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Sample records for load flow program

  1. Software defined networks reactive flow programming and load balance switching

    OpenAIRE

    Καλλιανιώτης, Νικόλαος; Kallianiotis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    This project serves as a Master Thesis as the requirements of the master’s programme Master of Digital Communications and Networks. It proposes load balancing algorithms applied to Software-Defined Networks to achieve the best possible resource utilisation of each of the links present in a network. The open-sources Opendaylight project and Floodlight project are used as SDN controllers, and the network is emulated using Mininet software

  2. Load flow optimization and optimal power flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the major aspects of load flow, optimization, optimal load flow, and culminates in modern heuristic optimization techniques and evolutionary programming. In the deregulated environment, the economic provision of electrical power to consumers requires knowledge of maintaining a certain power quality and load flow. Many case studies and practical examples are included to emphasize real-world applications. The problems at the end of each chapter can be solved by hand calculations without having to use computer software. The appendices are devoted to calculations of line and cable constants, and solutions to the problems are included throughout the book.

  3. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  4. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  5. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  6. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3.1 Maximum range selection of input and output variables: ..... Wong K. P., Li A., and Law M.Y., “ Advanced Constrained Genetic Algorithm Load Flow Method”, IEE Proc. ... Dr. Parimal Acharjee passed B.E.E. from North Bengal University ...

  7. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  8. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  9. Collectively loading programs in a multiple program multiple data environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.

    2016-11-08

    Techniques are disclosed for loading programs efficiently in a parallel computing system. In one embodiment, nodes of the parallel computing system receive a load description file which indicates, for each program of a multiple program multiple data (MPMD) job, nodes which are to load the program. The nodes determine, using collective operations, a total number of programs to load and a number of programs to load in parallel. The nodes further generate a class route for each program to be loaded in parallel, where the class route generated for a particular program includes only those nodes on which the program needs to be loaded. For each class route, a node is selected using a collective operation to be a load leader which accesses a file system to load the program associated with a class route and broadcasts the program via the class route to other nodes which require the program.

  10. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  11. Normal loads program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory. [evaluation of spanwise and chordwise loading distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, R. T.; Ray, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    A description of and users manual are presented for a U.S.A. FORTRAN 4 computer program which evaluates spanwise and chordwise loading distributions, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient, and other stability derivatives for thin wings in linearized, steady, subsonic flow. The program is based on a kernel function method lifting surface theory and is applicable to a large class of planforms including asymmetrical ones and ones with mixed straight and curved edges.

  12. Linear Programming and Network Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D

    2011-01-01

    The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research

  13. Determination of multiple solutions of load flow equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper is concerned with the problem of finding all the real solutions (all components of the solution vector must be real values) of load flow equations. Solutions in which some of the components are complex values are of no interest as they have no physical significance as a load flow solution. This problem issignificant ...

  14. Load Flow Analysis of a 15Mva Injection Substation | Oshevire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This load flow helps to determine the state of the power system for a given load and generation distribution. This paper presents the computer aided power flow analysis of the existing Otovwodo33/11kV distribution network using the ETAP 7.0 software. The result showed that out of 91load feeders of which 6 is out of service, ...

  15. Load flow analysis for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    factors such as the different wind farm configurations, the control of wind turbines and the power losses of pulse width modulation converters are considered. The DC/DC converter model is proposed and integrated into load flow algorithm by modifying the Jacobian matrix. Two iterative methods are proposed...... and integrated into the load flow algorithm: one takes into account the control strategy of converters and the other considers the power losses of converters. In addition, different types of variable speed wind turbine systems with different control methods are investigated. Finally, the method is demonstrated......A serial AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms is proposed. It divides the electrical system of a wind farm into several local networks, and different load flow methods are used for these local networks sequentially. This method is fast, more accurate, and many...

  16. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular...

  17. Topology optimization considering design-dependent Stokes flow loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picelli, R.; Vicente, W.M.; Pavanello, R.; van Keulen, A.; Li, Qing; Steven, Grant P.; Zhang, Zhongpu

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evolutionary topology optimization method for mean compliance minimization of structures under design-dependent viscous fluid flow loads. The structural domain is governed by the elasticity equation and the fluid by the incompressible Stokes flow equations. When the

  18. Computer program for compressible flow network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, M. E.; Murtaugh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Program solves problem of an arbitrarily connected one dimensional compressible flow network with pumping in the channels and momentum balancing at flow junctions. Program includes pressure drop calculations for impingement flow and flow through pin fin arrangements, as currently found in many air cooled turbine bucket and vane cooling configurations.

  19. Three-Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Tool for Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based on Matlab®. The tool can be used to assess steady-state voltage variations, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV) generators where...... most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact of the various reactive power control strategies on the steady-state grid operation can be simply...... investigated. Performance of the load flow solution tool in the sense of resulting bus voltage magnitudes is compared and validated with IEEE 13-bus test feeder....

  20. Three phase load flow; Fluxo de carga trifasico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, Maria Goretti

    1992-12-01

    The phase model which is used in the analysis and planning of electric power system is based on the hypothesis that both the transmission system and load are equilibrated. Such a system, which presents the advantage of being simple,presents satisfactory results in several cases, however, for certain applications this system is inadequate. this work presents an alternative method based on three-phase load flow which an be applied to electric power distribution networks 19 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. PeerFlow: Secure Load Balancing in Tor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Aaron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present PeerFlow, a system to securely load balance client traffic in Tor. Security in Tor requires that no adversary handle too much traffic. However, Tor relays are run by volunteers who cannot be trusted to report the relay bandwidths, which Tor clients use for load balancing. We show that existing methods to determine the bandwidths of Tor relays allow an adversary with little bandwidth to attack large amounts of client traffic. These methods include Tor’s current bandwidth-scanning system, TorFlow, and the peer-measurement system EigenSpeed. We present an improved design called PeerFlow that uses a peer-measurement process both to limit an adversary’s ability to increase his measured bandwidth and to improve accuracy. We show our system to be secure, fast, and efficient. We implement PeerFlow in Tor and demonstrate its speed and accuracy in large-scale network simulations.

  2. Voltage stability analysis using a modified continuation load flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the rising problem of identifying the voltage stability limits of load buses in a power system and how to optimally place capacitor banks for voltage stability improvement. This paper uses the concept of the continuation power flow analysis used in voltage stability analysis. It uses the modified ...

  3. Radial basis function neural network for power system load-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, A.; Mohammadi, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for solving the load-flow problem of the electric power systems using radial basis function (RBF) neural network with a fast hybrid training method. The main idea is that some operating conditions (values) are needed to solve the set of non-linear algebraic equations of load-flow by employing an iterative numerical technique. Therefore, we may view the outputs of a load-flow program as functions of the operating conditions. Indeed, we are faced with a function approximation problem and this can be done by an RBF neural network. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to the 10-machine and 39-bus New England test system. In addition, this method has been compared with that of a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network model. The simulation results show that the RBF neural network is a simpler method to implement and requires less training time to converge than the MLP neural network. (author)

  4. Measurement of blowdown flow rates using load cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Murty, L.G.K.; Muralidhar Rao, S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish a reliable method for measuring two-phase flow, experiments were planned for measurement of transient single phase flow rates from vessels using load cells. Suitability of lead-zirconate-titanate piezoelectric ceramic discs was examined. Discharge time constant of the disc used was low, leading to large measurement errors. Subsequently, experiments were carried out using strain gauge load cells and these were found satisfactory. The unsteady flow equation has been derived for the system under investigation. The equation has been solved numerically using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method and also by integrating it analytically. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical results and presented in this report. (auth.)

  5. On load flow control in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Arnim

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the control of active power flow, or load flow in electric power systems. During the last few years, interest in the possibilities to control the active power flows in transmission systems has increased significantly. There is a number of reasons for this, coming both from the application side - that is, from power system operations - and from the technological side. where advances in power electronics and related technologies have made new system components available. Load flow control is by nature a multi-input multi-output problem, since any change of load flow in one line will be complemented by changes in other lines. Strong cross-coupling between controllable components is to be expected, and the possibility of adverse interactions between these components cannot be rejected straightaway. Interactions with dynamic phenomena in the power system are also a source of concern. Three controllable components are investigated in this thesis, namely the controlled series capacitor (CSC), the phase angle regulator (PAR), and the unified power flow controller (UPFC). Properties and characteristics of these devices axe investigated and discussed. A simple control strategy is proposed. This strategy is then analyzed extensively. Mathematical methods and physical knowledge about the pertinent phenomena are combined, and it is shown that this control strategy can be used for a fairly general class of devices. Computer simulations of the controlled system provide insight into the system behavior in a system of reasonable size. The robustness and stability of the control system are discussed as are its limits. Further, the behavior of the control strategy in a system where the modeling allows for dynamic phenomena are investigated with computer simulations. It is discussed under which circumstances the control action has beneficial or detrimental effect on the system dynamics. Finally, a graphical approach for analyzing the effect of controllers

  6. Holomorphic Embedded Load Flow for Autonomous Spacecraft Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation advances the ability to apply the Holomorphic Embedding Load Flow Technology (HELM™) method to provide deterministic load flow modeling for...

  7. Application of the load flow and random flow models for the analysis of power transmission networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico; Piccinelli, Roberta; Delfanti, Maurizio; Olivieri, Valeria; Pozzi, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the classical load flow model and the random flow model are considered for analyzing the performance of power transmission networks. The analysis concerns both the system performance and the importance of the different system elements; this latter is computed by power flow and random walk betweenness centrality measures. A network system from the literature is analyzed, representing a simple electrical power transmission network. The results obtained highlight the differences between the LF “global approach” to flow dispatch and the RF local approach of randomized node-to-node load transfer. Furthermore, computationally the LF model is less consuming than the RF model but problems of convergence may arise in the LF calculation.

  8. Load estimation from planar PIV measurement in vortex dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    Control volume-based loading estimates are employed on experimental and synthetic numerical planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data of a stationary cylinder and a cylinder undergoing one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV). The results reveal the necessity of including out of plane terms, identified from a general formulation of the control volume momentum balance, when evaluating loads from planar measurements in three-dimensional flows. Reynolds stresses from out of plane fluctuations are shown to be significant for both instantaneous and mean force estimates when the control volume encompasses vortex dominated regions. For planar measurement, invoking a divergence-free assumption allows accurate estimation of half the identified terms. Towards evaluating the fidelity of PIV-based loading estimates for obtaining the forcing function unobtrusively in VIV experiments, the accuracy of the control volume-based loading methodology is evaluated using the numerical data with synthetically generated experimental PIV error, and a comparison is made between experimental PIV-based estimates and simultaneous force balance measurements.

  9. The flow field investigations of no load conditions in axial flow fixed-blade turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gao, L.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhou, X. Z.; Xu, H. X.

    2014-03-01

    During the start-up process, the strong instabilities happened at no load operation in a low head axial flow fixed-blade turbine, with strong pressure pulsation and vibration. The rated speed can not reach until guide vane opening to some extent, and stable operation could not be maintained under the rated speed at some head, which had a negative impact on the grid-connected operation of the unit. In order to find the reason of this phenomenon, the unsteady flow field of the whole flow passage at no load conditions was carried out to analyze the detailed fluid field characteristics including the pressure pulsation and force imposed on the runner under three typical heads. The main hydraulic cause of no load conditions instability was described. It is recommended that the power station should try to reduce the no-load running time and go into the high load operation as soon as possible when connected to grid at the rated head. Following the recommendations, the plant operation practice proved the unstable degree of the unit was reduced greatly during start up and connect to the power grid.

  10. Load-Flow in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Existence, Uniqueness, Non-Singularity, and Linear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhao, Changhong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Cong [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL); Le Boudec, Jean-Yves [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL)

    2018-04-06

    This paper considers unbalanced multiphase distribution systems with generic topology and different load models, and extends the Z-bus iterative load-flow algorithm based on a fixed-point interpretation of the AC load-flow equations. Explicit conditions for existence and uniqueness of load-flow solutions are presented. These conditions also guarantee convergence of the load-flow algorithm to the unique solution. The proposed methodology is applicable to generic systems featuring (i) wye connections; (ii) ungrounded delta connections; (iii) a combination of wye-connected and delta-connected sources/loads; and, (iv) a combination of line-to-line and line-to-grounded-neutral devices at the secondary of distribution transformers. Further, a sufficient condition for the non-singularity of the load-flow Jacobian is proposed. Finally, linear load-flow models are derived, and their approximation accuracy is analyzed. Theoretical results are corroborated through experiments on IEEE test feeders.

  11. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E H [Westinghouse Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M [General Electric Co., Fast Breeder Reactor Department, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Ryan, J A; Mulcahy, T M

    1977-12-01

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  12. Load monitoring program: Status and results report. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro conducts a monitoring program to provide information on customer needs and values for planning; to measure customer response, energy savings impacts, and load shape impacts due to changes in rate level, rate restructuring, and Power Smart programs; to estimate end-use consumption and load shapes by customer class; and to provide load information for distribution and system load studies. To achieve these objectives, the monitoring program tracks the characteristics and energy use patterns of a sample of BC Hydro residential, commercial, and industrial customers over a period of several years. The entire sample will be surveyed periodically to obtain information on changes in building characteristics, equipment stocks, and energy-use behavior and attitudes. A report is provided on the status of monitoring program activities and some results obtained in 1993/94. For the residential sector, the results include typical load profiles, end-user demographics, and extent of electric space heating and water heating. In the commercial sector, customers were divided into two main groups. The large-building group was relatively well organized in terms of energy needs and participated in Power Smart programs. The small-building group was relatively energy-inefficient and relatively unaware of Power Smart programs. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  13. AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....

  14. Knowledge is power: Customer load metering in the Victorian End-Use Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavin, G. [CitiPower Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian End-Use Measurement Program is a sophisticated load metering program being conducted over 500 sites in Victoria, covering the major customer sectors of residential, commercial and industrial. Its goal is to gather sufficient data to determine with statistical accuracy the load profiles of these major sectors, together with the load profiles of selected customer end-uses in the residential and commercial sectors, and selected building types in the commercial sector. This paper discusses the major elements of the program, the history of its development, the design of the statistical and operational components of the program, and its implementation in the field. In the Victorian electricity industry, with the combination of contestable customer metering and the End-Use Measurement program metering for the franchise/non-contestable market, there is now a considerable flow of customer load data. The opportunity exists for an accurate understanding of customer load needs, and the minimization of risk in business operations in the retail and wholesale market. (author).

  15. Suppression of secondary flows in a double suction centrifugal pump with different loading distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, H F; Wang, F J; Zhang, Z C; Yao, Z F; Zhou, P J

    2013-01-01

    Secondary flow is one of the main reasons for low efficiency in double suction centrifugal pump. In a 3-D inverse design method, the pump blade could be designed by a specified loading distribution to control the flow field in pump. In order to study the influence of loading distribution on secondary flow of a double suction centrifugal pump, the external characteristics and the internal flow field of the pump with three kinds of loading distributions are analysed by using CFD approach. According to the simulation results, it is found that the form of fore-loading distribution at shroud and aft-loading distribution at hub could improve the optimal efficiency and broaden the high efficiency area of the pump. Furthermore, the secondary flow in impeller exit region and volute could be significantly suppressed if the slope of loading distribution curve of shroud is set to be −0.7

  16. Load Flow and Short Circuit Analysis of the Class III Power System of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S

    2005-12-15

    The planning, design, and operation of electric power system require engineering studies to assist in the evaluation of the system performance, reliability, safety and economics. The Class III power of HANARO supplies power for not only HANARO but also RIPF and IMEF. The starting current of most ac motors is five to ten times normal full load current. The loads of the Class III power are connected in consecutive orders at an interval for 10 seconds to avoid excessive voltage drop. This technical report deals with the load flow study and motor starting study for the Class III power of HANARO using ETAP(Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) to verify the capacity of the diesel generator. Short-circuit studies are done to determine the magnitude of the prospective currents flowing throughout the power system at various time intervals after a fault occurs. Short-circuit studies can be performed at the planning stage in order to help finalize the system layout, determine voltage levels, and size cables, transformers, and conductors. From this study, we verify the short circuit current capacity of air circuit breaker(ACB) and automatic transfer switch(ATS) of the Class III power.

  17. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  18. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Program Computes Flows Of Fluids And Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullimore, Brent; Ring, Steven; Welch, Mark

    1993-01-01

    SINDA'85/FLUINT incorporates lumped-parameter-network and one-dimensional-flow mathematical models. System enables analysis of mutual influences of thermal and flow phenomena. Offers two finite-difference numerical solution techniques: forward-difference explicit approximation and Crank-Nicholson approximation. Enables simulation of nonuniform heating and facilitates mathematical modeling of thin-walled heat exchangers. Ability to model nonequilibrium behavior within two-phase volumes included. Recent changes in program improve modeling of real evaporator pumps and other capillary-assist evaporators. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  1. SEASONAL CHANGES IN PHOSPHORUS LOAD FLOWING OUT OF SMALL AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pulikowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article distribution of monthly phosphorus loads flowing out of two agricultural catchments which are located in different physiographic conditions of Lower Silesia was analysed. Loads of phosphorus runoff from the catchment located in the piedmont part of Lower Silesia in each month rarely exceed 0.10 kg P ∙ ha-1. The size of annual load is determined by loads obtained in two months of early spring. Much lower loads obtained for lowland catchment, located near Wroclaw. Values ​​calculated for each month rarely exceed the value of 0.01 kg P ∙ ha-1. Culmination of loads bringing away is a bit more extended in a time compared to the catchment located on Sudety Mts. Foreland. Much higher loads are observed during the period from January to April – this period has a major impact on the size of phosphorus load that flows out from this catchment during whole hydrological year. The obtained results clearly indicate that the threat of watercourses and water reservoirs supply in phosphorus compounds from agricultural land is periodic and it is particularly high during early spring. Phosphorus load flowing out from the analyzed catchments is very diverse. From facility located on Sudety Foothill in hydrological year, during research period, flowed away average 0.81 kg P ∙ ha-1. Significantly lower values were obtained for second facility and it was average 0.15 kg P ∙ ha-1 during a year. The size of load discharged during a year is largely determined by amount of phosphorus load flowing out during winter half of the year (from XI to IV. In case of foothill catchment in this period flowed out average 0.56 kg P ∙ ha-1, which presents 69% of annual load and in lowland catchment this percentage was even slightly higher and was 73%.

  2. SEASONAL CHANGES IN PHOSPHORUS LOAD FLOWING OUT OF SMALL AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Pulikowski; Katarzyna Pawęska; Aleksandra Bawiec

    2014-01-01

    In this article distribution of monthly phosphorus loads flowing out of two agricultural catchments which are located in different physiographic conditions of Lower Silesia was analysed. Loads of phosphorus runoff from the catchment located in the piedmont part of Lower Silesia in each month rarely exceed 0.10 kg P ∙ ha-1. The size of annual load is determined by loads obtained in two months of early spring. Much lower loads obtained for lowland catchment, located near Wroclaw. Values ​​calcu...

  3. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2002-12-13

    producers and consumers. Fortunately too, only a percentage of loads need to respond elastically for all customers to benefit. This report explores mechanisms to reduce, when necessary, the peak load in New Jersey's electricity market. It examines load pricing and technical load reduction programs used in recent years in New Jersey and discuss how they can be made more effective in controlling summer peaks and attendant high prices of electricity. Particular attention is given to load curtailment programs now in place and utility opinions relating to them.

  4. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  5. Alternative approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Гавриленко

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability was proposed in the article. The improvement of the concept of operational and strategic management of load flow in engineering networks was considered. The verbal statement of the problem for thesis research is defined, namely, the problem of development of information technology for exact calculation of the functional reliability of the network, or the risk of short delivery of purpose-oriented product for consumers

  6. Three-phase Power Flow Calculation of Low Voltage Distribution Network Considering Characteristics of Residents Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Lin, Shunjiang; Yang, Zhibin

    2017-05-01

    In the traditional three-phase power flow calculation of the low voltage distribution network, the load model is described as constant power. Since this model cannot reflect the characteristics of actual loads, the result of the traditional calculation is always different from the actual situation. In this paper, the load model in which dynamic load represented by air conditioners parallel with static load represented by lighting loads is used to describe characteristics of residents load, and the three-phase power flow calculation model is proposed. The power flow calculation model includes the power balance equations of three-phase (A,B,C), the current balance equations of phase 0, and the torque balancing equations of induction motors in air conditioners. And then an alternating iterative algorithm of induction motor torque balance equations with each node balance equations is proposed to solve the three-phase power flow model. This method is applied to an actual low voltage distribution network of residents load, and by the calculation of three different operating states of air conditioners, the result demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model and the algorithm.

  7. A finite element method for flow problems in blast loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestier, A.; Lepareux, M.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical method which describes fast dynamic problems in flow transient situations as in nuclear plants. A finite element formulation has been chosen; it is described by a preprocessor in CASTEM system: GIBI code. For these typical flow problems, an A.L.E. formulation for physical equations is used. So, some applications are presented: the well known problem of shock tube, the same one in 2D case and a last application to hydrogen detonation

  8. Evaluation of dynamic loads induced by transient regimes of fluid flows in the pipe systems and devices of reducing the loads and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Viorel; Chirita, Alexandru Mihai; Androne, Marian; Alexandru, Constantin; Ciuca, Camelia; Badara, Janina; Alexandru, Carmen

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the analytic methods for estimating the dynamic effects induced in pipe systems in transient regimes. They are based on computation programs developed in order to check the behaviour of ECCS and EWS under 'water hammer effect' and the behaviour of the primary circuit system under stresses caused by pipe cracks. Computation examples are presented in order to emphasize the capabilities of the programs to model transient phenomena in complex pipe networks. The overpressure induced by the water hammer effect, as revealed by comparing several transient regimes, depends on the fluid viscosity, the initial speed, the duration of starting the transient regime, the system rigidity, etc. Values several ten times higher that the initial one could be thus reached. An overview of new types of devices designed for damping the effect of water hammer phenomenon, as well as of sustaining supports for pipe systems and equipment able to damp the vibrations produced by the transient regimes of fluid flows and seismic movements is presented. These devices have also to cope with the high shocks produced by pipe breakage as well as high static loads. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Evaluating dynamic loads associated to the water hammer phenomenon; 3. Determining loads associated to the water hammer phenomenon for the ECC system of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1; 4. Device for reducing the water hammer effects; 5. Evaluating dynamic loads associated to pipe cracks; 6. Determining loads associated to pipe cracks in the Cernavoda NPP primary circuit; 7. Devices for absorbing and damping the dynamic loads in pipe systems and equipment; 8. Conclusions. (authors)

  9. An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…

  10. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  11. Node Load Balance Multi-flow Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic routing (OR has been proposed to improve the performance of wireless networks by exploiting the multi-user diversity and broadcast nature of the wireless medium. It involves multiple candidate forwarders to relay packets every hop. The existing OR doesn’t take account of the traffic load and load balance, therefore some nodes may be overloaded while the others may not, leading to network performance decline. In this paper, we focus on opportunities routing selection with node load balance which is described as a convex optimization problem. To solve the problem, by combining primal-dual and sub-gradient methods, a fully distributed Node load balance Multi-flow Opportunistic Routing algorithm (NMOR is proposed. With node load balance constraint, NMOR allocates the flow rate iteratively and the rate allocation decides the candidate forwarder selection of opportunities routing. The simulation results show that NMOR algorithm improves 100 %, 62 % of the aggregative throughput than ETX and EAX, respectively.

