how some factors can significantly affect the adoption of management accounting techniques. The research used some questioners which were sent to respondents who work in manufacturing industries as a middle level management. The methods used to distribute the questioners to respondents were by door to door, by e-mail and by media telecommunication (what’s app or close relationship up to hundreds questioners. We obtained 45 respondents but we eliminated one respondent, because they are not suitable to the research requirements. The research model contains the two paths. The first path contains 7 variables that divided by six exogenous variables to affect one endogenous variable and the next path model is from the three variables, that are divided to the one mediating variable and the other one exogenous variables to affect one endogenous variable (like path modelling. The research result shows that high competition does not affect the new accounting adoption but the other five variables; cost system changing, technology changes, organization climate, consumer demand and size significantly affect the new accounting adoption. For the next path, the research finds that the new accounting adoption can significantly affect corporate performance and also corporate performance measurement perception.

  8. Using project management techniques in hydro-relicensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominie, D.; Richard, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that to answer a pressing need for managing today's complex process and requirements of hydro relicensing, Central Maine Power Company has applied the principles of project management, including the use of computerized scheduling to its hydro relicensing efforts. This approach involves early inter-departmental cooperation in mapping out critical path scheduling by requiring the project team to: Outline the scope of the project in its entirety. Clarify and define components of the project. Quantify and categorize assumptions and dependencies. Identify constraints. The computer-generated schedule of this cooperative planning effort provides a graphic representation of the team's plan and become the focal point for refinements and adjustments necessary to complete an application on time. The use of project management techniques facilities team understanding of the realities and limitations in the relicensing process. These techniques encourage cooperative action, and use a solution-oriented process resulting in a product which can be a useful tool in communicating with resource agencies and regulators

  9. Research on monitoring and management information integration technique in waste treatment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Yu Ren; Mao Wei

    2013-01-01

    The integration of the waste treatment process and the device status monitoring information and management information is a key problem required to be solved in the information integration of the waste treatment and management. The main content of the monitoring and management information integration is discussed in the paper. The data exchange techniques, which are based on the OPC, FTP and data push technology, are applied to the different monitoring system respectively, according to their development platform, to realize the integration of the waste treatment process and device status monitoring information and management information in a waste treatment center. (authors)

  10. Isotope techniques in water resources development and management. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 10th International Symposium on Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development and Management was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with UNESCO, WMO and International Association of Hydrological Sciences and was held at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, during 10-14 May 1999. The symposium provided an international forum for assessing the status and recent advances in isotope applications to water resources and an exchange of information on the following main themes: processes at the interface between the atmosphere and hydrosphere; investigations in surface waters and groundwaters: their origin, dynamics, interrelations; problems and techniques for investigating sedimentation; water resources issues: pollution, source and transport of contaminants, salinization, water-rock interaction and processes in geothermal systems; isotope data interpretation and evaluation methodologies: modelling approaches. The proceedings contain the 46 papers presented and extended synopses of poster presentations; each of them was indexed individually

  11. Skin carcinomas: Radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have led to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of properties and routes of spread of the diverse

  12. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism. PMID:29495346

  13. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Nathali Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  14. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  15. Flexible use and technique extension of logistics management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Furong

    2011-10-01

    As we all know, the origin of modern logistics was in the United States, developed in Japan, became mature in Europe, and expanded in China. This is a historical development of the modern logistics recognized track. Due to China's economic and technological development, and with the construction of Shanghai International Shipping Center and Shanghai Yangshan International Deepwater development, China's modern logistics industry will attain a leap-forward development of a strong pace, and will also catch up with developed countries in the Western modern logistics level. In this paper, the author explores the flexibility of China's modern logistics management techniques to extend the use, and has certain practical and guidance significances.

  16. Mobility management techniques for the next-generation wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junzhao; Howie, Douglas P.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-10-01

    The tremendous demands from social market are pushing the booming development of mobile communications faster than ever before, leading to plenty of new advanced techniques emerging. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Mobility management is an important issue in the area of mobile communications, which can be best solved at the network layer. One of the key features of the next generation wireless networks is all-IP infrastructure. This paper discusses the mobility management schemes for the next generation mobile networks through extending IP's functions with mobility support. A global hierarchical framework model for the mobility management of wireless networks is presented, in which the mobility management is divided into two complementary tasks: macro mobility and micro mobility. As the macro mobility solution, a basic principle of Mobile IP is introduced, together with the optimal schemes and the advances in IPv6. The disadvantages of the Mobile IP on solving the micro mobility problem are analyzed, on the basis of which three main proposals are discussed as the micro mobility solutions for mobile communications, including Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP), Cellular IP, and Handoff-Aware Wireless Access Internet Infrastructure (HAWAII). A unified model is also described in which the different micro mobility solutions can coexist simultaneously in mobile networks.

  17. A fiber-optic technique for the measurement of contact angle in a clearance-fit pin-loaded hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Naik, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A fiber-optic technique for measuring contact angle during pin loading of a specimen is proposed. The experimental design and procedures for loading a 49.8-mm-diameter instrumented pin into an quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy specimen are described. The optical fiber was located just above the surface of the pin outer diameter in order to obtain accurate pin-hole contact-angle measurements at increasing load levels. The movement of the optical fiber through the no-contact, contact, and no-contact regions is discussed; the photodiode output decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the no-contact to the contact region and then decreased monotonically as the fiber moved from the contact region to the no-contact region. Variations in the contact angle measurements are examined as function of applied load level. The measurements are compared to contact angle values obtained using a finite element analysis and an electrical technique; it is determined that the data correlate well.

  18. Experimental Assessment on the Hysteretic Behavior of a Full-Scale Traditional Chinese Timber Structure Using a Synchronous Loading Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiWang Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese timber structures, few tie beams were used between columns, and the column base was placed directly on a stone base. In order to study the hysteretic behavior of such structures, a full-scale model was established. The model size was determined according to the requirements of an eighth grade material system specified in the architectural treatise Ying-zao-fa-shi written during the Song Dynasty. In light of the vertical lift and drop of the test model during horizontal reciprocating motions, the horizontal low-cycle reciprocating loading experiments were conducted using a synchronous loading technique. By analyzing the load-displacement hysteresis curves, envelope curves, deformation capacity, energy dissipation, and change in stiffness under different vertical loads, it is found that the timber frame exhibits obvious signs of self-restoring and favorable plastic deformation capacity. As the horizontal displacement increases, the equivalent viscous damping coefficient generally declines first and then increases. At the same time, the stiffness degrades rapidly first and then decreases slowly. Increasing vertical loading will improve the deformation, energy-dissipation capacity, and stiffness of the timber frame.

  19. Load management as a smart grid concept for sizing and designing of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamaly, Ali M.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Al-Saud, M. S.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2017-10-01

    Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) to satisfy load requirements with the highest reliability and lowest cost is a crucial step in building HRESs to supply electricity to remote areas. Applying smart grid concepts such as load management can reduce the size of HRES components and reduce the cost of generated energy considerably. In this article, sizing of HRES is carried out by dividing the load into high- and low-priority parts. The proposed system is formed by a photovoltaic array, wind turbines, batteries, fuel cells and a diesel generator as a back-up energy source. A smart particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using MATLAB is introduced to determine the optimal size of the HRES. The simulation was carried out with and without division of the load to compare these concepts. HOMER software was also used to simulate the proposed system without dividing the loads to verify the results obtained from the proposed PSO algorithm. The results show that the percentage of division of the load is inversely proportional to the cost of the generated energy.

  20. Management of gingiva hyperpigmentasi with combine of scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shek Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic factor is an important factor in supporting the person's appearance, especially when a person smiles. Beautifull smiles form of harmonization between the teeth and gums as part of the oral cavity. One of overall aspect that has an important role in providing the overall aesthetic impression is normal gum color that pink coral. Brown or black gums are often become the complaint that interfere with appearance, especially in patients who have a habit of smoking. Pigmentation caused by melanin hyperpigmentation and usually does not present a medical problems, so patients are not aware of it. Surgical method with the scalpel scraping technique and gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur has been widely used as a method of gingival depigmentation. This method is easily done, simple and can be done in a relatively short time. In this case report presented regarding the management of patients with gingival hyperpigmentation of the maxilla and mandible were treated with surgical method using a scalpel scraping technique combined with gingivo abrasion technique using high speed carbide bur. The result, after 4 weeks follow up, color of the patient's gingival was pink and there is none recurrence of the pigmentation.

  1. Load control services in the management of power system security costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayantilal, A.; Strbac, G.

    1999-01-01

    The new climate of deregulation in the electricity industry is creating a need for a more transparent cost structure and within this framework the cost of system security has been a subject of considerable interest. Traditionally power system security has been supplied by out-of-merit generation, in the short term, and transmission reinforcement, in the long term. This paper presents a method of analysing the role of load-demand in the management of power system security costs by utilising load control services (LCS). It also proposes a competitive market to enable bidding from various participants within the electricity industry to supply system security. (author)

  2. Active load management in an intelligent building using model predictive control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces PowerFlexHouse, a research facility for exploring the technical potential of active load management in a distributed power system (SYSLAB) with a high penetration of renewable energy and presents in detail on how to implement a thermal model predictive controller for load...... shifting in PowerFlexHouse heaters' power consumption scheme. With this demand side control study, it is expected that this method of demand response can dramatically raise energy efficiencies and improve grid reliability, when there is a high penetration of intermittent energy resources in the power...

  3. Skin carcinomas: radiobiological principles, radiotherapeutic techniques and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K. A.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The course will be divided into three major topics: (1) Review of radiobiological principles as they apply to the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas; (2) review of radiotherapeutic techniques including beam qualities, beam collimation, tissue dose profiles, and the relative indications of external beam irradiation vs. brachytherapy; (3) comprehensive review of the tumor biology of skin malignancies, including malignant melanoma, and of the relative indications for radiotherapeutic and/or surgical management. (1) Review of critical data which have lead to currently applied principles of time-dose-volume concepts in the radiotherapeutic management of skin carcinomas. Emphasis will be placed on the relative importance of fraction size and overall treatment time on tumor control probability and acute and late normal tissue toxicity. (2) Considering that radiotherapy in the management of skin carcinomas is often used to minimize patient disfiguration and to preserve critical body functions (e.g. eye lids) the technical aspects of radiotherapy delivery are most critical. Careful evaluation of the extent of the lesions including evaluation of their depth of invasion will determine the quality of the radiation beams, orthovoltage and low energy electrons being the most useful. Beam harding for orthovoltage beams and secondary and tertiary (skin) collimation of appropriate electron beams are critical. For more extensive and deeply invasive lesions contour-shaping through customized bolus material is essential. Equally important is the familiarity with custom shielding of critical structures, such as eyes, ears, oral cavity and central nervous system structures. Brachytherapy applications in the treatment of skin carcinomas is limited but should be considered when implants with high dose uniformity can be constructed. (3) The discussion of clinical management will start with a discussion of tumor biological properties of the diverse malignant

  4. TMI-2 RCS activity and solids loading from aggressive defueling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    One of the tasks performed in support of defueling operations has involved mechanical degradation of resolidified material (core crust layer) utilizing the core drilling equipment. Prior to actual drilling operations, an engineering estimate was made for the anticipated increase in radioactivity and particulate loading to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor coolant system (RCS). Predictions for RCS activity and particulate loading increases were important to evaluate the cleanup requirements for the defueling water cleanup system to minimize both the dose rates for defueling personnel and water turbidity

  5. Management of area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Reyes Flores, J.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Loosjes, M.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes include both public and private management, and require strong and steady financial support. Governments and donors are the most common sources of funds, but a mixture of public, community, and private funds is now the trend. Interrupted cash flow severely restrains programme performance. Physical support of programme operations must be reliable, and led by a maintenance professional. It is essential to have full-time, well-paid, and motivated staff led by a programme manger with technical and management experience. Programme failure is usually due to poor management and inadequate public support, and not to poor technology. (author)

  6. Bronchoscopic techniques in the management of patients with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mondoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. Bronchoscopy can play a primary role in pulmonary TB diagnosis, particularly for suspected patients with scarce sputum or sputum smear negativity, and with endobronchial disease. Bronchoscopic needle aspiration techniques are accurate and safe means adopted to investigate hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in cases of suspected TB lymphadenopathy. Tracheobronchial stenosis represents the worst complication of endobronchial tuberculosis. Bronchoscopic procedures are less invasive therapeutic strategies than conventional surgery to be adopted in the management of TB-related stenosis.We conducted a non-systematic review aimed at describing the scientific literature on the role of bronchoscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy of patients with TB.We focused on three main areas of interventions: bronchoscopic diagnosis of smear negative/sputum scarce TB patients, endobronchial TB diagnosis and treatment and needle aspiration techniques for intrathoracic TB lymphadenopathy. We described experiences on bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washing, and biopsy techniques for the diagnosis of patients with tracheobronchial and pulmonary TB; furthermore, we described the role played by conventional and ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of suspected hilar and mediastinal TB adenopathy. Finally, we assessed the role of the bronchoscopic therapy in the treatment of endobronchial TB and its complications, focusing on dilation techniques (such as balloon dilation and airway stenting and ablative procedures (both heat and cold therapies. Keywords: Bronchoscopy, Tuberculosis, Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration, Tracheobronchial stenosis

  7. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  8. Development of load calculation techniques on screw and screw press energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Татарьянц, Максим Сергеевич; Завинский, Сергей Иванович; Трошин, Алексей Георгиевич

    2015-01-01

    The process of pressing of wood chips in screw machines is researched. It is defined processes taking place in different parts of the screw, formulas allowing to calculate the loads acting on the screw flights, as well as to determine the power required for compression. The unit costs of energy consumption and raw materials in the degree of heat pressing are determined

  9. A neutral network based technique for short-term forecasting of anomalous load periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sforna, M [ENEL, s.p.a, Italian Power Company (Italy); Lamedica, R; Prudenzi, A [Rome Univ. ` La Sapienza` , Rome (Italy); Caciotta, M; Orsolini Cencelli, V [Rome Univ. III, Rome (Italy)

    1995-01-01

    The paper illustrates a part of the research activity conducted by authors in the field of electric Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures. Previous experiences with basic ANN architectures have shown that, even though these architecture provide results comparable with those obtained by human operators for most normal days, they evidence some accuracy deficiencies when applied to `anomalous` load conditions occurring during holidays and long weekends. For these periods a specific procedure based upon a combined (unsupervised/supervised) approach has been proposed. The unsupervised stage provides a preventive classification of the historical load data by means of a Kohonen`s Self Organizing Map (SOM). The supervised stage, performing the proper forecasting activity, is obtained by using a multi-layer percept ron with a back propagation learning algorithm similar to the ones above mentioned. The unconventional use of information deriving from the classification stage permits the proposed procedure to obtain a relevant enhancement of the forecast accuracy for anomalous load situations.

  10. Application of HPLC-DAD Technique for Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Bee Pollen Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was elaborated to determine phenolic compounds (vanillin, caffeic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, and flavonoids: rutin, hesperetin, quercetin, pinocembrin, apigenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, chrysin, and acacetin in bee pollen loads using highperformance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Phenolic compounds from bee pollen were isolated on Cleanert C18-SPE columns (500 mg/6 mL, Agela Technologies. Polyphenols were identified by comparing the retention times and spectra of compounds found in pollen load samples with the ones of the standard mixture. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the external standard method. In addition, basic validation parameters for the method were determined. For the identified compounds (except for the salicylic acid, satisfactory (≥0.997 linear correlations were obtained. The elaborated method showed high repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Variability coeffcients of the majority of phenolic compounds did not exceed 10% in conditions of repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and for the total polyphenolic content they were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The pollen load samples (n = 15 differed in qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. In all the samples, we identified the p-coumaric and salicylic acids and flavonoids rutin, hesperetin, and apigenin nevertheless, these compounds’ contents significantly differed among individual samples. The total phenolic content in the tested samples of pollen loads ranged from 0.653 to 5.966 mg/100 g (on average 2.737 mg/100 g.

  11. The MANAGE database: nutrient load and site characteristic updates and runoff concentration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Qian, Song; Reckhow, Ken; Casebolt, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    The "Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments" (MANAGE) database was developed to be a readily accessible, easily queried database of site characteristic and field-scale nutrient export data. The original version of MANAGE, which drew heavily from an early 1980s compilation of nutrient export data, created an electronic database with nutrient load data and corresponding site characteristics from 40 studies on agricultural (cultivated and pasture/range) land uses. In the current update, N and P load data from 15 additional studies of agricultural runoff were included along with N and P concentration data for all 55 studies. The database now contains 1677 watershed years of data for various agricultural land uses (703 for pasture/rangeland; 333 for corn; 291 for various crop rotations; 177 for wheat/oats; and 4-33 yr for barley, citrus, vegetables, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, fallow, and peanuts). Across all land uses, annual runoff loads averaged 14.2 kg ha(-1) for total N and 2.2 kg ha(-1) for total P. On average, these losses represented 10 to 25% of applied fertilizer N and 4 to 9% of applied fertilizer P. Although such statistics produce interesting generalities across a wide range of land use, management, and climatic conditions, regional crop-specific analyses should be conducted to guide regulatory and programmatic decisions. With this update, MANAGE contains data from a vast majority of published peer-reviewed N and P export studies on homogeneous agricultural land uses in the USA under natural rainfall-runoff conditions and thus provides necessary data for modeling and decision-making related to agricultural runoff. The current version can be downloaded at http://www.ars.usda.gov/spa/manage-nutrient.

  12. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  13. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  14. Distributed cluster management techniques for unattended ground sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Magdi A.; Stelzig, Chad A.; Bevington, James E.; Minor, Sharon

    2005-05-01

    Smart Sensor Networks are becoming important target detection and tracking tools. The challenging problems in such networks include the sensor fusion, data management and communication schemes. This work discusses techniques used to distribute sensor management and multi-target tracking responsibilities across an ad hoc, self-healing cluster of sensor nodes. Although miniaturized computing resources possess the ability to host complex tracking and data fusion algorithms, there still exist inherent bandwidth constraints on the RF channel. Therefore, special attention is placed on the reduction of node-to-node communications within the cluster by minimizing unsolicited messaging, and distributing the sensor fusion and tracking tasks onto local portions of the network. Several challenging problems are addressed in this work including track initialization and conflict resolution, track ownership handling, and communication control optimization. Emphasis is also placed on increasing the overall robustness of the sensor cluster through independent decision capabilities on all sensor nodes. Track initiation is performed using collaborative sensing within a neighborhood of sensor nodes, allowing each node to independently determine if initial track ownership should be assumed. This autonomous track initiation prevents the formation of duplicate tracks while eliminating the need for a central "management" node to assign tracking responsibilities. Track update is performed as an ownership node requests sensor reports from neighboring nodes based on track error covariance and the neighboring nodes geo-positional location. Track ownership is periodically recomputed using propagated track states to determine which sensing node provides the desired coverage characteristics. High fidelity multi-target simulation results are presented, indicating the distribution of sensor management and tracking capabilities to not only reduce communication bandwidth consumption, but to also

  15. Efficient cycle jumping techniques for the modelling of materials and structures under cyclic mechanical and thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, F.P.E.; Hayhurst, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Highly efficient cycle jumping algorithms have been developed for the calculation of stress and damage histories for both cyclic mechanical and cycle thermal loading. The techniques have been shown to be suitable for cyclic plasticity; creep-cyclic plasticity interaction; and creep dominated material behaviour. The cycle jumping algorithms have been validated by comparison of the predictions made using both the cycle jumping technique, and the full calculation involving the integration of the equations around all cycles. Excellent agreement has been achieved, and significant reductions in computer processing time of up to 90% have been obtained by using the cycle jumping technique. A further cycle jumping technique has been developed for full component analysis, using a viscoplastic damage finite element solver, which enables stress redistribution to be modelled. The behaviour and lifetime of a slag tap component has been predicted when subjected to cyclic thermal loading. Cyclic plasticity damage and micro-crack initiation is predicted to occur at the water cooling duct after 2.974 cycles, with damage and micro-crack evolution arresting after 60.000. (author). 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 photos

  16. Argos: Residential end-use simulation model for load management strategy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, A.; Lamedica, R.; Prudenzi, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, load management (LM) strategies, aimed at the optimization of available energy resources, as well as, the reduction of investments for new power plants, have been applied worldwide in residential end-use assessments. However, the forecasting of LM strategy impacts on the residential sector is very complex because it is based on a preliminary evaluation of the customers' proclivity to adapt their load characteristics to utility aims. In order to reduce load analysis requirements, which are substantial due to the need for thorough statistical analyses, complex field tests and measurements, the availability of models taking into account customer behavioural aspects is of paramount importance. This paper illustrates a simulation model which allows the performance of numerical evaluations concerning the effectiveness of some LM strategies applied to a residential end-use area load profile as previously determined by the aggregation of the contributions of individual households. This model enabled the evaluation of the impact, on the load profile, of a time-of-day tariff such as that recently introduced in Italy

  17. Quantifying suspended sediment loads delivered to Cheney Reservoir, Kansas: Temporal patterns and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Juracek, Kyle E.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy

    2015-01-01

    average, within ±20% of estimates based on streamflow and turbidity combined. Results demonstrate that large suspended sediment loads are delivered to Cheney Reservoir in very short time periods, indicating that sediment management plans eventually must address large, infrequent inflow events to be effective.

  18. Droop Control of Solar PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.

  19. Advanced techniques using the plant as indicator of irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara dos Santos Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies which are considered the most promising for irrigation management are those based on the analysis of the water status of the plants themselves. This justifies the study and improvement of indicators based on automatic and continuous measures to enable real-time monitoring data, as indices from sap flow, dendrometry and leaf turgor pressure techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze such methodologies in order to demonstrate their principles, advantages and challenges. In conclusion, the methodologies analyzed still have many technological advances and challenges before being presented to the final user. The future research should work these tools for elaboration of technical indexes that allow their simplification, on the instrumental point of view, and the interpretation of their results.