  12. Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Thomsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    -of-the-art load-reducing concepts. Since the new flow-based concept deviates significantly from previous published load-reducing strategies, a comparison of the performance based on aeroelastic simulations is included. Advantages and drawbacks of the systems are discussed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......A new load-reducing control strategy for individual blade control of large pitch-controlled wind turbines is presented This control concept is based on local blade inflow measurements and offers the possibility of larger load reductions, without loss of power production, than seen in other state...

  13. Blade design loads on the flow exciting force in centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Yang, A L; Langand, D P; Dai, R

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional viscous flow field of two centrifugal pumps, which have the same volute, design head, design flow rate and rotational speed but the blade design load, are analyzed based on large eddy simulation. The comparisons are implemented including the hydraulic efficiencies, flow field characteristics, pressure pulsations and unsteady forces applied on the impellers to investigate the effect of the design blade load on hydraulic performance and flow exciting force. The numerical results show that the efficiency of the pump, the impeller blade of which has larger design load, is improved by 1.1%∼2.9% compared to the centrifugal pump with lower blade design load. The pressure fluctuation of the pump with high design load is more remarkable. Its maximum amplitude of coefficient of static pressure is higher by 43% than the latter. At the same time the amplitude of unsteady radial force is increased by 11.6% in the time domain. The results also imply that the blade design load is an important factor on the excitation force in centrifugal pumps.

  14. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  15. Nutrition Coupled with High-Load Traditional or Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Exercise During Human Limb Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; Everett, M.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    High-load resistance exercise (HRE) and low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise have demonstrated efficacy for attenuating unloading related muscle atrophy and dysfunction. In recreational exercisers, protein consumption immediately before and/or after exercise has been shown to increase the skeletal muscle anabolic response to resistance training. PURPOSE: To compare the skeletal muscle adaptations when chocolate milk intake was coupled with HRE or low-load BFR exercise [3 d/wk] during simulated lower limb weightlessness. METHODS: Eleven subjects were counterbalanced [based on age and gender] to HRE (31 +/- 14 yr, 170 +/- 13 cm, 71 +/- 18 kg, 2M/3W) or low-load BFR exercise (31 +/- 12 yr, 169 +/- 13 cm, 66 +/- 14 kg, 2M/4W) during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Both HRE and BFR completed 3 sets of single leg press and calf raise exercise during ULLS. BFR exercise intensity was 20% of repetition maximum (1RM) with a cuff inflation pressure of 1.3 systolic blood pressure (143 4 mmHg). Cuff pressure was maintained during all 3 sets including rest intervals (90s). HRE intensity was 75% 1RM and was performed without cuff inflation. Immediately (HRE vs. BFR, respectively. Leg press training loads were 44 +/- 7 kg in HRE compared to 11 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Similarly, calf raise training loads were 81 +/- 11 kg in HRE and 16 +/- 1 kg in BFR. Pre to post-ULLS training adaptations in the unloaded leg are shown in the table. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results of this investigation suggest when HRE is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle size and strength are preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle endurance. In contrast, when BFR exercise is optimized for muscle anabolism during unloading muscle endurance is preserved (or enhanced) at the expense of muscle size and strength

  16. Thermally determining flow and/or heat load distribution in parallel paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2016-12-13

    A method including obtaining calibration data for at least one sub-component in a heat transfer assembly, wherein the calibration data comprises at least one indication of coolant flow rate through the sub-component for a given surface temperature delta of the sub-component and a given heat load into said sub-component, determining a measured heat load into the sub-component, determining a measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component, and determining a coolant flow distribution in a first flow path comprising the sub-component from the calibration data according to the measured heat load and the measured surface temperature delta of the sub-component.

  17. Forest fuel reduces the nitrogen load - calculations of nitrogen flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstroem, F.; Johansson, Jan.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition in Sweden has increased strongly during recent decades, particularly in southern Sweden. Nitrogen appears to be largely accumulated in biomass and in the soil. It is therefore desirable to check the accumulation of nitrogen in the forest. The most suitable way of doing this is to remove more nitrogen-rich biomass from the forest, i.e., increase the removal of felling residues from final fellings and cleanings. An ecological condition for intensive removal of fuel is that the ashes are returned. The critical load for nitrogen, CL(N), indicates the level of nitrogen deposition that the forest can withstand without leading to ecological changes. Today, nitrogen deposition is higher than the CL(N) in almost all of Sweden. CL(N) is calculated in such a manner that nitrogen deposition should largely be balanced by nitrogen losses through harvesting during a forest rotation. The value of CL(N) thus largely depends on how much nitrogen is removed with the harvested biomass. When both stems and felling residues are harvested, the CL(N) is about three times higher than in conventional forestry. The increase is directly related to the amount of nitrogen in the removed biofuel. Use of biofuel also causes a certain amount of nitrogen emissions. From the environmental viewpoint there is no difference between the sources of the nitrogen compounds. An analysis of the entire fuel chain shows that, compared with the amount of nitrogen removed from the forest with the fuel, about 5 % will be emitted as nitrogen oxides or ammonia during combustion, and a further ca 5 % during handling and transports. A net amount of about 90 % of biomass nitrogen is removed from the system and becomes inert nitrogen (N 2 ). 60 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs, 11 appendices

  18. System incremental cost calculations using the participation factor load-flow formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, J.

    1993-01-01

    The load-flow problem is reformulated such that the use of a slack-bus generator is included only as a special case. This reformulation, known as the participation factor load-flow, includes a total mismatch variable and a defined participation vector, which, in general, distributes this mismatch to all system buses. The slack-bus constraint can still be obtained by defining a particular participation vector. In using the participation factor load-flow in the transpose Jacobian approach to the economic optimal dispatch problem, the paper shows that the value of the system-λ can be controlled such that this value represents the minimal incremental change in generation costs per unit change in system total demand with this demand distributed according to the specified participation vector. Methods using the conventional B-coefficient loss formulas or slack-bus load-flows give system-λ values whereby the unit change in demand must be placed on a fictitious single load-bus or on the slack-bus, respectively. Having a system-λ value which more accurately represents a proposed energy interchange between interconnected systems is very important in developing valid costs for each system. An extensive 28-bus, 8-generator system is included to illustrate these results

  19. Probabilistic Constrained Load Flow Considering Integration of Wind Power Generation and Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...... are incorporated into load flow studies. In the resulted PCLF formulation, discrete and continuous control parameters are engaged. Therefore, a hybrid learning automata system (HLAS) is developed to find the optimal offline control settings over a whole planning period of power system. The process of HLAS...

  20. Load Flow Analysis of Hybrid AC-DC Power System with Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhua, Debasish; Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    The offshore wind power has received immense attention because of higher wind speed and lower opposition for construction. A wide range of combinations of high-voltage ACDC transmission have been proposed for integrating offshore wind farms and long-distance power transmission. This paper...... is to model such hybrid AC-DC systems including the interfacing converters, which have several control parameters that can change the load flow of the hybrid systems. Then, the paper proposes a Load Flow algorithm based on the Newton-Raphson method, which covers three different section types...

  1. Program determines two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, C.E.; Espiell, L.G.S.; Farina, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    When a mixture of a gas and a liquid flows along a horizontal pipe, it is possible to have up to seven different flow patterns. These flow patterns are: 1. Dispersed. When nearly all the liquid is entrained as spray by the gas; 2. Annular. The liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe, and the gas flows at a high velocity as a central core; 3. Bubble. Bubbles of gas move along at about the same velocity as the liquid; 4. Stratified. The liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows above over a smooth gas-liquid interface; 5. Wave. Is similar to stratified except the interface is disturbed by waves moving in the direction of flow; 6. Slug. Waves are picked up periodically in the form of frothy slugs that move at a much greater velocity than the average liquid velocity; 7. Plug. Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the pipe

  2. Planning Student Flow with Linear Programming: A Tunisian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezeau, Lawrence

    A student flow model in linear programming format, designed to plan the movement of students into secondary and university programs in Tunisia, is described. The purpose of the plan is to determine a sufficient number of graduating students that would flow back into the system as teachers or move into the labor market to meet fixed manpower…

  3. PROBABILISTIC FLOW DISTRIBUTION AS A REACTION TO THE STOCHASTICITY OF THE LOAD IN THE POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the analysis and control of power systems deterministic approaches that are implemented in the form of well-known methods and models of calculation of steady-state and transient modes are mostly use in current practice. With the use of these methods it is possible to obtain solutions only for fixed circuit parameters of the system scheme and assuming that active and reactive powers as well as generation in nodal points of the network remain the same. In reality the stochastic character of power consumption cause the casual fluctuations of voltages at the nodes and power flows in electric power lines of the power system. Such casual fluctuations of operation can be estimated with the use of probabilistic simulation of the power flows. In the article the results of research of the influence of depth of casual fluctuations of the load power of the system on the probability distribution of voltage at nodes as well as on the flows of active and reactive power in the lines are presented. Probabilistic modeling of flow under stochastic load change is performed for different levels of fluctuations and under loading of the mode of the system up to peak load power. Test study to quantify the effect of stochastic variability of loads on the probabilistic distribution parameters of the modes was carried out on behalf of the electrical network of the real power system. The results of the simulation of the probability flow distribution for these fluctuations of the load, represented in the form of discrete sample values of the active power obtained with the use of the analytical Monte-Carlo method, and real data measurements of their values in the network under examination were compared.

  4. A New Wind Turbine Generating System Model for Balanced and Unbalanced Distribution Systems Load Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koksoy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generating systems (WTGSs, which are conventionally connected to high voltage transmission networks, have frequently been employed as distributed generation units in today’s distribution networks. In practice, the distribution networks always have unbalanced bus voltages and line currents due to uneven distribution of single or double phase loads over three phases and asymmetry of the lines, etc. Accordingly, in this study, for the load flow analysis of the distribution networks, Conventional Fixed speed Induction Generator (CFIG based WTGS, one of the most widely used WTGS types, is modelled under unbalanced voltage conditions. The Developed model has active and reactive power expressions in terms of induction machine impedance parameters, terminal voltages and input power. The validity of the Developed model is confirmed with the experimental results obtained in a test system. The results of the slip calculation based phase-domain model (SCP Model, which was previously proposed in the literature for CFIG based WTGSs under unbalanced voltages, are also given for the comparison. Finally, the Developed model and the SCP model are implemented in the load flow analysis of the IEEE 34 bus test system with the CFIG based WTGSs and unbalanced loads. Thus, it is clearly pointed out that the results of the load flow analysis implemented with both models are very close to each other, and the Developed model is computationally more efficient than the SCP model.

  5. Letter to the Editor: Electric Vehicle Demand Model for Load Flow Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces specific and simple model for electric vehicles suitable for load flow studies. The electric vehicles demand system is modelled as PQ bus with stochastic characteristics based on the concept of queuing theory. All appropriate variables of stochastic PQ buses are given...... with closed formulae as a function of charging time. Specific manufacturer model of electric vehicles is used as study case....

  6. Bed Load Variability and Morphology of Gravel Bed Rivers Subject to Unsteady Flow: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Bertoldi, W.; Tubino, M.; Welber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Measurement and estimation of bed load transport in gravel bed rivers are highly affected by its temporal fluctuations. Such variability is primarily driven by the flow regime but is also associated with a variety of inherent channel processes, such as flow turbulence, grain entrainment, and bed forms migration. These internal and external controls often act at comparable time scales, and are therefore difficult to disentangle, thus hindering the study of bed load variability under unsteady flow regime. In this paper, we report on laboratory experiments performed in a large, mobile bed flume where typical hydromorphological conditions of gravel bed rivers were reproduced. Data from a large number of replicated runs, including triangular and square-wave hydrographs, were used to build a statistically sound description of sediment transport processes. We found that the inherent variability of bed load flux strongly depends on the sampling interval, and it is significantly higher in complex, wandering or braided channels. This variability can be filtered out by computing the mean response over the experimental replicates, which allows us to highlight two distinctive phenomena: (i) an overshooting (undershooting) response of the mean bed load flux to a sudden increase (decrease) of discharge, and (ii) a clockwise hysteresis in the sediment rating curve. We then provide an interpretation of these findings through a conceptual mathematical model, showing how both phenomena are associated with a lagging morphological adaptation to unsteady flow. Overall, this work provides basic information for evaluating, monitoring, and managing gravel transport in morphologically active rivers.

  7. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250mm wide and 12·5m long with glass-sides of rectan- gular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass.

  8. A network flow model for load balancing in circuit-switched multicomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.

    1990-01-01

    In multicomputers that utilize circuit switching or wormhole routing, communication overhead depends largely on link contention - the variation due to distance between nodes is negligible. This has a major impact on the load balancing problem. In this case, there are some nodes with excess load (sources) and others with deficit load (sinks) and it is required to find a matching of sources to sinks that avoids contention. The problem is made complex by the hardwired routing on currently available machines: the user can control only which nodes communicate but not how the messages are routed. Network flow models of message flow in the mesh and the hypercube were developed to solve this problem. The crucial property of these models is the correspondence between minimum cost flows and correctly routed messages. To solve a given load balancing problem, a minimum cost flow algorithm is applied to the network. This permits one to determine efficiently a maximum contention free matching of sources to sinks which, in turn, tells one how much of the given imbalance can be eliminated without contention.

  9. Cargo flows distribution over the loading sites of enterprises by using methods of artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Павлович Кіркін

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies and market requirements in effective control over cargo flows, forces enterprises to look for new ways and methods of automated control over the technological operations. For rail transportation one of the most complicated tasks of automation is the cargo flows distribution over the sites of loading and unloading. In this article the solution with the use of one of the methods of artificial intelligence – a fuzzy inference has been proposed. The analysis of the last publications showed that the fuzzy inference method is effective for the solution of similar tasks, it makes it possible to accumulate experience, it is stable to temporary impacts of the environmental conditions. The existing methods of the cargo flows distribution over the sites of loading and unloading are too simplified and can lead to incorrect decisions. The purpose of the article is to create a distribution model of cargo flows of the enterprises over the sites of loading and unloading, basing on the fuzzy inference method and to automate the control. To achieve the objective a mathematical model of the cargo flows distribution over the sites of loading and unloading has been made using fuzzy logic. The key input parameters of the model are: «number of loading sites», «arrival of the next set of cars», «availability of additional operations». The output parameter is «a variety of set of cars». Application of the fuzzy inference method made it possible to reduce loading time by 15% and to reduce costs for preparatory operations before loading by 20%. Thus this method is an effective means and holds the greatest promise for railway competitiveness increase. Interaction between different types of transportation and their influence on the cargo flows distribution over the sites of loading and unloading hasn’t been considered. These sites may be busy transshipping at that very time which is characteristic of large enterprises

  10. Flow field and load characteristics of the whole MEXICO wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) method was used to perform steady numerical simulation investigation on the flow field and load characteristics of MEXICO(Model EXperiment In Controlled cOnditions) wind turbine under non-yawed condition. Circumferentially-Averaged method was used to extract...... characteristics around the blade was analyzed and the points of flow separation were found along the blade, the results show that the points of flow separation move towards trailing edge with the increase of radius. The distribution of vorticity in the wake of MEXICO rotor was also analyzed. The distribution...

  11. Investigation of the Flow Field and Performances of a Centrifugal Pump at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunières, R.; Inoue, Y.; Nagahara, T.

    2016-11-01

    Centrifugal pump performance curve instability, characterized by a local dent at part load, can be the consequence of flow instabilities in rotating or stationary parts. Such flow instabilities often result in abnormal operating conditions which can damage both the pump and the system. In order for the pump to have reliable operation over a wide flow rate range, it is necessary to achieve a design free of instability. The present paper focuses on performance curve instability of a centrifugal pump of mid specific speed (ωs = 0.65) for which instability was observed at part load during tests. The geometry used for this research consist of the first stage of a multi-stage centrifugal pump and is composed of a suction bend, a closed-type impeller, a vaned diffuser and return guide vanes. In order to analyse the instability phenomenon, PIV and CFD analysis were performed. Both methods qualitatively agree relatively well. It appears that the main difference before and after head drop is an increase of reverse flow rate at the diffuser passage inlet on the hub side. This reverse flow decreases the flow passing area at the diffuser passage inlet, disallowing effective flow deceleration and impairing static pressure recovery.

  12. Effects of external pressure loading on human skin blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, G.A. Jr.; Daly, C.H.; Kennedy, D.; Chimoskey, J.

    1976-01-01

    Forearm skin blood flow was measured during external pressure loading in normal human subjects using 133 Xe washout from intracutaneous injection sites. Pressures ranging between 5 and 150 mmHg were applied through a 3-cm-diameter disc placed over the site of flow determination. The pressure was maintained constant by a servo-controlled loading mechanism. Flow decreased with pressures from 5 to 10 and 30 to 150 mmHg, but remained constant with pressures from 10 to 30 mmHg. Reactive hyperemia occurred following removal of pressures of 90 mmHg or greater, but did not occur following removal of lower pressures. The pressure-flow curve for parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects closely paralleled the pressure-flow curve of normal skin at pressures tested: 5 to 15 mmHg. These data are interpreted to demonstrate autoregulation of skin blood flow. Autoregulation in parasacral skin of paraplegic subjects suggests a peripheral mechanism. The occurrence of hyperemia at pressures which exceed the ability of skin to autoregulate suggests that both autoregulation and post occlusion hyperemia may have the same mechanism

  13. EFFECTS OF SLOTTED BLADING ON SECONDARY FLOW IN HIGHLY LOADED COMPRESSOR CASCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMZI MDOUKI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to increase allowable blade loadings and enlarge stable operating range in highly loaded compressor, this work is carried out in order to explore the potential of passive control via slotted bladings in linear cascade configurations under both design and stall conditions. Through an extensive 2D-numerical study, the effects of location, width and slope of slots were analysed and the best configuration was identified. Based on the optimal slot, the 3D aerodynamic performances of cascade were studied and the influence of slotted blading to control endwall flow was investigated. Both 2D and 3D calculations are performed on steady RANS solver with standard k-epsilon turbulence model and low Mach number regime. The total loss coefficient, turning angle and flow visualizations on the blade and end-wall surfaces are adopted to describe the different configurations. The obtained results show, for 2D situation, that a maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient had been reached and the flow turning was increased with approximately 5°. Concerning 3D flow fields the slots marked their benefit at large incoming flow angles which delays the separation on both end wall and blade suction surface at mid span. However, at design conditions, the slotted blades are not able to control secondary flows near the wall and so, lose their potential.

  14. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated

  15. Experimentally determined distribution of granular-flow characteristics in collisional bed load transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of laboratory experiments on turbulent open-channel two-phase flow in a form of intense bed load transport is reported. Measurements in a laboratory tilting flume included camera based imaging techniques to identify the structure of the flow at the local level. Obtained experimental distributions of two-phase flow related parameters - granular velocity, concentration, and temperature - across a collisional transport layer are discussed. The results are analysed together with additional measured quantities (discharges of mixture and grains, flow depth, bed slope etc. Our major goal is to evaluate the distribution of granular stresses across the transport layer with a special attention paid to the interface between the transport layer and the bed. Furthermore, comparisons are discussed between the experimental results and predictions produced by suitable kinetic-theory based models.

  16. Automated system for load flow prediction in power substations using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlys Michel Lastre Aleaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The load flow is of great importance in assisting the process of decision making and planning of generation, distribution and transmission of electricity. Ignorance of the values in this indicator, as well as their inappropriate prediction, difficult decision making and efficiency of the electricity service, and can cause undesirable situations such as; the on demand, overheating of the components that make up a substation, and incorrect planning processes electricity generation and distribution. Given the need for prediction of flow of electric charge of the substations in Ecuador this research proposes the concept for the development of an automated prediction system employing the use of Artificial Neural Networks.

  17. Constant Jacobian Matrix-Based Stochastic Galerkin Method for Probabilistic Load Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyun Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An intrusive spectral method of probabilistic load flow (PLF is proposed in the paper, which can handle the uncertainties arising from renewable energy integration. Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC expansions of dependent random variables are utilized to build a spectral stochastic representation of PLF model. Instead of solving the coupled PLF model with a traditional, cumbersome method, a modified stochastic Galerkin (SG method is proposed based on the P-Q decoupling properties of load flow in power system. By introducing two pre-calculated constant sparse Jacobian matrices, the computational burden of the SG method is significantly reduced. Two cases, IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems, are used to verify the computation speed and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in distribution systems load flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in load flow calculations for steady-state voltage compensation. An accurate model for this device is derived to use in load flow calculations. The rating of this device as well as direction of reactive power injection required to compensate voltage to the desired value (1 p.u.) is derived and discussed analytically and mathematically using phasor diagram method. Since performance of the compensator varies when it reaches to its maximum capacity, modeling of UPQC in its maximum rating of reactive power injection is derived. The validity of the proposed model is examined using two standard distribution systems consisting of 33 and 69 nodes, respectively. The best location of UPQC for under voltage problem mitigation in the distribution network is determined. The results show the validity of the proposed model for UPQC in large distribution systems.

  19. Modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in distribution systems load flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, M.; Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents modeling of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) in load flow calculations for steady-state voltage compensation. An accurate model for this device is derived to use in load flow calculations. The rating of this device as well as direction of reactive power injection required to compensate voltage to the desired value (1 p.u.) is derived and discussed analytically and mathematically using phasor diagram method. Since performance of the compensator varies when it reaches to its maximum capacity, modeling of UPQC in its maximum rating of reactive power injection is derived. The validity of the proposed model is examined using two standard distribution systems consisting of 33 and 69 nodes, respectively. The best location of UPQC for under voltage problem mitigation in the distribution network is determined. The results show the validity of the proposed model for UPQC in large distribution systems. (author)

  20. Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares in a load flow calculation three existing steady-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance model and the firing angle model. The comparison is made in terms of the voltage at the SVC regulated bus, equivalent...... SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate both when SVC is operating within and on the limits. The latter two models give inaccurate results of the equivalent SVC susceptance as compared to the generator model due to the assumption of constant voltage when the SVC...... is operating within the limits. This may underestimate or overestimate the SVC regulating capability. Two modified models are proposed to improve the SVC regulated voltage according to its steady-state characteristic. The simulation results of the two modified models show the improved accuracy...

  1. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  2. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself

  3. Towards Separation of Concerns in Flow-Based Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Flow-Based Programming (FBP) is a programming paradigm that models software systems as a directed graph of predefined processes which run asynchronously and exchange data through input and output ports. FBP decomposes software systems into a network of processes. However there are concerns...

  4. European Research Program on Viscous Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    etc 4.31a M. Goossens A fast programmable multichannel datalogger, micro- A. Haverbeke processors and their applications. H. De Doncker Nort-Holland...vertical fin with a turbulent boundary VKI layer B.E. Richards o 9.11; Tran3onic shock/boundary layer interaction DFVLR(ES) Co E. Stanewsky 9.14 Effect...12.12 Laminar and turbulent heat transfer on surfaces at high VKI angles to hypersonic flow B.E. Richards 12.14 Heat and mass transfer at nozzle wall

  5. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  6. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X

    2013-01-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  7. Heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden older adults with low and normal ankle-brachial pressure index: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nami; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Inagaki, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Nakatani, Tosio; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden adults older than 65 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO₂): (1) patients with an ABI ≥ 0.8 (Group A); (2) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ ≥ 10 mmHg (Group B); and (3) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg (Group C). Heel blood flow was monitored using tcPO₂ sensors. Data were collected with the heel (1) suspended above the bed surface (preload), (2) on the bed surface for 30 min (loading), and (3) again suspended above the bed surface for 60 min (off-loading). Heel blood flow during off-loading was assessed using three parameters: oxygen recovery index (ORI), total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min, and change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading. ORI in Group C (n = 8) was significantly shorter than in Groups A (n = 22) and B (n = 15). Total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min of off-loading in Group C was significantly less than that in Groups A and B. Change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading in Group C was less than in Group A. Based on these findings, additional preventive care against heel blood flow decrease in older adults with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg might be necessary after loading.

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  9. Contribution of Fuzzy Minimal Cost Flow Problem by Possibility Programming

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fanati Rashidi; A. A. Noora

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of possibility proposed by zadeh, luhandjula ([4,8]) and buckley ([1]) have proposed the possibility programming. The formulation of buckley results in nonlinear programming problems. Negi [6]re-formulated the approach of Buckley by the use of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and reduced the problem into fuzzy linear programming problem. Shih and Lee ([7]) used the Negi approach to solve a minimum cost flow problem, whit fuzzy costs and the upper and lower bound. ...

  10. Skidder load capacity and fuel consumption HP-41C program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross A. Phillips

    1983-01-01

    This program gives the log weight that the skidder can move and gives fuel consumption either in liters or gallons per turn. Slope of the skid trail, skidder weight, and skid distance must be entered into the program.

  11. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Liu, X J; Yang, A L; Dai, R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved

  12. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  13. Effective flow-accelerated corrosion programs in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas C.; McBrine, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Piping Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Programs in nuclear power generation facilities are classically comprised of the selection of inspection locations with the assistance of a predictive methodology such as the Electric Power Research Institute computer codes CHECMATE or CHECWORKS, performing inspections, conducting structural evaluations on the inspected components, and implementing the appropriate sample expansion and corrective actions. Performing such a sequence of steps can be effective in identifying thinned components and implementing appropriate short term and long term actions necessary to resolve flow-accelerated corrosion related problems. A maximally effective flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) program requires an understanding of many programmatic details. These include the procedural control of the program, effective use of historical information, managing the activities performed during a limited duration outage, allocating resources based on risk allocation, having an acute awareness of how the plant is operated, investigating components removed from the plant, and several others. This paper will describe such details and methods that will lead to a flow-accelerated corrosion program that effectively minimizes the risk of failure due to flow-accelerated corrosion and provide full and complete documentation of the program. (author)

  14. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Heffner, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant and predictable load

  15. Patterns of deformation and volcanic flows associated with lithospheric loading by large volcanoes on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    Magellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanoes on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are negligible, so tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanoes should be evident except where buried by very young flows. Radar images reveal that most tectonic features and flow units on the flanks of these volcanoes have predominantly radial orientations. However, both Tepev Mons in Bell Regio and Sapas Mons in Atla Regio exhibit circumferential graben on their flanks. In addition, images reveal several flow units with an annular character around the north and west flanks of Tepev Mons. This pattern most likely results from ponding of flows in an annular flexural moat. Maat Mons in Atla Regio and Sif Mons in Eistla Regio are examples of volcanoes that lack circumferential graben and annular flows; discernible flow units and fractures on these constructs appear to be predominantly radial. Altimetry data can also provide evidence of flexural response. Tepev Mons is partially encircled by depressions that may be sections of a flexural moat that has not been completely filled. The locations of these depressions generally coincide with the annular flows described above. There is weaker evidence for such depressions around Maat Mons as well. The lack of circumferential tectonic features around most volcanoes on Venus might be explained by gradual moat filling and coverage by radial flows. The depressions around Tepev (and possible Maat) may indicate that this process is currently continuing. We use analytic models of plate flexure in an axisymmetric geometry to constrain the elastic plate thickness supporting Tepev Mons. If we consider the outer radius of the ponded flows to be the edge of a moat, we find that models with elastic plate thickness of 10-20 km fit best. Finite element

  16. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  17. Control of the flow rate in decreasing of the water load of peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The retention capacity and control of the flow rate was studied in the Aqua-Peat research. The sedimentation ability of solid matter (peat particles), erosion, migration of the solid matter, and the functioning of the retention pipes located in the strip ditches and the sedimentation basins were measured in the research. Detection was also supplemented by laboratory scale models and by measurements made using them. A model, describing the solid matter erosion and migration on the mire, was compiled on the basis of the results. Migration of the solid matter is possible to reduce by pounding the water into the ditching. So there is more time for particles to settle before migration into watercources. By this method it is possible to reduce the solid matter loads caused by heavy rains and power-flows even by 88 %. If the flow control system is equipped with retainers and settling basins, the solid matter retention capacity can rise up to 93-97 %. The results have shown that the retention pipe retainers play more important role in reduction of solid matter load than sedimentation basins. A follow-up study was made using several types of retainers. A 5 cm thick siphon pipe appeared to be the best. The final selection of the retention pipes has, however, to be made as a compromise between the functioning of the drying process, production possibilities and solid matter retention. (1 ref., 2 figs.)

  18. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  20. Interaction of mass-loaded solar wind flow with blunt body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breus, T.K.; Krymskii, A.M.; Mitnitskii, V.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the numerical modeling of the solar wind interaction with Venus taking into account the mass loading effect due to the photoionization of the Venus neutral oxygen corona. The analysis has shown that this effect unambiguously explains the number of peculiarities of the SW-Venus interaction pattern that could not be quantitatively explained before, namely the shock front position, and the characteristics of the SW flow and magnetic field in the Venus ionosheath observed from experiments onboard of Venera-9 and -10 and Pioneer-Venus spacecraft. (author)

  1. Mark II containment lead plant program load evaluation and acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The report, prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, addresses the portion of the Mark II owner's program that provides a generic methodology for establishing design basis LOCA and safety relief valve loads for the lead Mark II facilities (Zimmer, Shoreham, and LaSalle), i.e., the lead plant program. The report includes an evaluation of the Mark II owner's load methodology, a description of load methodologies that we find acceptable for use in the individual plant unique assessments, and the basis for the stated conclusions

  2. Efficient Load Forecasting Optimized by Fuzzy Programming and OFDM Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    reduce the error of load forecasting, fuzzy method has been used with Artificial Neural Network (ANN and OFDM transmission is used to get data from outer world and send outputs to outer world accurately and quickly. The error has been reduced to a considerable level in the range of 2-3%. For further reducing the error, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM can be used with Reed-Solomon (RS encoding. Further studies are going on with Fuzzy Regression methods to reduce the error more.

  3. A stochastic programming approach to manufacturing flow control

    OpenAIRE

    Haurie, Alain; Moresino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and tests an approximation of the solution of a class of piecewise deterministic control problems, typically used in the modeling of manufacturing flow processes. This approximation uses a stochastic programming approach on a suitably discretized and sampled system. The method proceeds through two stages: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) dynamic programming equations for the finite horizon continuous time stochastic control problem are discretized over a set of sample...

  4. Modeling of a pitching and plunging airfoil using experimental flow field and load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the current paper is to outline a low-order modeling procedure of a heaving airfoil in a still fluid using experimental measurements. Due to its relative simplicity, the proposed procedure is applicable for the analysis of flow fields within complex and unsteady geometries and it is suitable for analyzing the data obtained by experimentation. Currently, this procedure is used to model and predict the flow field evolution using a small number of low profile load sensors and flow field measurements. A time delay neural network is used to estimate the flow field. The neural network estimates the amplitudes of the most energetic modes using four sensory inputs. The modes are calculated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the flow field data obtained experimentally by time-resolved, phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. To permit the use of proper orthogonal decomposition, the measured flow field is mapped onto a stationary domain using volume preserving transformation. The analysis performed by the model showed good estimation quality within the parameter range used in the training procedure. However, the performance deteriorates for cases out of this range. This situation indicates that, to improve the robustness of the model, both the decomposition and the training data sets must be diverse in terms of input parameter space. In addition, the results suggest that the property of volume preservation of the mapping does not affect the model quality as long as the model is not based on the Galerkin approximation. Thus, it may be relaxed for cases with more complex geometry and kinematics.

  5. Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena

  6. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  7. Load flow analysis for determining the location of NPP power distribution in West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citra Candranurani; Rizki Finnansyah Setya Budi; Sahala M Lumbanraja

    2015-01-01

    Electricity crisis condition happened in West Kalimantan (Kalbar) as a result of power plant capacity almost equal to the peak load. The system will experience a shortfall if there are plants that not operating and do not have reserve. The policy of electricity planning until 2022 is replacing diesel power plant with steam power plant. For long-term planning is required the role of new and renewable energy in order to reduce dependency on fossil fuel consumption, such as NPP utilization. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum location of the NPP power distribution in order to prepare electricity infrastructure. Load flow calculation in this study using ETAP 12.5 software. NPP is planned to supply base load, so the optimum capacity factor is above 80 %. The result show that there are three location where NPP can generate over 80 % of its capacity, namely: Mempawah Substation, Singkawang Substation, and Sambas Substation. The most optimum located in Mempawah Substation with capacity factor 83.5 %. The location of the three Substation are onshore and in line with one requirement for NPP construction, namely: the availability of cooling water. (author)

  8. FFTF and Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-10-31

    This Resource Load Schedule (RLS) addresses two missions. The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) mission, funded by DOE-EM, is to transition assigned, surplus facilities to a safe and compliant, low-cost, stable, deactivated condition (requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance) pending eventual reuse or D&D. Facilities to be transitioned include the 309 Building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) and Nuclear Energy Legacy facilities. This mission is funded through the Environmental Management (EM) Project Baseline Summary (PBS) RL-TP11, ''Advanced Reactors Transition.'' The second mission, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Project, is funded through budget requests submitted to the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (DOE-NE). The FFTF Project mission is maintaining the FFTF, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and affiliated 400 Area buildings in a safe and compliant standby condition. This mission is to preserve the condition of the plant hardware, software, and personnel in a manner not to preclude a plant restart. This revision of the Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) is based upon the technical scope in the latest revision of the following project and management plans: Fast Flux Test Facility Standby Plan (Reference 1); Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan (Reference 2); and 309 Building Transition Plan (Reference 4). The technical scope, cost, and schedule baseline is also in agreement with the concurrent revision to the ART Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP), which is available in an electronic version (only) on the Hanford Local Area Network, within the ''Hanford Data Integrator (HANDI)'' application.

  9. Using linear programming to analyze and optimize stochastic flow lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helber, Stefan; Schimmelpfeng, Katja; Stolletz, Raik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming approach to analyze and optimize flow lines with limited buffer capacities and stochastic processing times. The basic idea is to solve a huge but simple linear program that models an entire simulation run of a multi-stage production process in discrete time...... programming and hence allows us to solve buffer allocation problems. We show under which conditions our method works well by comparing its results to exact values for two-machine models and approximate simulation results for longer lines....

  10. Contribution of Fuzzy Minimal Cost Flow Problem by Possibility Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fanati Rashidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the concept of possibility proposed by zadeh, luhandjula ([4,8] and buckley ([1] have proposed the possibility programming. The formulation of buckley results in nonlinear programming problems. Negi [6]re-formulated the approach of Buckley by the use of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and reduced the problem into fuzzy linear programming problem. Shih and Lee ([7] used the Negi approach to solve a minimum cost flow problem, whit fuzzy costs and the upper and lower bound. In this paper we shall consider the general form of this problem where all of the parameters and variables are fuzzy and also a model for solving is proposed

  11. Phloem Loading in Two Scrophulariaceae Species. What Can Drive Symplastic Flow via Plasmodesmata?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V.; Koroleva, Olga A.; Batashev, Denis R.; Knop, Christian; Tomos, A. Deri; Gamalei, Yuri V.; Heldt, Hans-Walter; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2006-01-01

    To determine the driving forces for symplastic sugar flux between mesophyll and phloem, gradients of sugar concentrations and osmotic pressure were studied in leaf tissues of two Scrophulariaceae species, Alonsoa meridionalis and Asarina barclaiana. A. meridionalis has a typical symplastic configuration of minor-vein phloem, i.e. intermediary companion cells with highly developed plasmodesmal connections to bundle-sheath cells. In A. barclaiana, two types of companion cells, modified intermediary cells and transfer cells, were found in minor-vein phloem, giving this species the potential to have a complex phloem-loading mode. We identified all phloem-transported carbohydrates in both species and analyzed the levels of carbohydrates in chloroplasts, vacuoles, and cytoplasm of mesophyll cells by nonaqueous fractionation. Osmotic pressure was measured in single epidermal and mesophyll cells and in whole leaves and compared with calculated values for phloem sap. In A. meridionalis, a 2-fold concentration gradient for sucrose between mesophyll and phloem was found. In A. barclaiana, the major transported carbohydrates, sucrose and antirrhinoside, were present in the phloem in 22- and 6-fold higher concentrations, respectively, than in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cells. The data show that diffusion of sugars along their concentration gradients is unlikely to be the major mechanism for symplastic phloem loading if this were to occur in these species. We conclude that in both A. meridionalis and A. barclaiana, apoplastic phloem loading is an indispensable mechanism and that symplastic entrance of solutes into the phloem may occur by mass flow. The conditions favoring symplastic mass flow into the phloem are discussed. PMID:16377750

  12. Phloem loading in two Scrophulariaceae species. What can drive symplastic flow via plasmodesmata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V; Koroleva, Olga A; Batashev, Denis R; Knop, Christian; Tomos, A Deri; Gamalei, Yuri V; Heldt, Hans-Walter; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2006-01-01

    To determine the driving forces for symplastic sugar flux between mesophyll and phloem, gradients of sugar concentrations and osmotic pressure were studied in leaf tissues of two Scrophulariaceae species, Alonsoa meridionalis and Asarina barclaiana. A. meridionalis has a typical symplastic configuration of minor-vein phloem, i.e. intermediary companion cells with highly developed plasmodesmal connections to bundle-sheath cells. In A. barclaiana, two types of companion cells, modified intermediary cells and transfer cells, were found in minor-vein phloem, giving this species the potential to have a complex phloem-loading mode. We identified all phloem-transported carbohydrates in both species and analyzed the levels of carbohydrates in chloroplasts, vacuoles, and cytoplasm of mesophyll cells by nonaqueous fractionation. Osmotic pressure was measured in single epidermal and mesophyll cells and in whole leaves and compared with calculated values for phloem sap. In A. meridionalis, a 2-fold concentration gradient for sucrose between mesophyll and phloem was found. In A. barclaiana, the major transported carbohydrates, sucrose and antirrhinoside, were present in the phloem in 22- and 6-fold higher concentrations, respectively, than in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cells. The data show that diffusion of sugars along their concentration gradients is unlikely to be the major mechanism for symplastic phloem loading if this were to occur in these species. We conclude that in both A. meridionalis and A. barclaiana, apoplastic phloem loading is an indispensable mechanism and that symplastic entrance of solutes into the phloem may occur by mass flow. The conditions favoring symplastic mass flow into the phloem are discussed.

  13. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads M.; Larsen, Torben J.; Madsen, Helge Aa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can...... be performed from a few hours or days of measurements. In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup...... anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation...

  14. A hybrid load flow and event driven simulation approach to multi-state system reliability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George-Williams, Hindolo; Patelli, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Structural complexity of systems, coupled with their multi-state characteristics, renders their reliability and availability evaluation difficult. Notwithstanding the emergence of various techniques dedicated to complex multi-state system analysis, simulation remains the only approach applicable to realistic systems. However, most simulation algorithms are either system specific or limited to simple systems since they require enumerating all possible system states, defining the cut-sets associated with each state and monitoring their occurrence. In addition to being extremely tedious for large complex systems, state enumeration and cut-set definition require a detailed understanding of the system's failure mechanism. In this paper, a simple and generally applicable simulation approach, enhanced for multi-state systems of any topology is presented. Here, each component is defined as a Semi-Markov stochastic process and via discrete-event simulation, the operation of the system is mimicked. The principles of flow conservation are invoked to determine flow across the system for every performance level change of its components using the interior-point algorithm. This eliminates the need for cut-set definition and overcomes the limitations of existing techniques. The methodology can also be exploited to account for effects of transmission efficiency and loading restrictions of components on system reliability and performance. The principles and algorithms developed are applied to two numerical examples to demonstrate their applicability. - Highlights: • A discrete event simulation model based on load flow principles. • Model does not require system path or cut sets. • Applicable to binary and multi-state systems of any topology. • Supports multiple output systems with competing demand. • Model is intuitive and generally applicable.

  15. Optimization programs for reactor core fuel loading exhibiting reduced neutron leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.

    1991-01-01

    The program MAXIM was developed for the optimization of the fuel loading of WWER-440 reactors. It enables the reactor core reactivity to be maximized by modifying the arrangement of the fuel assemblies. The procedure is divided into three steps. The first step includes the passage from the three-dimensional model of the reactor core to the two-dimensional model. In the second step, the solution to the problem is sought assuming that the multiplying properties, or the reactivity in the zones of the core, vary continuously. In the third step, parameters of actual fuel assemblies are inserted in the ''continuous'' solution obtained. Combined with the program PROPAL for a detailed refinement of the loading, the program MAXIM forms a basis for the development of programs for the optimization of fuel loading with burnable poisons. (Z.M.). 16 refs

  16. Unscheduled load flow effect due to large variation in the distributed generation in a subtransmission network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mujahidul

    A sustainable energy delivery infrastructure implies the safe and reliable accommodation of large scale penetration of renewable sources in the power grid. In this dissertation it is assumed there will be no significant change in the power transmission and distribution structure currently in place; except in the operating strategy and regulatory policy. That is to say, with the same old structure, the path towards unveiling a high penetration of switching power converters in the power system will be challenging. Some of the dimensions of this challenge are power quality degradation, frequent false trips due to power system imbalance, and losses due to a large neutral current. The ultimate result is the reduced life of many power distribution components - transformers, switches and sophisticated loads. Numerous ancillary services are being developed and offered by the utility operators to mitigate these problems. These services will likely raise the system's operational cost, not only from the utility operators' end, but also reflected on the Independent System Operators and by the Regional Transmission Operators (RTO) due to an unforeseen backlash of frequent variation in the load-side generation or distributed generation. The North American transmission grid is an interconnected system similar to a large electrical circuit. This circuit was not planned but designed over 100 years. The natural laws of physics govern the power flow among loads and generators except where control mechanisms are installed. The control mechanism has not matured enough to withstand the high penetration of variable generators at uncontrolled distribution ends. Unlike a radial distribution system, mesh or loop networks can alleviate complex channels for real and reactive power flow. Significant variation in real power injection and absorption on the distribution side can emerge as a bias signal on the routing reactive power in some physical links or channels that are not distinguishable

  17. PACTOLUS, Nuclear Power Plant Cost and Economics by Discounted Cash Flow Method. CLOTHO, Mass Flow Data Calculation for Program PACTOLUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PACTOLUS is a code for computing nuclear power costs using the discounted cash flow method. The cash flows are generated from input unit costs, time schedules and burnup data. CLOTHO calculates and communicates to PACTOLUS mass flow data to match a specified load factor history. 2 - Method of solution: Plant lifetime power costs are calculated using the discounted cash flow method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 40 annual time periods into which all costs and mass flows are accumulated, 20 isotopic mass flows charged into and discharged from the reactor model

  18. Hybrid Information Flow Analysis for Programs with Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergö Barany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information flow analysis checks whether certain pieces of (confidential data may affect the results of computations in unwanted ways and thus leak information. Dynamic information flow analysis adds instrumentation code to the target software to track flows at run time and raise alarms if a flow policy is violated; hybrid analyses combine this with preliminary static analysis. Using a subset of C as the target language, we extend previous work on hybrid information flow analysis that handled pointers to scalars. Our extended formulation handles arrays, pointers to array elements, and pointer arithmetic. Information flow through arrays of pointers is tracked precisely while arrays of non-pointer types are summarized efficiently. A prototype of our approach is implemented using the Frama-C program analysis and transformation framework. Work on a full machine-checked proof of the correctness of our approach using Isabelle/HOL is well underway; we present the existing parts and sketch the rest of the correctness argument.

  19. Renewable Distributed Generation Models in Three-Phase Load Flow Analysis for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents renewable distributed generation  (RDG models as three-phase resource in load flow computation and analyzes their effect when they are connected in composite networks. The RDG models that have been considered comprise of photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine generation (WTG. The voltage-controlled node and complex power injection node are used in the models. These improvement models are suitable for smart grid power system analysis. The combination of IEEE transmission and distribution data used to test and analyze the algorithm in solving balanced/unbalanced active systems. The combination of IEEE transmission data and IEEE test feeder are used to test the the algorithm for balanced and unbalanced multi-phase distribution system problem. The simulation results show that by increased number and size of RDG units have improved voltage profile and reduced system losses.

  20. Adaptation of perceptual responses to low-load blood flow restriction training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Ruiz-Aguado, Jorge; Herrero, Azael Juan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over six consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restricted training group (BFRT) or a high intensity group (HIT). BFRT group performed four...... sets (30+15+15+15, respectively) of unilateral leg extension at an intensity of 20% one repetition maximum (1RM) while a restrictive cuff was applied to the most proximal part of the leg. HIT group performed 3 sets of eight repetitions with 85%1RM. RPE and pain were assessed following every exercise.......01). No between-group differences were found at any time point. In summary, BFRT induces a high perceptual response to training. However, this perceptual response is rapidly attenuated, leading to values similar to those experienced during HIT. Low load BFRT should not be limited to highly motivated individuals...

  1. Data-flow Analysis of Programs with Associative Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hauzar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic programming languages, such as PHP, JavaScript, and Python, provide built-in data structures including associative arrays and objects with similar semantics—object properties can be created at run-time and accessed via arbitrary expressions. While a high level of security and safety of applications written in these languages can be of a particular importance (consider a web application storing sensitive data and providing its functionality worldwide, dynamic data structures pose significant challenges for data-flow analysis making traditional static verification methods both unsound and imprecise. In this paper, we propose a sound and precise approach for value and points-to analysis of programs with associative arrays-like data structures, upon which data-flow analyses can be built. We implemented our approach in a web-application domain—in an analyzer of PHP code.