  20. Safety management in NPPs using an evolutionary algorithm technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Alok; Patwardhan, Anand; Verma, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The general goal of safety management in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is to make requirements and activities more risk effective and less costly. The technical specification and maintenance (TS and M) activities in a plant are associated with controlling risk or with satisfying requirements, and are candidates to be evaluated for their resource effectiveness in risk-informed applications. Accordingly, the risk-based analysis of technical specification (RBTS) is being considered in evaluating current TS. The multi-objective optimization of the TS and M requirements of a NPP based on risk and cost, gives the pareto-optimal solutions, from which the utility can pick its decision variables suiting its interest. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm technique has been used to make a trade-off between risk and cost both at the system level and at the plant level for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and main steam line break (MSLB) as initiating events

  1. Management mechanisms for development of personnel professional competencies at a loading and haulage company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, S. V.; Pristupa, Yu D.; Pavlova, L. D.; Fryanov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The necessity for development a management mechanism for development of personnel professional competencies at a loading and haulage company in order to ensuring the compliance of competencies with labor functions, regulated by the current professional standards, is substantiated. A functional diagram of the organizational and technical system of the loading and haulage company was developed, that includes the interaction mechanism between the personnel and the objects of the main production. The problem of algorithm development to assess the correspondence of communicative competencies and labor functions of loading and haulage companies, ensuring the achievement of the management goal with a minimum risk of an emergency situation or an accident, was set and solved. The idea of management problem solving consists in the operational development and implementation of anticipatory measures at each deviation in personnel actions from normative or target indicators. The dependence of the risk of imbalance of communicative competences and labor functions in a given period of time is established. The effectiveness of the developed and implemented mechanism is confirmed by the positive dynamics of the test results.

  2. Quality Management techniques embedded in Agile Project Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac Raluca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It used to be hard to make your dream come true and start a business but now, thanks to the dotcom boom and the rapid development of emerging technologies everybody has the chance to become the next Steve Jobs. Quality management tools and creativity techniques gave birth to the startup trend that transforms a brilliant idea into an innovative product. A common practice amongst startups is Agile development. In this paper, after analyzing the Agile approach and the tools used to ensure quality for every stage of a product’s development life cycle and the results of using the Agile approach looking out for advantages and short comings as well, we proposed a PDCA inspired tool which embeds both quality and creativity techniques to help developers ensure quality for each stage of a product’s life cycle as well as help them better organize their activities to reach the desired goals. We validated this approach by implementing it to the case of the Vitraly startup.

  3. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis D; Manatakis, Dimitrios K; Stamos, Nikolaos; Stoidis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5-3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of "intentional open abdomen" was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways ("postoperative open abdominal wall"). Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as "frozen abdomen," where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the "Coliseum technique" for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of "malignant" frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.

  4. Optimized inspection techniques and structural analysis in lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, M.T.; Marcelles, I.

    1993-01-01

    Preservation of the option of extending the service lifetime of a nuclear power plant beyond its normal design lifetime requires correct remaining lifetime management from the very beginning of plant operation. The methodology used in plant remaining lifetime management is essentially based on the use of standard inspections, surveillance and monitoring programs and calculations, such as thermal-stress and fracture mechanics analysis. The inspection techniques should be continuously optimized, in order to be able to detect and dimension existing defects with the highest possible degree of accuracy. The information obtained during the inspection is combined with the historical data of the components: design, quality, operation, maintenance, and transients, and with the results of destructive testing, fracture mechanics and thermal fatigue analysis. These data are used to estimate the remaining lifetime of nuclear power plant components, systems and structures with the highest degree possible of accuracy. The use of this methodology allows component repairs and replacements to be reduced or avoided and increases the safety levels and availability of the nuclear power plant. Use of this strategy avoids the need for heavy investments at the end of the licensing period

  5. Impacts of radiation management techniques on the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adakudlu, Muralidhar; Helge Otterå, Odd; Tjiputra, Jerry; Muri, Helene; Grini, Alf; Schulz, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The effectiveness of various climate engineering techniques in limiting the global warming signal to reasonable levels has been the topic of state-of-the-art research on climate change. Using an Earth system model, we show that these techniques have the potential to bring down the high CO2 concentration climate in RCP8.5 to a moderate climate similar to RCP4.5 in terms of global temperature. Nevertheless, their influence on the regional aspects of atmospheric circulation is not clear. The regional circulation patterns in the atmosphere are largely characterized by the natural variability modes, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In this study, we assess the impacts of three radiation managment techniques, namely, Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI), Marine Sky Brightening (MSB) and Cirrus Cloud Thinning (CCT), on the structure and features of the NAO. The results indicate an east-northeastward shift as well as intensification of the NAO spatial pattern in the global warming scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with the signal being most intense in the latter. The climate engineering forcings when applied to the RCP8.5 case tend to reduce the strength of the NAO with little impact on its position. The CCT case appears to have the maximum effect on the NAO signal. The patterns of cloud radiative forcing, expressed as the difference between net radiative forcing at TOA under average conditions and clear sky conditions, reveal a northeastward shift of the radiative heating in the north Atlantic region. This implies a possible link between the changes in the NAO signal and the cloud radiative forcing.

  6. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  7. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  8. Intracavitary after loading techniques, advantages and disadvantages with high and low dose-rate methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstam, Rune

    1980-01-01

    Even though suggested as early as 1903, it is only when suitable sealed gamma sources became available, afterloading methods could be developed for interstitial as well as intracavitary work. Manual afterloading technique can be used only for low dose rate irradiation, while remote controlled afterloading technique can be used for both low and high dose-rate irradiation. Afterloading units used at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, are described, and experience of their use is narrated briefly. (M.G.B.)

  9. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis Dept.; Hamrin, J. [Centre for Resource Solutions (United States); Eyre, N. [Energy Savings Trust (United Kingdom); Crossley, D.; Maloney, M.; Watt, G. [Energy Futures Australia Pty Ltd (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted. (author)

  10. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted.

  11. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted

  12. Fatigue life estimation of a 1D aluminum beam under mode-I loading using the electromechanical impedance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Soh, Chee Kiong

    2011-01-01

    Structures in service are often subjected to fatigue loads. Cracks would develop and lead to failure if left unnoticed after a large number of cyclic loadings. Monitoring the process of fatigue crack propagation as well as estimating the remaining useful life of a structure is thus essential to prevent catastrophe while minimizing earlier-than-required replacement. The advent of smart materials such as piezo-impedance transducers (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) has ushered in a new era of structural health monitoring (SHM) based on non-destructive evaluation (NDE). This paper presents a series of investigative studies to evaluate the feasibility of fatigue crack monitoring and estimation of remaining useful life using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing a PZT transducer. Experimental tests were conducted to study the ability of the EMI technique in monitoring fatigue crack in 1D lab-sized aluminum beams. The experimental results prove that the EMI technique is very sensitive to fatigue crack propagation. A proof-of-concept semi-analytical damage model for fatigue life estimation has been developed by incorporating the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory into the finite element (FE) model. The prediction of the model matches closely with the experiment, suggesting the possibility of replacing costly experiments in future

  13. Fatigue life estimation of a 1D aluminum beam under mode-I loading using the electromechanical impedance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee Yan; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2011-12-01

    Structures in service are often subjected to fatigue loads. Cracks would develop and lead to failure if left unnoticed after a large number of cyclic loadings. Monitoring the process of fatigue crack propagation as well as estimating the remaining useful life of a structure is thus essential to prevent catastrophe while minimizing earlier-than-required replacement. The advent of smart materials such as piezo-impedance transducers (lead zirconate titanate, PZT) has ushered in a new era of structural health monitoring (SHM) based on non-destructive evaluation (NDE). This paper presents a series of investigative studies to evaluate the feasibility of fatigue crack monitoring and estimation of remaining useful life using the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique employing a PZT transducer. Experimental tests were conducted to study the ability of the EMI technique in monitoring fatigue crack in 1D lab-sized aluminum beams. The experimental results prove that the EMI technique is very sensitive to fatigue crack propagation. A proof-of-concept semi-analytical damage model for fatigue life estimation has been developed by incorporating the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory into the finite element (FE) model. The prediction of the model matches closely with the experiment, suggesting the possibility of replacing costly experiments in future.

  14. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Novel piroxicam-loaded nanospheres generated by the electrospraying technique: physicochemical characterisation and oral bioavailability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Omer; Din, Fakhar Ud; Kim, Dong Wuk; Park, Jong Hyuck; Woo, Kyu Bong; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Youn, Yu Seok; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Rashid, Rehmana; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-06-01

    To determine if a novel electrospraying technique could be applied to an oral drug delivery system for improving the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble piroxicam; the nanospheres were generated with drug and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using electrospraying technique; and their physicochemical properties, solubility, release and pharmacokinetics were evaluated in comparison with piroxicam powder. All nanospheres had significantly increased drug solubility and dissolution rates in comparison with the drug powder. In particular, the nanosphere composed of piroxicam and PVP at a weight ratio of 2:8 gave about 600-fold higher solubility, 15-fold higher release rate and 3-fold higher AUC in comparison to piroxicam powder, leading to significantly enhanced oral bioavailability in rats, due to the mingled effect of nanonisation along with transformation to the amorphous state. Thus, this electrospraying technique can be utilised to produce a novel oral nanosphere delivery system with enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble piroxicam.

  16. Study of the two-phase liquid loading phenomenon by applying CFD techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vieiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the liquid loading phenomenon, 2D (axisymmetric numerical simulations were performed. This phenomenon appears when the gas velocity reduces to a value below the critical speed of drop extraction in two-phase production wells, and as consequence liquid is accumulated in the tubing, increasing the pressure drop and reducing the flow rate within the tube. Simulations were made using air-water as working fluids over a vertical pipe of 4 meters long through a commercial package of CFD. Comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data available in the literature shows a good capability of homogeneous models to predict the flow characteristics for a given velocity range close to the critical gas velocity; over 100% of this parameter the model significantly overestimates the pressure drop.

  17. Neuro-Fuzzy Computational Technique to Control Load Frequency in Hydro-Thermal Interconnected Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this research work, two areas hydro-thermal power system connected through tie-lines is considered. The perturbation of frequencies at the areas and resulting tie line power flows arise due to unpredictable load variations that cause mismatch between the generated and demanded powers. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. The intelligent controllers like fuzzy logic, artificial neural network (ANN) and hybrid fuzzy neural network approaches are used for automatic generation control for the two area interconnected power systems. Area 1 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area 2 consists of hydro power plant with electric governor. Performance evaluation is carried out by using intelligent (ANFIS, ANN and fuzzy) control and conventional PI and PID control approaches. To enhance the performance of controller sliding surface i.e. variable structure control is included. The model of interconnected power system has been developed with all five types of said controllers and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The performance of the intelligent controllers has been compared with the conventional PI and PID controllers for the interconnected power system. A comparison of ANFIS, ANN, Fuzzy and PI, PID based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANFIS over ANN, fuzzy and PI, PID. Thus the hybrid fuzzy neural network controller has better dynamic response i.e., quick in operation, reduced error magnitude and minimized frequency transients.

  18. An evolutionary outlook of air traffic flow management techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistan, Trevor; Gardi, Alessandro; Sabatini, Roberto; Ramasamy, Subramanian; Batuwangala, Eranga

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) has become pertinent even in regions without sustained overload conditions caused by dense traffic operations. Increasing traffic volumes in the face of constrained resources has created peak congestion at specific locations and times in many areas of the world. Increased environmental awareness and economic drivers have combined to create a resurgent interest in ATFM as evidenced by a spate of recent ATFM conferences and workshops mediated by official bodies such as ICAO, IATA, CANSO the FAA and Eurocontrol. Significant ATFM acquisitions in the last 5 years include South Africa, Australia and India. Singapore, Thailand and Korea are all expected to procure ATFM systems within a year while China is expected to develop a bespoke system. Asia-Pacific nations are particularly pro-active given the traffic growth projections for the region (by 2050 half of all air traffic will be to, from or within the Asia-Pacific region). National authorities now have access to recently published international standards to guide the development of national and regional operational concepts for ATFM, geared to Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management and Avionics (CNS+A) evolutions. This paper critically reviews the field to determine which ATFM research and development efforts hold the best promise for practical technological implementations, offering clear benefits both in terms of enhanced safety and efficiency in times of growing air traffic. An evolutionary approach is adopted starting from an ontology of current ATFM techniques and proceeding to identify the technological and regulatory evolutions required in the future CNS+A context, as the aviation industry moves forward with a clearer understanding of emerging operational needs, the geo-political realities of regional collaboration and the impending needs of global harmonisation.

  19. Combining Ecosystem Service and Critical Load Concepts for Resource Management and Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES and critical load (CL. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and CL principles for public land management and natural resource policy decision-making. One well known example that is appropriate for ES and CL evaluation is examined here: the acidification of soil and drainage water by atmospheric deposition of acidifying sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A conceptual framework illustrates how the ES and CL approaches can be combined in a way that enhances the strengths of each. This framework will aid in the process of translating ES and CL principles into land management and natural resource policy decision-making by documenting the impacts of pollution on environmental goods and services that benefit humans.

  20. Investigation of the load on the lumbar region in nursing technique's movements - relation between twist and surface electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yasuko; Shiozaki, Akira; Majima, Yukie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the twist angle of the lumbar region and the surface electromyogram (EMG) and examined their mutual relation to elucidate the degree and influence of factors of "twist" in nursing techniques as a cause of lower back pain. Using a goniometer (two-way angle and twist sensors) and an EMG(SX230; DKH Co., Ltd.), we conducted measurements by affixing the goniometer on the lumbar vertebral column and EMG sensor at four points of right and left sides of L2 and L4 (of the erector muscle of the spine). The measured nursing techniques were three common methods of "transferring a patient from bed to wheelchair," which is said to impart a heavy load on the lumbar region. Results show that the correlation value between the twist angle rate and mean energy is likely to be greater, suggesting that the magnitude of the load on the lumbar region should be related to the twist speed rather than to the twist angle of the movement itself.

  1. Process mining techniques: an application to time management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Ali Raza

    2018-04-01

    In an environment people have to make sure that all of their work are completed within a given time in accordance with its quality. In order to achieve the real phenomenon of process mining one needs to understand all of these processes in a detailed manner. Personal Information and communication has always been a highlighting issue on internet but for now information and communication tools within factual life refers to their daily schedule, location analysis, environmental analysis and, more generally, social media applications support these systems which makes data available for data analysis generated through event logs, but also for process analysis which combines environmental and location analysis. Process mining can be used to exploit all these real live processes with the help of the event logs which are already available in those datasets through user censored data or may be user labeled data. These processes could be used to redesign a user's flow and understand all these processes in a bit more detailed manner. In order to increase the quality of each of the processes that we go through our daily lives is to give a closer look to each of the processes and after analyzing them, one should make changes to get better results. On the contrarily, we applied process mining techniques on seven different subjects combined in a single dataset collected from Korea. Above all, the following paper comments on the efficiency of processes in the event logs referring to time management's sphere of influence.

  2. Evaluation of fleet management techniques for timber highway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent M. Phares; Travis K. Hosteng; Justin Dahlberg; Michael A. Ritter

    2011-01-01

    The general condition of the nation's bridges presents a complex management issue when considering cost, safety, and time. Consequently, the management of those bridges can become an overwhelming task. The need for a management system that is specific to rural systems may help to improve the management of this significant number of bridges. Although individual...

  3. Load-balancing techniques for a parallel electromagnetic particle-in-cell code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PLIMPTON,STEVEN J.; SEIDEL,DAVID B.; PASIK,MICHAEL F.; COATS,REBECCA S.

    2000-01-01

    QUICKSILVER is a 3-d electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code developed and used at Sandia to model relativistic charged particle transport. It models the time-response of electromagnetic fields and low-density-plasmas in a self-consistent manner: the fields push the plasma particles and the plasma current modifies the fields. Through an LDRD project a new parallel version of QUICKSILVER was created to enable large-scale plasma simulations to be run on massively-parallel distributed-memory supercomputers with thousands of processors, such as the Intel Tflops and DEC CPlant machines at Sandia. The new parallel code implements nearly all the features of the original serial QUICKSILVER and can be run on any platform which supports the message-passing interface (MPI) standard as well as on single-processor workstations. This report describes basic strategies useful for parallelizing and load-balancing particle-in-cell codes, outlines the parallel algorithms used in this implementation, and provides a summary of the modifications made to QUICKSILVER. It also highlights a series of benchmark simulations which have been run with the new code that illustrate its performance and parallel efficiency. These calculations have up to a billion grid cells and particles and were run on thousands of processors. This report also serves as a user manual for people wishing to run parallel QUICKSILVER.

  4. Equivalent Energy Density concept: A preliminary reexamination of a technique for equating thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-08-01

    Historical and projected inventories of spent fuel from commercial light-water nuclear reactors exhibit diverse decay characteristics and ages. This report summarizes a preliminary reexamination of a method for determining equivalent thermal loads for the range of spent fuel expected at a potential underground repository. The method, known at the Equivalent Energy Density (EED) concept, bases its equivalence criteria on the assumption that a given waste will produce worst-case thermomechanical effects equal to worst-case thermomechanical effects produced by a baseline waste, provided that the thermal energy deposited in the host rock over a specified deposition period is the same for both waste descriptions. To test this assumption, temperature histories at representative locations within the host rock were calculated using layouts defined by the EED concept and four deposition periods (20, 50, 100, and 300 years). It was found that the peak temperatures at near-field locations were best matched by the shorter deposition periods of 20 and 50 years. However, due to the sensitivity of the near-field environment to short-term canister-to-canister interactions, caution,should be used when choosing a near-field deposition period. At the location chosen to represent the far-field, a 300-year deposition period provided reasonable correspondence of peak temperature responses for all waste descriptions examined

  5. Load-balancing techniques for a parallel electromagnetic particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Seidel, David B.; Pasik, Michael F.; Coats, Rebecca S.

    2000-01-01

    QUICKSILVER is a 3-d electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation code developed and used at Sandia to model relativistic charged particle transport. It models the time-response of electromagnetic fields and low-density-plasmas in a self-consistent manner: the fields push the plasma particles and the plasma current modifies the fields. Through an LDRD project a new parallel version of QUICKSILVER was created to enable large-scale plasma simulations to be run on massively-parallel distributed-memory supercomputers with thousands of processors, such as the Intel Tflops and DEC CPlant machines at Sandia. The new parallel code implements nearly all the features of the original serial QUICKSILVER and can be run on any platform which supports the message-passing interface (MPI) standard as well as on single-processor workstations. This report describes basic strategies useful for parallelizing and load-balancing particle-in-cell codes, outlines the parallel algorithms used in this implementation, and provides a summary of the modifications made to QUICKSILVER. It also highlights a series of benchmark simulations which have been run with the new code that illustrate its performance and parallel efficiency. These calculations have up to a billion grid cells and particles and were run on thousands of processors. This report also serves as a user manual for people wishing to run parallel QUICKSILVER

  6. Damage Evaluation of Concrete Column under Impact Load Using a Piezoelectric-Based EMI Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuli; Zhao, Shaoyu; Qi, Baoxin; Kong, Qingzhao

    2018-05-17

    One of the major causes of damage to column-supported concrete structures, such as bridges and highways, are collisions from moving vehicles, such as cars and ships. It is essential to quantify the collision damage of the column so that appropriate actions can be taken to prevent catastrophic events. A widely used method to assess structural damage is through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) damage index established by the collected data; however, the RMSD index does not truly provide quantitative information about the structure. Conversely, the damage volume ratio that can only be obtained via simulation provides better detail about the level of damage in a structure. Furthermore, as simulation can also provide the RMSD index relating to that particular damage volume ratio, the empirically obtained RMSD index can thus be related to the structural damage degree through comparison of the empirically obtained RMSD index to numerically-obtained RMSD. Thus, this paper presents a novel method in which the impact-induced damage to a structure is simulated in order to obtain the relationship between the damage volume ratio to the RMSD index, and the relationship can be used to predict the true damage degree by comparison to the empirical RMSD index. In this paper, the collision damage of a bridge column by moving vehicles was simulated by using a concrete beam model subjected to continuous impact loadings by a freefalling steel ball. The variation in admittance signals measured by the surface attached lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches was used to establish the RMSD index. The results demonstrate that the RMSD index and the damage ratio of concrete have a linear relationship for the particular simulation model.

  7. Slowing techniques for loading a magneto-optical trap of CaF molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppe, Stefan; Fitch, Noah; Williams, Hannah; Hambach, Moritz; Sauer, Ben; Hinds, Ed; Tarbutt, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold molecules in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are useful for testing fundamental physics and studying strongly-interacting quantum systems. With experiments starting with a relatively fast (50-200 m/s) buffer-gas beam, a primary concern is decelerating molecules to below the MOT capture velocity, typically 10 m/s. Direct laser cooling, where the molecules are slowed via momentum transfer from a chirped counter-propagating narrowband laser, is a natural choice. However, chirping the cooling and repump lasers requires precise control of multiple laser frequencies simultaneously. Another approach, called ``white-light slowing'' uses a broadband laser such that all fast molecules in the beam are decelerated. By addressing numerous velocities no chirping is needed. Unfortunately, both techniques have significant losses as molecules are transversely heated during the optical cycling. Ideally, the slowing method would provide simultaneous deceleration and transverse guiding. A newly developed technique, called Zeeman-Sisyphus deceleration, is potentially capable of both. Using permanent magnets and optical pumping, the number of scattered photons is reduced, lessening transverse heating and relaxing the repump requirements. Here we compare all three options for CaF.

  8. Piroxicam loaded alginate beads obtained by prilling/microwave tandem technique: morphology and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Rita P; Auriemma, Giulia; d'Amore, Matteo; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Mencherini, Teresa; Del Gaudio, Pasquale

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a tandem technique, based on the combination of prilling and microwave (MW) assisted treatments, to produce biodegradable alginate carriers of piroxicam with different drug controlled release behaviours. Results showed that alginate/piroxicam beads demonstrated high encapsulation efficiency and very narrow dimensional distribution. Beads dried by MW retained shape and size distribution of the hydrated particles while drying rate was strongly increased compared to convective drying processes. Moreover, different MW irradiation regimes promoted interactions between the drug and alginate matrix, affected drug polymorphism as well as inner and surface matrix structure leading to different piroxicam release profiles. High level MW irradiation led to beads with highly porous and swellable matrix able to release piroxicam in few minutes in the intestine while convective drying produced gastro-resistant beads that exhibit sustained piroxicam release (total release in 5.5h) in intestinal environment. On these results the tandem technique prilling/MW irradiation appears to be promising to obtain alginate carrier with tailored NSAIDs release depending on drug characteristics and MW irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-consistent technique for estimating the dynamic yield strength of a shock-loaded material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Lipkin, J.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating the dynamic yield stress in a shocked material. This method employs reloading and unloading data from a shocked state along with a general assumption of yield and hardening behavior to estimate the yield stress in the precompressed state. No other data are necessary for this evaluation, and, therefore, the method has general applicability at high shock pressures and in materials undergoing phase transitions. In some special cases, it is also possible to estimate the complete state of stress in a shocked state. Using this method, the dynamic yield strength of aluminum at 2.06 GPa has been estimated to be 0.26 GPa. This value agrees reasonably well with previous estimates

  10. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as a global optimal control problem which aims to minimize fuel consumption. Pontryagin’s minimum principle is applied to solve the optimal control problem to realize a real-time control strategy for electrical energy management in vehicles. The control strategy can change the output of the intelligent alternator and the battery with the changes of electrical load and driving conditions in real-time. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional open-loop control strategy, the proposed control strategy for vehicle energy management can effectively reduce fuel consumption and the fuel consumption per 100 km is decreased by approximately 1.7%.