  2. Foundations of Total Functional Data-Flow Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltasar Trancón y Widemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of declarative stream programming (discrete time, clocked synchronous, modular, data-centric is divided between the data-flow graph paradigm favored by domain experts, and the functional reactive paradigm favored by academics. In this paper, we describe the foundations of a framework for unifying functional and data-flow styles that differs from FRP proper in significant ways: It is based on set theory to match the expectations of domain experts, and the two paradigms are reduced symmetrically to a low-level middle ground, with strongly compositional semantics. The design of the framework is derived from mathematical first principles, in particular coalgebraic coinduction and a standard relational model of stateful computation. The abstract syntax and semantics introduced here constitute the full core of a novel stream programming language.

  3. Computing Programs for Determining Traffic Flows from Roundabouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroiu, A. A.; Tabacu, I.; Ene, A.; Neagu, E.; Boroiu, A.

    2017-10-01

    For modelling road traffic at the level of a road network it is necessary to specify the flows of all traffic currents at each intersection. These data can be obtained by direct measurements at the traffic light intersections, but in the case of a roundabout this is not possible directly and the literature as well as the traffic modelling software doesn’t offer ways to solve this issue. Two sets of formulas are proposed by which all traffic flows from the roundabouts with 3 or 4 arms are calculated based on the streams that can be measured. The objective of this paper is to develop computational programs to operate with these formulas. For each of the two sets of analytical relations, a computational program was developed in the Java operating language. The obtained results fully confirm the applicability of the calculation programs. The final stage for capitalizing these programs will be to make them web pages in HTML format, so that they can be accessed and used on the Internet. The achievements presented in this paper are an important step to provide a necessary tool for traffic modelling because these computational programs can be easily integrated into specialized software.

  4. Flow Induced Vibration Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has had a Flow Induced Vibration Program since 1967; the Program currently resides in the Laboratory's Components Technology Division. Throughout its existence, the overall objective of the program has been to develop and apply new and/or improved methods of analysis and testing for the design evaluation of nuclear reactor plant components and heat exchange equipment from the standpoint of flow induced vibration. Historically, the majority of the program activities have been funded by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), and Department of Energy (DOE). Current DOE funding is from the Breeder Mechanical Component Development Division, Office of Breeder Technology Projects; Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program, Office of Energy Systems Research; and Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Testing of Clinch River Breeder Reactor upper plenum components has been funded by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project Office. Work has also been performed under contract with Foster Wheeler, General Electric, Duke Power Company, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Westinghouse

  5. Motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface: flow patterns and loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Q.; Lin, J.C. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics; Unal, M.F.; Rockwell, D.

    2000-06-01

    The flow structure and loading due to combined translatory and sinusoidal motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface are characterized using a cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry and simultaneous force measurements. The instantaneous patterns of vorticity and streamline topology are interpreted as a function of degree of submergence beneath the free-surface. The relative magnitudes of the peak vorticity and the circulation of vortices formed from the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder, as well as vortex formation from the free-surface, are remarkably affected by the nominal submergence. The corresponding streamline topology, interpreted in terms of foci, saddle points, and multiple separation and reattachment points also exhibit substantial changes with submergence. All of these features affect the instantaneous loading of the cylinder. Calculation of instantaneous moments of vorticity and the incremental changes in these moments during the cylinder motion allow identification of those vortices that contribute most substantially to the instantaneous lift and drag. Furthermore, the calculated moments are in general accord with the time integrals of the measured lift and drag acting on the cylinder for sufficiently large submergence. (orig.)

  6. Dimensions of flow during an experiential wilderness science program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert

    Over the past twenty-five years, there has been an alarming decline in academic performance among American students. This trend is seen in failing test scores, poor attendance, and low first-year retention rates at post-secondary institutions. There have been numerous studies that have examined this issue but few to offer solutions. Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, the originator of flow theory, suggests that poor academic performance might be best explained in terms of lack of student motivation and engagement (flow) rather than a lack of cognitive abilities. This study was designed to examine a series of activities conducted during an Experiential Wilderness Science Program at a college located in the Rocky Mountain region. Specifically, this study measured student engagement for each activity and described the dimensions (phenomenological, instructional, etc.) that were present when there was a high frequency of engagement among program participants. A combined quantitative and qualitative research methodology was utilized. The Experience Sampling Form (ESF) was administered to 41 freshman students participating in a 3-day wilderness science program to measure the frequency of engagement (flow) for nine different activities. A qualitative investigation using journals, participant interviews, and focus groups was used to describe the dimensions that were present when a high frequency of engagement among program participants was observed. Results revealed that engagement (flow) was highest during two challenge education activities and during a river sampling activity. Dimensions common among these activities included: an environment dimension, a motivation dimension, and an instruction dimension. The environment dimension included: incorporating novel learning activities, creating student interests, and introducing an element of perceived risk. The motivation dimension included: developing internal loci of control, facilitating high levels of self-efficacy, and

  7. A Power Load Distribution Algorithm to Optimize Data Center Electrical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Maciel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a matter of common concern in the world today. Research demonstrates that as a consequence of the constantly evolving and expanding field of information technology, data centers are now major consumers of electrical energy. Such high electrical energy consumption emphasizes the issues of sustainability and cost. Against this background, the present paper proposes a power load distribution algorithm (PLDA to optimize energy distribution of data center power infrastructures. The PLDA, which is based on the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm, is supported by an environment called ASTRO, capable of performing the integrated evaluation of dependability, cost and sustainability. More specifically, the PLDA optimizes the flow distribution of the energy flow model (EFM. EFMs are responsible for estimating sustainability and cost issues of data center infrastructures without crossing the restrictions of the power capacity that each device can provide (power system or extract (cooling system. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzed seven data center power architectures. Significant results were observed, achieving a reduction in power consumption of up to 15.5%.

  8. Interfacing a General Purpose Fluid Network Flow Program with the SINDA/G Thermal Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Popok, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A general purpose, one dimensional fluid flow code is currently being interfaced with the thermal analysis program Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Gaski (SINDA/G). The flow code, Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), is capable of analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The flow code is capable of modeling several physical phenomena including compressibility effects, phase changes, body forces (such as gravity and centrifugal) and mixture thermodynamics for multiple species. The addition of GFSSP to SINDA/G provides a significant improvement in convective heat transfer modeling for SINDA/G. The interface development is conducted in multiple phases. This paper describes the first phase of the interface which allows for steady and quasi-steady (unsteady solid, steady fluid) conjugate heat transfer modeling.

  9. Calculation methods for steadily loaded, off-set pivot, tilting pad thrust bearings. (Guide to use of computer program A9235.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    ESDU 92035 provides details of a FORTRAN program that implements the calculation method of ESDU 83004. It allows performance analysis of an existing design, or the design of a bearing dimensions, subject to any space constraint, are recommended. The predicted performance includes the lubricant film thickness under load, its temperature and flow rate, the power loss, and the bearing temperature. Recommendations are also made on surface finish. Warning messages are output in the following cases, for each of which possible remedial actions are suggested: drain or pad temperature too high, churning losses too great, film thickness too small, pad number too high, ratio or inner to outer pad radius too large, flow rate too great, lubricant or pad temperature outside usable range. A lubricant database is provided that may be extended or edited. The program applies to Newtonian lubricants in laminar flow. Worked examples illustrate the use of the program.

  10. Flow Induced Vibration Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory's Flow Induced Vibration Program, currently residing in the Laboratory's Components Technology Division is discussed. Throughout its existence, the overall objective of the program was to develop and apply new and/or improved methods of analysis and testing for the design evaluation of nuclear reactor plant components and heat exchange equipment from the standpoint of flow induced vibration. Historically, the majority of the program activities were funded by the US Atomic Energy Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Department of Energy. Current DOE funding is from the Breeder Mechanical Component Development Division, Office of Breeder Technology Projects; Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology Program, Office of Energy Systems Research; and Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, office of Basic Energy Sciences. Testing of Clinch River Breeder Reactor upper plenum components was funded by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project Office. Work was also performed under contract with Foster Wheeler, General Electric, Duke Power Company, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Westinghouse.

  11. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  12. Flow time analysis of load management late arrival discrete time queueing system with dual service rate using hypo geometrical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Shah, W.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypo geometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities. (author)

  13. Program for Analyzing Flows in a Complex Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) version 4 is a general-purpose computer program for analyzing steady-state and transient flows in a complex fluid network. The program is capable of modeling compressibility, fluid transients (e.g., water hammers), phase changes, mixtures of chemical species, and such externally applied body forces as gravitational and centrifugal ones. A graphical user interface enables the user to interactively develop a simulation of a fluid network consisting of nodes and branches. The user can also run the simulation and view the results in the interface. The system of equations for conservation of mass, energy, chemical species, and momentum is solved numerically by a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive-substitution methods.

  14. An improved risk-explicit interval linear programming model for pollution load allocation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bisheng; Qian, Xin; Yao, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Although the risk-explicit interval linear programming (REILP) model has solved the problem of having interval solutions, it has an equity problem, which can lead to unbalanced allocation between different decision variables. Therefore, an improved REILP model is proposed. This model adds an equity objective function and three constraint conditions to overcome this equity problem. In this case, pollution reduction is in proportion to pollutant load, which supports balanced development between different regional economies. The model is used to solve the problem of pollution load allocation in a small transboundary watershed. Compared with the REILP original model result, our model achieves equity between the upstream and downstream pollutant loads; it also overcomes the problem of greatest pollution reduction, where sources are nearest to the control section. The model provides a better solution to the problem of pollution load allocation than previous versions.

  15. Effects of interruptible load program on equilibrium outcomes of electricity markets with wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Xuena; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Xue [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    High wind power penetration presents a lot of challenges to the flexibility and reliability of power system operation. In this environment, various demand response (DR) programs have got much attention. As an effective measure of demand response programs, interruptible load (IL) programs have been widely used in electricity markets. This paper addresses the problem of impacts of the IL programs on the equilibrium outcomes of electricity wholesale markets with wind power. A Cournot equilibrium model of wholesale markets with wind power is presented, in which IL programs is included by a market demand model. The introduction of the IL programs leads to a non-smooth equilibrium problem. To solve this equilibrium problem, a novel solution method is proposed. Numerical examples show that IL programs can lower market price and its volatility significantly, facilitate the integration of wind power.

  16. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)

  17. Numerical 3D flow simulation of attached cavitation structures at ultrasonic horn tips and statistical evaluation of flow aggressiveness via load collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottyll, S.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible inviscid flow solver with barotropic cavitation model is applied to two different ultrasonic horn set-ups and compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy as well as erosion test data. The statistical analysis of single collapse events in wall-adjacent flow regions allows the determination of the flow aggressiveness via load collectives (cumulative event rate vs collapse pressure), which show an exponential decrease in agreement to studies on hydrodynamic cavitation [1]. A post-processing projection of event rate and collapse pressure on a reference grid reduces the grid dependency significantly. In order to evaluate the erosion-sensitive areas a statistical analysis of transient wall loads is utilised. Predicted erosion sensitive areas as well as temporal pressure and vapour volume evolution are in good agreement to the experimental data.

  18. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  19. Modelling the work flow of a nuclear waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyer Mortensen, K. [Aarhus Univ., Computer Science Dept. (Denmark); Pinci, V. [Meta Software Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we describe a modelling project to improve a nuclear waste management program in charge of the creation of a new system for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. SADT (Structural Analysis and Design Technique) is used in order to provide a work-flow description of the functions to be performed by the waste management program. This description is then translated into a number of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN or CP-nets) corresponding to different program functions where additional behavioural inscriptions provide basis for simulation. Each of these CP-nets is simulated to produce timed event charts that are useful for understanding the behaviour of the program functions under different scenarios. Then all the CPN models are linked together to form a single stand-alone application that is useful for validating the interaction and cooperation between the different program functions. A technique for linking executable CPN models is developed for supporting large modelling projects and parallel development of independent CPN models. (au) 11 refs.

  20. Modelling the work flow of a nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeyer Mortensen, K.; Pinci, V.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we describe a modelling project to improve a nuclear waste management program in charge of the creation of a new system for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. SADT (Structural Analysis and Design Technique) is used in order to provide a work-flow description of the functions to be performed by the waste management program. This description is then translated into a number of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN or CP-nets) corresponding to different program functions where additional behavioural inscriptions provide basis for simulation. Each of these CP-nets is simulated to produce timed event charts that are useful for understanding the behaviour of the program functions under different scenarios. Then all the CPN models are linked together to form a single stand-alone application that is useful for validating the interaction and cooperation between the different program functions. A technique for linking executable CPN models is developed for supporting large modelling projects and parallel development of independent CPN models. (au) 11 refs

  1. Numerical Simulation of Pulsation Flow in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Konkin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of pulsations in the Laval-liked vapour channel of short low-temperature range heat pipes (HPs) are presented. The numerical results confirmed the experimentally obtained increase of the frequency of pulsations in the vapour channel of short HPs with increasing overheat of the porous evaporator relative to the boiling point of the working fluid. The occurrence of pressure pulsations inside the vapour channel in a short HPs is a complex phenomenon associated with the boiling beginning in the capillary-porous evaporator at high heat loads, and appearance the excess amount of vapour above it, leading to the increase in pressure P to a value at which the boiling point TB of the working fluid becomes higher than the evaporator temperature Tev. Vapour clot spreads through the vapour channel and condense, and then a rarefaction wave return from condenser in the evaporator, the boiling in which is resumed and the next cycle of the pulsations is repeated. Numerical simulation was performed using finite element method implemented in the commercial program ANSYS Multiphisics 14.5 in the two-dimensional setting of axis symmetric moist vapour flow with third kind boundary conditions.

  2. Nested-scale discharge and groundwater level monitoring to improve predictions of flow route discharges and nitrate loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, Y. van der; Rozemeijer, J.C.; Rooij, G.H.de; Geer, F.C. van; Torfs, P.J.J.F.; Louw, P.G.B. de

    2010-01-01

    Identifying effective measures to reduce nutrient loads of headwaters in lowland catchments requires a thorough understanding of flow routes of water and nutrients. In this paper we assess the value of nested-scale discharge and groundwater level measurements for predictions of catchment-scale

  3. The effects of shoulder load and pinch force on electromyographic activity and blood flow in the forearm during a pinch task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Bart; Kofoed Nielsen, Pernille; de Kraker, Heleen

    2006-01-01

    loaded with 4.95 kg each) were combined with intermittent pinch forces at 0, 10 and 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Blood flow to the forearm was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Myoelectric activity of the forearm and neck-shoulder muscles was recorded to check for the workload levels....... Across all levels of shoulder load, blood flow increased significantly with increasing pinch force (21% at 10% MVC and by 44% at 25% MVC). Blood flow was significantly affected by shoulder load, with the lowest blood flow at the highest shoulder load. Interactions of pinch force and shoulder load were....... The results of this study indicate that shoulder load might influence blood flow to the forearm....

  4. Bifurcations and chaos of the nonlinear viscoelastic plates subjected to subsonic flow and external loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Fengxian; Chen, Fangqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The subharmonic bifurcations and chaotic motions are studied by means of Melnikov method. • The critical conditions for the occurrence of chaotic motions and subharmonic bifurcations are obtained. • The chaotic features on the system parameters are discussed. • The theoretical predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. - Abstract: The subharmonic bifurcations and chaotic motions of the nonlinear viscoelastic plates subjected to subsonic flow and external loads are studied by means of Melnikov method. The critical conditions for the occurrence of chaotic motions are obtained. The chaotic features on the system parameters are discussed in detail. The conditions for subharmonic bifurcations are also obtained. For the system with no structural damping, chaotic motions can occur through infinite subharmonic bifurcations of odd orders. Furthermore, we confirm our theoretical predictions by numerical simulations. The theoretical results obtained here can help us to eliminate or suppress large nonlinear vibrations and chaotic motions of the nonlinear viscoelastic plates. Based on Melnikov method, complex dynamical behaviors of the nonlinear viscoelastic plates can be controlled by modifying the system parameters.

  5. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  6. Effects of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, J; Bliddal, H; Messier, S P

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)....

  7. Flow discharge prediction in compound channels using linear genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.; Zahiri, A.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryFlow discharge determination in rivers is one of the key elements in mathematical modelling in the design of river engineering projects. Because of the inundation of floodplains and sudden changes in river geometry, flow resistance equations are not applicable for compound channels. Therefore, many approaches have been developed for modification of flow discharge computations. Most of these methods have satisfactory results only in laboratory flumes. Due to the ability to model complex phenomena, the artificial intelligence methods have recently been employed for wide applications in various fields of water engineering. Linear genetic programming (LGP), a branch of artificial intelligence methods, is able to optimise the model structure and its components and to derive an explicit equation based on the variables of the phenomena. In this paper, a precise dimensionless equation has been derived for prediction of flood discharge using LGP. The proposed model was developed using published data compiled for stage-discharge data sets for 394 laboratories, and field of 30 compound channels. The results indicate that the LGP model has a better performance than the existing models.

  8. Ground-water discharge and base-flow nitrate loads of nontidal streams, and their relation to a hydrogeomorphic classification of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, middle Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L. Joseph; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Brakebill, John W.; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Existing data on base-flow and groundwater nitrate loads were compiled and analyzed to assess the significance of groundwater discharge as a source of the nitrate load to nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. These estimates were then related to hydrogeomorphic settings based on lithology and physiographic province to provide insight on the areal distribution of ground-water discharge. Base-flow nitrate load accounted for 26 to about 100 percent of total-flow nitrate load, with a median value of 56 percent, and it accounted for 17 to 80 percent of total-flow total-nitrogen load, with a median value of 48 percent. Hydrograph separations were conducted on continuous streamflow records from 276 gaging stations within the watershed. The values for base flow thus calculated were considered an estimate of ground-water discharge. The ratio of base flow to total flow provided an estimate of the relative importance of ground-water discharge within a basin. Base-flow nitrate loads, total-flow nitrate loads, and total-flow total-nitrogen loads were previously computed from water-quality and discharge measurements by use of a regression model. Base-flow nitrate loads were available from 78 stations, total-flow nitrate loads were available from 86 stations, and total-flow total-nitrogen loads were available for 48 stations. The percentage of base-flow nitrate load to total-flow nitrate load could be computed for 57 stations, whereas the percentage of base-flow nitrate load to totalflow total-nitrogen load could be computed for 36 stations. These loads were divided by the basin area to obtain yields, which were used to compare the nitrate discharge from basins of different sizes. The results indicate that ground-water discharge is a significant source of water and nitrate to the total streamflow and nitrate load. Base flow accounted for 16 to 92 percent of total streamflow at the 276 sampling sites, with a median value of 54 percent. It is estimated that of the 50

  9. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  10. Estimating Bus Loads and OD Flows Using Location-Stamped Farebox and Wi-Fi Signal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiong Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic fareboxes integrated with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL systems can provide location-stamped records to infer passenger boarding at individual stops. However, bus loads and Origin-Destination (OD flows, which are useful for route planning, design, and real-time controls, cannot be derived directly from farebox data. Recently, Wi-Fi sensors have been used to collect passenger OD flow information. But the data are insufficient to capture the variation of passenger demand across bus trips. In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate trip-level OD flow matrices and a period-level OD flow matrix using sampled OD flow data collected by Wi-Fi sensors and boarding data provided by fareboxes. Bus loads on each bus trip are derived directly from the estimated trip-level OD flow matrices. The proposed method is evaluated empirically on an operational bus route and the results demonstrate that it provides good and detailed transit route-level passenger demand information by combining farebox and Wi-Fi signal data.

  11. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  12. REFLOS, Fuel Loading and Cost from Burnup and Heavy Atomic Mass Flow Calculation in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, W.; Schmidt, E.

    1969-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: REFLOS is a programme for the evaluation of fuel-loading schemes in heavy water moderated reactors. The problems involved in this study are: a) Burn-up calculation for the reactor cell. b) Determination of reactivity behaviour, power distribution, attainable burn-up for both the running-in period and the equilibrium of a 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model; investigation of radial fuel movement schemes. c) Evaluation of mass flows of heavy atoms through the reactor and fuel cycle costs for the running-in, the equilibrium, and the shut down of a power reactor. If the subroutine for treating the reactor cell were replaced by a suitable routine, other reactors with weakly absorbing moderators could be analyzed. 2 - Method of solution: Nuclear constants and isotopic compositions of the different fuels in the reactor are calculated by the cell-burn-up programme and tabulated as functions of the burn-up rate (MWD/T). Starting from a known state of the reactor, the 3-dimensional heterogeneous reactor programme (applying an extension of the technique of Feinberg and Galanin) calculates reactivity and neutron flux distribution using one thermal and one or two fast neutron groups. After a given irradiation time, the new state of the reactor is determined, and new nuclear constants are assigned to the various defined locations in the reactor. Reloading of fuel may occur if the prescribed life of the reactor is reached or if the effective multiplication factor or the power form factor falls below a specified level. The scheme of reloading to be carried out is specified by a load vector, giving the number of channels to be discharged, the kind of movement from one to another channel and the type of fresh fuel to be charged for each single reloading event. After having determined the core states characterizing the equilibrium period, and having decided the fuel reloading scheme for the running-in period of the reactor life, the fuel

  13. The influence of modifications of a fatigue loading history program on fatigue lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, J.

    1972-01-01

    Rectangular specimens of 7075 and 2014 aluminum alloys with two holes (stress concentration factor of 3.24) have been tested under axial fatigue loading on a six-rod test bed with modifications of the loading program, the surface particulars, and the frequency. The length of the precrack stage was investigated by use of a new crack detector. In most cases the two alloys behaved similarly, with similar life to crack start under the same loading. Some overloads lengthened the life. Truncation by omission of the lowest peak loads should be limited to about 20 percent of the ultimate load. Simplifying counting methods gave misleading results. Very thin surface layers of anodizing, protection by vinyl, dry nitrogen atmosphere, as well as stepwise reaming or grinding the surface of the holes, lengthened the life; thick anodized layers shortened the life. Compressing the hole surface by rolling had no influence. Frequencies at about 210 to 240 cpm produced shorter lives than those at 40 cpm. At 5.4 cpm the life was considerably longer. A model to better understand the precrack-stage fatigue mechanism is discussed.

  14. Climate-scale modelling of suspended sediment load in an Alpine catchment debris flow (Rio Cordon-northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Mao, Luca; Borrelli, Pasquale; Panagos, Panos; Fiorillo, Francesco; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2018-05-01

    Pulsing storms and prolonged rainfall can drive hydrological damaging events in mountain regions with soil erosion and debris flow in river catchments. The paper presents a parsimonious model for estimating climate forcing on sediment loads in an Alpine catchment (Rio Cordon, northeastern Italian Alps). Hydroclimatic forcing was interpreted by the novel CliSMSSL (Climate-Scale Modelling of Suspended Sediment Load) model to estimate annual sediment loads. We used annual data on suspended-solid loads monitored at an experimental station from 1987 to 2001 and on monthly precipitation data. The quality of sediment load data was critically examined, and one outlying year was identified and removed from further analyses. This outlier revealed that our model underestimates exceptionally high sediment loads in years characterized by a severe flood event. For all other years, the CliSMSSL performed well, with a determination coefficient (R2) equal to 0.67 and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 129 Mg y-1. The calibrated model for the period 1986-2010 was used to reconstruct sediment loads in the river catchment for historical times when detailed precipitation records are not available. For the period 1810-2010, the model results indicate that the past centuries have been characterized by large interannual to interdecadal fluctuations in the conditions affecting sediment loads. This paper argues that climate-induced erosion processes in Alpine areas and their impact on environment should be given more attention in discussions about climate-driven strategies. Future work should focus on delineating the extents of these findings (e.g., at other catchments of the European Alpine belt) as well as investigating the dynamics for the formation of sediment loads.

  15. High-uranium-loaded U3O8--Al fuel element development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 --Al Fuel Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages

  16. FLOWNET: A Computer Program for Calculating Secondary Flow Conditions in a Network of Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The program requires the network parameters, the flow component parameters, the reservoir conditions, and the gas properties as input. It will then calculate all unknown pressures and the mass flow rate in each flow component in the network. The program can treat networks containing up to fifty flow components and twenty-five unknown network pressures. The types of flow components that can be treated are face seals, narrow slots, and pipes. The program is written in both structured FORTRAN (SFTRAN) and FORTRAN 4. The program must be run in an interactive (conversational) mode.

  17. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  18. A New Approach for Accurate Prediction of Liquid Loading of Directional Gas Wells in Transition Flow or Turbulent Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Ming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current common models for calculating continuous liquid-carrying critical gas velocity are established based on vertical wells and laminar flow without considering the influence of deviation angle and Reynolds number on liquid-carrying. With the increase of the directional well in transition flow or turbulent flow, the current common models cannot accurately predict the critical gas velocity of these wells. So we built a new model to predict continuous liquid-carrying critical gas velocity for directional well in transition flow or turbulent flow. It is shown from sensitivity analysis that the correction coefficient is mainly influenced by Reynolds number and deviation angle. With the increase of Reynolds number, the critical liquid-carrying gas velocity increases first and then decreases. And with the increase of deviation angle, the critical liquid-carrying gas velocity gradually decreases. It is indicated from the case calculation analysis that the calculation error of this new model is less than 10%, where accuracy is much higher than those of current common models. It is demonstrated that the continuous liquid-carrying critical gas velocity of directional well in transition flow or turbulent flow can be predicted accurately by using this new model.

  19. Experimental evaluation of ability of Relap5, Drako, Flowmaster2TM and program using unsteady wall friction model to calculate water hammer loadings on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Adamowski, Adam; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical loadings on pipe systems caused by water hammer (hydraulic transients) belong to the most important and most difficult to calculate design loadings in nuclear power plants. The most common procedure in Sweden is to calculate the water hammer loadings on pipe segments, according to the classical one-dimensional (1D) theory of liquid transient flow in a pipeline, and then transfer the results to strength analyses of pipeline structure. This procedure assumes that there is quasi-steady respond of the pipeline structure to pressure surges-no dynamic interaction between the fluid and the pipeline construction. The hydraulic loadings are calculated with 1D so-called 'network' programs. Commonly used in Sweden are Relap5, Drako and Flowmaster2-all using quasi-steady wall friction model. As a third party accredited inspection body Inspecta Nuclear AB reviews calculations of water hammer loadings. The presented work shall be seen as an attempt to illustrate ability of Relap5, Flowmaster2 and Drako programs to calculate the water hammer loadings. A special attention was paid to using of Relap5 for calculation of water hammer pressure surges and forces (including some aspects of influence of Courant number on the calculation results) and also the importance of considering the dynamic (or unsteady) friction models. The calculations are compared with experimental results. The experiments have been conducted at a test rig designed and constructed at the Szewalski Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IMP PAN) in Gdansk, Poland. The analyses show quite small differences between pressures and forces calculated with Relap5, Flowmaster2 and Drako (the differences regard mainly damping of pressure waves). The comparison of calculated and measured pressures and also a force acting on a pre-defined pipe segment shows significant differences. It is shown that the differences can be reduced by using unsteady friction models in calculations

  20. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH 4 /gVS added /d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silicon microfluidic flow focusing devices for the production of size-controlled PLGA based drug loaded microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Griffin, Brendan T

    2014-06-05

    The increasing realisation of the impact of size and surface properties on the bio-distribution of drug loaded colloidal particles has driven the application of micro fabrication technologies for the precise engineering of drug loaded microparticles. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach for producing size controlled drug loaded PLGA based microparticles using silicon Microfluidic Flow Focusing Devices (MFFDs). Based on the precise geometry and dimensions of the flow focusing channel, microparticle size was successfully optimised by modifying the polymer type, disperse phase (Qd) flow rate, and continuous phase (Qc) flow rate. The microparticles produced ranged in sizes from 5 to 50 μm and were highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation <5%). A comparison of Ciclosporin (CsA) loaded PLGA microparticles produced by MFFDs vs conventional production techniques was also performed. MFFDs produced microparticles with a narrower size distribution profile, relative to the conventional approaches. In-vitro release kinetics of CsA was found to be influenced by the production technique, with the MFFD approach demonstrating the slowest rate of release over 7 days (4.99 ± 0.26%). Finally, MFFDs were utilised to produce pegylated microparticles using the block co-polymer, PEG-PLGA. In contrast to the smooth microparticles produced using PLGA, PEG-PLGA microparticles displayed a highly porous surface morphology and rapid CsA release, with 85 ± 6.68% CsA released after 24h. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of silicon MFFDs for the precise control of size and surface morphology of PLGA based microparticles with potential drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Market-oriented programming and its application to power load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ygge, F

    1998-04-01

    Market-oriented programming is a new approach to design and implementation of resource allocation mechanisms in computer systems. It has its roots in different disciplines, such as economics and computer science (in particular the area of multi-agent systems). This is divided into two different parts, focusing on: (1) central foundations and mechanisms of market-oriented programming, and (2) the use of market-oriented programming in practical applications. Market-oriented programming is seen as a programming paradigm based on abstractions such as prices and demands. Concepts, terminology and theory from micro-economics form the foundations of the paradigm. Central aspects of these foundations are investigated and some new insights are presented. Furthermore, some relations between standard optimization/resource allocation approaches and markets are described, and novel theorems are introduced. A published, and generally recognized, market oriented approach to the application building climate control is analyzed in detail. A new approach to this application, based on market-oriented programming, is introduced and shown to be superior to the analyzed approach in many ways. The case study pinpoints a number of potential pitfalls as well as advantages of market-oriented approaches to this and other applications. A second investigated application is power load management, i.e. the management of loads at the customer`s side for obtaining more efficient energy systems management. The basis of the application is described and a new market oriented approach is introduced and analyzed. The approach is shown to have a number of advantages compared to existing approaches to this problem. The main conclusion of the thesis is that there are some potential pitfalls of market-oriented programming, but when used with care it provides a highly natural and efficient means for resource allocation in computer systems

  4. Influence of upstream disturbance on the draft-tube flow of Francis turbine under part-load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Xianghao; Zhang, Yu-ning; Li, Shengcai

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the part-load operations for the enhancement of grid flexibility, the Francis turbine often suffers from severe low-frequency and large-amplitude hydraulic instability, which is mostly pertinent to the highly unsteady swirling vortex rope in the draft tube. The influence of disturbances in the upstream (e.g., large-scale vortex structures in the spiral casing) on the draft-tube vortex flow is not well understood yet. In the present paper, the influence of the upstream disturbances on the vortical flow in the draft tube is studied based on the vortex identification method and the analysis of several important parameters (e.g., the swirl number and the velocity profile). For a small guide vane opening (representing the part-load condition), the vortices triggered in the spiral casing propagate downstream and significantly affect the swirling vortex-rope precession in the draft tube, leading to the changes of the intensity and the processional frequency of the swirling vortex rope. When the guide vane opening approaches the optimum one (representing the full-load condition), the upstream disturbance becomes weaker and thus its influences on the downstream flow are very limited.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE LINEAR SYSTEM SOLVER APPLIED TO FAST DECOUPLED LOAD FLOW METHOD FOR CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafii

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the assessment of fast decoupled load flow computation using three linear system solver scheme. The full matrix version of the fast decoupled load flow based on XB methods used in this study. The numerical investigations are carried out on the small and large test systems. The execution time of small system such as IEEE 14, 30, and 57 are very fast, therefore the computation time can not be compared for these cases. Another cases IEEE 118, 300 and TNB 664 produced significant execution speedup. The superLU factorization sparse matrix solver has best performance and speedup of load flow solution as well as in contigency analysis. The invers full matrix solver can solved only for IEEE 118 bus test system in 3.715 second and for another cases take too long time. However for superLU factorization linear solver can solved all of test system in 7.832 second for a largest of test system. Therefore the superLU factorization linear solver can be a viable alternative applied in contingency analysis.

  6. Estimating the Impacts of Direct Load Control Programs Using GridPIQ, a Web-Based Screening Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Seemita; Thayer, Brandon L.; Barrett, Emily L.; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-13

    In direct load control (DLC) programs, utilities can curtail the demand of participating loads to contractually agreed-upon levels during periods of critical peak load, thereby reducing stress on the system, generation cost, and required transmission and generation capacity. Participating customers receive financial incentives. The impacts of implementing DLC programs extend well beyond peak shaving. There may be a shift of load proportional to the interrupted load to the times before or after a DLC event, and different load shifts have different consequences. Tools that can quantify the impacts of such programs on load curves, peak demand, emissions, and fossil fuel costs are currently lacking. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) screening tool includes a Direct Load Control module, which takes into account project-specific inputs as well as the larger system context in order to quantify the impacts of a given DLC program. This allows users (utilities, researchers, etc.) to test and compare different program specifications and their impacts.

  7. The NASA Low-Pressure Turbine Flow Physics Program: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Glenn Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) Flow Physics Program will be presented. The flow in the LPT is unique for the gas turbine. It is characterized by low Reynolds number and high freestream turbulence intensity and is dominated by interplay of three basic mechanisms: transition, separation and wake interaction. The flow of most interest is on the suction surface, where large losses are generated due to separation. The LPT is a large, multistage, heavy, jet engine component that suffers efficiency degradation between takeoff and cruise conditions due to decrease in Reynolds number with altitude. The performance penalty is around 2 points for large commercial bypass engines and as much as 7 points for small, high cruise altitude, military engines. The gas-turbine industry is very interested in improving the performance of the LPT and in reducing its weight, part count and cost. Many improvements can be accomplished by improved airfoil design, mainly by increasing the airfoil loading that can yield reduction of airfoils and improved performance. In addition, there is a strong interest in reducing the design cycle time and cost. Key enablers of the needed improvements are computational tools that can accurately predict LPT flows. Current CFD tools in use cannot yet satisfactorily predict the unsteady, transitional and separated flow in the LPT. The main reasons are inadequate transition & turbulence models and incomplete understanding of the LPT flow physics. NASA Glenn has established its LPT program to answer these needs. The main goal of the program is to develop and assess models for unsteady CFD of LPT flows. An approach that consists of complementing and augmenting experimental and computational work elements has been adopted. The work is performed in-house and by several academic institutions, in cooperation and interaction with industry. The program was reviewed at the Minnowbrook II meeting in 1997. This review will summarize the progress

  8. Nested-scale discharge and groundwater level monitoring to improve predictions of flow route discharges and nitrate loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Y.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; de Rooij, G. H.; van Geer, F. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2010-10-01

    Identifying effective measures to reduce nutrient loads of headwaters in lowland catchments requires a thorough understanding of flow routes of water and nutrients. In this paper we assess the value of nested-scale discharge and groundwater level measurements for predictions of catchment-scale discharge and nitrate loads. In order to relate field-site measurements to the catchment-scale an upscaling approach is introduced that assumes that scale differences in flow route fluxes originate from differences in the relationship between groundwater storage and the spatial structure of the groundwater table. This relationship is characterized by the Groundwater Depth Distribution (GDD) curve that relates spatial variation in groundwater depths to the average groundwater depth. The GDD-curve was measured for a single field site (0.009 km2) and simple process descriptions were applied to relate the groundwater levels to flow route discharges. This parsimonious model could accurately describe observed storage, tube drain discharge, overland flow and groundwater flow simultaneously with Nash-Sutcliff coefficients exceeding 0.8. A probabilistic Monte Carlo approach was applied to upscale field-site measurements to catchment scales by inferring scale-specific GDD-curves from hydrographs of two nested catchments (0.4 and 6.5 km2). The estimated contribution of tube drain effluent (a dominant source for nitrates) decreased with increasing scale from 76-79% at the field-site to 34-61% and 25-50% for both catchment scales. These results were validated by demonstrating that a model conditioned on nested-scale measurements simulates better nitrate loads and better predictions of extreme discharges during validation periods compared to a model that was conditioned on catchment discharge only.

  9. Mindstorms robots and the application of cognitive load theory in introductory programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Raina; Cooper, Graham

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on a series of introductory programming workshops, initially targeting female high school students, which utilised Lego Mindstorms robots. Cognitive load theory (CLT) was applied to the instructional design of the workshops, and a controlled experiment was also conducted investigating aspects of the interface. Results indicated that a truncated interface led to better learning by novice programmers as measured by test performance by participants, as well as enhanced shifts in self-efficacy and lowered perception of difficulty. There was also a transfer effect to another programming environment (Alice). It is argued that the results indicate that for novice programmers, the mere presence on-screen of additional (redundant) entities acts as a form of tacit distraction, thus impeding learning. The utility of CLT to analyse, design and deliver aspects of computer programming environments and instructional materials is discussed.

  10. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  12. CFD Analysis of Random Turbulent Flow Load in Steam Generator of APR1400 Under Normal Operation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Gyu; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory guide 1.20 revision 3 of the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) modifies guidance for vibration assessments of reactor internals and steam generator internals. The new guidance requires applicants to provide a preliminary analysis and evaluation of the design and performance of a facility, including the safety margins of during normal operation and transient conditions anticipated during the life of the facility. Especially, revision 3 require rigorous assessments of adverse flow effects in the steam dryer cased by flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances such as the abnormality from power-uprated BWR cases. For two nearly identical nuclear power plants, the steam system of one BWR plant experienced failure of steam dryers and the main steam system components when steam flow was increased by 16 percent for extended power uprate (EPU). The mechanisms of those failures have revealed that a small adverse flow changing from the prototype condition induced severe flow-excited acoustic and structural resonances, leading to structural failures. In accordance with the historical background, therefore, potential adverse flow effects should be evaluated rigorously for steam generator internals in both BWR and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary light water reactor, increased the power by 7.7 percent from the design of the 'Valid Prototype', System80+. Thus, reliable evaluations of potential adverse flow effects on the steam generator of APR1400 are necessary according to the regulatory guide. This paper is part of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis results for evaluation of the adverse flow effect for the steam generator internals of APR1400, including a series of sensitivity analyses to enhance the reliability of CFD analysis and an estimation the effect of flow loads on the internals of the steam generator under normal operation conditions

  13. Development of a VVER-1000 core loading pattern optimization program based on perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Vosoughi, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use perturbation theory to find an optimum fuel loading pattern in a VVER-1000. ► We provide a software for in-core fuel management optimization. ► We consider two objectives for our method (perturbation theory). ► We show that perturbation theory method is very fast and accurate for optimization. - Abstract: In-core nuclear fuel management is one of the most important concerns in the design of nuclear reactors. Two main goals in core fuel loading pattern design optimization are maximizing the core effective multiplication factor in order to extract the maximum energy, and keeping the local power peaking factor lower than a predetermined value to maintain the fuel integrity. Because of the numerous possible patterns of fuel assemblies in the reactor core, finding the best configuration is so important and challenging. Different techniques for optimization of fuel loading pattern in the reactor core have been introduced by now. In this study, a software is programmed in C language to find an order of the fuel loading pattern of a VVER-1000 reactor core using the perturbation theory. Our optimization method is based on minimizing the radial power peaking factor. The optimization process launches by considering an initial loading pattern and the specifications of the fuel assemblies which are given as the input of the software. The results on a typical VVER-1000 reactor reveal that the method could reach to a pattern with an allowed radial power peaking factor and increases the cycle length 1.1 days, as well.

  14. Monitoring Training Loads in Professional Basketball Players Engaged in a Periodized Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Marcelo S; Ronda, Lorena T; Marcelino, Pablo R; Drago, Gustavo; Carling, Chris; Bradley, Paul S; Moreira, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    Aoki, MS, Ronda, LT, Marcelino, PR, Drago, G, Carling, C, Bradley, PS, and Moreira, A. Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 348-358, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of external training load (eTL) and internal training load (iTL) during seasonal periods, and examine the effect of a periodized training program on physical performance in professional basketball players. Repeated measures for 9 players (28 ± 6 years; 199 ± 8 cm; 101 ± 12 kg) were collected from 45 training sessions, over a 6-week preseason phase and a 5-week in-season phase. Physical tests were conducted at baseline (T1), week 4 (T2), and week 9 (T3). Differences in means are presented as % ± confident limits. A very likely difference was observed during in-season compared with preseason for the eTL variables (measured by multivariable monitoring device), mechanical load (13.5 ± 8.8) and peak acceleration (11.0 ± 11.2), respectively. Regarding iTL responses, a very large decrement in TRIMP (most likely difference, -20.6 ± 3.8) and in session rating of perceived exertion training load (very likely difference, -14.2 ± 9.0) was detected from preseason to in-season. Physical performance improved from T1 to T3 for Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 1 (62.2 ± 34.3, effect size [ES] > 1.2); countermovement jump (8.8 ± 6.1, ES > 0.6); and squat jump (14.8 ± 10.2, ES > 0.8). Heart rate (HR; %HRpeak) exercise responses during a submaximal running test decreased from T1 to T3 (3.2 ± 4.3, ES 1.2). These results provide valuable information to coaches about training loads and physical performance across different seasonal periods. The data demonstrate that both eTL and iTL measures should be monitored in association with physical tests, to provide a comprehensive understanding of the training process.

  15. Experimental and Model Studies on Loading Path-Dependent and Nonlinear Gas Flow Behavior in Shale Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglian; Lu, Yiyu; Zhou, Lei; Tang, Jiren; Han, Shuaibin; Ao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Interest in shale gas as an energy source is growing worldwide. Because the rock's natural fracture system can contribute to gas production, it is important to understand the flow behavior of natural fractures in shale. Previous studies on the flow characteristics in shale fractures were limited and did not consider the effect of nonlinearity. To understand the basic mechanics of the gas flow behavior in shale fractures, laboratory investigations with consideration of the fluid pressure gradient, the confining stress, the loading history and the fracture geometry were conducted in this paper. Izbash's equation was used to analyze the nonlinearity of the flow. The results show that the behavior of the friction factors is similar to that shown in flow tests in smooth and rough pipes. The increase of the confining stress and the irreversible damage to the shale decreased the hydraulic aperture and increased the relative roughness. Thus, turbulent flow could appear at a low Reynolds number, resulting in a significant pressure loss. The limits of the cubic law and the existing correction factor for transmissivity are discussed. It is found that the previous friction models overestimate the friction factor in the laminar regime and underestimate the friction factor in the turbulent regime. For this reason, a new friction model based on a linear combination of the Reynolds number and the relative roughness was developed.

  16. Performance Limiting Flow Processes in High-State Loading High-Mach Number Compressors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Choon S

    2008-01-01

    In high-stage loading high-Mach number (HLM) compressors, counter-rotating pairs of discrete vortices are shed at the trailing edge of the upstream blade row at a frequency corresponding to the downstream rotor blade passing frequency...

  17. Development of an aerodyanmic theory capable of predicting surface loads on slender wings with vortex flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, B. B.; Johnson, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company developed an inviscid three-dimensional lifting surface method that shows promise in being able to accurately predict loads, subsonic and supersonic, on wings with leading-edge separation and reattachment.

  18. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  19. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 -Al Fuel Element Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages. The specific objective of the program is to develop the technological and engineering data base for U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements of maximal uranium content to the point of vendor qualification for full scale fabrication on a production basis. A program and management plan that details the organization, supporting objectives, schedule, and budget is in place and preparation for fuel and irradiation studies is under way. The current programming envisions a program of about four years duration for an estimated cost of about two million dollars. During the decades of the fifties and sixties, developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the use of U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center Reactor, and the High Flux Beam Reactor. Most of the developmental information however applies only up to a uranium concentration of about 55 wt % (about 35 vol % U 3 O 8 ). The technical issues that must be addressed to further increase the uranium loading beyond 55 wt % U involve plate fabrication phenomena of voids and dogboning, fuel behavior under long irradiation, and potential for the thermite reaction between U 3 O 8 and aluminum

  20. Computer program for the analysis of the cross flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Abdallah, S.; Tabakoff, W.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program was used to solve the governing of the potential flow in the cross sectional planes of a radial inflow turbine scroll. A list of the main program, the subroutines, and typical output example are included.

  1. Generalized Analytical Program of Thyristor Phase Control Circuit with Series and Parallel Resonance Load

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Sen-ichiro; Ishida, Hideaki; Himei, Toyoji

    1981-01-01

    The systematic analytical method is reqUired for the ac phase control circuit by means of an inverse parallel thyristor pair which has a series and parallel L-C resonant load, because the phase control action causes abnormal and interesting phenomena, such as an extreme increase of voltage and current, an unique increase and decrease of contained higher harmonics, and a wide variation of power factor, etc. In this paper, the program for the analysis of the thyristor phase control circuit with...

  2. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation. III. Field programming by flow-rate gradient generated by a programmable pump

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 918, č. 2 (2001), s. 361-370 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : field-flow fractionation * field programming * flow-rate gradients Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  3. Comparison of depth-averaged concentration and bed load flux sediment transport models of dam-break flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-heng Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of dam-break flow over a movable bed. Two different mathematical models were compared: a fully coupled formulation of shallow water equations with erosion and deposition terms (a depth-averaged concentration flux model, and shallow water equations with a fully coupled Exner equation (a bed load flux model. Both models were discretized using the cell-centered finite volume method, and a second-order Godunov-type scheme was used to solve the equations. The numerical flux was calculated using a Harten, Lax, and van Leer approximate Riemann solver with the contact wave restored (HLLC. A novel slope source term treatment that considers the density change was introduced to the depth-averaged concentration flux model to obtain higher-order accuracy. A source term that accounts for the sediment flux was added to the bed load flux model to reflect the influence of sediment movement on the momentum of the water. In a one-dimensional test case, a sensitivity study on different model parameters was carried out. For the depth-averaged concentration flux model, Manning's coefficient and sediment porosity values showed an almost linear relationship with the bottom change, and for the bed load flux model, the sediment porosity was identified as the most sensitive parameter. The capabilities and limitations of both model concepts are demonstrated in a benchmark experimental test case dealing with dam-break flow over variable bed topography.

  4. Phase lags in oscillatory sheet flow: experiments and bed load modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Kroekenstoel, D.F.; Kroekenstoel, D.F.; Hassan, Wael; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2002-01-01

    Sheet flow corresponds to the high velocity regime when small bed ripples are washed out and sand is transported in a thin layer close to the bed. Therefore, it is often assumed that sand transport in oscillatory sheet flow behaves quasi-steady: time-dependent transport rates are assumed to be

  5. Computer program for buckling loads of orthotropic laminated stiffened panels subjected to biaxial in-place loads (BUCLASP 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Tamekuni, M.