  11. Greenhouse gas mitigation using poultry litter management techniques in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainali, Brijesh; Emran, Saad Been; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Poultry activities have expanded significantly in Bangladesh in recent years. The litter generated from rural poultry farms is often dumped in low ground neighboring areas resulting in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and air pollution. This study estimates the GHG emissions of a typical rural layer poultry farm in Bangladesh, and identifies the GHG emissions reduction potential when poultry litter management techniques are used to produce biogas, generating electricity and bio-fertilizer. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been used for a systematic evaluation of GHG-emissions considering the local supply chain in a typical rural layer poultry farm. The analysis shows that the GHG-emissions at the poultry farm amount to 1735 KgCO_2_e_q/10000 eggs produced if the litter is untreated. With the installation of an anaerobic digester, the emission intensity could be reduced by 65% if the gas is used to replace LPG for cooking purposes. If 100% digested slurry is utilized as bio-fertilizer, the emissions intensity could be further reduced by 17 times compared to the case without slurry utilization. These results justify the consideration of national programs to improve conditions in poultry farms in Bangladesh. - Highlights: • This study estimates GHG-emissions reduction potential of utilizing poultry litter for energy production in a rural farm. • Energy/mass flow and GHG balances are evaluated considering the local supply chain. • On-farm activities significantly affect GHG emissions among others across the supply chain. • Biogas production and use of slurry as bio-fertilizer significantly reduces the emission intensity. • Results from LCA and sensitivity analysis have been discussed to identify key influential parameters.

  12. New techniques for wound management: A systematic review of their role in the management of chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Bekara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Debridement is a crucial component of wound management. Recent technologies such as hydrosurgery (Versajet, ultrasound therapy (the MIST therapy device, or plasma-mediated bipolar radio-frequency ablation therapy (Coblation seem to represent interesting alternatives for wound debridement. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe, evaluate, and compare these three recently developed methods for the management of chronic wounds. In January 2016, an electronic database search was conducted of MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and Embase for articles concerning these three innovative methods for the management of chronic wounds. A total of 389 references were identified by our search strategy, and 15 articles were included. We extracted data regarding the number and age of patients, indications, operating time, number of procedures, costs, wound healing time, decrease in exudation, perioperative blood loss, bacterial load, and the occurrence of complications. The 15 articles included studies that involved 563 patients who underwent hydrosurgery (7 studies, ultrasound therapy (6 studies, or Coblation (2 studies. Six randomized controlled trials were included that compared the use of a scalpel or curette to hydrosurgery (2 studies or ultrasound therapy (6 studies. Hydrosurgery, in addition to being a very precise and selective tool, allows significantly faster debridement. Ultrasound therapy provides a significant reduction of exudation, and improves the wound healing time. No comparative study dedicated to Coblation was identified. Despite the obvious clinical interest of the topic, our review of the current literature revealed a lack of prospective randomized studies comparing these devices with each other or with standard techniques, particularly for Coblation and hydrosurgery.

  13. Information systems project management: methods, tools, and techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmanus, John; Wood-Harper, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    Information Systems Project Management offers a clear and logical exposition of how to plan, organise and monitor projects effectively in order to deliver quality information systems within time, to budget and quality. This new book by John McManus and Trevor Wood-Harper is suitable for upper level undergraduates and postgraduates studying project management and Information Systems. Practising managers will also find it to be a valuable tool in their work. Managing information systems pro...

  14. The development of an audit technique to assess the quality of safety barrier management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldenmund, Frank; Hale, Andrew; Goossens, Louis; Betten, Jeroen; Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a management model to control barriers devised to prevent major hazard scenarios. Additionally, an audit technique is explained that assesses the quality of such a management system. The final purpose of the audit technique is to quantify those aspects of the management system that have a direct impact on the reliability and effectiveness of the barriers and, hence, the probability of the scenarios involved. First, an outline of the management model is given and its elements are explained. Then, the development of the audit technique is described. Because the audit technique uses actual major hazard scenarios and barriers within these as its focus, the technique achieves a concreteness and clarity that many other techniques often lack. However, this strength is also its limitation, since the full safety management system is not covered with the technique. Finally, some preliminary experiences obtained from several test sites are compiled and discussed

  15. The development of an audit technique to assess the quality of safety barrier management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guldenmund, Frank [Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.w.guldenmund@tbm.tudelft.nl; Hale, Andrew [Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Goossens, Louis [Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Betten, Jeroen [Safety Science Group, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Duijm, Nijs Jan [Riso National Laboratory (Denmark)

    2006-03-31

    This paper describes the development of a management model to control barriers devised to prevent major hazard scenarios. Additionally, an audit technique is explained that assesses the quality of such a management system. The final purpose of the audit technique is to quantify those aspects of the management system that have a direct impact on the reliability and effectiveness of the barriers and, hence, the probability of the scenarios involved. First, an outline of the management model is given and its elements are explained. Then, the development of the audit technique is described. Because the audit technique uses actual major hazard scenarios and barriers within these as its focus, the technique achieves a concreteness and clarity that many other techniques often lack. However, this strength is also its limitation, since the full safety management system is not covered with the technique. Finally, some preliminary experiences obtained from several test sites are compiled and discussed.

  16. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Łuczak; Radoslaw Wolniak

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey wa...

  17. Remote control and load management of electric power distribution networks; Fjaerroevervakning och belastningsstyrning av eldistributionsnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Mats; Larsson, Mikael

    1993-02-01

    Remote control and load management increase the electricity distributors possibilities to even out the consumption of electricity for optimal usage of electricity subscription and supply system. Controlling can be done either through technology or through encouragement of off-peak consumption. There are a number of similar systems for controlling consumption, where the manufacturers have chosen different ways to solve the main problem, namely the communication. We have concentrated in examining systems which communicate through the supply system, different types of telephone connections and wireless communication links. In the future demands for better electricity consumption control will be put forward. This will bring along a greater need at distribution level for continuous monitoring of purchased and used electricity flow. The distributors will also need better possibilities to directly affect power consumption. Those manufacturers who do not use load management today should acquire experience through provincial installations in suitable areas with equipment ready for tomorrows needs and requirements. Today there are some different systems on the market that offer flexibility and ready-to-use possibilities. (3 refs., 17 figs.)

  18. Optimum residential load management strategy for real time pricing (RTP) demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Monteiro, Cláudio; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers that utilizes the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. The strategy considers predictions of electricity prices, energy demand, renewable power production, and power-purchase of energy of the consumer in determining the optimal relationship between hourly electricity prices and the use of different household appliances and electric vehicles in a typical smart house. The proposed strategy is illustrated using two study cases corresponding to a house located in Zaragoza (Spain) for a typical day in summer. Results show that the proposed model allows users to control their diary energy consumption and adapt their electricity bills to their actual economical situation. - Highlights: ► This work shows an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers. ► It has been considered the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. ► A study case shows the optimal utilization of some appliances and electric vehicles. ► Results showed that the proposed model allows users to reduce their electricity bill.

  19. Distributed Smart Device for Monitoring, Control and Management of Electric Loads in Domotic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez-Vidal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753 to measure the consumption of electrical energy and thento transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600 has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user’s program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  20. Distributed smart device for monitoring, control and management of electric loads in domotic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  1. Load shifting with the use of home energy management system implemented in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazydło, Grzegorz; Wermiński, Szymon

    2017-08-01

    The increases for power demand in the Electrical Power System (EPS) causes a significant increase of power in daily load curve and transmission line overload. The large variability in energy consumption in EPS combined with unpredictable weather events can lead to a situation in which to save the stability of the EPS, the power limits must be introduced or even industrial customers in a given area have to be disconnected, which causes financial losses. Nowadays, a Transmission System Operator is looking for additional solutions to reduce peak power, because existing approaches (mainly building new intervention power unit or tariff programs) are not satisfactory due to the high cost of services in combination with insufficient power reduction effect. The paper presents an approach to load shifting with the use of home Energy Management System (EMS) installed at small end-users. The home energy management algorithm, executed by EMS controller, is modeled using Unified Modeling Language (UML). Then, the UML model is translated into Verilog description, and is finally implemented in the Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The advantages of the proposed approach are the relatively low cost of reduction service, small loss of end-users' comfort, and the convenient maintenance of EMS. A practical example illustrating the proposed approach and calculation of potential gains from its implementation are also presented.

  2. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  3. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy; Dental-CT: Untersuchungstechnik, Strahlenbelastung und Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T. [AKH Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Krennmair, G. [Praxis fuer Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde und Implantologie, Marchtrenk (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung im Bereich der Computertomographiesoftware (Dental-CT) ermoeglicht dem Radiologen zusaetzlich zu den ueblichen, von den Zahnaerzten durchgefuehrten Roentgenuntersuchungen eine ueberlagerungs- und verzerrungsfreie Darstellung des Ober- und Unterkiefers. In der Implantologie ist mit dieser Darstellung eine exakte Planung moeglich. Weiterhin haben sich Duennschicht-CT-Untersuchungen auch bei der Abklaerung von Zysten, Tumoren, Frakturen, tiefen Parodontitiden und retinierten Zaehnen bewaehrt. In dieser Zeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Anatomie, die Untersuchungstechnik des Dental-CT und die auftretende Strahlenbelastung gegeben. Basierend auf rezente Literaturangaben kann eine Reduktion der absorbierten Dosis bei gleichbleibender Bildqualitaet durch einfache Protokollmodifikationen erzielt werden. (orig.)

  4. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  5. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  6. Effect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Poelaert, Christine; Ernens, Marjorie; Liotta, Marisa; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Tyteca, Eva; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Bindelle, Jérôme; Francis, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghavi N; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Majrad, Mohamed S; Injeti, Elisha R; Gollmer, Steven M; Shah, Zahoor A; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to advance solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) preparation methodology by preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles using a temperature-modulated solidification process. The technique was reproducible and prepared nanoparticles without the need of organic solvents. An anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was incorporated in the SLNs. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta potential analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cell viability studies. Particle size of the SLN dispersion was below 100 nm, and that of redispersed lyophilizates was ~500 nm. DSC and infrared spectroscopy suggested that the degree of crystallinity did not decrease appreciably when compared to GMS. TEM and AFM images showed well-defined spherical to oval particles. The drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be approximately 46%. In vitro drug release studies showed that 80% of the encapsulated drug was released within 1 h. In vitro cell cultures were biocompatible with blank SLNs but demonstrated concentration-dependent changes in cell viability to 5-FU-loaded SLNs. The 5-FU-loaded SLNs can potentially be utilized in an anticancer drug delivery system.

  8. Immediate versus early loading of two implants placed with a flapless technique supporting mandibular bar-retained overdentures: a single-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Leone, Michele; Esposito, Marco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of immediate loading versus early loading at 6 weeks of bar-retained mandibular overdentures supported by two implants placed with a flapless technique. Sixty patients were randomised: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. To be immediately loaded, implants had to be inserted with a minimum torque > 48 Ncm. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, biological and biomechanical complications, patient satisfaction, and Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) assessed with a resonance frequency analysis instrument. Sixty implants were placed in each group. Flaps had to be raised in nine patients to check drill direction or to better visualise the area after multiple teeth extraction. Two implants in two patients did not reach the planned insertion torque and were immediately replaced by larger diameters ones. After 1 year no drop out occurred and two early loaded implants failed in two patients. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for prosthesis failures, implant losses, complications, and mean ISQ values; however, patients in the immediately loaded group were significantly more satisfied than those loaded early. When comparing mean ISQ values taken 6 weeks after placement with 1-year data within each group, values decreased significantly. Mandibular overdentures can be successfully loaded the same day of implant placement with a minimally invasive surgery, increasing patient satisfaction while decreasing treatment time and patient discomfort. No apparent advantages were seen when loading the overdentures at 6 weeks.

  9. Development of novel cilostazol-loaded solid SNEDDS using a SPG membrane emulsification technique: Physicochemical characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shafique, Shumaila; Kim, Dong Shik; Jin, Sung Giu; Seo, Youn Gee; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Beom-Jin; Park, Young Joon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) using a membrane emulsification technique involving Shirasu porous glass (SPG) which produced very small and uniform emulsion droplets, resulting in enhanced solubility, dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble cilostazol. The effects of carriers on the drug solubility were assessed, and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted. Among the liquid SNEDDS formulations tested, the liquid SNEDDS composed of peceol (oil), Tween 20 (surfactant) and Labrasol (cosurfactant) at a weight ratio of 15/55/30, produced the smallest emulsion droplet size. The cilostazol-loaded liquid SNEDDS formulation was suspended in the distilled water and subjected to SPG membrane emulsification. Calcium silicate was added as a solid carrier in this liquid SNEDDS, completely suspended and spray-dried, leading to the production of a cilostazol-loaded solid SNEDDS. The emulsion droplet size, solubility and dissolution of the emulsified solid SNEDDS were assessed as compared to the solid SNEDDS prepared without emulsification. Moreover, the physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics in rats were evaluated with the emulsified solid SNEDDS. The emulsified solid SNEDDS provided significantly smaller and more uniform nanoemulsions than did the non-emulsified solid SNEDDS. The emulsified solid SNEDDS showed significantly higher drug solubility and dissolution as compared to the non-emulsified solid SNEDDS. The crystalline drug in it was converted into the amorphous state. Moreover, in rats, it gave significantly higher initial plasma concentrations and AUC compared to the drug powder, suggesting its improved oral bioavailability of cilostazol. Thus, this novel solid SNEDDS developed using a membrane emulsification technique represents a potentially powerful oral delivery system for cilostazol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding Sediment Sources, Pathways, and Sinks in Regional Sediment Management: Application of Wash Load and Bed-Material Load Concept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biedenham, David S; Hubbard, Lisa C; Thome, Colin R; Watson, Chester C

    2006-01-01

    ... through the fluvial system for sediments derived from various bed, bank, gully, and catchment sources thereby providing a reliable analytical foundation for effective regional sediment management...

  11. Market-oriented programming and its application to power load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ygge, F

    1998-04-01

    Market-oriented programming is a new approach to design and implementation of resource allocation mechanisms in computer systems. It has its roots in different disciplines, such as economics and computer science (in particular the area of multi-agent systems). This is divided into two different parts, focusing on: (1) central foundations and mechanisms of market-oriented programming, and (2) the use of market-oriented programming in practical applications. Market-oriented programming is seen as a programming paradigm based on abstractions such as prices and demands. Concepts, terminology and theory from micro-economics form the foundations of the paradigm. Central aspects of these foundations are investigated and some new insights are presented. Furthermore, some relations between standard optimization/resource allocation approaches and markets are described, and novel theorems are introduced. A published, and generally recognized, market oriented approach to the application building climate control is analyzed in detail. A new approach to this application, based on market-oriented programming, is introduced and shown to be superior to the analyzed approach in many ways. The case study pinpoints a number of potential pitfalls as well as advantages of market-oriented approaches to this and other applications. A second investigated application is power load management, i.e. the management of loads at the customer`s side for obtaining more efficient energy systems management. The basis of the application is described and a new market oriented approach is introduced and analyzed. The approach is shown to have a number of advantages compared to existing approaches to this problem. The main conclusion of the thesis is that there are some potential pitfalls of market-oriented programming, but when used with care it provides a highly natural and efficient means for resource allocation in computer systems

  12. Antitumor activity of docetaxel-loaded polymeric nanoparticles fabricated by Shirasu porous glass membrane-emulsification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu YN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunni Yu,1,* Songwei Tan,1,2,* Shuang Zhao,1 Xiangting Zhuang,1 Qingle Song,1 Yuliang Wang,1 Qin Zhou,2,3 Zhiping Zhang1,2 1Tongji School of Pharmacy, 2National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, 3College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Docetaxel (DTX has excellent efficiency against a wide spectrum of cancers. However, the current clinical formulation has limited its usage, as it causes some severe side effects. Various polymeric nanoparticles have thus been developed as alternative formulations of DTX, but they have been mostly fabricated on a laboratory scale. Previously, we synthesized a novel copolymer, poly(lactide-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS, and found that it exhibited great potential in drug delivery with improved properties. In this study, we applied the Shirasu porous glass (SPG membrane-emulsification technique to prepare the DTX-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on a pilot scale. The effect of several formulation variables on the DTX-loaded nanoparticle properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug-encapsulation efficiency, were investigated based on surfactant type and concentration in the aqueous phase, organic/aqueous phase volumetric ratio, membrane-pore size, transmembrane cycles, and operation pressure. The DTX-loaded nanoparticles were obtained with sizes of 306.8 ± 5.5 nm and 334.1 ± 2.7 nm (mean value ± standard deviation, and drug-encapsulation efficiency of 81.8% ± 4.5% and 64.5% ± 2.7% for PLA-TPGS and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles, respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a significant advantage of PLA-TPGS nanoparticles over PLGA nanoparticles and Taxotere. Drug-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles exhibited 1.78-, 6.34- and 3.35-fold higher values for area under the curve, half-life, and mean

  13. Measurement errors in network load measurement: Effects on lead management and accounting. Messfehler bei der Netzlasterfassung: Einfluss auf Lastregelung und Leistungsverrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunten, B. (Teilbereich Lastfuehrung, ABB Netzleittechnik GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany)); Dib, R.N. (Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Bereich Elektrische Energietechnik, Friedberg (Germany))

    1994-05-16

    In electric power supply systems continuous power measurement in the delivery points is necessary both for the purpose of load-management and for energy and power accounting. Electricity meters with pulse output points are commonly used for both applications today. The authors quantify the resulting errors in peak load measurement and load management as a function of the main influencing factors. (orig.)

  14. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  15. Microwave-assisted microemulsion technique for production of miconazole nitrate- and econazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan M; Eldridge, Daniel S; Palombo, Enzo A; Harding, Ian H

    2017-08-01

    The microwave-assisted production of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) is a novel technique reported recently by our group. The small particle size, solid nature and use of physiologically well-tolerated lipid materials make SLNs an interesting and potentially efficacious drug carrier. The main purpose of this research work was to investigate the suitability of microwave-assisted microemulsion technique to encapsulate selected ionic drug substances such as miconazole nitrate and econazole nitrate. The microwave-produced SLNs had a small size (250-300nm), low polydispersity (microwave-produced SLNs. Data fitting of drug release data revealed that the release of both drugs from microwave-produced SLNs was governed by non-Fickian diffusion indicating that drug release was both diffusion- and dissolution- controlled. Anti-fungal efficacy of drug-loaded SLNs was evaluated on C. albicans. The cell viability studies showed that cytotoxicity of SLNs was concentration-dependent. These encouraging results suggest that the microwave-assisted procedure is suitable for encapsulation of ionic drugs and that microwave-produced SLNs can act as potential carriers of antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Site Specific Waste Management Instructions for loading and shipment of category 3 investigation derived waste to ERDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriveau, C.E.; Wolf, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for management of containerized investigation-derived waste being loaded and transported to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The SSWMI outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements. Additional guidance for waste packaging, marking, labeling and shipping is provided (US DOT rules in 49 CFR have precedence)

  17. Software-Enabled Project Management Techniques and Their Relationship to the Triple Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleh, Festus U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). There was the dearth of academic literature that focused on the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). Based on the gap…

  18. Thermal Energy Storage for Building Load Management: Application to Electrically Heated Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thieblemont

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold climates, electrical power demand for space conditioning becomes a critical issue for utility companies during certain periods of the day. Shifting a portion or all of it to off-peak periods can help reduce peak demand and reduce stress on the electrical grid. Sensible thermal energy storage (TES systems, and particularly electrically heated floors (EHF, can store thermal energy in buildings during the off-peak periods and release it during the peak periods while maintaining occupants’ thermal comfort. However, choosing the type of storage system and/or its configuration may be difficult. In this paper, the performance of an EHF for load management is studied. First, a methodology is developed to integrate EHF in TRNSYS program in order to investigate the impact of floor assembly on the EHF performance. Then, the thermal comfort (TC of the night-running EHF is studied. Finally, indicators are defined, allowing the comparison of different EHF. Results show that an EHF is able to shift 84% of building loads to the night while maintaining acceptable TC in cold climate. Moreover, this system is able to provide savings for the customer and supplier if there is a significant difference between off-peak and peak period electricity prices.

  19. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  20. Review of Spatial Indexing Techniques for Large Urban Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François

    Pressure on land development in urban areas causes progressive efforts in spatial planning and management. The physical expansion of urban areas to accommodate rural migration implies a massive impact to social, economical and political situations of major cities. Most of the models used...... in managing urban areas are moving towards sustainable urban development in order to fulfill current necessities while preserving the resources for future generations. However, in order to manage large amounts of urban spatial data, an efficient spatial data constellation method is needed. With the ease...... of three dimensional (3D) spatial data usage in urban areas as a new source of data input, practical spatial data indexing is necessary to improve data retrieval and management. Current two dimensional (2D) spatial indexing approaches seem not applicable to the current and future spatial developments...

  1. Gender differences and job stress management techniques of library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at ascertaining gender and work related stress among library ... library staff indicated non-conducive work environment as the cause of job stress. ... flexible work hours and developing healthy life styles as management tips.

  2. Combining objective and subjective techniques for assessing quality of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arueti, S.; Okrent, D.

    1987-01-01

    The basic assumption is that utility and plant corporate management have a significant role in plant safety which may be quantifiable. From this point of view we try to identify symptoms and paths through which management effectiveness affects plant safety, partly in terms of measureable parameters. Some of the available data are analyzed in light of the proposed parameters, in order to examine possible correlations. Preliminary proposals are made of methods for including management performance as a variable in future PRA studies. This paper focuses primarily on measures of management quality from relating to what are frequently called performance indicators, such as SALP ratings, number of scrams, ESF actuations and safety system failures and challanges; forced outages; availability; enforcement actions; and licensee event reports (LERs). (orig./HP)

  3. Comparative techniques for nuclear fuel cycle waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Voss, J.W.

    1979-09-01

    A safety assessment approach for the evaluation of predisposal waste management systems is described and applied to selected facilities in the light water reactor (LWR) once-through fuel cycle and a potential coprocessed UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel cycle. This approach includes a scoping analysis on pretreatment waste streams and a more detailed analysis on proposed waste management processes. The primary evaluation parameters used in this study include radiation exposures to the public from radionuclide releases from normal operations and potential accidents, occupational radiation exposure from normal operations, and capital and operating costs. On an overall basis, the waste management aspects of the two fuel cycles examined are quite similar. On an individual facility basis, the fuel coprocessing plant has the largest waste management impact

  4. Event-based scenario manager for multibody dynamics simulation of heavy load lifting operations in shipyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an event-based scenario manager capable of creating and editing a scenario for shipbuilding process simulation based on multibody dynamics. To configure various situation in shipyards and easily connect with multibody dynamics, the proposed method has two main concepts: an Actor and an Action List. The Actor represents the anatomic unit of action in the multibody dynamics and can be connected to a specific component of the dynamics kernel such as the body and joint. The user can make a scenario up by combining the actors. The Action List contains information for arranging and executing the actors. Since the shipbuilding process is a kind of event-based sequence, all simulation models were configured using Discrete EVent System Specification (DEVS formalism. The proposed method was applied to simulations of various operations in shipyards such as lifting and erection of a block and heavy load lifting operation using multiple cranes.