    1974-01-01

    General-purpose program performs exact instability analyses for structures such as unidirectionally-stiffened, rectangular composite panels. Program was written in FORTRAN IV and COMPASS for CDC-series computers.

  6. Study of turbulent flows loaded with particles. Application to the particulate fouling of corrugated plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouidri, Frederic

    1997-01-01

    This work is a numerical and experimental study of the behaviour of a turbulent flow loaded with solid particles. It involves the particulate fouling of plate heat exchangers used in industrial field. Visual observation and LDA measurements inside a mock-up show the presence of large coherent vortices and confirm the tight link between particulate deposition and flow field. The vortices participate to the creation of preferential areas where the particles are in contact with the wall, and they shape the deposit according to a precise mechanism. Two processes of deposit removal have also been shown. Hydraulic phenomena and particles behaviours pointed out in the experiment are compared to different typical samples in a bibliographic survey. The use of the a software for computational fluid dynamics (TRIO developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) completed the experimental results by predicting the particles behaviour into the turbulent flow. The approach is based on a connection between a pseudo-direct simulation of the turbulent flow and a Lagrangian model for particles paths. The results show good agreements, qualitatively speaking, between numerical predictions and experimental measurement. The arrangement of the deposit onto the corrugated surface is globally well described by numerical simulation. The influence of some parameters on deposition process such as the flow (corresponding to Re=5000 or Re=10000), the horizontal or vertical position of the channel or the particles diameter (d p =100 μm or d p =25 μm) has been studied. (author) [fr

  7. Thermal models of buildings. Determination of temperatures, heating and cooling loads. Theories, models and computer programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellblad, K

    1998-05-01

    The need to estimate indoor temperatures, heating or cooling load and energy requirements for buildings arises in many stages of a buildings life cycle, e.g. at the early layout stage, during the design of a building and for energy retrofitting planning. Other purposes are to meet the authorities requirements given in building codes. All these situations require good calculation methods. The main purpose of this report is to present the authors work with problems related to thermal models and calculation methods for determination of temperatures and heating or cooling loads in buildings. Thus the major part of the report deals with treatment of solar radiation in glazing systems, shading of solar and sky radiation and the computer program JULOTTA used to simulate the thermal behavior of rooms and buildings. Other parts of thermal models of buildings are more briefly discussed and included in order to give an overview of existing problems and available solutions. A brief presentation of how thermal models can be built up is also given and it is a hope that the report can be useful as an introduction to this part of building physics as well as during development of calculation methods and computer programs. The report may also serve as a help for the users of energy related programs. Independent of which method or program a user choose to work with it is his or her own responsibility to understand the limits of the tool, else wrong conclusions may be drawn from the results 52 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  9. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Chuntian; Liao Shengli; Tang Zitian; Zhao Mingyan

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations.

  10. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S; Streit, R D; Chou, C K

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10{sup -12}). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  11. Large LOCA-earthquake combination probability assessment - Load combination program. Project 1 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Load Combination Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR-1, is used for this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated with a deterministic fracture mechanics model that incorporates stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10 -12 ). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported. (author)

  12. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Chuntian, E-mail: ctcheng@dlut.edu.c [Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Liao Shengli; Tang Zitian [Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Zhao Mingyan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations.

  13. Comparison of particle swarm optimization and dynamic programming for large scale hydro unit load dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun-tian Cheng; Sheng-li Liao; Zi-Tian Tang [Dept. of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian Univ. of Technology, 116024 Dalian (China); Ming-yan Zhao [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua Univ., 100084 Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    Dynamic programming (DP) is one of classic and sophisticated optimization methods that have successfully been applied to solve the problem of hydro unit load dispatch (HULD). However, DP will be faced with the curse of dimensionality with the increase of unit number and installed generating capacity of hydropower station. With the appearance of the huge hydropower station similar to the Three George with 26 generators of 700 MW, it is hard to apply the DP to large scale HULD problem. It is crucial to seek for other optimization techniques in order to improve the operation quality and efficiency. Different with the most of literature about power generation scheduling that focused on the comparisons of novel PSO algorithms with other techniques, the paper will pay emphasis on comparison study of PSO with DP based on a case hydropower station. The objective of study is to seek for an effective and feasible method for the large scale of hydropower station of the current and future in China. This paper first compares the performance of PSO and DP using a sample load curve of the Wujiangdu hydropower plant located in the upper stream of the Yangtze River in China and contained five units with the installed capacity of 1250 MW. Next, the effect of different load interval and unit number on the optimal results and efficiency of two methods has also been implemented. The comparison results show that the PSO is feasible for HULD. Furthermore, we simulated the effect of the magnitude of unit number and load capacity on the optimal results and cost time. The simulation comparisons show that PSO has a great advantage over DP in the efficiency and will be one of effective methods for HULD problem of huge hydropower stations. (author)

  14. Provably Correct Control-Flow Graphs from Java Programs with Exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro; Huisman, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm to extract flow graphs from Java bytecode, focusing on exceptional control flows. We prove its correctness, meaning that the behaviour of the extracted control-flow graph is an over-approximation of the behaviour of the original program. Thus any safety property that holds

  15. The FAA/NASA flight loads monitoring program - The prototype system and its benefits for the aviation community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Thomas, Mitchel E.; Carrelli, David J.; Crabill, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    The FAA established the flight load monitoring program to collect a data base of typical flight operational loads experienced by commercial transports. This system will provide a comprehensive monitoring of aircraft loading conditions with over 20 flight parameters being recorded simultaneously. NASA is designing and testing a prototype data collection and analysis system which will be implemented into an FAA operational program. This paper presents the program's objectives and the proposed development testing on a commercial Boeing 737-400. The prototype system, its data processing schemes, and reports are described. The searching criteria or flight attributes generated for each flight are listed. The data processing system will provide the aviation community with a powerful tool for the study of transport flight loading conditions and the system's flexibility will accommodate individual studies and specialized concerns.

  16. Analytic solutions and universal properties of sugar loading models in Münch phloem flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2012-01-01

    The transport of sugars in the phloem vascular system of plants is believed to be driven by osmotic pressure differences according to the Münch hypothesis. Thus, the translocation process is viewed as a passive reaction to the active sugar loading in the leaves and sugar unloading in roots and ot...

  17. Modelling the flow of nitrogen and phosphorus in Europe: From loads to coastal seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepper O; Beusen AHW; Meinardi CR; CIM; LWD; LBG

    1995-01-01

    A model is described that aims at predicting surface water quality from N- and P-inputs on a European scale. The model combines a GIS-based approach to estimate loads, geohydrological data to define model structure and statistical techniques to estimate parameter values. The model starts with an

  18. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  19. Using wind speed from a blade-mounted flow sensor for power and load assessment on modern wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pedersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an alternative method to evaluate power performance and loads on wind turbines using a blade-mounted flow sensor is investigated. The hypothesis is that the wind speed measured at the blades has a high correlation with the power and loads such that a power or load assessment can be performed from a few hours or days of measurements.In the present study a blade-mounted five-hole pitot tube is used as the flow sensor as an alternative to the conventional approach, where the reference wind speed is either measured at a nearby met mast or on the nacelle using lidar technology or cup anemometers. From the flow sensor measurements, an accurate estimate of the wind speed at the rotor plane can be obtained. This wind speed is disturbed by the presence of the wind turbine, and it is therefore different from the free-flow wind speed. However, the recorded wind speed has a high correlation with the actual power production as well as the flap-wise loads as it is measured close to the blade where the aerodynamic forces are acting.Conventional power curves are based on at least 180 h of 10 min mean values, but using the blade-mounted flow sensor both the observation average time and the overall assessment time can potentially be shortened. The basis for this hypothesis is that the sensor is able to provide more observations with higher accuracy, as the sensor follows the rotation of the rotor and because of the high correlation between the flow at the blades and the power production. This is the research question addressed in this paper.The method is first tested using aeroelastic simulations where the dependence of the radial position and effect of multiple blade-mounted flow sensors are also investigated. Next the method is evaluated on the basis of full-scale measurements on a pitch-regulated, variable-speed 3.6 MW wind turbine.It is concluded that the wind speed derived from the blade-mounted flow sensor is highly correlated with the

  20. The DECADE performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Thompson, J.; Rowley, J.E.; Filios, P.; Babineau, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs

  1. The DECADE performance assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B V; Ottinger, P F; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; Goyer, J R; Kortbawi, D [Physics International Co., Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, J [Maxwell Labs., San Diego, CA (United States); Rowley, J E; Filios, P [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Babineau, M A [Sverdlup Technology, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs.

  2. Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ritland, K.G. (Ritland Associates, Seattle, WA (USA)); Taylor, M.E. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA)); Hauser, S.G. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Design and implementation of an external quality assessment program for HIV viral load measurements using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott; Liegler, Teri

    2015-03-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Probability-based load combinations for design of category I structures - overview of research program and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the probability-based load combinations for the program dealing with the design of Category I structures, currently being worked on at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The objective of this program is to develop a probabilistic approach for the safety evaluations of reactor containments and other seismic Category I structures subjected to multiple static and dynamic loadings. Furthermore, on the basis of the developed probabilistic approach, a load combination methodology for the design of seismic Category I structures will also be established. The major tasks of this program are: (1) establish probabilistic representations for various loads and structural resistance, (2) select appropriate structural analysis methods and identify limit states of structures, (3) develop a reliability analysis method applicable to nuclear structures, (4) apply the developed methodology to existing Category I structures in order to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria, and (5) recommend load combination design criteria for Category I structures. When the program is completed, it will be possible to (1) provide a method that can evaluate the safety margins of existing containment and other Category I structures and (2) recommended probability-based load combinations and load factors for the design of Category I structures. At the present time, a reliability analysis method for seismic Category I concrete structures has been completed. By utilizing this method, it is possible to evaluate the safety of structures under various static and dynamic loads. In this paper, results of a reliability analysis of a realistic reinforced concrete containment structure under dead load, accidental pressure, and earthquake ground acceleration are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the methodology. (orig.)

  5. Impact of heat load location and strength on air flow pattern with a passive chilled beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, Risto [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland); Saarinen, Pekka; Koskela, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Hole, Alex [Arup, Rob Leslie-Carter, Level 10, 201 Kent Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    A passive chilled beam is a source of natural convection, creating a flow of cold air directly into the occupied zone. Experiments were conducted in a mock-up of an office room to study the air velocities in the occupied spaces. In addition, velocity profiles are registered when underneath heat loads exist and the cool and warm air flows interact. Experimental laboratory study revealed that in the case of the underneath heat gains, even no upward plume was generated and the dummy only acted as a flow obstacle, having a significant effect on the velocity profile. Furthermore, in an actual occupied office environment, the thermal plumes and the supply air diffuser mixed effectively the whole air volume. The maximum air velocity measured was still below 0.25 m/s with the extremely high heat gain of 164 W/m{sup 2}. The results demonstrate that analysis methods were the interaction of convection flow and jet are not taken into account could not accurately describe air movement and draught risk in the occupied room space. (author)

  6. Reducing Turbine Mechanical Loads Using Flow Model-Based Wind Farm Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazda, Jonas; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    Cumulated O&M costs of offshore wind farms are comparable with wind turbine CAPEX of such wind farm. In wind farms, wake effects can result in up to 80% higher fatigue loads at downstream wind turbines [1] and consequently larger O&M costs. The present work therefore investigates to reduce...... these loads during the provision of grid balancing services using optimal model-based wind farm control. Wind farm controllers coordinate the operating point of wind turbines in a wind farm in order to achieve a given objective. The investigated objective of the control in this work is to follow a total wind...... farm power reference while reducing the tower bending moments of the turbines in the wind farm. The wind farm controller is tested on a 8 turbine array, which is representative of a typical offshore wind farm. The operation of the wind farm is simulated using the dynamic wind farm simulation tool S imWind...

  7. Pesticide load dynamics during stormwater flow events in Mediterranean coastal streams: Alexander stream case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Tom; Egozi, Roey; Eshel, Gil; Chefetz, Benny

    2018-06-01

    Cultivated land is a major source of pesticides, which are transported with the runoff water and eroded soil during rainfall events and pollute riverine and estuarine environments. Common ecotoxicological assessments of riverine systems are mainly based on water sampling and analysis of only the dissolved phase, and address a single pesticide's toxicological impact under laboratory conditions. A clear overview of mixtures of pesticides in the adsorbed and dissolved phases is missing, and therefore the full ecotoxicological impact is not fully addressed. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify pesticide concentrations in both suspended sediment and dissolved phases, to provide a better understanding of pesticide-load dynamics during storm events in coastal streams in a Mediterranean climate. High-resolution sampling campaigns of seven flood events were conducted during two rainy seasons in Alexander stream, Israel. Samples of suspended sediments were separated from the solution and both media were analyzed separately for 250 pesticides. A total of 63 pesticides were detected; 18 and 16 pesticides were found solely in the suspended sediments and solution, respectively. Significant differences were observed among the pesticide groups: only 7% of herbicide, 20% of fungicide and 42% of insecticide load was transported with the suspended sediments. However, in both dissolved and adsorbed phases, a mix of pesticides was found which were graded from "mobile" to "non-mobile" with varied distribution coefficients. Diuron, and tebuconazole were frequently found in large quantities in both phases. Whereas insecticide and fungicide transport is likely governed by application time and method, the governing factor for herbicide load was the magnitude of the stream discharge. The results show a complex dynamic of pesticide load affected by excessive use of pesticides, which should be taken into consideration when designing projects to monitor riverine and estuarine

  8. Literature research on the production, loading, flow, and heat transfer of slush hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Moo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Wonchon-dong san 5, Paldal-Gu, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study summarizes the available information on slush hydrogen and answer pending engineering questions that arise in the design of slush hydrogen propellant systems. The four methods for the production of slush are discussed. For storage, slush hydrogen must be pressurized, free from impurities, and continuously upgraded. Slush flowing at low flow rates has a higher viscosity than the liquid, however at higher velocities it approaches the viscosity of neat liquid. For the entire range of natural convection and nucleate boiling, the heat transfer at the triple-point temperature and pressure is nearly the same for the liquid and slush. The natural convection from smooth surfaces for slush can be predicted using available correlations. However, for engineering analysis and design of a system involving a slush cryogenic propellant, reliable information is required on production, flow, heat transfer, and instrumentation of these fluids. Some relevant and important aspects of slush hydrogen which have not yet been fully answered are presented. (author)

  9. On the calculation of dynamic and heat loads on a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Golovin, N. N.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack. Our aim is to estimate heat and aerodynamic loads on specific body elements. We are considering a previously developed code to solve coupled heat- and mass-transfer problem. The change of the surface shape is taken into account by formation of the iterative process for the wall material ablation. The solution is conducted on the multi-graphics-processing-unit (multi-GPU) cluster. Five Mach number points are considered, namely for M = 20-28. For each point we estimate body shape after surface ablation, heat loads on the surface and aerodynamic loads on the whole body and its elements. The latter is done using Gauss-type quadrature on the surface of the body. The comparison of the results for different Mach numbers is performed. We also estimate the efficiency of the Navier-Stokes code on multi-GPU and central processing unit architecture for the coupled heat and mass transfer problem.

  10. Programming heterogeneous MPSoCs tool flows to close the software productivity gap

    CERN Document Server

    Castrillón Mazo, Jerónimo

    2014-01-01

    This book provides embedded software developers with techniques for programmingheterogeneous Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs), capable of executing multiple applications simultaneously. It describes a set of algorithms and methodologies to narrow the software productivity gap, as well as an in-depth description of the underlying problems and challenges of today’s programming practices. The authors present four different tool flows: A parallelism extraction flow for applications writtenusing the C programming language, a mapping and scheduling flow for parallel applications, a special mapping flow for baseband applications in the context of Software Defined Radio (SDR) and a final flow for analyzing multiple applications at design time. The tool flows are evaluated on Virtual Platforms (VPs), which mimic different characteristics of state-of-the-art heterogeneous MPSoCs.   • Provides a novel set of algorithms and methodologies for programming heterogeneous Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoCs)...

  11. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow during modest saline loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, M; Vafaee, M; Braad, P E

    2012-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow (RMBF) is considered an important element of sodium homeostasis, but the experimental evidence is incongruent. Studies in anaesthetized animals generally support the concept in contrast to measurements in conscious animals. We hypothesized that saline-induced natriuresis...

  12. One-dimensional modeling of concentration distribution in pipe flow of combined-load slurry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Václav; Krupička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 260, July (2014), s. 42-51 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0383 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydraulic transport * sediment transport * two-phase flow * experiment * bed shear Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2014

  13. Coronary flow reserve index corrected by exercise load using Tl-201 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yasushi; Sugihara, Hiroki; Azuma, Akihiro

    1990-01-01

    For simple, non-invasive evaluation of coronary flow reserve during exercise, we investigated the coronary flow reserve index using the ratio of change of fractional distribution in the regional myocardium to oxygen demand. The subjects included 24 patients with effort angina pectoris and 11 normal volunteers. PTCA was peformed for 11 patients. Using the biological properties of Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed at submaximal exercise and at rest by two successive injections of Tl-201 within a short time interval (double dose method). The correlation between the fractional distribution in the myocardium (Δ-Fract) and the oxygen demand during exercise and at rest were evaluated. Δ-Fract correlated well with the rate of change of the pressure rate product (Δ-PRP), and Δ-Fract/Δ-PRP (CRI) was a good indicator of the coronary flow reserve index. CRI in the ischemic region correlated well with the percent area stenosis of the supplying coronary artery and improved with resolution of percent area stenosis of the target coronary artery after PTCA, but in some cases they were not above the normal range. CRI as obtained by exercise SPECT using the double dose method is useful for non-invasively estimating the coronary flow reserve during exercise, and it can be used for evaluating the effect before and after PTCA. (author)

  14. User`s Guide for the NREL Force and Loads Analysis Program. Version 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A D

    1992-08-01

    The following report gives the reader an overview of and instructions on the proper use of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP, version 2.2). It is intended as a tool for prediction of rotor and blade loads and response for two- or three-bladed rigid hub wind turbines. The effects of turbulence are accounted for. The objectives of the report are to give an overview of the code and also show the methods of data input and correct code execution steps in order to model an example two-bladed rigid hub turbine. A large portion of the discussion (Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) is devoted to the subject of inputting and running the code for wind turbulence effects. The ability to include turbulent wind effects is perhaps the biggest change in the code since the release of FLAP version 2.01 in 1988. This report is intended to be a user`s guide. It does not contain a theoretical discussion on equations of motion, assumptions, underlying theory, etc. It is intended to be used in conjunction with Wright, Buhl, and Thresher (1988).

  15. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: A theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  16. Gas flow environmental and heat transfer nonrotating 3D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, T.; Steinhoff, J.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of benchmark quality data for the flow and heat transfer within a large rectangular turning duct is being compiled. These data will be used to evaluate and verify three dimensional internal viscous flow models and computational codes. The analytical objective is to select such a computational code and define the capabilities of this code to predict the experimental results. Details of the proper code operation will be defined and improvements to the code modeling capabilities will be formulated.

  17. Biological regeneration of humic acid-loaded partially exhausted activated carbon (down flow system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.J.; Martin, R.J.; Khaliq, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper represents the report on the biological regeneration of partially exhausted (down flow) activated carbon following the experimental studies carried out at the university of Birmingham, UK. The Research investigated the extent of bio regeneration of humic acid of concentration 100 mg/l. Bio regeneration in the partial exhaustion system (down flow) was evaluated in terms of substrate removal. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. The regeneration performance of the bio regeneration, partially exhausted (with humic acid) carbon increased during initial cycles, later on, it deteriorated significantly with each successive regeneration cycle. Microbial fouling of the carbon, especially at the bottom of the carbon bed was found to produce a substantial deterioration of the bio regeneration performance. (author)

  18. Dependence of intramyocardial pressure and coronary flow on ventricular loading and contractility: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Borsje, Petra; Arts, Theo; van De Vosse, Frans N

    2006-12-01

    The phasic coronary arterial inflow during the normal cardiac cycle has been explained with simple (waterfall, intramyocardial pump) models, emphasizing the role of ventricular pressure. To explain changes in isovolumic and low afterload beats, these models were extended with the effect of three-dimensional wall stress, nonlinear characteristics of the coronary bed, and extravascular fluid exchange. With the associated increase in the number of model parameters, a detailed parameter sensitivity analysis has become difficult. Therefore we investigated the primary relations between ventricular pressure and volume, wall stress, intramyocardial pressure and coronary blood flow, with a mathematical model with a limited number of parameters. The model replicates several experimental observations: the phasic character of coronary inflow is virtually independent of maximum ventricular pressure, the amplitude of the coronary flow signal varies about proportionally with cardiac contractility, and intramyocardial pressure in the ventricular wall may exceed ventricular pressure. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the normalized amplitude of coronary inflow is mainly determined by contractility, reflected in ventricular pressure and, at low ventricular volumes, radial wall stress. Normalized flow amplitude is less sensitive to myocardial coronary compliance and resistance, and to the relation between active fiber stress, time, and sarcomere shortening velocity.

  19. BUCLASP 2: A computer program for instability analysis of biaxially loaded composite stiffened panels and other structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, L. L.; Tamekuni, M.; Viswanathan, A. V.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the computer program BUCLASP2 is described. The program is intended for linear instability analyses of structures such as unidirectionally stiffened panels. Any structure that has a constant cross section in one direction, that may be idealized as an assemblage of beam elements and laminated flat and curved plant strip elements can be analyzed. The loadings considered are combinations of axial compressive loads and in-plane transverse loads. The two parallel ends of the panel must be simply supported and arbitrary elastic boundary conditions may be imposed along any one or both external longitudinal side. This manual consists of instructions for use of the program with sample problems, including input and output information. The theoretical basis of BUCLASP2 and correlations of calculated results with known solutions, are presented.

  20. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  1. Bi-orthogonality conditions for power flow analysis in fluid-loaded elastic cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledet, Lasse; Sorokin, Sergey V.; Larsen, Jan Balle

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the classical problem of time-harmonic forced vibrations of a fluid-loaded cylindrical shell considered as a multi-modal waveguide carrying infinitely many waves. Firstly, a modal method for formulation of Green’s matrix is derived by means of modal decomposition. The method...... builds on the recent advances on bi-orthogonality conditions for multi-modal waveguides, which are derived here for an elastic fluid-filled cylindrical shell. Subsequently, modal decomposition is applied to the bi-orthogonality conditions to formulate explicit algebraic equations to express the modal...... vibro-acoustic waveguide is subjected to separate pressure and velocity acoustical excitations. Further, it has been found and justified that the bi-orthogonality conditions can be used as a ’root finder’ to solve the dispersion equation. Finally, it is discussed how to predict the response of a fluid...

  2. Assessing roadway contributions to stormwater flows, concentrations, and loads with the StreamStats application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Granato, Gregory E.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2018-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and other state departments of transportation need quantitative information about the percentages of different land cover categories above any given stream crossing in the state to assess and address roadway contributions to water-quality impairments and resulting total maximum daily loads. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with ODOT and the FHWA, added roadway and land cover information to the online StreamStats application to facilitate analysis of stormwater runoff contributions from different land covers. Analysis of 25 delineated basins with drainage areas of about 100 mi2 indicates the diversity of land covers in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. On average, agricultural, developed, and undeveloped land covers comprise 15%, 2.3%, and 82% of these basin areas. On average, these basins contained about 10 mi of state highways and 222 mi of non-state roads. The Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model was used with available water-quality data to simulate long-term yields of total phosphorus from highways, non-highway roadways, and agricultural, developed, and undeveloped areas. These yields were applied to land cover areas obtained from StreamStats for the Willamette River above Wilsonville, Oregon. This analysis indicated that highway yields were larger than yields from other land covers because highway runoff concentrations were higher than other land covers and the highway is fully impervious. However, the total highway area was a fraction of the other land covers. Accordingly, highway runoff mitigation measures can be effective for managing water quality locally, they may have limited effect on achieving basin-wide stormwater reduction goals.

  3. Blood flow in skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the forearm of normal man during an oral glucose load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Astrup, A; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    Blood flow to the forearm, and the subcutaneous tissue and skin in the forearm were measured by strain gauge plethysmography, 133Xe-elimination and Laser Doppler flowmetry during an oral glucose load (I g glucose kg-1 lean body mass) and during control conditions. The forearm blood flow remained...... constant during both experiments. Glucose induced a two-fold vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In skin, glucose induced a relative vasodilatation and later a relative vasoconstriction compared with control experiments. When estimated from forearm blood flow and subcutaneous and skin blood flows......, muscle blood flow decreased about 20-30% during both experiments. Proximal nervous blockade did not abolish the glucose-induced vasodilatation in subcutaneous tissue. In the glucose experiment, arterial glucose concentration increased to 7.8 +/- 1.17 mmol l-1 30 min after the load was given...

  4. Experimental studies of interaction mechanisms and phase transport processes in two-phase flow (NOVA program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, H.; Meyder, R.; Philipp, P.; Samstag, M.

    1995-01-01

    The NOVA program was continued with turbulent, vertical, upward two-phase flow experiments. The development of a local gas distribution along the test section was visualized by X-ray tomography. (orig.)

  5. Pharmaceutical removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Gersberg, Richard M; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Junfei; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-04-01

    Determining the fate of emerging organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is important for developing constructed wetlands (CWs) treatment technology. Experiments were carried out in subsurface flow CWs in Singapore to evaluate the fate and transport of eight pharmaceutical compounds. The CW system included three parallel horizontal subsurface flow CWs and three parallel unplanted beds fed continuously with synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The findings of the tests at 2-6 d HRTs showed that the pharmaceuticals could be categorized as (i) efficiently removed compounds with removal higher than 85% (ketoprofen and salicylic acid); (ii) moderately removed compounds with removal efficiencies between 50% and 85% (naproxen, ibuprofen and caffeine); and (iii) poorly removed compounds with efficiency rate lower than 50% (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and clofibric acid). Except for carbamazepine and salicylic acid, removal efficiencies of the selected pharmaceuticals showed significant (pcaffeine, ketoprofen and clofibric acid were found to follow first order decay kinetics with decay constants higher in the planted beds than the unplanted beds. Correlations between pharmaceutical removal efficiencies and log K(ow) were not significant (p>0.05), implying that their removal is not well related to the compound's hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis and characterization of security regions in power systems. Part I. Load flow feasibility conditions in power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarjis, J; Galiana, F D

    1980-03-01

    A set theoretic analysis of loadflow feasibility of a general power network with arbitrary PQ, PV and slack buses is presented. Load-flow feasibility is that property of a power network defining the theoretical limitations on the bus injections under which a steady state equilibrium exists. The set theoretic analysis is based on the study of the conical loadflow feasibility region. This region is characterised by a set of supporting hyperplanes each of which defines an explicit necessary condition for loadflow feasibility on the bus injections. A quantitative measure of loadflow feasibility for an arbitrary given operating injection vector is defined through a computable scalar stability margin. This stability margin permits the loadflow feasibility of different injections and network structures to be quantitatively compared and analysed.

  7. Sound Control-Flow Graph Extraction for Java Programs with Exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro; Gurov, Dilian; Huisman, Marieke; Eleftherakis, George; Hinchey, Mike; Holcombe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm to extract control-flow graphs from Java bytecode, considering exceptional flows. We then establish its correctness: the behavior of the extracted graphs is shown to be a sound over-approximation of the behavior of the original programs. Thus, any temporal safety property

  8. Proof load testing of reinforced concrete bridges: Experience from a program of testing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.

    2017-01-01

    For existing bridges with large uncertainties, analytical methods have limitations. Therefore, to reduce these uncertainties, field testing of a bridge can be used. A type of such a field test is a proof load test, in which a load equivalent to the factored live load is applied. If the bridge can

  9. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  11. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong; Zhu Nanwen

    2008-01-01

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni 0 ) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d -1 and HRT was 3 days

  12. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: effect of hydraulic retention time and process load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Nan-Wen

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni0) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1Ld(-1) and HRT was 3 days.

  13. Probabilistic Load-Flow Analysis of Biomass-Fuelled Gas Engines with Electrical Vehicles in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeding biomass-fueled gas engines (BFGEs with olive tree pruning residues offers new opportunities to decrease fossil fuel use in road vehicles and electricity generation. BFGEs, coupled to radial distribution systems (RDSs, provide renewable energy and power that can feed electric vehicle (EV charging stations. However, the combined impact of BFGEs and EVs on RDSs must be assessed to assure the technical constraint fulfilment. Because of the stochastic nature of source/load, it was decided that a probabilistic approach was the most viable option for this assessment. Consequently, this research developed an analytical technique to evaluate the technical constraint fulfilment in RDSs with this combined interaction. The proposed analytical technique (PAT involved the calculation of cumulants and the linearization of load-flow equations, along with the application of the cumulant method, and Cornish-Fisher expansion. The uncertainties related to biomass stock and its heating value (HV were important factors that were assessed for the first time. Application of the PAT in a Spanish RDS with BFGEs and EVs confirmed the feasibility of the proposal and its additional benefits. Specifically, BFGEs were found to clearly contribute to the voltage constraint fulfilment. The computational cost of the PAT was lower than that associated with Monte-Carlo simulations (MCSs.

  14. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Nanwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: nwzhu@sina.com

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni{sup 0}) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d{sup -1} and HRT was 3 days.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF REPOSITORY THERMAL LOAD ON MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Shu Wu; Sumit Mukhopadhyay; Keni Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH) processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts

  16. The Influence of Proposed Repository Thermal Load on Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Unsaturated Zone of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.-S.; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of proposed repository thermal-loading on mountain-scale flow and heat transfer in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this context, a model has been developed to study the coupled thermal-hydrological (TH)processes at the scale of the entire Yucca Mountain. This mountain-scale TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the latest rock thermal and hydrological properties. The TH model consists of a two-dimensional north-south vertical cross section across the entire unsaturated zone model domain and uses refined meshes near and around the proposed repository block, based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climatic conditions. The model simulations provide insights into thermally affected liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and elevated water and rock temperature, which in turn allow modelers to predict the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes, and drainage between drifts

  17. Cerebral blood flow, fatigue, mental effort, and task performance in offices with two different pollution loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of indoor air quality on symptoms, perceptions, task performance, cerebral blood flow, fatigue, and mental effort of individuals working in an office were investigated. Twenty-four right-handed Danish female subjects in an office were exposed in groups of two at a time to two air...... pollution levels created by placing or removing a pollution source (i.e. a used carpet) behind a screen. During the exposure, the subjects performed four different office tasks presented on a computer monitor. The tasks were performed at two paces: normal and maximum. When the pollution source was present...... any effects caused by modifying pollution exposure, they were well correlated with increased mental effort when the tasks were performed at maximum pace and subjectively reported fatigue, which increased during the course of exposure, respectively....

  18. Numerical Analysis of a Pulse Detonation Cross Flow Heat Load Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Naples, Andrew .; Hoke, John L.; Schauer, Fred

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between experimentally measured and numerically simulated, time-averaged, point heat transfer rates in a pulse detonation (PDE) engine is presented. The comparison includes measurements and calculations for heat transfer to a cylinder in crossflow and to the tube wall itself using a novel spool design. Measurements are obtained at several locations and under several operating conditions. The measured and computed results are shown to be in substantial agreement, thereby validating the modeling approach. The model, which is based in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then used to interpret the results. A preheating of the incoming fuel charge is predicted, which results in increased volumetric flow and subsequent overfilling. The effect is validated with additional measurements.

  19. A Modified Load Flow Algorithm in Power Systems with Alternative Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, D.L.; Cañedo, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm for calculating the steady state of electrical networks including wind and photovoltaic generation is presented. The wind generators considered are; asynchronous (squirrel cage and doubly fed) and synchronous generators using permanent magnets. The proposed algorithm is based on the formulation of nodal power injections that is solved with the modified Newton Raphson technique in its polar formulation using complex matrices notation. Each power injection of wind and photovoltaic generators is calculated independently in each iteration according to its particular mathematical model, which is generally non-linear. Results are presented with a 30-node test system. The computation time of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional methodology to include alternative energy sources in power flows studies. (author)

  20. Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia's Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93

  1. Enhanced load current delivery from the SHIVA Star vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental results reported here were obtained from passively integrated Rogowski coils mounted in the SHIVA Star device and B located in the load and transfer regions of the device. The integrator time constant was 100 μs. Current measurements accuracy is estimated to be 5% for the Rogowski coils and 10% for B probes. B probes indicated peak currents of 13.5 MA at the breech and 13.0 MA at the muzzle with 650 ns 10-90% rise time. B probes in the implosion region indicated a current greater than 9.4 MA inside 5.5 cm radius; at that time, the muzzle current was 10.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time was 170 ns. The innermost probe indicated 7.3 MA inside 3.2 cm; at that time, the muzzle current was 9.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time at 3.2 cm was 300 ns. Timing anomalies suggested some azimuthal current asymmetry in the implosion region. The data indicate greater than 90% current delivery from the gun muzzle to just outside the initial position implosion foil and 70-80% current delivery from the gun muzzle to the partially imploded foil

  2. Biological regeneration of phenol-loaded activated carbon (up flow system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.J.; Mirajuddin; Martin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper represents the report on the biological regeneration of totally activated carbon following the experimental studies carried out at the University of Birmingham, U.K. Biological regeneration is one of several methods that may be used to restore the adsorptive capacity of exhausted granular activated carbon. This study deals with in situ biological regeneration on a pilot scale. The principal objective of this research was to ascertain whether biological regeneration of GAC could occur under conditions typical of water treatment. The important parameters which may have the greatest impact on bio regeneration for a given adsorbate were studied. The research investigated the extent of bio regeneration for phenol of concentration 50 mg/l. Bio regeneration in the total exhaustion system was evaluated in terms of regeneration efficiency and the substrate removal. A three mode procedure was followed for each bio regeneration run. The prepared carbon was initialing exhausted with an adsorbate; it was then bio regenerated with a mixed culture of bacteria, and lastly the carbon was saturated. In the totally exhausted GAC system, the bio regeneration was enhanced by increasing the duration of regeneration for a fixed initial biomass content of the bioreactor. The regenerated phenol loaded GAC bed had nearly gained its original adsorption after the 5-day period of regeneration. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. (author)

  3. Multi objective Flower Pollination Algorithm for solving capacitor placement in radial distribution system using data structure load flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamilselvan V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial distribution system is a rugged system, it is also the most commonly used system, which suffers by loss and low voltage at the end bus. This loss can be reduced by the use of a capacitor in the system, which injects reactive current and also improves the voltage magnitude in the buses. The real power loss in the distribution line is the I2R loss which depends on the current and resistance. The connection of the capacitor in the bus reduces the reactive current and losses. The loss reduction is equal to the increase in generation, necessary for the electric power provided by firms. For consumers, the quality of power supply depends on the voltage magnitude level, which is also considered and hence the objective of the problem becomes the multi objective of loss minimization and the minimization of voltage deviation. In this paper, the optimal location and size of the capacitor is found using a new computational intelligent algorithm called Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA. To calculate the power flow and losses in the system, novel data structure load flow is introduced. In this, each bus is considered as a node with bus associated data. Links between the nodes are distribution lines and their own resistance and reactance. To validate the developed FPA solutions standard test cases, IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 radial distribution systems are considered.

  4. Mathematical Model and Program for the Sizing of Counter-flow Natural Draft Wet Cooling Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor-Eduard Cenușă

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuring the necessary temperature and mass flow rate of the cooling water to the condenser represents an essential condition for the efficient operation of a steam power plant. The paper presents equations which describe the physical phenomena and the mathematical model for the design of counter-flow natural draft wet cooling towers. Following is given the flow-chart of the associated computer program. A case study is made to show the results of the computer program and emphasize the interdependence between the main design parameters.

  5. A probabilistic calculation of load flow as a method for the evaluation of the impact of stochastic generators and consumers on the network flow; Probabilistische Leistungsflussberechnung als Methode zur Bewertung der Einfluesse stochastischer Erzeuger und Verbraucher auf die Netzbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehnerbein, Benjamin Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    The load flow situation has significantly changed in electric power systems throughout the deregulation of European electricity market and the development of renewable energy sources. In the past load profiles of transmission lines and transformers were only dependent on the customers power demand. Today it is a mixture of load curves, power feed in by renewables and power transits which affect the usage of the transmission system. This leads to a fluctuating utilisation with a certain probability for each state with respect to the stochastic character of the above influences. Knowledge of the utilisation is the precondition for an efficient dimensioning of the power system. For these specific requirements the probabilistic power flow calculation is introduced and further developed. The state variables of the power system are defined as random variables and the probability of each grid state is determined. Different types of network equations and calculation techniques, resulting from various assumptions and simplifications of the well-known power flow equations are compared. The solution is found by either convolution techniques or Monte-Carlo-Simulation. The mathematic models is completed by implementation of a balanced power generation as well as by the integration of a correlation approach. This allows more or less realistic behavior for the interaction of load and generation on the one hand and the concurrence of similar nodal powers on the other hand. The result is proven by a boundary load flow on the base of the exact load flow equations. This allows a comparison of the minimum and the maximum values between the linearised and the exact solution. As long as this deviation is known, the results of the probabilistic power flow can be used in power system evaluation. At least an approach for the combination of probabilistic power flow and reliability evaluation is outlined to determine the probability for overloading components for the reason of network

  6. CAL--ERDA program manual. [Building Design Language; LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, REPORT, EXECUTIVE, CAL-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, B. D.; Diamond, S. C.; Bennett, G. A.; Tucker, E. F.; Roschke, M. A.

    1977-10-01

    A set of computer programs, called Cal-ERDA, is described that is capable of rapid and detailed analysis of energy consumption in buildings. A new user-oriented input language, named the Building Design Language (BDL), has been written to allow simplified manipulation of the many variables used to describe a building and its operation. This manual provides the user with information necessary to understand in detail the Cal-ERDA set of computer programs. The new computer programs described include: an EXECUTIVE Processor to create computer system control commands; a BDL Processor to analyze input instructions, execute computer system control commands, perform assignments and data retrieval, and control the operation of the LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT, ECONOMICS, and REPORT programs; a LOADS analysis program that calculates peak (design) zone and hourly loads and the effect of the ambient weather conditions, the internal occupancy, lighting, and equipment within the building, as well as variations in the size, location, orientation, construction, walls, roofs, floors, fenestrations, attachments (awnings, balconies), and shape of a building; a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) SYSTEMS analysis program capable of modeling the operation of HVAC components including fans, coils, economizers, humidifiers, etc.; 16 standard configurations and operated according to various temperature and humidity control schedules. A plant equipment program models the operation of boilers, chillers, electrical generation equipment (diesel or turbines), heat storage apparatus (chilled or heated water), and solar heating and/or cooling systems. An ECONOMIC analysis program calculates life-cycle costs. A REPORT program produces tables of user-selected variables and arranges them according to user-specified formats. A set of WEATHER ANALYSIS programs manipulates, summarizes and plots weather data. Libraries of weather data, schedule data, and building data were prepared.

  7. Shock loading and reactive flow modeling studies of void induced AP/AL/HTPB propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Lindfors, A. J.

    1998-07-01

    The unreactive Hugoniot of a class 1.3 propellant has been investigated by shock compression experiments. The results are analyzed in terms of an ignition and growth reactive flow model using the DYNA2D hydrocode. The calculated shock ignition parameters of the model show a linear dependence on measured void volume which appears to reproduce the observed gauge records well. Shock waves were generated by impact in a 75 mm single stage powder gun. Manganin and PVDF pressure gauges provided pressure-time histories to 140 kbar. The propellants were of similar formulation differing only in AP particle size and the addition of a burn rate modifer (Fe2O3) from that of previous investigations. Results show neglible effect of AP particle size on shock response in contrast to the addition of Fe2O3 which appears to `stiffen' the unreactive Hugoniot and enhances significantly the reactive rates under shock. The unreactive Hugoniot, within experimental error, compares favorably to the solid AP Hugoniot. Shock experiments were performed on propellant samples strained to induce insitu voids. The material state was quantified by uniaxial tension dialatometry. The experimental records show a direct correlation between void volume (0 to 1.7%) and chemical reactivity behind the shock front. These results are discussed in terms of `hot spot' ignition resulting from the shock collapse of the voids.

  8. Effect of silver-loaded PMMA on Streptococcus mutans in a drip flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Epperson, Richard Tyler; DeGrauw, Jeffery P; Nielsen, Mattias B; Taylor, Nicholas B; Jolley, Ryan D

    2017-09-01

    Orthodontic retention has been proposed as a life-long commitment for patients who desire to maintain straight teeth. However, the presence of foreign material increases risk of bacterial colonization and caries formation, of which Streptococcus mutans is a key contributor. Multiple studies have assessed the ability of silver to be added to base plate material and resist attachment of S. mutans. However, it does not appear that long-term washout in connection with biofilm growth under physiologically relevant conditions has been taken into consideration. In this study, silver was added to base plate material and exposed to short- or long-term washout periods. Materials were then assessed for their ability to resist biofilm formation of S. mutans using a drip flow reactor that modeled the human oral environment. Data indicated that silver was able to resist biofilm formation following short-term washout, but long-term washout periods resulted in a lack of ability to resist biofilm formation. These data will be important for future development of base plate materials to achieve long-term antimicrobial efficacy to reduce risk of caries formation and benefit patients in the long term. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2632-2639, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  10. Comparison between dynamic programming and genetic algorithm for hydro unit economic load dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydro unit economic load dispatch (ELD is of great importance in energy conservation and emission reduction. Dynamic programming (DP and genetic algorithm (GA are two representative algorithms for solving ELD problems. The goal of this study was to examine the performance of DP and GA while they were applied to ELD. We established numerical experiments to conduct performance comparisons between DP and GA with two given schemes. The schemes included comparing the CPU time of the algorithms when they had the same solution quality, and comparing the solution quality when they had the same CPU time. The numerical experiments were applied to the Three Gorges Reservoir in China, which is equipped with 26 hydro generation units. We found the relation between the performance of algorithms and the number of units through experiments. Results show that GA is adept at searching for optimal solutions in low-dimensional cases. In some cases, such as with a number of units of less than 10, GA's performance is superior to that of a coarse-grid DP. However, GA loses its superiority in high-dimensional cases. DP is powerful in obtaining stable and high-quality solutions. Its performance can be maintained even while searching over a large solution space. Nevertheless, due to its exhaustive enumerating nature, it costs excess time in low-dimensional cases.

  11. A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Halford, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new computer program, FLASH (Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes), is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs. The code is based on an analytical solution for steady-state multilayer radial flow to a borehole. The code includes options for (1) discrete fractures and (2) multilayer aquifers. Given vertical flow profiles collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping or injection) conditions, the user can estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far-field hydraulic heads. FLASH is coded in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications routines. The code supports manual and automated model calibration. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation. III. Field programming by flow-rate gradient generated by a programmable pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocková, J; Chmelík, J

    2001-05-25

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF.

  13. Soft-sediment deformations (convolute lamination and load structures) in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections against bounding slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, Roberto; Muzzi Magalhaes, Pierre; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Cunha, Rogerio S.; Laporta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    turbidites containing these deformative structures show that they are genetically linked to contained-reflected beds in structurally-confined basins, suggesting a trigger mechanism associated with the cyclic-wave loading produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to ponded turbidity currents. The data that can demonstrate this hypothesis come from the foredeep turbidites of the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (southwestern France), where a basin scale high-resolution stratigraphic framework with bed-by-bed correlations is now available. These data show that the lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures is not random but has an evident depositional logic related to reflection processes against bounding slopes. Therefore, the main objectives of this work are: 1) to show that convolute laminae and load structures are strictly associated with other sedimentary structures that are unequivocally related to reflection and rebound processes of turbidity currents against morphological obstacles; 2) to show that their lateral and vertical distribution increases concomitantly with the number of contained-reflected beds in the proximity of structurally-controlled morphological highs; 3) to show that the increase in contained-reflected beds with convolute laminae is strictly related to the increase in the synsedimentary-structural uplifts producing more pronounced morphologic highs; 4) to discuss the processes that link soft-sediment deformations with cyclic-wave loading related to internal waves and bores produced by reflection processes.

  14. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0: Data loading manual. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHorn, R.L.; Wolfram, L.M.; Fowler, R.D.; Beck, S.T.; Smith, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) suite of programs can be used to organize and standardize in an electronic format information from probabilistic risk assessments or individual plant examinations. The Models and Results Database (MAR-D) program of the SAPHIRE suite serves as the repository for probabilistic risk assessment and individual plant examination data and information. This report demonstrates by examples the common electronic and manual methods used to load these types of data. It is not a stand alone document but references documents that contribute information relative to the data loading process. This document provides a more detailed discussion and instructions for using SAPHIRE 5.0 only when enough information on a specific topic is not provided by another available source

  15. NACHOS: a finite element computer program for incompressible flow problems. Part I. Theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1978-04-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, NACHOS, is presented in detail. The NACHOS code is designed for the two-dimensional analysis of viscous incompressible fluid flows, including the effects of heat transfer. A general description of the fluid/thermal boundary value problems treated by the program is described. The finite element method and the associated numerical methods used in the NACHOS code are also presented. Instructions for use of the program are documented in SAND77-1334

  16. Seismic safety margins research program. Project VIII load combination project: work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.K.; Vepa, K.; George, L.; Smith, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed load combination project has the following overall objectives: develop a methodology for appropriate combination of dynamic loads for nuclear power plants under normal plant operation, transients, accidents, and natural hazards; establish design criteria, load factors, and component service levels for appropriate combinations of dynamic loads or responses to be used in nuclear power plant design; determine the reliability of typical piping systems, both inside and outside the containment structure, and provide the NRC with a sound technical basis for defining the criteria for postulating pipe breaks; and determine the probabilities of a large LOCA induced directly and indirectly by a range of earthquakes

  17. Performance characteristics of axisymmetric venturi-like reverse-flow diverters. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.V.; Counce, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and model-predicted pressure-flow characteristics of axisymmetric venturi-like reverse-flow diverters (RFDs), the key component of fluid pumping systems utilized for the transport of hazardous fluids. The effects of several key geometric parameters, operating conditions, and fluid properties on the performance of the RFD are presented and compared to model predictions. The results indicate good agreement between data and theory over a large portion of the range of variables studied. Cavitation is observed to be the primary factor in limiting the performance of the RFD at small values of load impedances

  18. Stream Flow Prediction by Remote Sensing and Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2009-01-01

    A genetic programming (GP)-based, nonlinear modeling structure relates soil moisture with synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images to present representative soil moisture estimates at the watershed scale. Surface soil moisture measurement is difficult to obtain over a large area due to a variety of soil permeability values and soil textures. Point measurements can be used on a small-scale area, but it is impossible to acquire such information effectively in large-scale watersheds. This model exhibits the capacity to assimilate SAR images and relevant geoenvironmental parameters to measure soil moisture.