  5. Demonstration project: Load management on the user side at power shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2005-10-01

    The risk for power shortages during extreme cold weather has increased in Sweden. Comments are made that high electricity spot prices are important for holding down the demand. Through the consumers' higher price sensitivity, the electricity system can be operated with lower reserve capacity. The objective of the demonstration project is to show methods for reducing the electricity demand at the national level at high spot prices. An important prerequisite is that the measures must be profitable for all parties involved. Four separate studies were made, two concerning households, one industry and one for the district heating sector. The conclusion from the studies is that load management on the customer's side is an economic alternative to investment in new production capacity

  6. Mud, models, and managers: Reaching consensus on a watershed strategy for sediment load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, P. R.; Cho, S. J.; Gran, K.; Belmont, P.; Hobbs, B. F.; Heitkamp, B.; Marr, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source sediment pollution is a leading cause of impairment of U.S. waters. Sediment sources are often on private land, such that solutions require not only considerable investment, but broad acceptance among landowners. We present the story of a participatory modeling exercise whose goal was to develop a consensus strategy for reducing sediment loading from the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, a large (9,200 km2) watershed in southern Minnesota dominated by row crop agriculture. The Collaborative for Sediment Source Reduction was a stakeholder group of farmers, industry representatives, conservation groups, and regulatory agencies. We used a participatory modeling approach to promote understanding of the problem, to define the scope of solutions acceptable to farmers, to develop confidence in a watershed model, and to reach consensus on a watershed strategy. We found that no existing watershed model could provide a reliable estimate of sediment response to management actions and developed a purpose-built model that could provide reliable, transparent, and fast answers. Because increased stream flow was identified as an important driver of sediment loading, the model and solutions included both hydrologic and sediment transport components. The model was based on an annual sediment budget with management actions serving to proportionally reduce both sediment sources and sediment delivery. Importantly, the model was developed in collaboration with stakeholders, such that a shared understanding emerged regarding of the modeling challenges and the reliability of information used to strongly constrain model output. The simplicity of the modeling approach supported stakeholder engagement and understanding, thereby lowering the social barrier between expert modeler and concerned stakeholder. The consensus strategy focused on water storage higher in the watershed in order to reduce river discharge and the large supply of sediment from near

  7. Solar Heating And Cooling Of Buildings (SHACOB): Requirements definition and impact analysis-2. Volume 3: Customer load management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretcher, C. K.; Rountredd, R. C.

    1980-11-01

    Customer Load Management Systems, using off-peak storage and control at the residences, are analyzed to determine their potential for capacity and energy savings by the electric utility. Areas broadly representative of utilities in the regions around Washington, DC and Albuquerque, NM were of interest. Near optimum tank volumes were determined for both service areas, and charging duration/off-time were identified as having the greatest influence on tank performance. The impacts on utility operations and corresponding utility/customer economics were determined in terms of delta demands used to estimate the utilities' generating capacity differences between the conventional load management, (CLM) direct solar with load management (DSLM), and electric resistive systems. Energy differences are also determined. These capacity and energy deltas are translated into changes in utility costs due to penetration of the CLM or DSLM systems into electric resistive markets in the snapshot years of 1990 and 2000.

  8. Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jye Shyr; Chia-Ming Lin and Hung-Yun Feng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

  9. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Memory Compression Techniques for Network Address Management in MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yanfei; Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael; Parker, Scott; Bland, Wesley; Raffenetti, Ken; Balaji, Pavan

    2017-05-29

    MPI allows applications to treat processes as a logical collection of integer ranks for each MPI communicator, while internally translating these logical ranks into actual network addresses. In current MPI implementations the management and lookup of such network addresses use memory sizes that are proportional to the number of processes in each communicator. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism, called AV-Rankmap, for managing such translation. AV-Rankmap takes advantage of logical patterns in rank-address mapping that most applications naturally tend to have, and it exploits the fact that some parts of network address structures are naturally more performance critical than others. It uses this information to compress the memory used for network address management. We demonstrate that AV-Rankmap can achieve performance similar to or better than that of other MPI implementations while using significantly less memory.

  11. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  12. Management of excessive movable tissue: a modified impression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Michael H C; Pow, Edmond H N

    2014-08-01

    Excessive movable tissue is a challenge in complete denture prosthetics. A modified impression technique is presented with polyvinyl siloxane impression material and a custom tray with relief areas and perforations in the area of the excessive movable tissue. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Critical Incident Technique in Library and Information Management Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shelagh; Oulton, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) in three studies at the Department of Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. Examines staff-development needs as a key element in change in higher education; decision-making practices in small- to medium-size libraries; and development…

  14. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  16. The success of various management techniques used in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite the availability of international guidelines for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children, important aspects of treatment are not accessible to all young patients in South Africa (SA). Objective. To investigate factors in diabetes management strategies that are associated with poor ...

  17. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public

  18. Strategic Management Tools and Techniques: A Comparative Analysis of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Berisha Qehaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that strategic management tools and techniques are important parts of the strategic management process. Their use in organizations should be observed in a practice-based context. This paper analyzes the empirical studies on the usage of strategic management tools and techniques. Hence, the main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze which enterprises, according to their country development level, use more strategic management tools and techniques and which of these are used the most. Also, this paper investigates which strategic management tools and techniques are used globally according to the results of empirical studies. The study presents a summary of empirical studies for the period 1990–2015. The research results indicate that more strategic tools and techniques are used in developed countries, followed by developing countries and fewest in countries in transition. This study is likely to contribute to the field of strategic management because it summarizes the most used strategic tools and techniques at the global level according to varying stages of countries’ economic development. Also, the findings from this study may be utilized to maximize the full potential of enterprises and reduce the cases of entrepreneurship failures, through creating awareness of the importance of using strategic management tools and techniques.

  19. Radioimmunoassay techniques and reproductive management of livestock in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahlou-Kassi, A.; Lakhdissi, H.

    1984-01-01

    The report summarizes the principal applications of progesterone radioimmunoassay (P 4 -RIA) in Morocco for evaluating and improving fertility in cattle, sheep and camels. In cattle, P 4 -RIA of blood or milk helped to determine the time for onset of sexual functions after parturition and the incidence of silent oestrus. It is especially important to assess the first factor in semi-extensively managed herds, while the second factor occurs mainly in intensively managed herds. P 4 -RIA is an important tool in fertility improvement programmes involving induction and synchronization of oestrus and testing for early pregnancy. In sheep, P 4 -RIA helped to define the optimum age at first mating of ewe lambs and the optimum mating season of the year for adult ewes. In camels, analysis of the profile of plasma progesterone before and after mating suggests that P 4 -RIA could be used for early pregnancy testing. (author)

  20. Information technology - Security techniques - Information security management systems - Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    ISO/IEC 27001:2005 covers all types of organizations (e.g. commercial enterprises, government agencies, not-for profit organizations). ISO/IEC 27001:2005 specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving a documented Information Security Management System within the context of the organization's overall business risks. It specifies requirements for the implementation of security controls customized to the needs of individual organizations or parts thereof. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is designed to ensure the selection of adequate and proportionate security controls that protect information assets and give confidence to interested parties. ISO/IEC 27001:2005 is intended to be suitable for several different types of use, including the following: use within organizations to formulate security requirements and objectives; use within organizations as a way to ensure that security risks are cost effectively managed; use within organizations to ensure comp...

  1. Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    also contributed articles and book chapters on communication management, media work, public relations, terrorism, and asymmetric war fighting...experience (learning by doing) and the audience viewing the video with secondhand experience (learning by imitation) (Salem & Reid & Chen 2008). The...Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books . Golan, G. (2006). Inter-Media Agenda Setting and Global News Coverage. Journalism Studies, 7(2), 323–333

  2. Contemporary behavior management techniques in clinical pediatric dentistry: out with the old and in with the new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kelly; Manton, David John

    2015-01-01

    Effective behavior management guides children through the complex social context of dentistry utilizing techniques based on a current understanding of the social, emotional, and cognitive development of children. Behavior management techniques facilitate effective communication and establish social and behavioral guidelines for the dental environment. Contemporary parenting styles, expectations, and attitudes of modern parents and society have influenced the use of behavior management techniques with a prevailing emphasis on communicative techniques and pharmacological management over aversive techniques.

  3. Poultry Waste Management Techniques in Urban Agriculture and its Implications: A Case of Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vide Adedayo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the existing poultry waste management and utilization technique in urban vegetable farms. It analyses the implications of the management pattern on yield and revenue and further determines the socio-economic differentials of farmers on management pattern. Socio-economic survey was carried out to determine relationship between socio economic characteristics of farmers and poultry waste management while field experiments and estimations were done to determine poultry waste p...

  4. Reduced-Order Models for Load Management in the Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh

    In recent years, considerable research efforts have been directed towards designing control schemes that can leverage the inherent flexibility of electricity demand that is not tapped into in today's electricity markets. It is expected that these control schemes will be carried out by for-profit entities referred to as aggregators that operate at the edge of the power grid network. While the aggregator control problem is receiving much attention, more high-level questions of how these aggregators should plan their market participation, interact with the main grid and with each other, remain rather understudied. Answering these questions requires a large-scale model for the aggregate flexibility that can be harnessed from the a population of customers, particularly for residences and small businesses. The contribution of this thesis towards this goal is divided into three parts: In Chapter 3, a reduced-order model for a large population of heterogeneous appliances is provided by clustering load profiles that share similar degrees of freedom together. The use of such reduced-order model for system planning and optimal market decision making requires a foresighted approximation of the number of appliances that will join each cluster. Thus, Chapter 4 provides a systematic framework to generate such forecasts for the case of Electric Vehicles, based on real-world battery charging data. While these two chapters set aside the economic side that is naturally involved with participation in demand response programs and mainly focus on the control problem, Chapter 5 is dedicated to the study of optimal pricing mechanisms in order to recruit heterogeneous customers in a demand response program in which an aggregator can directly manage their appliances' load under their specified preferences. Prices are proportional to the wholesale market savings that can result from each recruitment event.

  5. The Application of Isotope Techniques in Nutrient Assessment and Management in Riverine Systems. Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M.; Newman, B. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria); Hadwen, W. L. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University - Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rogers, K. [National Isotope Center, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mayer, B. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Hein, T. [Wasser Cluster Lunz, Interuniversitary Center for Aquatic Research, Lunz-See, and University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Vienna (Austria); Stellato, L. [Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE), Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Ohte, N. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California (United States)

    2013-05-15

    A variety of sources contribute to nutrients in rivers and nutrients may subsequently take various pathways and undergo different transformation processes. We first review representative types of isotopes and the roles of isotope techniques that have been or could be used for nutrient assessment and management. We then present technical, financial and logistical matters to be considered in selecting appropriate isotope techniques for nutrient assessment and management. Lastly we propose several approaches on the application of isotope techniques to make more effective the studies and management of nutrients in rivers in the near future. (author)

  6. The Dermal Apron Technique for Immediate Implant Socket Management: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry P

    2016-01-01

    With immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIP) in the esthetic zone, measures to counter hard and soft tissue loss are frequently necessary. To reduce the morbidity associated with bone and connective tissue procurement, various exogenous materials are utilized. The "Dermal Apron Technique" presented in this article demonstrates the use of a composite bone particulate (allograft/xenograft) plus a dermal allograft, adapted around screw-retained temporary crowns and secured within a subperiosteal pouch. The purpose is to augment the thickness of peri-implant mucosa for the purpose of preserving ridge dimensions and preventing mucosal recession. Controlled studies are required to further support its use. Clinical significance: Soft tissue health and harmony are critical for successful implant therapy in the esthetic regions of the dentition. Often, autogenous soft tissue grafts are used to augment peri-implant soft tissues. The Dermal Apron Technique is a method, that in specific situations, obviates the need for autogenous grafting. This reduces treatment time and morbidity associated with procurement of these grafts. The Dermal Apron Technique is used simultaneous with immediate placement and provisionalization and can improve long-term esthetic outcomes for patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Temporal analysis of E. coli, TSS and wastewater micropollutant loads from combined sewer overflows: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne-Sophie, Madoux-Humery; Dorner, Sarah M; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-05-01

    A combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfall was monitored to assess the impact of temporal mass loads on the appropriateness of treatment options. Instantaneous loads (mass per s) varied by approximately three orders of magnitude during events (n = 9 in spring, summer and the fall) with no significant seasonal variations. The median fraction of total loads discharged with the first 25% of the total volume ranged from 28% (theophylline) to 40% (Total Suspended Solids (TSS)) and loads remained high for the duration of the events. E. coli and TSS loads originated primarily from wastewater (WW) (63% and 75%, respectively). However, a mix of stormwater (SW) and sewer deposit (SD) resuspension contributed from 73 to 95% for the first 50% of the volume discharged of total TSS loads for 2 events. The contribution of SD resuspension was not negligible for Wastewater Micropollutants (WWMPs), especially for carbamazepine. Sustained high loads over the course of CSOs highlight the need to revisit current CSO and SW management strategies that focus on the treatment of early discharge volumes.

  8. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  9. A biomechanical comparison of 2 transosseous-equivalent double-row rotator cuff repair techniques using bioabsorbable anchors: cyclic loading and failure behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Jeffrey T; Buchmann, Stefan; Brucker, Peter U; Kouloumentas, Panos; Obst, Tobias; Schröder, Manuel; Burgkart, Rainer; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2009-08-01

    A novel double-row configuration was compared with a traditional double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair. In 10 matched-pair sheep shoulders in vitro repair was performed with either a double-row technique with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row (group A) or a double-row technique with a new tape-like suture material with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows (group B). Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 150 N for 100 cycles, followed by unidirectional failure testing. Gap formation and strain within the repair area for the first and last cycles were analyzed with a video digitizing system, and stiffness and failure load were determined from the load-elongation curve. The results were similar for the 2 repair types. There was no significant difference between the ultimate failure loads of the 2 techniques (421 +/- 150 N in group A and 408 +/- 66 N in group B, P = .31) or the stiffness of the 2 techniques (84 +/- 26 N/mm in group A and 99 +/- 20 N/mm in group B, P = .07). In addition, gap formation was not different between the repair types. Strain over the repair area was also not different between the repair types. Both tested rotator cuff repair techniques had high failure loads, limited gap formation, and acceptable strain patterns. No significant difference was found between the novel and conventional double-row repair types. Two double-row techniques-one with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row and one with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows-provided excellent biomechanical profiles at time 0 for double-row repairs in a sheep model. Although the sheep model may not directly correspond to in vivo conditions, all-insertion anchor double-row constructs are worthy of further investigation.

  10. Study of evaluation techniques of software configuration management and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Cheong; Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Han, H. C.; Choi, C. R. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The Study of activities to solve software safety and quality must be executed in base of establishing software development process for digitalized nuclear plant. Especially study of software testing and Verification and Validation must executed. For this purpose methodologies and tools which can improve software qualities are evaluated and software Testing, V and V and Configuration Management which can be applied to software life cycle are investigated. This study establish a guideline that can be used to assure software safety and reliability requirements in digitalized nuclear plant systems.

  11. Pipeline risk management manual ideas, techniques, and resources

    CERN Document Server

    Muhlbauer, W Kent

    2004-01-01

    Here's the ideal tool if you're looking for a flexible, straightforward analysis system for your everyday design and operations decisions. This new third edition includes sections on stations, geographical information systems, ""absolute"" versus ""relative"" risks, and the latest regulatory developments. From design to day-to-day operations and maintenance, this unique volume covers every facet of pipeline risk management, arguably the most important, definitely the most hotly debated, aspect of pipelining today.Now expanded and updated, this widely accepted standard reference guide

  12. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  13. Hydrogen management techniques in German LWR-containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Froehmel, T.

    1993-01-01

    Investigations are described which are necessary to develop an accident management concept for German PWRs, in particular possible solutions of the hydrogen problem resulting from a core melting accident. This work is an important part of the Nuclear Regulatory Research Programme initiated and financed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Two fundamental strategies are discussed: prevention of the formation of inflammable gas mixtures by making the atmosphere of the containment inert, and mitigation of the consequence of possible combustion by limiting the local hydrogen concentration. (Z.S.) 1 fig

  14. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  15. Application of Model Predictive Control for Active Load Management in a Distributed Power System with High Wind Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Kullmann, Daniel; Thavlov, Anders

    2012-01-01

    management. It also presents in detail how to implement a thermal model predictive controller (MPC) for the heaters' power consumption prediction in the PowerFlexHouse. It demonstrates that this MPC strategy can realize load shifting, and using good predictions in MPC-based control, a better matching...

  16. Nurses' Educational Needs Assessment for Financial Management Education Using the Nominal Group Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Wonjung; Lim, Ji Young

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the financial management educational needs of nurses in order to development an educational program to strengthen their financial management competencies. Data were collected from two focus groups using the nominal group technique. The study consisted of three steps: a literature review, focus group discussion using the nominal group technique, and data synthesis. After analyzing the results, nine key components were selected: corporate management and accounting, introduction to financial management in hospitals, basic structure of accounting, basics of hospital accounting, basics of financial statements, understanding the accounts of financial statements, advanced analysis of financial statements, application of financial management, and capital financing of hospitals. The present findings can be used to develop a financial management education program to strengthen the financial management competencies of nurses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Convergent engineering techniques for management of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabulea, A.; Popa, I.

    1995-01-01

    The paper briefly presents the concept of convergent arhemo-systematical engineering, its advantages in comparison with classical methods of research, design, manufacture. The convergent engineering application supposes the usage of the advanced methods, techniques and equipment corresponding to the domain and specific for the corresponding branch of computer science. Starting from the convergent engineering principles and concept, the paper proposes two models applicable for new products and also for improving and optimizing the existing ones. The models are based on two levels of feedback corresponding to two levels of control and they assume the utilization of expert and robot-expert systems. The economical efficiency of the application of the convergent engineering method is evaluated for the case of a nuclear power plant by calculation the main technical and economical indicators. (Author) 2 Figs., 5 Refs

  18. Energy management techniques: SRP cooling water distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenfield, A.B.

    1979-10-01

    Cooling water for the nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant is supplied by a pumping and distribution system that includes about 50 miles of underground pipeline. The energy management program at SRP has thus far achieved a savings of about 5% (186 x 10 9 Btu) of the energy consumed by the electrically powered cooling water pumps; additional savings of about 14% (535 x 10 9 Btu) can be achieved by capital expenditures totaling about $3.7 million. The present cost of electricity for operation of this system is about $25 million per year. A computer model of the system was adapted and field test data were used to normalize the program to accurately represent pipeline physical characteristics. Alternate pumping schemes are analyzed to determine projected energy costs and impact on system safety and reliability

  19. A Hybrid MCDM Technique for Risk Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Chatterjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder based construction projects are subject to potential risk factors due to dynamic business environment and stakeholders’ lack of knowledge. When solving project management tasks, it is necessary to quantify the main risk indicators of the projects. Managing these requires suitable risk mitigation strategies to evaluate and analyse their severity. The existence of information asymmetry also causes difficulties with achieving Pareto efficiency. Hence, to ensure balanced satisfaction of all participants, risk evaluation of these projects can be considered as an important part of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM process. In real-life problems, evaluation of project risks is often uncertain and even incomplete, and the prevailing methodologies fail to handle such situations. To address the problem, this paper extends the analytical network process (ANP methodology in the D numbers domain to handle three types of ambiguous information’s, viz. complete, uncertain, and incomplete, and assesses the weight of risk criteria. The D numbers based approach overcomes the deficiencies of the exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint of Dempster–Shafer (D–S theory. Here, preference ratings of the decision matrix for each decision-maker are determined using a D numbers extended consistent fuzzy preference relation (D-CFPR. An extended multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method in D numbers is then developed to rank and select the best alternative risk response strategy. Finally, an illustrative example from construction sector is presented to check the feasibility of the proposed approach. For checking the reliability of alternative ranking, a comparative analysis is performed with different MCDM approaches in D numbers domain. Based on different criteria weights, a sensitivity analysis of obtained ranking of the hybrid D-ANP-MABAC model is performed to verify the robustness of the proposed

  20. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  1. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P meniscus significantly decrease the ability of the meniscus to dissipate tibiofemoral loads, predisposing patients to early osteoarthritis. Improving the ability to repair medial meniscal radial tears in a way that withstands cyclic loads and heals in an anatomic position could significantly

  2. Damage detection methodology under variable load conditions based on strain field pattern recognition using FBGs, nonlinear principal component analysis, and clustering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Alvarez-Montoya, Joham

    2018-01-01

    Structural health monitoring consists of using sensors integrated within structures together with algorithms to perform load monitoring, damage detection, damage location, damage size and severity, and prognosis. One possibility is to use strain sensors to infer structural integrity by comparing patterns in the strain field between the pristine and damaged conditions. In previous works, the authors have demonstrated that it is possible to detect small defects based on strain field pattern recognition by using robust machine learning techniques. They have focused on methodologies based on principal component analysis (PCA) and on the development of several unfolding and standardization techniques, which allow dealing with multiple load conditions. However, before a real implementation of this approach in engineering structures, changes in the strain field due to conditions different from damage occurrence need to be isolated. Since load conditions may vary in most engineering structures and promote significant changes in the strain field, it is necessary to implement novel techniques for uncoupling such changes from those produced by damage occurrence. A damage detection methodology based on optimal baseline selection (OBS) by means of clustering techniques is presented. The methodology includes the use of hierarchical nonlinear PCA as a nonlinear modeling technique in conjunction with Q and nonlinear-T 2 damage indices. The methodology is experimentally validated using strain measurements obtained by 32 fiber Bragg grating sensors bonded to an aluminum beam under dynamic bending loads and simultaneously submitted to variations in its pitch angle. The results demonstrated the capability of the methodology for clustering data according to 13 different load conditions (pitch angles), performing the OBS and detecting six different damages induced in a cumulative way. The proposed methodology showed a true positive rate of 100% and a false positive rate of 1.28% for a

  3. Nurses' Educational Needs Assessment for Financial Management Education Using the Nominal Group Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wonjung Noh, PhD, RN; Ji Young Lim, PhD, RN, MBA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the financial management educational needs of nurses in order to development an educational program to strengthen their financial management competencies. Methods: Data were collected from two focus groups using the nominal group technique. The study consisted of three steps: a literature review, focus group discussion using the nominal group technique, and data synthesis. Results: After analyzing the results, nine key components were s...

  4. Strategic Priorities, Company Performance and Attitudes Towards Management Accounting Techniques: an Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Bo-Göran

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates whether there is an association between different combinations of emphasis on generic strategies (product differentiation and cost efficiency) and perceived usefulness of management accounting techniques. Previous research has found that cost leadership is associated with traditional accounting techniques and product differentiation with a variety of modern management accounting approaches. The present study focuses on the possible existence of a strategy that mixes the...

  5. Quality management techniques in public sector organizations: the role of managerial autonomy and organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Demuzere, Sara; Verhoest, Koen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2008-01-01

    According to NPM, more effective and efficient public services can be delivered if public sector organizations are granted more managerial autonomy and if they use various (private sector) management techniques. To date, only very limited attention has been paid to the link between managerial autonomy and the use of management techniques. With this study, we seek to fill this gap in the extensive NPM literature by examining the extent to which managerial autonomy has an effect on the use of m...

  6. Effect of linear and non-linear blade modelling techniques on simulated fatigue and extreme loads using Bladed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsell, Alec; Collier, William; Han, Tao

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend in the wind industry towards ever larger and more flexible turbine blades. Blade tip deflections in modern blades now commonly exceed 10% of blade length. Historically, the dynamic response of wind turbine blades has been analysed using linear models of blade deflection which include the assumption of small deflections. For modern flexible blades, this assumption is becoming less valid. In order to continue to simulate dynamic turbine performance accurately, routine use of non-linear models of blade deflection may be required. This can be achieved by representing the blade as a connected series of individual flexible linear bodies - referred to in this paper as the multi-part approach. In this paper, Bladed is used to compare load predictions using single-part and multi-part blade models for several turbines. The study examines the impact on fatigue and extreme loads and blade deflection through reduced sets of load calculations based on IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. Damage equivalent load changes of up to 16% and extreme load changes of up to 29% are observed at some turbine load locations. It is found that there is no general pattern in the loading differences observed between single-part and multi-part blade models. Rather, changes in fatigue and extreme loads with a multi-part blade model depend on the characteristics of the individual turbine and blade. Key underlying causes of damage equivalent load change are identified as differences in edgewise- torsional coupling between the multi-part and single-part models, and increased edgewise rotor mode damping in the multi-part model. Similarly, a causal link is identified between torsional blade dynamics and changes in ultimate load results.

  7. Investment, regulation, and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; McDonald, Jillian; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2014-01-01

    As with any technological innovation, time refines the technology, improving upon the original version of the innovative product. The initial GM crops had single traits for either herbicide tolerance or insect resistance. Current varieties have both of these traits stacked together and in many cases other abiotic and biotic traits have also been stacked. This innovation requires investment. While this is relatively straight forward, certain conditions need to exist such that investments can be facilitated. The principle requirement for investment is that regulatory frameworks render consistent and timely decisions. If the certainty of regulatory outcomes weakens, the potential for changes in investment patterns increases.   This article provides a summary background to the leading plant breeding technologies that are either currently being used to develop new crop varieties or are in the pipeline to be applied to plant breeding within the next few years. Challenges for existing regulatory systems are highlighted. Utilizing an option value approach from investment literature, an assessment of uncertainty regarding the regulatory approval for these varying techniques is undertaken. This research highlights which technology development options have the greatest degree of uncertainty and hence, which ones might be expected to see an investment decline.

  8. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  9. Whole-body computed tomography in polytrauma: techniques and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Kroetz, Michael; Rock, Clemens; Rieger, Johannes; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian; Haeuser, Hannes; Bohndorf, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team should be involved in the diagnosis and management of severely injured patients. The adoption of criteria for starting treatment for multiple trauma avoids underestimation of seriousness of injury. These criteria are established by the circumstances of the accident, the patterns of trauma, and the vital findings. Basic diagnosis comprises a limited number of plain films in the trauma room, including supine chest, lateral cervical spine, and pelvis, and ultrasound of abdomen, pleura, and pericardium. Organ diagnosis using CT is complementary and depends on the clinical findings and findings from the basic investigations. We recommend spiral CT (skull base 2/2/4 mm, cerebrum 8/8/8 mm native) and after intravenous contrast medium thoracic (5/7.5/5 mm) and abdominal CT (8/12/8 mm). Image reconstruction of bony structures can be added. The CT and the trauma center should be in close proximity; time-consuming transfers must be avoided. If this is not possible, a CT can be integrated in the trauma room. Our hospital trauma registry contains over 2200 entries. A quality committee has been established and external quality control is implemented. (orig.)

  10. Whole-body computed tomography in polytrauma: techniques and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Kroetz, Michael; Rock, Clemens; Rieger, Johannes; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen; Reiser, Maximilian [Department of Radiology, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Haeuser, Hannes; Bohndorf, Klaus [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team should be involved in the diagnosis and management of severely injured patients. The adoption of criteria for starting treatment for multiple trauma avoids underestimation of seriousness of injury. These criteria are established by the circumstances of the accident, the patterns of trauma, and the vital findings. Basic diagnosis comprises a limited number of plain films in the trauma room, including supine chest, lateral cervical spine, and pelvis, and ultrasound of abdomen, pleura, and pericardium. Organ diagnosis using CT is complementary and depends on the clinical findings and findings from the basic investigations. We recommend spiral CT (skull base 2/2/4 mm, cerebrum 8/8/8 mm native) and after intravenous contrast medium thoracic (5/7.5/5 mm) and abdominal CT (8/12/8 mm). Image reconstruction of bony structures can be added. The CT and the trauma center should be in close proximity; time-consuming transfers must be avoided. If this is not possible, a CT can be integrated in the trauma room. Our hospital trauma registry contains over 2200 entries. A quality committee has been established and external quality control is implemented. (orig.)

  11. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  12. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Karimi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  13. Cooling-load prediction by the combination of rough set theory and an artificial neural-network based on data-fusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhijian; Lian Zhiwei; Yao Ye; Yuan Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    A novel method integrating rough sets (RS) theory and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on data-fusion technique is presented to forecast an air-conditioning load. Data-fusion technique is the process of combining multiple sensors data or related information to estimate or predict entity states. In this paper, RS theory is applied to find relevant factors to the load, which are used as inputs of an artificial neural-network to predict the cooling load. To improve the accuracy and enhance the robustness of load forecasting results, a general load-prediction model, by synthesizing multi-RSAN (MRAN), is presented so as to make full use of redundant information. The optimum principle is employed to deduce the weights of each RSAN model. Actual prediction results from a real air-conditioning system show that, the MRAN forecasting model is better than the individual RSAN and moving average (AMIMA) ones, whose relative error is within 4%. In addition, individual RSAN forecasting results are better than that of ARIMA

  14. An Analytics-Based Approach to Managing Cognitive Load by Using Log Data of Learning Management Systems and Footprints of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Huang; Chen, I-Chuan; Lai, Su-Chun; Chuang, Yea-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Traces of learning behaviors generally provide insights into learners and the learning processes that they employ. In this article, a learning-analytics-based approach is proposed for managing cognitive load by adjusting the instructional strategies used in online courses. The technology-based learning environment examined in this study involved a…

  15. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    by companies, governments and civil society provides a roadmap for engaging business enterprises in rights-based disease management strategies to mitigate disease transmission rates and improve human welfare outcomes.

  16. Emerging technologies and techniques in the management of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Omar Javed

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The term cancer is used to describe a multitude of diseases all of which are linked by loss of control of normal growth and replication of cells. It is a major cause of death worldwide. If diagnosed early many cancers, particularly tumour such as skin cancers, can be cured by local treatment such as surgery or radiotherapy. Due to local invasion or dissemination of tumors via the lymphatics or blood, majority of solid malignant tumors are not curable by local measures alone. The successful treatment of a patient with cancer involves close co-operation between surgical oncologist, radiation oncologist, medical oncologist, general practitioner, nurses and support care workers, including clinical psychologists. The role of the surgeon is central to this; obtaining tissue for adequate histological analysis and identification of patients who can be cured by resection is a major component of management. Apart from curative resection of primary tumors, excision of secondary deposits can also offer long term disease control. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and is the tenth most common cancer for both genders. In the year 2006, in U.S, almost 34 thousand patients developed this disease and in the same year about 32 thousand succumbed to this disease. These figures demonstrate dismal prognosis of the disease and the reasons for the low survival rates are mainly due to aggressive biology, early development of peri-neural infiltration, angio-invasion and wide spread dissemination of the tumour. Despite recent advances in the field of medical and radiation oncology and the introduction of neo-adjuvant regimens surgery remains the single most important modality for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This presentation will focus on the current status of surgical treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and highlight the new developments in this field

  17. Risk Management Technique for design and operation of facilities and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De S.

    1975-01-01

    The Risk Management System collects information from engineering, operating, and management personnel to identify potentially hazardous conditions. This information is used in risk analysis, problem resolution, and contingency planning. The resulting hazard accountability system enables management to monitor all identified hazards. Data from this system are examined in project reviews so that management can decide to eliminate or accept these risks. This technique is particularly effective in improving the management of risks in large, complex, high-energy facilities. These improvements are needed for increased cooperation among industry, regulatory agencies, and the public.

  18. A study of parental presence/absence technique for child dental behaviour management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boka, V.; Arapostathis, K.; Charitoudis, G.; Veerkamp, J.; van Loveren, C.; Kotsanos, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effectiveness of parental presence/absence (PPA) technique on the dental behaviour management of children. Materials and methods: This randomised control study recruited 61 child dental patients with uncooperative behaviour (Frankl 1 or 2) managed with AAPD-endorsed

  19. Managing Age Discrimination: An Examination of the Techniques Used when Seeking Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Results: Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination.…

  20. Managing water resources in Malaysia: the use of isotope technique and its potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizrul Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    This keynote address discusses the following subjects; state of Malaysia water resources, water related problem i.e floods, water shortage (droughts), water quality, river sedimentation, water resources management and the ongoing and potential application of isotope techniques in river management

  1. Information Landscaping: Information Mapping, Charting, Querying and Reporting Techniques for Total Quality Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bor-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Total quality management and knowledge management are merged and used as a conceptual model to direct and develop information landscaping techniques through the coordination of information mapping, charting, querying, and reporting. Goals included: merge citation analysis and data mining, and apply data visualization and information architecture…

  2. The Application of Operations Research Techniques to the Evaluation of Military Management Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    systems such as management information systems . To provide a methodology yielding quantitative results which may assist a commander and his staff in...this analysis, it is proposed that management information systems be evaluated as a whole by a technique defined as the semantic differential. Each

  3. Application of Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Optimal Load Shedding in Islanded Distribution Network with High Penetration of Solar PV Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dreidy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several environmental problems are beginning to affect all aspects of life. For this reason, many governments and international agencies have expressed great interest in using more renewable energy sources (RESs. However, integrating more RESs with distribution networks resulted in several critical problems vis-à-vis the frequency stability, which might lead to a complete blackout if not properly treated. Therefore, this paper proposed a new Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS scheme for islanding distribution network. This scheme uses three meta-heuristics techniques, binary evolutionary programming (BEP, Binary genetic algorithm (BGA, and Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, to determine the optimal combination of loads that needs to be shed from the islanded distribution network. Compared with existing UFLS schemes using fixed priority loads, the proposed scheme has the ability to restore the network frequency without any overshooting. Furthermore, in terms of execution time, the simulation results show that the BEP technique is fast enough to shed the optimal combination of loads compared with BGA and BPSO techniques.

  4. Advancing Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load on Liars: A Review of Relevant Theories and Techniques Guided by Lessons from Polygraph-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Igou, Frank P.; Dixon, Alexa P.; Tcholakian, Talar

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews techniques and theories relevant to the emerging field of “lie detection by inducing cognitive load selectively on liars.” To help these techniques benefit from past mistakes, we start with a summary of the polygraph-based Controlled Question Technique (CQT) and the major criticisms of it made by the National Research Council (2003), including that it not based on a validated theory and administration procedures have not been standardized. Lessons from the more successful Guilty Knowledge Test are also considered. The critical review that follows starts with the presentation of models and theories offering insights for cognitive lie detection that can undergird theoretically load-inducing approaches. This is followed by evaluation of specific research-based, load-inducing proposals, especially for their susceptibility to rehearsal and other countermeasures. To help organize these proposals and suggest new direction for innovation and refinement, a theoretical taxonomy is presented based on the type of cognitive load induced in examinees (intrinsic or extraneous) and how open-ended the responses to test items are. Finally, four recommendations are proffered that can help researchers and practitioners to avert the corresponding mistakes with the CQT and yield new, valid cognitive lie detection technologies. PMID:23378840

  5. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  6. Study and development of equipment supervision technique system and its management software for nuclear electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liying; Zou Pingguo; Zhu Chenghu; Lu Haoliang; Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The equipment supervision technique system, which standardized the behavior of supervision organizations in planning and implementing of equipment supervision, is built up based on equipment supervision technique documents, such as Quality Supervision Classifications, Special Supervision Plans and Supervision Guides. Furthermore, based on the research, the equipment supervision management information system is developed by Object Oriented Programming, which consists of supervision information, supervision technique, supervision implementation, quality statistics and analysis module. (authors)

  7. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  8. Application of Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Techniques for Optimal Load Shedding Planning and Operation in an Islanded Distribution Network Integrated with Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Jallad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a radial distribution network integrated with distributed generation (DG, frequency and voltage instability could occur due to grid disconnection, which would result in an islanded network. This paper proposes an optimal load shedding scheme to balance the electricity demand and the generated power of DGs. The integration of the Firefly Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO is proposed for the application of the planned load shedding and under frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme. In planning mode, the hybrid optimization maximizes the amount of load remaining and improves the voltage profile of load buses within allowable limits. Moreover, the hybrid optimization can be used in UFLS scheme to identify the optimal combination of loads that need to be shed from a network in operation mode. In order to assess the capabilities of the hybrid optimization, the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and part of the Malaysian distribution network with different types of DGs were used. The response of the proposed optimization method in planning and operation were compared with other optimization techniques. The simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid optimization in planning mode and demonstrated that the proposed UFLS scheme is quick enough to restore the system frequency without overshooting in less execution time.

  9. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirac Twidwell

    Full Text Available Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1 a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2 a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3 an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands.

  10. Arthroscopic management of posterior instability: evolution of technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Felix H; Holt, M Shaun; Field, Larry D; Ramsey, J Randall

    2008-04-01

    , and its attached superior glenohumeral ligament, the coracohumeral ligament, the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex, and the infraspinatus, in addition to the posterior labrum and capsule, allows excellent outcomes to be achieved with arthroscopic posterior reconstruction techniques. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  11. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with Uranium and Plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    1999-12-01

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide range of applicability of the optimization technique. The feature of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or in the

  12. Moisture Management in an Active Sportswear: Techniques and Evaluation—A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Mani; Sampath, M. B.; Ramachandran, T.

    2012-10-01

    Moisture management property is an important aspect of any fabric meant for active sportswear, which decides the comfort level of that fabric. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body, so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. This paper reports the concept of moisture management, various production techniques and evaluation of the moisture management characteristics on fabrics for active sportswear.

  13. Improvement of ground water management and protection through the use of isotope and Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2009-01-01

    To establish nuclear techniques for the study and management of water resources including technology transfer; to develop a national strategy for the use of isotope techniques in water management and development studies; to develop a water mangement framework; to solve problems related to water shortage, overexploitation, management and rapid quality deterioration; to evaluate the sources, recharge rates and renewal of ground water reservoires; to resolve the problems of mixed aquifers, the quantity of mixing and the exchange reactions between groundwater reservoirs and their matrix; to strengthen the role of the CNRS within national instituions and water authorities. (author)

  14. Informing Parents about the Pharmacological and Invasive Behavior Management Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrysa Paryab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior management technique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of ‘acceptance’, ‘consent’, and ‘concern’ toward the five behavior management techniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour management technique (P > 0.05. Mothers with academic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05. Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral management techniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers.

  15. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  16. Applying of Reliability Techniques and Expert Systems in Management of Radioactive Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldaihan, S.; Alhbaib, A.; Alrushudi, S.; Karazaitri, C.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents including radioactive exposure have variety of nature and size. This makes such accidents complex situations to be handled by radiation protection agencies or any responsible authority. The situations becomes worse with introducing advanced technology with high complexity that provide operator huge information about system working on. This paper discusses the application of reliability techniques in radioactive risk management. Event tree technique from nuclear field is described as well as two other techniques from nonnuclear fields, Hazard and Operability and Quality Function Deployment. The objective is to show the importance and the applicability of these techniques in radiation risk management. Finally, Expert Systems in the field of accidents management are explored and classified upon their applications

  17. Evaluation of Approaches for Managing Nitrate Loading from On-Site Wastewater Systems near La Pine, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Weick, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Deschutes County, to develop a better understanding of the effects of nitrogen from on-site wastewater disposal systems on the quality of ground water near La Pine in southern Deschutes County and northern Klamath County, Oregon. Simulation models were used to test the conceptual understanding of the system and were coupled with optimization methods to develop the Nitrate Loading Management Model, a decision-support tool that can be used to efficiently evaluate alternative approaches for managing nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems. The conceptual model of the system is based on geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data collected for this study, as well as previous hydrogeologic and water quality studies and field testing of on-site wastewater systems in the area by other agencies. On-site wastewater systems are the only significant source of anthropogenic nitrogen to shallow ground water in the study area. Between 1960 and 2005 estimated nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems increased from 3,900 to 91,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. When all remaining lots are developed (in 2019 at current building rates), nitrate loading is projected to reach nearly 150,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. Low recharge rates (2-3 inches per year) and ground-water flow velocities generally have limited the extent of nitrate occurrence to discrete plumes within 20-30 feet of the water table; however, hydraulic-gradient and age data indicate that, given sufficient time and additional loading, nitrate will migrate to depths where many domestic wells currently obtain water. In 2000, nitrate concentrations greater than 4 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L) were detected in 10 percent of domestic wells sampled by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Numerical simulation models were constructed at transect (2

  18. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a PV/Battery Hybrid Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Golsorkhi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. Unlike the previous methods in the literature, there is no need to communication among the units......, the operation of each unit is divided into five states and modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states. The frequency level is used as trigger for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions...... and the proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV and battery units or systems with only one hybrid unit. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid...

  19. Application of nuclear techniques in improving agricultural productivity with particular reference to pasture management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid Ajorlo; Ramdzani Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are appropriate tools to settle problems for agriculture or natural resources which cannot be solved using conventional agricultural techniques. In this paper, the research activities carried out and the achievements so far obtained in the agricultural specialties -all by using nuclear techniques- with particular reference to pasture management are discussed. Insect pest control by Sterile Insect Techniques (SIT); soil and water management using neutron moisture probes; determining N-fixation capacity of legumes using N-15 isotope and nuclear methods; soil erosion measurement using of fallout radionuclide such as Cs-137; monitoring the movement of saline water in salt-affected land using isotopes of chlorine; livestock production and health by RIA and ELISA are some of achievements so far obtained in improving agricultural productivity. The ultimate goal of the nuclear technique investigation in agriculture is to use the resources efficiently in obtaining higher plant and livestock yields while increasing the quality and protecting them against insects, diseases and weeds. (Author)

  20. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  1. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  2. Flow time analysis of load management late arrival discrete time queueing system with dual service rate using hypo geometrical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Shah, W.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypo geometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities. (author)

  3. Assessment of thermal load reduction due to the application of simple passive techniques in a house office building at the south of Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, Roman; Azzain, Gassem

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of possible reduction of heating and cooling requirements of 300 m 2 house-office building has been presented in this paper, when simple Thermal Passive Techniques (TPT) have been applied to building's construction in Sebha city at the Libyan south. The known software for dynamic simulation (TRNSYS) has been used as an environment of digital experimentation for this study. A prototype represents the building has been constructed with the help of the available model of single thermal zone of TRNSYS (Type 19). The built-in ASHREA Transfer Function Method within this model has been used to calculate the heat flux through building's materials. Primarily, the thermal load on building's construction without TPTs has been evaluated under weather conditions of a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) of Sebha city. Then, the building has been equipped with simple TPTs (such as the control of building materials, insulation, shading, infiltration and ventilation with windows resizing). This building was subjected to the same weather conditions and again the thermal load has been evaluated in order to report the percentage of reduction of thermal load. The simulation has been conducted successfully, where good assessment of reduction of annual heating and cooling demands in the building has been obtained. It is proved that, about (46%) of annual heating load and (48%) of annual cooling load can be reduced if suitable simple TPTs were incorporated in buildings.(Author)

  4. Compaction of bentonite blocks. Development of technique for industrial production of blocks which are manageable by man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, L E; Boergesson, L; Sanden, T [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    In this report a useful technique for producing compacted blocks of bentonite is described. The report only deals with the technique to produce uniaxially compacted blocks (weight of the blocks: 10-15 kg) which are manageable by man. Tests for producing blocks with a weight of approximately 10 kg were carried out at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB in Bjuf. This industry is normally producing refractory bricks and other refractory products. The plant has facilities for handling large volumes of clay. Furthermore there are machines suitable for producing uniaxially compacted blocks. Performed tests at the plant show that it is possible to compact blocks with good quality. Best quality was reached with a coarsely ground bentonite at a water ratio of 20 %. The compaction was performed with lubricated form and stepwise loading. The tests at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB were preceded by tests in the laboratory. In these tests smaller samples were compacted for studying how different factors affect the quality of the samples (density, water ratio, homogeneity et cetera). The influence of following factors was studied: water ratio of bentonite; bentonite type and granulometry; compaction pressure; compaction rate; form geometry; form lubrication; form heating. The results from these tests were used to modify and optimize the technique in the factory.

  5. Fuel management for off-load annual refuelling of the D-HHT 600 MW(e) reference core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U

    1973-03-16

    The reference design for the Dragon-HHT reactor has been optimised for on-load continuous refuelling. The possiblity to operate the reactor on a discontinuous annual reloading schedule might prove of interest and/or necessity. In this paper the influence of an annual 4-batch fuel management scheme on the core physics and fuel cycle economics is investigated. The results of the present investigation give a good indication of the relative merits of the two fuel management schemes. Although a broader parameter survey and a more detailed scrutinising of special cases would be desirable, we feel that the main conclusions are correct and that the principle differences have been elicited.

  6. Pilot Study of a Plug Load Management System: Preparing for Sustainability Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. high-performance office building targeting a LEED Platinum rating. Plug loads are expected to...

  7. Longitudinal Loading and Nutrient Compositional Gradients in an Agriculturally Managed Watershed in West-Central Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Ruiz, Carlos E; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory nitrogen and phosphorus species, transformations, and loads along the longitudinal axis of a river draining...

  8. An improved risk-explicit interval linear programming model for pollution load allocation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bisheng; Qian, Xin; Yao, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Although the risk-explicit interval linear programming (REILP) model has solved the problem of having interval solutions, it has an equity problem, which can lead to unbalanced allocation between different decision variables. Therefore, an improved REILP model is proposed. This model adds an equity objective function and three constraint conditions to overcome this equity problem. In this case, pollution reduction is in proportion to pollutant load, which supports balanced development between different regional economies. The model is used to solve the problem of pollution load allocation in a small transboundary watershed. Compared with the REILP original model result, our model achieves equity between the upstream and downstream pollutant loads; it also overcomes the problem of greatest pollution reduction, where sources are nearest to the control section. The model provides a better solution to the problem of pollution load allocation than previous versions.

  9. External representation of argumentation in CSCL and the management of cognitive load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, J.M.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.

    2002-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments, particularly environments where students share external representations, are discussed as an interesting area for the application of cognitive load theory (CLT). CSCL environments share a number of characteristics that will induce

  10. Evaluation of the Role of Music as a Nonpharmacological Technique in Management of Child Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Gupta, Himanshu; Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi

    2017-03-01

    Behavior management and reducing anxiety and pain are very important for success of treatment. Hence, apart from pharmacological management, such as conscious sedation, nonpharmacological interventions like music play a significant role. This study aims to evaluate the effects of music in reducing anxiety, pain, and behavior management. This study was conducted at the Department of Pedodontics in 2015. It consisted of 60 patients, age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who required dental treatment with local anesthesia. They were divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I consisted of upbeat music distraction group. Group II consisted of relaxing music distraction group. Group III consisted of control group. We scheduled the treatment in two visits. We used Venham picture test, North Carolina behavior rating scale, and visual analog scale test for the study. Baseline heart rate was also recorded. No significant differences were found among the three groups based on three scales used in the study. Management of child patient in dental clinic is a challenge for clinician. Apart from various pharmacological techniques, management of pediatric patients using audio music distraction has been introduced. However, music did not produce a reduction in pain, anxiety, or disruptive behavior. Various pharmacological techniques are present for the management of pediatric patients. Apart from it, there is need of introducing nonpharmacological techniques to reduce pain, anxiety, and to alter behavior of child. By this study, we have tried to evaluate the usefulness of music in child management.

  11. Load Index Metrics for an Optimized Management of Web Services: A Systematic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Paulo S. L.; Santana, Regina H. C.; Santana, Marcos J.; Zaluska, Ed; Faical, Bruno S.; Estrella, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of precision to predict service performance through load indices may lead to wrong decisions regarding the use of web services, compromising service performance and raising platform cost unnecessarily. This paper presents experimental studies to qualify the behaviour of load indices in the web service context. The experiments consider three services that generate controlled and significant server demands, four levels of workload for each service and six distinct execution scenarios. The evaluation considers three relevant perspectives: the capability for representing recent workloads, the capability for predicting near-future performance and finally stability. Eight different load indices were analysed, including the JMX Average Time index (proposed in this paper) specifically designed to address the limitations of the other indices. A systematic approach is applied to evaluate the different load indices, considering a multiple linear regression model based on the stepwise-AIC method. The results show that the load indices studied represent the workload to some extent; however, in contrast to expectations, most of them do not exhibit a coherent correlation with service performance and this can result in stability problems. The JMX Average Time index is an exception, showing a stable behaviour which is tightly-coupled to the service runtime for all executions. Load indices are used to predict the service runtime and therefore their inappropriate use can lead to decisions that will impact negatively on both service performance and execution cost. PMID:23874776

  12. Transmural coil embolization—alternative technique for management of arterial perforation during subintimal angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Damodharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subintimal angioplasty of lower limb arterial occlusion carries a relatively higher risk of vessel perforation compared to transluminal angioplasty. Vessel perforation is a potentially life threatening complication which requires prompt recognition and management. They are usually managed by endovascular techniques such as low-pressure balloon tamponade, covered stents, and coil embolization of the ruptured artery. We describe a technique of treating vessel perforation following balloon angioplasty. Patient developed a large perforation of the proximal superficial femoral artery (SFA after balloon inflation during subintimal angioplasty of complete SFA occlusion. Following failure of balloon tamponade in sealing the perforation, we successfully treated it by deploying an embolization coil at the site of perforation through the vessel wall followed by balloon tamponade. Our technique could be a useful relatively inexpensive alternative treatment option in the management of vessel perforation compared to covered stents.

  13. Breakaway technique training as a means of increasing confidence in managing aggression in neuroscience nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Bailey, Alanah; Woods, Karen

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate breakaway technique training with neuroscience nursing staff as a measure of increased confidence and safety in managing aggression. A quasi experimental design was used in a sample of neuroscience nursing staff (n=31), participating in 2×1h breakaway technique workshops. The workshops consisted of supervised skills training in safe breakaway techniques. A pre- and postintervention-matched questionnaire measuring confidence and safety around managing aggressive patients, and exposure to and confidence in dealing with breakaways, was self administered. Statistically significant increases in confidence and safety in working with aggressive patients, and confidence levels for safe breakaways were reported. Qualitative comments demonstrated a desire for ongoing skills workshops. This study provides early evidence of the importance of incorporating breakaway training into existing training programs which aim to minimise and manage aggression and violence in generalist settings.

  14. Metal Load of the Crops Depending on Land Use, Land Management and Soil Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeztan, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2010-05-01

    The increase of pollutant concentrations in soil and in the food chain became very important in the past few decades. Metals of different toxicities (Cd, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, V, Tl) occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization and atmospheric deposition. Some of them can be absorbed by the plants due to their mobility. The transfer of metals from soil into the plants can be explained by the physicochemical characteristics of the soil such as pH-value, organic matter and clay content. Badly adapted cultivation of the agricultural soils (declining pH-value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of the metals and by the way increase their concentrations in agricultural products. With this study, a field experiment was established and the aim is to test the relations between available metal concentrations in the soil and metal load of the plants depending on the fertilization techniques. The plants and soil samples of the reference sites were taken, heavy metal contents of the soil samples identified by Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and compared to the Aqua Regia Digestion Method for confirming the methodology. For the determination of the metal content in plants, MAE was executed to the selected plant samples and for that procedure, the samples were digested with HNO3 and H2O2 in the microwave oven. Quantation of the metals in soil and in plants was done by ICP-OES Methodology. The evaluation of the first results confirmed that the metal content of the soil is strongly dependent on the properties of different fertilization variants (N,P,K) used and physicochemical characteristics of the soils. According to the fertilization variants, total metal contents of the soil are increased in the soil samples which have high amounts of N, P, K fertilization. Soils which were enforced with high P fertilization degrees had significantly higher total Cd content. Results on the Cd content of the plant samples

  15. Effectiveness of cattail ('Typha' spp. management techniques depends on exogenous nitrogen inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Elgersma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands occupy a position in the landscape that makes them vulnerable to the effects of current land use and the legacies of past land use. Many wetlands in agricultural regions like the North American Midwest are strongly affected by elevated nutrient inputs as well as high rates of invasion by the hybrid cattail 'Typha' x 'glauca'. These two stressors also exacerbate each other: increased nutrients increase invasion success, and invasions increase nutrient retention and nutrient loads in the wetland. This interaction could create a positive feedback that would inhibit efforts to manage and control invasions, but little is known about the effects of past or present nutrient inputs on wetland invasive plant management. We augmented a previously-published community-ecosystem model (MONDRIAN to simulate the most common invasive plant management tools: burning, mowing, and herbicide application. We then simulated different management strategies and 3 different durations in low and high nutrient input conditions, and found that the most effective management strategy and duration depends strongly on the amount of nutrients entering the wetland. In high-nutrient wetlands where invasions were most successful, a combination of herbicide and fire was most effective at reducing invasion. However, in low-nutrient wetlands this approach did little to reduce invasion. A longer treatment duration (6 years was generally better than a 1-year treatment in high-nutrient wetlands, but was generally worse than the 1-year treatment in low-nutrient wetlands. At the ecosystem level, we found that management effects were relatively modest: there was little effect of management on ecosystem C storage, and while some management strategies decreased wetland nitrogen retention, this effect was transient and disappeared shortly after management ceased. Our results suggest that considering nutrient inputs in invaded wetlands can inform and improve management, and reducing

  16. New products from the power merchant to customer with time measurements and load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solem, Gerd; Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2003-01-01

    The main aim is to develop products from the power merchants that improve the consumer flexibility. For the development of the products the basis is that the consumption is measured by hours and that a connection to a load management scheme is present. Calculations for four products are made where the risk exposure is different for the customer and the supplier. The four products are ''Spot price with mark-up'', ''The combination of constant price and spot price'', ''Constant price with disconnection'' and ''Effect subscription''. The customers are exposed to the spot price in the first two products and may through disconnection reduce the costs by adapting to the market signals. Remote disconnection of parts of the consumption may be offered as a service jointly by the network companies and the power suppliers through a two-way communication but it is not realistic that the customers may pay much for this. ''Spot price with mark-up'' implies that the customer carries the entire risk while constant price may place considerable risk at the power supplier by long high consumption combined with high spot prices. '' Constant price with disconnection'' gives the power supplier the possibilities of reducing the risks. A disconnection possibility that is committing to the customers may be part of the product specification. The customers may be offered a discount calculated out from the costs for alternative price securing. Also '' Effect subscription'' reduces the merchant risks considerably at the disconnection of the consumption. The ''combined product of constant and spot price'' may be interesting from the supplier's viewpoint due to considerable risk reductions compared to solely using the constant price. The product gives the customers a guaranteed price for a part of the product and has an additional possibility of adapting the consumption to the market signals. The network company routines for handling of the hour values are a large challenge. It is important to

  17. A hollow definitive obturator fabrication technique for management of partial maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravinkumar Gajanan; Patil, Smita Pravinkumar

    2012-11-01

    Maxillary obturator prosthesis is the most frequent treatment option for management of partial or total maxillectomy. Heavy weight of the obturators is often a dislocating factor. Hollowing the prosthesis to reduce its weight is the well established fact. The alternate technique to hollow-out the prosthesis has been described in this article which is a variation of previously described processing techniques. A pre-shaped wax-bolus was incorporated inside the flasks during packing of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin to automatically create the hollow space. The processing technique described is a single step flasking procedure to construct a closed-hollow-obturator prosthesis as a single unit. To best understand the technique, this article describes management of a patient who had undergone partial maxillectomy secondary to squamous cell carcinoma rehabilitated with a hollow-obturator prosthesis.

  18. Managing the Testing Process Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Rex

    2011-01-01

    New edition of one of the most influential books on managing software and hardware testing In this new edition of his top-selling book, Rex Black walks you through the steps necessary to manage rigorous testing programs of hardware and software. The preeminent expert in his field, Mr. Black draws upon years of experience as president of both the International and American Software Testing Qualifications boards to offer this extensive resource of all the standards, methods, and tools you'll need. The book covers core testing concepts and thoroughly examines the best test management practices

  19. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Estrella, F; Kovács, Z; Le Flour, T; Le Goff, J M; Lieunard, S; McClatchey, R; Murray, S; Varga, L Z; Vialle, J P; Zsenei, M

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so- called Workflow Management software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector ...

  20. Pengaruh Competitor Accounting Sebagai Strategic Management Accounting Techniques Terhadap Competitive Advantage Dan Organization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alan, Hartanto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the affect of Competitor Accounting as a Strategic Management Accounting Techniques toward Competitive Advantage and Organization Performance on manufacturing companies in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. In this study primary data was used by using questionnaire distributed to manufacturing companies in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. This study used path modeling analysis technique with PLS tools. From the examination showed that there were positive and significant affect...

  1. Problem-solving and developing quality management methods and techniques on the example of automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Łuczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about methods and techniques of quality management together with their effective use can be definitely regarded as an indication of high organisational culture. Using such methods and techniques in an effective way can be attributed to certain level of maturity, as far as the quality management system in an organisation is concerned. There is in the paper an analysis of problem-solving methods and techniques of quality management in the automotive sector in Poland. The survey was given to the general population, which in case of the study consisted of companies operating in Poland that had certified quality management systems against ISO/TS 16949. The results of the conducted survey and the conclusions of the author can show actual and potential OEM suppliers (both 1st and 2nd tier in which direction their strategies for development and improvement of quality management systems should go in order to be effective. When the universal character of methods and techniques used in the surveyed population of companies is taken into consideration, it can be assumed that the results of the survey are also universal for all organisations realising the TQM strategy. The results of the research confirmed that methods which are also the basis for creating key system documents are the most relevant ones, i.e. flowcharts and FMEA, and moreover process monitoring tools (SPC and problem solving methods -above all 8D.

  2. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  3. Just-in-Time techniques as applied to hazardous materials management

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study investigates the feasibility of integrating JIT techniques in the context of hazardous materials management. This study provides a description of JIT, a description of environmental compliance issues and the outgrowth of related HAZMAT policies, and a broad perspective on strategies for applying JIT to HAZMAT management. http://archive.org/details/justintimetechn00spic Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

  4. Multi-criterion analysis technique in a process of quality management

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gwiazda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the critical analysis of some multi-criteria techniques applied in the area of quality management. It is strongly stated that some solutions in this scientific area characterizes the non-methodological approaches.Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology, in presented work, has been based on the theoretical analysis of the quality tools management and on the empirical researches.Findings: The proposals of improvement the main quality to...

  5. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, A.; Chevenier, G.; Estrella, F.

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Workflow Management Software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an Information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector construction. This is the first time industrial production techniques have been deployed to this extent in detector construction

  6. Replication and load balancing strategy of STAR's relational database management system (RDBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M; Lauret, J; Kopytine, M [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Kent State University, Kent Ohio 44242 (United States)], E-mail: jlauret@bnl.gov

    2008-07-15

    Database demand resulting from offline analysis and production of data at the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has steadily increased over the last six years of data taking activities. With each year, STAR more than doubles the number of events recorded with an anticipation of reaching a billion event capabilities as early as next year. The challenges faced from producing and analyzing this magnitude of events in parallel have raised issues with regard to the distribution of calibrations and geometry data, via databases, to STAR's growing global collaboration. Rapid distribution, availability, ensured synchronization and load balancing have become paramount considerations. Both conventional technology and novel approaches are used in parallel to realize these goals. This paper discusses how STAR uses load balancing to optimize database usage. It discusses distribution methods via MySQL master slave replication; the synchronization issues that arise from this type of distribution and solutions, mostly homegrown, put forth to overcome these issues. A novel approach toward load balancing between slave nodes that assists in maintaining a high availability rate for a veracious community is discussed in detail. This load balancing addresses both, pools of nodes internal to a given location, as well as balancing the load for remote users between different available locations. Challenges, trade-offs, rationale for decisions and paths forward will be discussed in all cases, presenting a solid production environment with a vision for scalable growth.

  7. Replication and load balancing strategy of STAR's relational database management system (RDBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePhillips, M; Lauret, J; Kopytine, M

    2008-01-01

    Database demand resulting from offline analysis and production of data at the STAR experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has steadily increased over the last six years of data taking activities. With each year, STAR more than doubles the number of events recorded with an anticipation of reaching a billion event capabilities as early as next year. The challenges faced from producing and analyzing this magnitude of events in parallel have raised issues with regard to the distribution of calibrations and geometry data, via databases, to STAR's growing global collaboration. Rapid distribution, availability, ensured synchronization and load balancing have become paramount considerations. Both conventional technology and novel approaches are used in parallel to realize these goals. This paper discusses how STAR uses load balancing to optimize database usage. It discusses distribution methods via MySQL master slave replication; the synchronization issues that arise from this type of distribution and solutions, mostly homegrown, put forth to overcome these issues. A novel approach toward load balancing between slave nodes that assists in maintaining a high availability rate for a veracious community is discussed in detail. This load balancing addresses both, pools of nodes internal to a given location, as well as balancing the load for remote users between different available locations. Challenges, trade-offs, rationale for decisions and paths forward will be discussed in all cases, presenting a solid production environment with a vision for scalable growth

  8. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  9. Comparative study of phloem loading radiotracer techniques for in vivo sucrose translocation in non woody and woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Pranav; Pandey, Manish; Suprasanna Penna; Ramteke, Sahadeo

    2017-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes for analysing the in vivo physiological responses in plants is a well known practical approach for the plant physiologists. Physiological difference in woody and non woody plants necessitates the need for universal way of application of radioisotopes to study in vivo sucrose translocation. In this study, grape vine (Vitis vinifera cv. Thomson seedless) and mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold) plants having active source and sink were used as representative system for woody and non woody plants. In present work we applied different strategies for radio activity loading in both boody and non woody plant viz. phloem loading via cut end, direct injection into phloem and activity incorporation through minor vein of leaves (gaseous CO 2 incorporation)

  10. Nutrient and metal loads estimated by using discrete, automated, and continuous water-quality monitoring techniques for the Blackstone River at the Massachusetts-Rhode Island State line, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.; Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2018-01-10

    and total phosphorus loads from WYs 2013 and 2014 were about 56 and 65 percent lower than those reported for WYs 2008 and 2009. The higher loads in 2008 and 2009 may be explained by the higher than average flows in WY 2009 and by facility upgrades made by wastewater treatment facilities in the basin.Median loads were determined from composite samples collected with the automated system between October 2012 and October 2014. Median dissolved cadmium and chromium 4-day loads were 0.55 and 0.84 kg, respectively. Dissolved copper and total lead median 4-day loads were 8.02 and 1.42 kg, respectively. The dissolved nickel median 4-day load was 5.45 kg, and the dissolved zinc median 4-day load was 36 kg. Median total aluminum 4-day loads were about 197 kg.Spearman’s rank correlation analyses were used with discrete sample concentrations and continuous records of temperature, specific conductance, turbidity, and chlorophyll a to identify correlations between variables that could be used to develop regression equations for estimating real-time concentrations of constituents. Correlation coefficients were generated for flow, precipitation, antecedent precipitation, physical parameters, and chemical constituents. A 95-percent confidence limit for each value of Spearman’s rho was calculated, and multiple linear regression analysis using ordinary least squares regression techniques was used to develop regression equations for concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, suspended sediment concentration, total copper, and total aluminum. Although the correlations are based on the limited amount of data collected as part of this study, the potential to monitor water-quality changes in real time may be of value to resource managers and decision makers.

  11. Working Environment and Software Configuration Management Assimiliation using Traceability Enhancement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, H.; Javed, A.; Majeed, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Software Configuration Management (SCM) Systems are very useful in coordinating group effort in large and complex software systems. As a result of change in user requirement, market needs, tools, technology or new business goals emanate out, changes are continuously induced while developing the software product. For change management, Traceability technique and SCM are two prominent practices in the software development process. SCM helps in managing configuration items while traceability helps in tracing the knowledge about the configuration items. In this paper we propose a model of the SCM system with the working environment when changes are introduced in multiple artifacts and by which high quality products are developed. (author)

  12. Thermal management analysis of a Li-ion battery cell using phase change material loaded with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samimi, Fereshteh; Babapoor, Aziz; Azizi, Mohammadmehdi; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    High latent heat of PCMs (phase change materials) has made them as one of the most important materials for thermal management purposes. However, PCMs’ low thermal diffusivities could limit their use in applications which require fast thermal response. The goal of this study is to simulate thermal performance of a lithium ion battery cell in the presence of carbon fiber-PCM composites. The effect of carbon fiber loading within the PCM on thermal performance is studied and the results are compared with the experimental data. The results showed that the presence of carbon fibers increases the effective thermal conductivity of PCM and hence influences temperature distribution within the cell. PCM composites containing higher percentages of carbon fibers present a more uniform temperature distribution. The results showed that the minimum and maximum thermal conductivity enhancement of 85% and 155% respectively (105% on average). A reasonable agreement is obtained between the simulation results and the experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase change materials (PCMs) are used for thermal management purposes. • Effective thermal conductivity of PCMs can be enhanced by loading carbon fibers. • Thermal performance of a battery is studied in presence of carbon fiber loaded PCM. • The presence of carbon fibers in the PCM can improve Li-ion battery performance.

  13. Development and Implementation of an Advanced Power Management Algorithm for Electronic Load Sensing on a Telehandler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2010-01-01

    The relevance of electronic control of mobile hydraulic systems is increasing as hydraulic components are implemented with more electrical sensors and actuators. This paper presents how the traditional Hydro-mechanical Load Sensing (HLS) control of a specific mobile hydraulic application......, a telehandler, can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The motivation is the potential of improved dynamic performance and power utilization, along with reducing the mechanical complexity by moving traditional hydro-mechanical implemented features such as pressure control...

  14. Self-managed loaded exercise versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common source of shoulder pain characterised by persistent and/or recurrent problems for a proportion of sufferers. The aim of this study was to pilot the methods proposed to conduct a substantive study to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-managed loaded exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy. A single-centre pragmatic unblinded parallel group pilot randomised controlled trial. One private physiotherapy clinic, northern England. Twenty-four participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention was a programme of self-managed loaded exercise. The control group received usual physiotherapy treatment. Baseline assessment comprised the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Short-Form 36, repeated three months post randomisation. The recruitment target was met and the majority of participants (98%) were willing to be randomised. 100% retention was attained with all participants completing the SPADI at three months. Exercise adherence rates were excellent (90%). The mean change in SPADI score was -23.7 (95% CI -14.4 to -33.3) points for the self-managed exercise group and -19.0 (95% CI -6.0 to -31.9) points for the usual physiotherapy treatment group. The difference in three month SPADI scores was 0.1 (95% CI -16.6 to 16.9) points in favour of the usual physiotherapy treatment group. In keeping with previous research which indicates the need for further evaluation of self-managed loaded exercise for rotator cuff tendinopathy, these methods and the preliminary evaluation of outcome offer a foundation and stimulus to conduct a substantive study. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 17 CFR 270.6c-10 - Exemption for certain open-end management investment companies to impose deferred sales loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management investment companies to impose deferred sales loads. 270.6c-10 Section 270.6c-10 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.6c-10 Exemption for certain open-end management investment companies to impose... purposes of this section: (1) Company means a registered open-end management investment company, other than...

  16. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Nathali Silva; Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage...

  17. Management of odontogenic cysts by endonasal endoscopic techniques: A systematic review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael J; Luong, Amber; Yao, William C; Citardi, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors of the maxilla may be amendable to management by endonasal endoscopic techniques, which may reduce the morbidity associated with open procedures and avoid difficult reconstruction. To perform a systematic review that evaluates the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic techniques in the management of different odontogenic cysts. A case series of our experience with these minimally invasive techniques was assembled for insight into the technical aspects of these procedures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used to identify English-language studies that reported the use of endoscopic techniques in the management of odontogenic cysts. Several medical literature data bases were searched for all occurrences in the title or abstract of the terms "odontogenic" and "endoscopic" between January 1, 1950, and October 1, 2016. Publications were evaluated for the technique used, histopathology, complications, recurrences, and the follow-up period. A case series of patients who presented to a tertiary rhinology clinic and who underwent treatment of odontogenic cysts by an endoscopic technique was included. A systematic review identified 16 case reports or series that described the use of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of odontogenic cysts, including 45 total patients. Histopathologies encountered were radicular (n = 16) and dentigerous cysts (n = 10), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (n = 12). There were no reported recurrences or major complications for a mean follow-up of 29 months. A case series of patients in our institution identified seven patients without recurrence for a mean follow-up of 10 months. Endonasal endoscopic treatment of various odontogenic cysts are described in the literature and are associated with effective treatment of these lesions for an average follow-up period of >2 years. These techniques have the potential to reduce morbidity associated with the resection of these

  18. Increasing Acceptance of Behavioral Child Management Techniques: What Do Parents Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Joy R.; Borrego, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to accept treatments is an important concern of clinicians and clinical researchers, particularly when treating children. However, few studies have directly asked parents to give reasons for accepting or refusing treatments. In the current study, 82 parents read descriptions of six behavioral child management techniques,…

  19. Using the Critical Incident Technique for Triangulation and Elaboration of Communication Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Margaret Ann; Jeffrey, Lynn Maud

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research using the critical incident technique to identify the use of key competencies for communication management practitioners. Qualitative data was generated from 202 critical incidents reported by 710 respondents. We also present a brief summary of the quantitative data, which identified two superordinate…

  20. The effect of HRM on the relationship between quality management techniques and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Nascimento Gambi, Lillian; Jørgensen, Frances; Cecílio Gerolamo, Mateus

    2014-01-01

    . The study shows that the relationship between quality management techniques and performance is influenced by HRM approaches, but provides counterevidence to the prevailing assumption that commitment-oriented HRM is generally more appropriate to increase performance than a control-oriented approach. Rather...

  1. Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy and Dor Fundoplication for Esophageal Achalasia: Technique and Perioperative Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Ciro; Fisichella, P Marco

    2016-11-01

    Surgical correction of achalasia using laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication is argued to be the gold standard treatment for patients with achalasia. The goal of this technical report is to illustrate our preferred approach to patients with achalasia and to provide the reader with a detailed description of our operative technique, its rationale, and our pre and postoperative management.

  2. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Acceptance of and Intent to Use Behavioral Child Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…

  3. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  4. Mobility Based Key Management Technique for Multicast Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Madhusudhanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.

  5. [Management of spinal metastasis by minimal invasive surgery technique: Surgical principles, indications: A literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toquart, A; Graillon, T; Mansouri, N; Adetchessi, T; Blondel, B; Fuentes, S

    2016-06-01

    Spinal metastasis are getting more frequent. This raises the question of pain and neurological complications, which worsen the functional and survival prognosis of this oncological population patients. The surgical treatment must be the most complete as possible: to decompress and stabilize without delaying the management of the oncological disease. Minimal invasive surgery techniques are by definition, less harmful on musculocutaneous plan than opened ones, with a comparable efficiency demonstrated in degenerative and traumatic surgery. So they seem to be applicable and appropriate to this patient population. We detailed different minimal invasive techniques proposed in the management of spinal metastasis. For this, we used our experience developed in degenerative and traumatic pathologies, and we also referred to many authors, establishing a literature review thanks to Pubmed, Embase. Thirty eight articles were selected and allowed us to describe different techniques: percutaneous methods such as vertebro-/kyphoplasty and osteosynthesis, as well as mini-opened surgery, through a posterior or anterior way. We propose a surgical approach using these minimal invasive techniques, first according to the predominant symptom (pain or neurologic failure), then characteristics of the lesions (number, topography, type…) and the deformity degree. Whatever the technique, the main goal is to stabilize and decompress, in order to maintain a good quality of life for these fragile patients, without delaying the medical management of the oncological disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pattern of parental acceptance of management techniques used in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Benjamin; Kharouba, Johnny; Blumer, Sigalit

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate parents' acceptance of management techniques in Israeli pediatric dental clinics. Ninety parents who accompanied their children to three pediatric dental clinics provided information on selected parameters including their attitudes about management techniques. 68.9% of the parents preferred to stay in the treatment room. The most accepted technique was positive reinforcement (81.1%) followed by tell-show-do (TSD) (76.7%, with younger parents more accepting than older, p = 0.049). The least accepted techniques were restraint (1.1%) and voice control (7.8%, especially by parents with the highest dental anxiety, p = 0.002). Sedation was unacceptable by 15.6% of the parents: those with the lowest dental anxiety agreed to sedation significantly more than those with greater dental anxiety (p = 0.031). Parents preferred more positive approaches and management techniques that involve demonstrations geared for the child's level of understanding. Restraint and voice control were more strongly rejected than sedation.

  7. Load management in elite German distance runners during 3-weeks of high-altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Achtzehn, Silvia; de Marées, Markus; von Papen, Henning; Mester, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    There is a debate on the optimal way of monitoring training loads in elite endurance athletes especially during altitude training camps. In this case report, including nine members of the German national middle distance running team, we describe a practical approach to monitor the psychobiological stress markers during 21 days of altitude training (~2100 m above sea-level) to estimate the training load and to control muscle damage, fatigue, and/or chronic overreaching. Daily examination included: oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, resting heart rate, body mass, body and sleep perception, capillary blood concentration of creatine kinase. Every other day, venous serum concentration of blood urea nitrogen, venous blood concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell were measured. If two or more of the above-mentioned stress markers were beyond or beneath the athlete's normal individual range, the training load of the subsequent training session was reduced. Running speed at 3 mmol L(-1) blood lactate (V3) improved and no athlete showed any signs of underperformance, chronic muscle damage, decrease body and sleep perception as well as activated inflammatory process during the 21 days. The dense screening of biomarkers in the present case study may stimulate further research to identify candidate markers for load monitoring in elite middle- and long-distance runners during a training camp at altitude. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. Managing the complexity and uncertainties of load, generation and markets in system development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    System planners face today unique challenges to accommodate the new uncertainties in markets, loads and generation and to develop system plans that balance reliability, economy and risk. The report summarizes a survey of the methods used worldwide. In addition, case examples are provided to illustrate in more detail these methods

  9. Case study: Proposed application of project management techniques for construction of nuclear power plant in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahirah Abdul Rahman; Phongsakorn Prak Tom; Wan Abd Hadi Wan Abu Bakar; Shaharum Ramli

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses the techniques of project management for the construction of nuclear power plants that can be used in Malaysia. Nuclear power reactors are expected to apply is the categories of Gen III + reactor where it is safer and more modern than the first generation of reactors built in the 1970s. The objective of this study is that the construction of this reactor to be completed by the stipulated time and not exceed the cost estimates. In addition, project management is also able to meet all the specifications and achieve the quality standard. In this study, the techniques used in project management to ensure the success of construction projects of nuclear power plants are a Gantt Chart, CPM/ PERT and Microsoft Project. From the study, found that these techniques can assist in facilitating the management of the project for the construction of nuclear power plants to ensure that the estimated time and cost can be managed more effectively as well as quality of care. (author)

  10. Study protocol: a mixed methods feasibility study for a loaded self-managed exercise programme for patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus; Moffatt, Fiona; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Selfe, James; Smith, Toby O; Logan, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common forms of knee pain in adults under the age of 40, with a prevalence of 23% in the general population. The long-term prognosis is poor, with only one third of people pain-free 1 year after diagnosis. The biomedical model of pain in relation to persistent PFP has recently been called into question. It has been suggested that interventions for chronic musculoskeletal conditions should consider alternative mechanisms of action, beyond muscles and joints. Modern treatment therapies should consider desensitising strategies, with exercises that target movements and activities patients find fearful and painful. High-quality research on exercise prescription in relation to pain mechanisms, not directed at specific tissue pathology, and dose response clearly warrants further investigation. Our primary aim is to establish the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a definitive RCT which will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a loaded self-managed exercise programme for people with patellofemoral pain. This is a single-centred, multiphase, sequential, mixed-methods trial that will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale randomised controlled trial of a loaded self-managed exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy. Initially, 8-10 participants with a minimum 3-month history of PFP will be recruited from an NHS physiotherapy waiting list and interviewed. Participants will be invited to discuss perceived barriers and facilitators to exercise engagement, and the meaning and impact of PFP. Then, 60 participants will be recruited in the same manner for the main phase of the feasibility trial. A web-based service will randomise patients to a loaded self-managed exercise programme or usual physiotherapy. The loaded self-managed exercise programme is aimed at addressing lower limb knee and hip weakness and is positioned within a framework of reducing fear/avoidance with an emphasis on self-management

  11. Investigation of energy management strategies for photovoltaic systems - An analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in formulating energy management strategies for stand-alone PV systems, developing an analytical tool that can be used to investigate these strategies, applying this tool to determine the proper control algorithms and control variables (controller inputs and outputs) for a range of applications, and quantifying the relative performance and economics when compared to systems that do not apply energy management. The analysis technique developed may be broadly applied to a variety of systems to determine the most appropriate energy management strategies, control variables and algorithms. The only inputs required are statistical distributions for stochastic energy inputs and outputs of the system and the system's device characteristics (efficiency and ratings). Although the formulation was originally driven by stand-alone PV system needs, the techniques are also applicable to hybrid and grid connected systems.

  12. Risk Management in Csr Unit of Shams Hospital Using FMEA Technique -Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Since one of the effective ways to prevent infections is the proper sterilization of instruments, CSR is one of the most important units in hospitals. Thus, risk management has a high priority in CSR. The aim of this study was to identify and prevent potential risks in CSR unit in Shams Hospital using FMEA technique. Material and Methods : This is a descriptive and interventional study. Using FMEA technique, potential risks were identified. Risks were prioritized and corrective interventions were implemented to reduce risks. Results : The current study identified 69 risks that 10 risks were marked as high priority. Corrective activities were suggested by risk management teams which were applied. Conclusion : The results showed that flaws in safety policies, equipment and physical conditions were the most important risk factors. Implementing risk management plan and clear safety policies could be useful. ​

  13. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.

    1979-03-01

    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations

  14. Economic Load Dispatch - A Comparative Study on Heuristic Optimization Techniques With an Improved Coordinated Aggregation-Based PSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John); Lee, KY

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an improved coordinated aggregation-based particle swarm optimization (ICA-PSO) algorithm is introduced for solving the optimal economic load dispatch (ELD) problem in power systems. In the ICA-PSO algorithm each particle in the swarm retains a memory of its best position ever...... encountered, and is attracted only by other particles with better achievements than its own with the exception of the particle with the best achievement, which moves randomly. Moreover, the population size is increased adaptively, the number of search intervals for the particles is selected adaptively...

  15. Preparation of basil seed mucilage aerogels loaded with paclitaxel nanoparticles by the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ghoreishi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(S: In this work, paclitaxel (PX, a promising anticancer drug, was loaded in the basil seed mucilage (BSM aerogels by implementation of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 technology. Then, the effects of operating conditions were studied on the PX mean particle size (MPS, particle size distribution (PSD and drug loading efficiency (DLE. Methods: The employed SC-CO2 process in this research is the combination of phase inversion technique and gas antisolvent (GAS process. The effect of DMSO/water ratio (4 and 6 (v/v, pressure (10-20 MPa, CO2 addition rate (1–3 mL/min and ethanol concentration (5-10% were studied on MPS, PSD and DLE. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer were used for particle analysis. DLE was investigated by utilizing the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: Nanoparticles of paclitaxel (MPS of 82–131 nm depending on process variables with narrow PSD were successfully loaded in BSM aerogel with DLE of 28–52%. Experimental results indicated that higher DMSO/water ratio, ethanol concentration, pressure and CO2 addition rate reduced MPS and DLE. Conclusions: A modified semi batch SC-CO2 process based on the combination of gas antisolvent process and phase inversion methods using DMSO as co-solvent and ethanol as a secondary solvent was developed for the loading of an anticancer drug, PX, in ocimum basilicum mucilage aerogel. The experimental results determined that the mean particle size, particle size distribution, and drug loading efficiency be controlled with operating conditions.

  16. Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power

    OpenAIRE

    Yuefei Wang; Hao Hu; Li Zhang; Nan Zhang; Xuhui Sun

    2016-01-01

    As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as ...

  17. Using a Voltage Domain Programmable Technique for Low-Power Management Cell-Based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-voltage technique is an effective way to reduce power consumption. In the proposed cell-based voltage domain programmable (VDP technique, the high and low voltages applied to logic gates are programmable. The flexible voltage domain reassignment allows the chip performance and power consumption to be dynamically adjusted. In the proposed technique, the power switches possess the feature of flexible programming after chip manufacturing. This VDP method does not use an external voltage regulator to regulate the supply voltage level from outside of the chip but can be easily integrated within the design. This novel technique is proven by use of a video decoder test chip, which shows 55% and 61% power reductions compared to conventional single-Vdd and low-voltage designs, respectively. This power-aware performance adjusting mechanism shows great power reduction with a good power-performance management mechanism.

  18. FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF THE MATERIAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FOR PROJECTS OF THE CREATION OF NEW TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Danshyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problem of material management arising in the implementation of projects for the development and creation (modernization of the new techniques. The uniqueness of the projects, their limit on the cost and time does not allow the use of traditional approaches to resource management. Such projects are often implemented in the development of companies; where it is not possible to abandon the traditional operating methods of management. The aim of the article is a formalization of the process of material management of projects, a description of its information flows for integrate into the project management practices and for improve the efficiency of material management. For the systematization of information arising from the material resources management, invited the set-theoretic representation of the management process. According with the requirements of project management standards were described the sets and defined rules of their transformation. Specification of the set-theoretic representation helped to establish the area and limits of the modelling process. Further decomposition process became the basis of the functional model, constructed in accordance with the methodology IDEF 0. A graphical representation of the model allows you to visualize the process at different levels of detail. For specification of issues related to the organization and promotion of material flow, were developed functional models of sub-processes and were described the identified data-flows. For the harmonization of process and project approaches formulated conditions for evaluating the efficiency of material management. The developed models can be the basis for designing the structure of companies, for regulation of their project activities, as well as for establishing an information system of management resources of projects.

  19. Reverse waffle cone technique in management of stent dislodgement into intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Lai, Yen-Jun; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Lin, Chung-Jung; Guo, Wan-Yuo

    2013-09-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a common method to manage intracranial wide-neck aneurysm. Using this technique, a stent must be successfully deployed into the parent artery to cross the aneurysm neck. We describe the reverse waffle cone technique in management of intra-procedural stent dislodgement during SACE of internal carotid artery (ICA) wide-neck aneurysms. Two patients with unruptured wide-neck ICA aneurysms underwent SACE. Intra-procedural forward stent migration occurred during catheterization with proximal stent dislodgement and migration into the aneurysm sac. Navigation of a second stent to bridge the aneurysm neck failed in one patient because the second stent was impeded by the dislodged stent. Using the reverse waffle cone technique, a microcatheter was navigated into the aneurysm sacs. Coils were safely detached into each aneurysm sac without any device assistance. The two wide-neck aneurysms were successfully treated with preservation of flow to the internal carotid arteries. The complication of intra-procedural distal stent migration and dislodgement, with proximal stent prolapse into an aneurysm sac, may not result in a failure to coil the aneurysm. The reverse waffle cone technique provides an effective treatment in the management of this complication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  1. Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin F.

    2010-06-01

    had a strengthening effect on concrete, probably because of the consolidation of the hardened cement paste. The influence of creep on fracture energy, fracture toughness, and characteristic length of concrete is also studied. The fracture energy and the characteristic length of concrete increases slightly when creep occurs prior to failure and the size of the fracture process zone increases too. The load-CMOD relationship is linear in the ascending portion and gradually drops off after the peak value in the descending portion. The length of the tail end portion of the softening curve increases with beams subjected to creep. Relatively more ductile fracture behavior was observed with beams subjected to creep. The contribution of non-destructive and instrumental investigation methods is currently exploited to check and measure the evolution of some negative structural phenomena, such as micro-and macro-cracking, finally resulting in a creep-like behaviour. Among these methods, the non-destructive technique based on acoustic Emission proves to be very effective, especially to check and measure micro-cracking that takes place inside a structure under mechanical loading. Thus as a part of the investigation quantitative acoustic emission techniques were applied to investigate microcracking and damage localization in concrete beams. The AE signals were captured with the AE WIN software and further analyzed with Noesis software analysis of acoustic emission data. AE waveforms were generated as elastic waves in concrete due to crack nucleation. And a multichannel data acquisition system was used to record the AE waveforms. During the three point bending tests, quantitative acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to monitor crack growth and to deduce micro fracture mechanics in concrete beams before and after creep. Several specimens are experimented in order to match each cluster with corresponding damage mechanism of the material under loading. At the same time acoustic

  2. Coupling creep and damage in concrete under high sustained loading: Experimental investigation on bending beams and application of Acoustic Emission technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, J.; Loukili, A.; Grondin, F.

    2010-06-01

    effect on concrete, probably because of the consolidation of the hardened cement paste. The influence of creep on fracture energy, fracture toughness, and characteristic length of concrete is also studied. The fracture energy and the characteristic length of concrete increases slightly when creep occurs prior to failure and the size of the fracture process zone increases too. The load-CMOD relationship is linear in the ascending portion and gradually drops off after the peak value in the descending portion. The length of the tail end portion of the softening curve increases with beams subjected to creep. Relatively more ductile fracture behavior was observed with beams subjected to creep. The contribution of non-destructive and instrumental investigation methods is currently exploited to check and measure the evolution of some negative structural phenomena, such as micro-and macro-cracking, finally resulting in a creep-like behaviour. Among these methods, the non-destructive technique based on acoustic Emission proves to be very effective, especially to check and measure micro-cracking that takes place inside a structure under mechanical loading. Thus as a part of the investigation quantitative acoustic emission techniques were applied to investigate microcracking and damage localization in concrete beams. The AE signals were captured with the AE WIN software and further analyzed with Noesis software analysis of acoustic emission data. AE waveforms were generated as elastic waves in concrete due to crack nucleation. And a multichannel data acquisition system was used to record the AE waveforms. During the three point bending tests, quantitative acoustic emission (AE) techniques were used to monitor crack growth and to deduce micro fracture mechanics in concrete beams before and after creep. Several specimens are experimented in order to match each cluster with corresponding damage mechanism of the material under loading. At the same time acoustic emission was used to

  3. Burnout in Nurse Faculty: Relationships with Management Style, Collegial Support, and Work Load in Collegiate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Margaret Jorgensen

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of management behavior of the dean, collegial support, and workload to burnout among faculty in collegiate nursing programs found that collegial support, positive feedback from the dean, and a participatory management style are more important for protecting faculty against burnout than attention to workload. (MSE)

  4. Evaluation and management of the impact of land use change on the nitrogen and phosphorus load delivered to surface waters: the export coefficient modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P. J.

    1996-09-01

    A manageable, relatively inexpensive model was constructed to predict the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus from a complex catchment to its drainage system. The model used an export coefficient approach, calculating the total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) load delivered annually to a water body as the sum of the individual loads exported from each nutrient source in its catchment. The export coefficient modelling approach permits scaling up from plot-scale experiments to the catchment scale, allowing application of findings from field experimental studies at a suitable scale for catchment management. The catchment of the River Windrush, a tributary of the River Thames, UK, was selected as the initial study site. The Windrush model predicted nitrogen and phosphorus loading within 2% of observed total nitrogen load and 0.5% of observed total phosphorus load in 1989. The export coefficient modelling approach was then validated by application in a second research basin, the catchment of Slapton Ley, south Devon, which has markedly different catchment hydrology and land use. The Slapton model was calibrated within 2% of observed total nitrogen load and 2.5% of observed total phosphorus load in 1986. Both models proved sensitive to the impact of temporal changes in land use and management on water quality in both catchments, and were therefore used to evaluate the potential impact of proposed pollution control strategies on the nutrient loading delivered to the River Windrush and Slapton Ley.

  5. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  6. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  7. A comparative study of open technique and Z-plasty in management of pilonidal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pilonidal sinus is one of the common problems encountered in general surgical practices and the management of this disease is variable, contentious and problematic. Principles of treatment require eradication of the sinus tract; complete healing and prevention of recurrence. Although several surgical techniques have been described over the years, the management remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the two techniques of the open method and Z-plasty in the management of pilonidal sinus, in terms of incidence of post-operative pain, total hospital stay, total recovery time, complications and recurrence rate. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study which was conducted in the surgical department of a teaching hospital. A total of 50 cases were included in this study. Of these, 25 cases were operated by the open technique and 25 by excision and Z-plasty. Observation and Result: The mean age at presentation was 29.44 years. Male genders followed by age between 20 and 30 years were the most common predisposing factors. The mean body mass index, early and late post-operative complications were comparable between the two groups. Mean hospital stay and total recovery time was significantly more in open technique group compared with Z-plasty group. Visual analog score was also significantly more in open technique group when compared with Z-plasty group. Conclusion: Excision with Z-plasty was better technique in terms of lesser hospital stay, lesser recovery time, less post-operative pain.

  8. Developing nondestructive techniques for managing conflicts between fisheries and double-crested cormorant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuko; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen; Collis, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have been identified as the source of significant mortality to juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River Basin. Management plans for reducing the size of a large colony on East Sand Island (OR, USA) in the Columbia River estuary are currently being developed. We evaluated habitat enhancement and social attraction as nondestructive techniques for managing cormorant nesting colonies during 2004–2007. We tested these techniques on unoccupied plots adjacent to the East Sand Island cormorant colony. Cormorants quickly colonized these plots and successfully raised young. Cormorants also were attracted to nest and raised young on similar plots at 2 islands approximately 25 km from East Sand Island; 1 island had a history of successful cormorant nesting whereas the other was a site where cormorants had previously nested unsuccessfully. On a third island with no history of cormorant nesting or nesting attempts, these techniques were unsuccessful at attracting cormorants to nest. Our results suggest that some important factors influencing attraction of nesting cormorants using these techniques include history of cormorant nesting, disturbance, and presence of breeding cormorants nearby. These techniques may be effective in redistributing nesting cormorants away from areas where fish stocks of conservation concern are susceptible to predation, especially if sites with a recent history of cormorant nesting are available within their foraging or dispersal range. Published 2015. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Implementation of quality improvement techniques for management and technical processes in the ACRV project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Laura B.

    1992-12-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a cooperative form of doing business that relies on the talents of everyone in an organization to continually improve quality and productivity, using teams and an assortment of statistical and measurement tools. The objective of the activities described in this paper was to implement effective improvement tools and techniques in order to build work processes which support good management and technical decisions and actions which are crucial to the success of the ACRV project. The objectives were met by applications in both the technical and management areas. The management applications involved initiating focused continuous improvement projects with widespread team membership. The technical applications involved applying proven statistical tools and techniques to the technical issues associated with the ACRV Project. Specific activities related to the objective included working with a support contractor team to improve support processes, examining processes involved in international activities, a series of tutorials presented to the New Initiatives Office and support contractors, a briefing to NIO managers, and work with the NIO Q+ Team. On the technical side, work included analyzing data from the large-scale W.A.T.E.R. test, landing mode trade analyses, and targeting probability calculations. The results of these efforts will help to develop a disciplined, ongoing process for producing fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide the ACRV organization .

  11. Implementation of quality improvement techniques for management and technical processes in the ACRV project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiman, Laura B.

    1992-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a cooperative form of doing business that relies on the talents of everyone in an organization to continually improve quality and productivity, using teams and an assortment of statistical and measurement tools. The objective of the activities described in this paper was to implement effective improvement tools and techniques in order to build work processes which support good management and technical decisions and actions which are crucial to the success of the ACRV project. The objectives were met by applications in both the technical and management areas. The management applications involved initiating focused continuous improvement projects with widespread team membership. The technical applications involved applying proven statistical tools and techniques to the technical issues associated with the ACRV Project. Specific activities related to the objective included working with a support contractor team to improve support processes, examining processes involved in international activities, a series of tutorials presented to the New Initiatives Office and support contractors, a briefing to NIO managers, and work with the NIO Q+ Team. On the technical side, work included analyzing data from the large-scale W.A.T.E.R. test, landing mode trade analyses, and targeting probability calculations. The results of these efforts will help to develop a disciplined, ongoing process for producing fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide the ACRV organization .

  12. Percutaneous rendezvous technique for the management of a bile duct injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, James; Fletcher, Savannah; Crumley, Kristen; Culp, W C; Meek, Mary

    2018-02-01

    The rendezvous technique typically involves combined efforts of interventional radiology, endoscopy, and surgery. It can be done solely percutaneously, whereby the interventionalist gains desired access to one point in the body by approaching it from two different access sites. We present the case of a woman who underwent cholecystectomy complicated by a bile duct injury. A percutaneous rendezvous procedure enabled placement of an internal-external drain from the intrahepatic ducts through the biloma and distal common bile duct and into the duodenum. Thus, a percutaneous rendezvous technique is feasible for managing a bile duct injury when endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram alone has been unsuccessful.

  13. Percutaneous rendezvous technique for the management of a bile duct injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Meek, DO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rendezvous technique typically involves combined efforts of interventional radiology, endoscopy, and surgery. It can be done solely percutaneously, whereby the interventionalist gains desired access to one point in the body by approaching it from two different access sites. We present the case of a woman who underwent cholecystectomy complicated by a bile duct injury. A percutaneous rendezvous procedure enabled placement of an internal-external drain from the intrahepatic ducts through the biloma and distal common bile duct and into the duodenum. Thus, a percutaneous rendezvous technique is feasible for managing a bile duct injury when endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram alone has been unsuccessful.

  14. Influence of surgical and prosthetic techniques on marginal bone loss around titanium implants. Part I: immediate loading in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Tehini, Georges E; Noujeim, Ziad F; Khairallah, Alexandre A; Abousehlib, Moustafa N; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Delayed placement of implant abutments has been associated with peri-implant marginal bone loss; however, long-term results obtained by modifying surgical and prosthetic techniques after implant placement are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the marginal bone loss around titanium implants placed in fresh extraction sockets using two loading protocols after a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 36 patients received 40 titanium implants (Astra Tech) intended for single-tooth replacement. Implants were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets using either a one-stage (immediate loading by placing an interim prosthesis into functional occlusion) or a two-stage prosthetic loading protocol (insertion of abutments after 8 weeks of healing time). Marginal bone levels relative to the implant reference point were evaluated at four time intervals using intraoral radiographs: at time of implant placement, and 1, 3, and 5 years after implant placement. Measurements were obtained from mesial and distal surfaces of each implant (α = 0.05). One-stage immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets resulted in a significant reduction in marginal bone loss (p sockets reduced marginal bone loss and did not compromise the success rate of the restorations. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Managing age discrimination: an examination of the techniques used when seeking employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D

    2009-06-01

    This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination. Individuals counteract employers' ageist stereotypes by maintaining their skills and changing their work-related expectations and conceal age by altering their résumés, physical appearance, and language used. This research suggests that there is a need to reexamine the hiring practices of employers and to improve legislation in relation to their accountability.

  16. Developing and managing embedded systems and products methods, techniques, tools, processes, and teamwork

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This Expert Guide gives you the knowledge, methods and techniques to develop and manage embedded systems successfully.  It shows that teamwork, development procedures, and program management require unique and wide ranging skills to develop a system, skills that most people can attain with persistence and effort. With this book you will: Understand the various business aspects of a project from budgets and schedules through contracts and market studiesUnderstand the place and timing for simulations, bench tests, and prototypes, and understand the differences between various formal metho

  17. Importance of brachytherapy technique in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.G.; Mychalczak, B.; Armstrong, J.G.; Hoskins, W.; Harrison, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Primary vaginal carcinoma is a rare malignancy. There is little information regarding the optimal treatment. Management has primarily been with external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This paper examines the importance of brachytherapy and the significance of its techniques in the treatment of this disease. Brachytherapy plays an important part in the management of primary vaginal carcinoma. External-beam radiation therapy alone is not an adequate treatment for this disease. For stages II and III disease, there is a trend toward improved disease-free survival with the use of a temporary interstitial implant compared to an intracavitary application

  18. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Management of First Branchial Cleft Anomalies via a Cartilage-Splitting Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Conrad, David; Field, Erin; O'Reilly, Robert

    2015-06-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon lesions that often present as periauricular infections. They have high recurrence rates, due in part to scarring secondary to prior infections and their management. These lesions have a close relationship with the facial nerve, and most authors recommend its identification and dissection because of this relationship. Nonetheless, facial nerve palsy has been reported in up to 15% of cases. We describe a novel technique for the management of first branchial cleft anomalies. Such lesions that presented in an infra- or postauricular location were approached via an incision through the cartilage of the pinna, between the tragus and antitragus. This technique affords direct access to the lesion without the need for facial nerve dissection. Six patients were treated. Five had prior surgery, including 3 with previous attempts at excision. There were no complications. The median follow-up was 35 months. One patient developed a recurrence. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. The development of quality management techniques in civil engineering design and site supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Quality assurance techniques have developed considerably over the past few years, and in particular the application of Quality Management within a service industry such as civil engineering has evolved into a well developed management control system. James Williamson and Partners were the first members of the Association of Consulting Engineers successfully to achieve third party accreditation with BSI for civil and structural design. The initial system was generated for work on Torness Power Station in the early 1980s, and the firm has, in the last ten years, developed a flexible quality system to effectively control and co-ordinate complex projects. This paper discusses the use of quality assurance (QA) techniques in a civil engineering design office, looking at a few areas where the requirements of BS 5750 and BS 5882 are difficult to interpret. Some observations are also made on the adoption of QA for site supervision. (author)

  1. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human’s immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. AIM: The study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Fusoba...

  2. Work Package 1B.2 under the European Commission, Integrated Wind Turbine Design (UPWIND): Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2011-02-15

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique. 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and. 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) 'UPWIND' within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2 simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have an effect as indicated. The hypothesis stating, that the power signal can be utilized as a basic signal for extended analysis of mechanical as well as electrical power signal with static and dynamic features, has been demonstrated on performance and dynamic bandwidth capability. It is however from present analysis obvious that improved signal conditions could be achieved with other mechanical joint solutions than with the present torque signal as measured with the cardan joint. For the reasons mentioned, the comparison with a signal showing the mechanical properties could be improved, with a likely gain on the accuracy as a result. (Author)

  3. Novel techniques for data decomposition and load balancing for parallel processing of vision systems: Implementation and evaluation using a motion estimation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision systems employ a sequence of vision algorithms in which the output of an algorithm is the input of the next algorithm in the sequence. Algorithms that constitute such systems exhibit vastly different computational characteristics, and therefore, require different data decomposition techniques and efficient load balancing techniques for parallel implementation. However, since the input data for a task is produced as the output data of the previous task, this information can be exploited to perform knowledge based data decomposition and load balancing. Presented here are algorithms for a motion estimation system. The motion estimation is based on the point correspondence between the involved images which are a sequence of stereo image pairs. Researchers propose algorithms to obtain point correspondences by matching feature points among stereo image pairs at any two consecutive time instants. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms employ non-iterative procedures, which results in saving considerable amounts of computation time. The system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from consecutive time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters.

  4. The Use of Different Irrigation Techniques to Decrease Bacterial Loads in Healthy and Diabetic Patients with Asymptomatic Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mai; Saber, Shehab ElDin; El-Badry, Tarek; Obeid, Maram; Hassib, Nehal

    2016-12-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human's immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. This study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Enterococcus faecalis , Peptostreptococcus micros , and Fusobacterium necleatum bacteria were chosen, as they are the most common and prevailing strains found in periodontitis. Bacterial samples were retrieved from necrotic root canals of systemically healthy and diabetic patients, before and after endodontic cleaning and shaping by using two different irrigation techniques; the conventional one and the EndoVac system. Quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilised to detect the reduction in the bacterial count. The EndoVac irrigation system was effective in reducing bacteria, especially Peptostreptococcus micros in the diabetic group when compared to conventional irrigation technique with a statistically significant difference. The EndoVac can be considered as a promising tool in combination with irrigant solution to defeat the bacterial colonies living in the root canal system. Additional studies ought to be done to improve the means of bacterial clearance mainly in immune-compromised individuals.

  5. Fiberoptic endoscopic-assisted diverticulotomy: a novel technique for the management of Zenker's diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Jason I; Genden, Eric M; Moche, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Endoscopic diverticulotomy is rapidly becoming the procedure of choice for treatment of Zenker's diverticulum. The endoscopic approach has resulted in significant decreases in patient morbidity, time to resumption of oral intake, and overall cost as compared with open treatment. However, a small but significant patient population is unable to accommodate the rigid laryngoscope and therefore requires open treatment. We present a novel technique, flexible fiberoptic endoscopic-assisted diverticulotomy, for the management of patients who are unable to undergo rigid endoscopy.

  6. Pengaruh Customer Accounting Sebagai Strategic Management Accounting Techniques Dan Customer Orientation Terhadap Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa, Valentine

    2015-01-01

    This Study was done to examine the affect of customer accounting as strategic management accounting techniques and customer orientation to organizational performance. This study used primary data from questionnaires which were distributed to 50 manufacturing companies in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. The data collected would be analyzed by using Partial Least Square method to test the hypothesis. The result showed there were positive and significant influence from customer accounting and customer o...

  7. Chassis loading investigation of two-shaft shredder for construction waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatskicheva Malina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling industry development need cracked materials with different composition and characteristics. New constructions shredders creation, their engineering design, development through adequate mechanical-mathematical models and practical realization determines the actuality of this paper. The materials crushing for recycling solves important environmental tasks related to environmental protection. The two-shaft hydraulic shredder realized the first and the second stage from the crushing (disintegration process. Disintegration as part of the recycling process can be successfully applied to the domestic and industrial waste processing, singleand multi-component materials crushing, and to secondary raw materials grinding. The paper is dedicated to the emerging loading of the two-shaft shredder chassis and the resulting calculations and verifications. In the present work has been performed a modeling study of the chassis for such type of shredder for concrete, rubber, plastic and wood crushing. The studies of the mechanical load and behaviour of the chassis have been conducted. The equations characterizing the mechanical processes in the working conditions by the finite element method are solved. For this purpose has been generated a chassis three-dimensional geometrical model, which has been discretized to a planned network of finite elements in the ANSYS MECHANICAL APDL programming environment.

  8. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  9. Analysis of pushing exercises: muscle activity and spine load while contrasting techniques on stable surfaces with a labile suspension strap training system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Cannon, Jordan; Andersen, Jordan T

    2014-01-01

    Labile surfaces in the form of suspension straps are increasingly being used as a tool in resistance training programs. Pushing is a common functional activity of daily living and inherently part of a well-rounded training program. This study examined pushing exercises performed on stable surfaces and unstable suspension straps, specifically muscle activation levels and spine loads were quantified together with the influence of employing technique coaching. There were several main questions that this study sought to answer: Which exercises challenged particular muscles? What was the magnitude of the resulting spine load? How did stable and unstable surfaces differ? Did coaching influence the results? Fourteen men were recruited as part of a convenience sample (mean age, 21.1 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 74.6 ± 7.8 kg). Data were processed and input to a sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model that used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force-in this way, the model was sensitive to the individuals choice of motor control for each task; muscle forces and linked segment joint loads were used to calculate spine loads. Exercises were performed using stable surfaces for hand/feet contact and repeated where possible with labile suspension straps. Speed of movement was standardized across participants with the use of a metronome for each exercise. There were gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics to every task. In general, the instability associated with the labile exercises required greater torso muscle activity than when performed on stable surfaces. Throughout the duration of an exercise, there was a range of compression; the TRX push-up ranged from 1,653 to 2,128.14 N, whereas the standard push-up had a range from 1,233.75 to 1,530.06 N. There was no significant effect of exercise on spine compression (F(4,60) = 0.86, p = 0.495). Interestingly, a standard push-up showed significantly

  10. Outcome of 7-S, TQM technique for health care waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, J.H.; Malik, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the present waste management system of health care facilities (HCFs) attached with Shalamar Hospital, Lahore by applying the 7-S technique of Total Quality Management (TQM) and to find out the outcome after imparting training. Study Design: Interventional quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The Shalamar Hospital, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, November, 2009 to November, 2010. Methodology: Mckinsey's 7-S, technique of TQM was applied to assess the 220 HCFs from Lahore, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts for segregation, collection, transportation and disposal (SCTD) of hospital waste. Direct interview method was applied. Trainings were provided in each institution. After one year action period, the status of four areas of concern was compared before and after training. The parameters studied were segregation, collection, transportation and disposal systems in the 220 HCFs. Each of these were further elaborated by strategy, structure, system, staff, skill, style and stake holder/shared value factors. Standard error of difference of proportion was applied to assess significance using 95% confidence level. Results: There was marked improvement in all these areas ranging from 20% to 77% following a training program of 3 months. In case of disposal of the waste strategy, structure and system an increase of 60%, 65% and 75% was observed after training. Conclusion: The 7-S technique played a vital role in assessing the hospital waste management system. Training for the health care workers played a significant role in health care facilities. (author)

  11. Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This publication presents an investigation on the influence of the design and technical features of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) on predisposal and disposal activities when the sources become disused. The publication also addresses whether design modifications could contribute to safer and/or more efficient management of disused sources without compromising the benefits provided by the use of the sealed sources. This technical publication aims to collect information on the most typical design features and manufacturing techniques of sealed radioactive sources and examines how they affect the safe management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS). The publication also aims to assist source designers and manufacturers by discussing design features that are important from the waste management point of view. It has been identified that most SRS manufacturers use similar geometries and materials for their designs and apply improved and reliable manufacturing techniques e.g. double- encapsulation. These designs and manufacturing techniques have been proven over time to reduce contamination levels in fabrication and handling, and improve source integrity and longevity. The current source designs and materials ensure as well as possible that SRSs will maintain their integrity in use and when they become disused. No significant improvement options to current designs have been identified. However, some design considerations were identified as important to facilitate source retrieval, to increase the possibility of re-use and to ensure minimal contamination risk and radioactive waste generation at recycling. It was also concluded that legible identifying markings on a source are critical for DSRS management. The publication emphasizes the need for a common understanding of the radioactive source's recommended working life (RWL) for manufacturers and regulators. The conditions of use (COU) are important for the determination of RWL. A formal system for specification

  12. Automatic determination of BWR fuel loading patterns based on K.E. technique with core physics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, T.; Tsuiki, M.; Takeshita, T.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis oof a computerized search method, a prototype for a fuel loading pattern expert system has been developed to support designers in core design for BWRs. The method was implemented by coupling rules and core physics simulators into an inference engine to establish an automated generate-and-test cycle. A search control mechanism, which prunes paths to be searched and selects appropriate rules through the interaction with the user, was also introduced to accomplish an effective search. The constraints in BWR core design are: (1) cycle length more than L, (2) core shutdown margin more than S, and (3) thermal margin more than T. Here L, S, and T are the specified minimum values. In this system, individual rules contain the manipulation to improve the core shutdown margin explicitly. Other items were taken into account only implicitly. Several applications to the test cases were carried out. It was found that the results were comparable with those obtained by human expert engineers. Broad applicability of the present method in the BWR core design domain was proved

  13. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-01-01

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  14. An Analysis Of The Benefits And Application Of Earned Value Management (EVM) Project Management Techniques For Dod Programs That Do Not Meet Dod Policy Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DOD PROGRAMS THAT DO NOT MEET DOD POLICY THRESHOLDS December 2017 By: Randy Schneider...Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF THE BENEFITS AND APPLICATION OF EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) PROJECT MANAGEMENT ...performance reporting. The immediate objective of this research project was to examine the question: Can the application of EVM-Lite project management

  15. CERES AuTomAted job Loading SYSTem (CATALYST): An automated workflow manager for satellite data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.; Wilkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    The CERES Science Team integrates data from 5 CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and NPP missions. The processing chain fuses CERES observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) onboard NPP, coupled with ground processing system upgrades further emphasizes the need for an automated job-submission utility to manage multiple processing streams concurrently. The operator-driven, legacy-processing approach relied on manually staging data from magnetic tape to limited spinning disk attached to a shared memory architecture system. The migration of CERES production code to a distributed, cluster computing environment with approximately one petabyte of spinning disk containing all precursor input data products facilitates the development of a CERES-specific, automated workflow manager. In the cluster environment, I/O is the primary system resource in contention across jobs. Therefore, system load can be maximized with a throttling workload manager. This poster discusses a Java and Perl implementation of an automated job management tool tailored for CERES processing.

  16. Implementation strategies for load center automation on the space station module/power management and distribution testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karen

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module/Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed was developed to study the tertiary power management on modules in large spacecraft. The main goal was to study automation techniques, not necessarily develop flight ready systems. Because of the confidence gained in many of automation strategies investigated, it is appropriate to study, in more detail, implementation strategies in order to find better trade-offs for nearer to flight ready systems. These trade-offs particularly concern the weight, volume, power consumption, and performance of the automation system. These systems, in their present implementation are described.

  17. Stenotic ligature: a simple technique for managing distal hypoperfusion ischemic syndrome following arteriovenous fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Cristian Roata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Distal Hypoperfusion Ischemic Syndrome (DHIS is a multifactorial debilitating condition causing peripheral ischemia and potentially tissue necrosis. In an effort to further refine its surgical treatment we aim to describe a modified, simple and reliable technique for managing DHIS in patients with arteriovenous fistulas. Materials and Methods. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with DHIS operated by a single surgical team over a period of 7 years were included in the study. All patients underwent the same surgical technique: stenotic ligature. Outcomes were analyzed clinically and the effectiveness of the procedure was proven using McNemar test. Clinical variables were statistically analyzed in SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Results. The technique we used consists in performing a stenosing ligature on the vein, using a 0-silk suture, and adjusting the suture in order to achieve either a radial pulse or capillary pulse, while maintaining a good thrill at palpation of the vein. The procedure was successful in 83% of patients proved by immediate symptomatic relief. Paired data analysis showed significant decrease of all symptoms: cold extremity (p=0,021, paraesthesia (p<0,001, pain (p<0,001. History of coronary artery disease, arteriopathy or the absence of radial pulse is statistically correlated with an increased risk of developing DHIS. Conclusions. Stenotic ligature is a simple, cheap and reliable technique for managing DHIS with lower septic risks which can be easily performed under local anesthesia.

  18. Radio Resource Management Techniques for eMBB and mMTC services in 5G Dense Small Cell Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Lauridsen, Mads; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    requirements. This article provides an overview of key radio resource management techniques for 5G dense small cells and demonstrates how these techniques can contribute to fulfilling some of the important 5G requirements. Preliminary system level simulation results indicate that a mean throughput gain...... design requirements. Dense small cells with multiple antenna nodes are believed to be key elements in meeting these challenging requirements. 5G will thus feature an adaptable air interface with carefully designed radio resource management techniques that can optimize each link according to its service...... of around 65%, and up to 84% in latency reduction can be achieved utilizing the discussed resource management techniques....

  19. Sterile insect technique. Principles and practice in area-wide integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Hendrichs, J.; Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    For several major insect pests, the environment-friendly sterile insect technique (SIT) is being applied as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This technology, using radiation to sterilize insects, was first developed in the USA, and is currently applied on six continents. For four decades it has been a major subject for research and development in the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, involving both research and the transfer of this technology to Member States so that they can benefit from improved plant, animal and human health, cleaner environments, increased production of plants and animals in agricultural systems, and accelerated economic development. The socio-economic impacts of AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT have confirmed the usefulness of this technology. Numerous publications related to the integration of the SIT in pest management programmes, arising from research, coordinated research projects, field projects, symposia, meetings, and training activities have already provided much information to researchers, pest-control practitioners, programme managers, plant protection and animal health officers, and policy makers. However, by bringing together and presenting in a generic fashion the principles, practice, and global application of the SIT, this book will be a major reference source for all current and future users of the technology. The book will also serve as a textbook for academic courses on integrated pest management. Fifty subject experts from 19 countries contributed to the chapters, which were all peer reviewed before final editing

  20. Innovative Techniques for Estimating Illegal Activities in a Human-Wildlife-Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973