  19. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  20. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  1. pygrametl: A Powerful Programming Framework for Extract–Transform–Load Programmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

        Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes are used for extracting data, transforming it and loading it into data warehouses (DWs). Many tools for creating ETL processes exist. The dominating tools all use graphical user interfaces (GUIs) where the developer visually defines the data flow...

  2. pygrametl: A Powerful Programming Framework for Extract-Transform-Load Programmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    Extract–Transform–Load (ETL) processes are used for extracting data, transforming it and loading it into data warehouses (DWs). Many tools for creating ETL processes exist. The dominating tools all use graphical user interfaces (GUIs) where the developer visu- ally defines the data flow...

  3. Locomotive fuel tank structural safety testing program : passenger locomotive fuel tank jackknife derailment load test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a passenger locomotive fuel tank load test simulating jackknife derailment (JD) load. The test is based on FRA requirements for locomotive fuel tanks in the Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 238, Ap...

  4. Mark II containment program load evaluation and acceptance criteria; Generic Technical Activity A-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.J.

    1981-08-01

    The report provides a discussion of LOCA-related suppression pool hydrodynamic loads in boiling water reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark II pressure-suppression containment design. This report concludes NRC Generic Technical Activity A-8, 'Mark II Containment Pool Dynamic Loads,' which has been designated an 'Unresolved Safety Issue' pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974

  5. SAP3PR: a FORTRAN program for calculating equivalent nodal loads resulting from pressure on the faces of 8- to 20-node isoparametric elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, D.N.

    1978-04-01

    A computer program is described for calculating the equivalent nodal loads resulting from distributed loads on a three-dimensional finite-element model. Included is a listing of the computer program, a description of the input data, and an example of the output

  6. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C.; Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W.

    2015-09-01

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  7. A study on nuclear heat load tolerable for NET/TF coils cooled by internal flow of helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1988-02-01

    NbTi cables cooled by internal flow of superfluid helium are considered an option for the design of NET/TF coils with about 11 T peak fields. Starting from an available winding cross section of 0.61x0.61 m 2 for a 8 MA turns coil made of a 16 kA conductor it is shown that sufficient hydraulic cross section can be provided within such cables to remove the expected thermal load resulting from nuclear heating with exponential decay from inboard to outboard side of the winding. The concept is a pancake type coil with 1.8 K helium fed-in the high field region of each pancake. The temperature distribution within such coils is calculated, and the local safety margin is determined from temperature and field. The calculation takes account of nuclear and a.c. heating, and of thermal conductance between the individual layers and the coil casing. It is shown that operation with 1.8 K inlet and about 3 K outlet temperature is possible. The electrical insulation with about 0.5 mm thickness proves to provide sufficient thermal insulation. No additional thermal shield is required between the coil casing and the winding package. Two different types of conductors are being considered: a) POLO type cable with quadratic cross section and a central circular coolant duct, and b) an LCT type cable with two conductors wound in hand. Both concepts with about 500 m length of the cooland channels are shown to meet the requirements resulting from a peak nuclear heat load of 0.3 mW/cm 3 in the inboard turns. The hydraulic diameters are sufficient to operate each coils with self-sustained fountain effect pumps. Even appreciably higher heat loads with up to 3 mW/cm 3 of nuclear heating can be tolerated for the POLO type cable when the hydraulic diameter is enlarged to its maximum of 17 mm. (orig.) [de

  8. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  9. Dependent Types for Multi-Rate Flows in Synchronous Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Blair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous programming languages emerged in the 1980s as tools for implementing reactive systems, which interact with events from physical environments and often must do so under strict timing constraints. In this report, we encode inside ATS various real-time primitives in an experimental synchronous language called Prelude, where ATS is a statically typed language with an ML-like functional core that supports both dependent types (of DML-style and linear types. We show that the verification requirements imposed on these primitives can be formally expressed in terms of dependent types in ATS. Moreover, we modify the Prelude compiler to automatically generate ATS code from Prelude source. This modified compiler allows us to solely rely on typechecking in ATS to discharge proof obligations originating from the need to typecheck Prelude code. Whereas ATS is typically used as a general purpose programming language, we hereby demonstrate that it can also be conveniently used to support some forms of advanced static checking in languages equipped with less expressive types.

  10. Analyzing the effect of dynamic loads on economic dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, non-uniform increase of demand on a power system turns the research toward the dynamic analysis. In this paper, to perform dynamic analysis and to solve economic load dispatch problem using optimal power flow (OPF, four realistic load levels are considered. Further, the effectiveness of the objective has been enhanced in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC. An optimal location identification methodology for IPFC based on line stability index (LSI is also presented. The effect of ramp-rate limits on generations and the effect of dynamic loads on generation fuel cost and transmission losses are also analyzed on standard IEEE-30 bus and real time 23 bus test systems with supporting validations, numerical and graphical results.

  11. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.

    1993-01-01

    Texas Instruments is a product intensive company that manufactures very high volumes of different products, and because of this, their technique in manufacturing is what we call hard tooling. So all of the tools we use at this site whether it is for HFIR, ORR or HFBR are hard tooling. A fuel plate never sees a lathe, milling machine, or any other tool of that nature. I have just a few viewgraphs here that will illustrate some of the types of tooling we use to keep away from machining and get high production at as low as possible cost. Figure I shows weighing aluminum powder. It's done in a glove box more to keep air flow away from the balance than any other reason. The weighing of the U 3 O 8 is similar and the glove box is for personnel protection. Figure 2 shows our blender, and I won't try to explain why it works. This is the only one we have ever found that really blends our powder and does a good job. Figure 3 shows our powder die on the press, and you can see the rectangular compact being extracted. Here is the way we make our frames in a blanking die Figure 4. You will notice there are two holes in the frame. We start off with two cores in a frame. Our lot size is 24, but twelve billets go into the furnace for preheating, at the seventh pass, we cut the two cores apart and at that point they become individual fuel plates. Figure 5 shows the loading of the compacts into the frame. We use a loose fit. We can just drop the cores into the frame with, I think, about 2 mils side clearance and it works very satisfactorily. Figure 6 shows a forming die. Once you make the investment for the fuel plate blanking die shown in Figure 7, you can blank out a fuel plate on the order of about one per minute, to size and to the tolerances required. Figure 8 shows a unique tool developed at Oak Ridge. It's a Homogeneity Scanner. It works on the principal of x-ray attenuation going through an electronic analysis

  12. Ballast Load Control of Turbine-Generator Sets in the Micro-Hydro Range with a Turbine that has no Flow Regulating Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedelea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of voltage and frequency variation on users load supplies from electrical supply system generated from small micro-hydro plants. Induction generators operate as stand-alone self excited by capacitors and turbine has no flow regulating valve. Many conventional and non conventional approaches are described to govern turbine-generator set to ensure a steady frequency and voltage level. A load controller increases or decreases a ballast load connected across the generator as the user load varies, to keep frequency and voltage variation in standard limits. To design a controller for self excited induction generator, researches were performed on asynchronous generator with double winding stator to analyse steady state open loop behaviour. The results on the behaviour of the unregulated turbine (DC motor – generator system was presented.

  13. Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) flow coefficient of reactivity: (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarber, W.K.; Stout, J.W.; Atherton, R.

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the results of an experimental program to measure and categorize the causes for increases in the magnitude of the LWBR flow coefficient of reactivity at 10,932 EFPH from previously measured near zero values to a value of about 6 x 10 -4 Δ rho for a flow decrease from 100 to 80% of full flow. Reactor protection analyses confirmed that existing protection systems were adequate for continued operation. Subsequently, the flow coefficient decreased in magnitude to approximately 2.25 x 10 -4 Δ rho at 20,000 EFPH and remained about constant through the remainder of core life, 29,047 EFPH. The increase in flow coefficient of reactivity is attributed to a flow-force dependent change in the effective core diameter such that an increase in core flow decreased the core diameter, resulting in an increase in fuel-to-water ratio and a consequent decrease in the reactivity of this relatively undermoderated core. This report discusses why the increased flow coefficient did not occur until after 10,932 EFPH and why the magnitude of flow coefficient reduced with continued core operation

  14. Computer programs for the numerical modelling of water flow in rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croney, P.; Richards, L.R.

    1985-08-01

    Water flow in rock joints provides a very important possible route for the migration of radio-nuclides from radio-active waste within a repository back to the biosphere. Two computer programs DAPHNE and FPM have been developed to model two dimensional fluid flow in jointed rock masses. They have been developed to run on microcomputer systems suitable for field locations. The fluid flows in a number of jointed rock systems have been examined and certain controlling functions identified. A methodology has been developed for assessing the anisotropic permeability of jointed rock. A number of examples of unconfined flow into surface and underground openings have been analysed and ground water lowering, pore water pressures and flow quantities predicted. (author)

  15. Effects of a plyometric training program with and without added load on jumping ability in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Hbacha, Hamdi; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standard plyometric training protocol with or without added load in improving vertical jumping ability in male basketball players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group (no plyometric training), plyometric training group (PG), and loaded plyometric group (LPG, weighted vests 10-11% body mass). Before and after the 10-week training program, all the players were tested for the 5-jump test (5JT), the squat jump (SJ), and the countermovement jump (CMJ). The PG and LPG groups performed 2 and 3 training sessions per week, during the first 3 and the last 7 weeks, respectively. The results showed that SJ, CMJ, and 5JT were significantly improved only in the PG and LPG groups. The best effects for jumps were observed in LPG (p training program may result in greater vertical and horizontal-jump performances in basketball players.

  16. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  17. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs

  18. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  19. Lessons Learned: A review of utility experience with conservation and load management programs for commercial and industrial customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, S.

    1990-10-01

    This report examines utility experience with conservation and load management (C LM) programs of commercial and industrial (C I) customers in order to summarize the lessons learned from program experiences to date and what these teach us about how to operate successful programs in the future. This analysis was motivated by a desire to learn about programs which achieve high participation rates and high electricity savings while remaining cost effective. Also, we wanted to review the very latest experiences with innovative program approaches -- approaches that might prove useful to utilities as they scale up their C LM activities. Specific objectives of this phase of the study are threefold: (1) To disseminate information on utility C LM experience to a nationwide audience. (2) To review current New York State utility programs and make suggestions on how these programs can be improved. (3) To collect data for the final phase of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy/New York State Energy Research and Development Authority project, which will examine the savings that are achievable if C LM programs are pushed to the limit'' of current knowledge on how to structure and run cost-effective C LM programs. 19 tabs.

  20. Behaviour of a pressure vessel nozzle with thermo-sleeve under thermal loading induced by stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Mayinger, W.; Diem, H.; Katzenmeier, G.

    1993-01-01

    Startup at low reactor power may give rise to stratified flow conditions in pipes of boiling water and pressurized water reactors. Stratified flow regimes cause a steep temperature gradient between the cold and the hot fluid layer. This temperature gradient produces high axial stresses which, in the case of intermittent feeding of cold water and an appropriate number of repetitions, in principle may initiate cracking in the feedwater pipe and close to the feeding nozzle. Thermosleeves have been installed in a number of reactors to mitigate thermally induced stresses; they reduce the intensity of thermal transients by means of an insulating fluid annulus developing between the sleeve and the nozzle, in order to measure the temperature and stress gradients occurring in the region of the nozzle edge, the so-called TEMS experiments were carried out under realistic operating conditions, and with different cold water levels within the framework of German research activities in the field of reactor safety at the HDR test facility. The experiments served to simulate the physics phenomena by means of a FE-program and to verify the computational approach by comparisons of measurements and calculations

  1. Annual trace-metal load estimates and flow-weighted concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in the Spokane River basin, Idaho and Washington, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Streamflow and trace-metal concentration data collected at 10 locations in the Spokane River basin of northern Idaho and eastern Washington during 1999-2004 were used as input for the U.S. Geological Survey software, LOADEST, to estimate annual loads and mean flow-weighted concentrations of total and dissolved cadmium, lead, and zinc. Cadmium composed less than 1 percent of the total metal load at all stations; lead constituted from 6 to 42 percent of the total load at stations upstream from Coeur d'Alene Lake and from 2 to 4 percent at stations downstream of the lake. Zinc composed more than 90 percent of the total metal load at 6 of the 10 stations examined in this study. Trace-metal loads were lowest at the station on Pine Creek below Amy Gulch, where the mean annual total cadmium load for 1999-2004 was 39 kilograms per year (kg/yr), the mean estimated total lead load was about 1,700 kg/yr, and the mean annual total zinc load was 14,000 kg/yr. The trace-metal loads at stations on North Fork Coeur d'Alene River at Enaville, Ninemile Creek, and Canyon Creek also were relatively low. Trace-metal loads were highest at the station at Coeur d'Alene River near Harrison. The mean annual total cadmium load was 3,400 kg/yr, the mean total lead load was 240,000 kg/yr, and the mean total zinc load was 510,000 kg/yr for 1999-2004. Trace-metal loads at the station at South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Pinehurst and the three stations on the Spokane River downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake also were relatively high. Differences in metal loads, particularly lead, between stations upstream and downstream of Coeur d'Alene Lake likely are due to trapping and retention of metals in lakebed sediments. LOADEST software was used to estimate loads for water years 1999-2001 for many of the same sites discussed in this report. Overall, results from this study and those from a previous study are in good agreement. Observed differences between the two studies are attributable to streamflow

  2. Forecasting Shaharchay River Flow in Lake Urmia Basin using Genetic Programming and M5 Model Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Samadianfard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise prediction of river flows is the key factor for proper planning and management of water resources. Thus, obtaining the reliable methods for predicting river flows has great importance in water resource engineering. In the recent years, applications of intelligent methods such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic programming in water science and engineering have been grown extensively. These mentioned methods are able to model nonlinear process of river flows without any need to geometric properties. A huge number of studies have been reported in the field of using intelligent methods in water resource engineering. For example, Noorani and Salehi (23 presented a model for predicting runoff in Lighvan basin using adaptive neuro-fuzzy network and compared the performance of it with neural network and fuzzy inference methods in east Azerbaijan, Iran. Nabizadeh et al. (21 used fuzzy inference system and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system in order to predict river flow in Lighvan river. Khalili et al. (13 proposed a BL-ARCH method for prediction of flows in Shaharchay River in Urmia. Khu et al. (16 used genetic programming for runoff prediction in Orgeval catchment in France. Firat and Gungor (11 evaluated the fuzzy-neural model for predicting Mendes river flow in Turkey. The goal of present study is comparing the performance of genetic programming and M5 model trees for prediction of Shaharchay river flow in the basin of Lake Urmia and obtaining a comprehensive insight of their abilities. Materials and Methods: Shaharchay river as a main source of providing drinking water of Urmia city and agricultural needs of surrounding lands and finally one of the main input sources of Lake Urmia is quite important in the region. For obtaining the predetermined goals of present study, average monthly flows of Shaharchay River in Band hydrometric station has been gathered from 1951 to 2011. Then, two third of mentioned

  3. Characterizing Flow and Suspended Sediment Trends in the Sacramento River Basin, CA Using Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M. A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Wright, S. A.; Minear, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    A watershed model of the Sacramento River Basin, CA was developed to simulate streamflow and suspended sediment transport to the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for fifty years (1958-2008) using the Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF). To compensate for the large model domain and sparse data, rigorous meteorological development and characterization of hydraulic geometry were employed to spatially distribute climate and hydrologic processes in unmeasured locations. Parameterization techniques sought to include known spatial information for tributaries such as soil information and slope, and then parameters were scaled up or down during calibration to retain the spatial characteristics of the land surface in un-gaged areas. Accuracy was assessed by comparing model calibration to measured streamflow. Calibration and validation of the Sacramento River ranged from "good" to "very good" performance based upon a "goodness-of-fit" statistical guideline. Model calibration to measured sediment loads were underestimated on average by 39% for the Sacramento River, and model calibration to suspended sediment concentrations were underestimated on average by 22% for the Sacramento River. Sediment loads showed a slight decreasing trend from 1958-2008 and was significant (p < 0.0025) in the lower 50% of stream flows. Hypothetical climate change scenarios were developed using the Climate Assessment Tool (CAT). Several wet and dry scenarios coupled with temperature increases were imposed on the historical base conditions to evaluate sensitivity of streamflow and sediment on potential changes in climate. Wet scenarios showed an increase of 9.7 - 17.5% in streamflow, a 7.6 - 17.5% increase in runoff, and a 30 - 93% increase in sediment loads. The dry scenarios showed a roughly 5% decrease in flow and runoff, and a 16 - 18% decrease in sediment loads. The base hydrology was most sensitive to a temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius and an increase in storm intensity and

  4. Three-phase power load flow with uncertainty modeling via sinusoidal membership function; Fluxo de carga trifasico com modelagem de incertezas via funcao de pertinencia sinusoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Patricia L.; Murari, Carlos Alberto F.; Salas, Silvio S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: plc@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, murari@dsee.fee.unicamp.br, ssegura@dsee.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    During the development of models for power systems, the researchers aim always to get results compatible with reality, and in this research it was our objective consider that some electric system variables are not deterministic, i e there is imprecision or variations, for example, on the loads. In this study, imprecise variables are represented as fuzzy numbers (the bell shape) and is presented a methodology for analysis of electrical networks of distribution through a specialist three-phase load flow that incorporates fuzzy sets and mathematical operations based on fuzzy logic. The results confirm the good performance of this new method.

  5. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification

  6. Portable Parallel Programming for the Dynamic Load Balancing of Unstructured Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel; Oliker, Leonid

    1999-01-01

    The ability to dynamically adapt an unstructured -rid (or mesh) is a powerful tool for solving computational problems with evolving physical features; however, an efficient parallel implementation is rather difficult, particularly from the view point of portability on various multiprocessor platforms We address this problem by developing PLUM, tin automatic anti architecture-independent framework for adaptive numerical computations in a message-passing environment. Portability is demonstrated by comparing performance on an SP2, an Origin2000, and a T3E, without any code modifications. We also present a general-purpose load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) as the underlying communication pattern, with a goal to providing a global view of system loads across processors. Experiments on, an SP2 and an Origin2000 demonstrate the portability of our approach which achieves superb load balance at the cost of minimal extra overhead.

  7. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R.; Byrnes, Ryan K.; Cooke, Daniel M.; Haischer, Michael H.; Carzoli, Joseph P.; Johnson, Trevor K.; Cross, Matthew R.; Cronin, John B.; Storey, Adam G.; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM) load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years) performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment. Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11); load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10); participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT), and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50) and 70% (VLMT70) femur-length. Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg), squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg) and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg) increased (p 0.05). Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES) advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL) = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups. Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals. PMID:29628895

  8. Random hydrodynamic loads and the vibration of fuel elements in the turbulent coolant flow in WWER fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevezentsev, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The generalizing empirical dependences of vibration movements on the random hydrodynamic loads have been obtained. Two characteristic regions of the influence of random hydrodynamic loads on the vibration movements have been discovered. With the values of random hydrodynamic loads more than 80 N/m, a considerable increase in the intensity of vibrations has been observed. It can be explained by the slippage of fuel element in the cell of the spacing lattice [ru

  9. Programming Algorithms of load balancing with HA-Proxy in HTTP services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teodoro Mejía Viteri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The access to the public and private services through the web gains daily protagonism, and sometimes they must support amounts of requests that a team can not process, so there are solutions that use algorithms that allow to distribute the load of requests of a web application in several equipment; the objective of this work is to perform an analysis of load balancing scheduling algorithms through the HA-Proxy tool, and deliver an instrument that identifies the load distribution algorithm to be used and the technological infrastructure, to largely cover implementation. The information used for this work is based on a bibliographic analysis, eld study and implementation of the different load balancing algorithms in equipment, where the distribution and its performance will be analyzed. The incorporation of this technology to the management of services on the web, improves availability, helps business continuity and through the different forms of distribution of the requests of the algorithms that can be implemented in HA-Proxy to provide those responsible for information technology systems with a view of their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  11. Magnetic particle movement program to calculate particle paths in flow and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Toru; Sakazume, Taku; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    We developed an analysis program for predicting the movement of magnetic particles in flow and magnetic fields. This magnetic particle movement simulation was applied to a capturing process in a flow cell and a magnetic separation process in a small vessel of an in-vitro diagnostic system. The distributions of captured magnetic particles on a wall were calculated and compared with experimentally obtained distributions. The calculations involved evaluating not only the drag, pressure gradient, gravity, and magnetic force in a flow field but also the friction force between the particle and the wall, and the calculated particle distributions were in good agreement with the experimental distributions. Friction force was simply modeled as static and kinetic friction forces. The coefficients of friction were determined by comparing the calculated and measured results. This simulation method for solving multiphysics problems is very effective at predicting the movements of magnetic particles and is an excellent tool for studying the design and application of devices. - Highlights: ●We developed magnetic particles movement program in flow and magnetic fields. ●Friction force on wall is simply modeled as static and kinetic friction force. ●This program was applied for capturing and separation of an in-vitro diagnostic system. ●Predicted particle distributions on wall were agreed with experimental ones. ●This method is very effective at predicting movements of magnetic particles

  12. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Helms

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment.Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11; load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10; participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT, and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50 and 70% (VLMT70 femur-length.Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg, squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg increased (p < 0.05 in both groups as did PMT (1RMG + 1.59 ± 1.33; RPEG +1.90 ± 1.91 mm, VLMT50 (1RMG +2.13 ± 1.95; RPEG + 1.85 ± 1.97 mm and VLMT70 (1RMG + 2.40 ± 2.22; RPEG + 2.31 ± 2.27 mm. Between-group differences were non-significant (p > 0.05. Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups.Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals.

  13. Evaluation of load flow and grid expansion in a unit-commitment and expansion optimization model SciGRID International Conference on Power Grid Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, Charlotte; Biener, Wolfgang; Shammugam, Shivenes; Längle, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Energy system models serve as a basis for long term system planning. Joint optimization of electricity generating technologies, storage systems and the electricity grid leads to lower total system cost compared to an approach in which the grid expansion follows a given technology portfolio and their distribution. Modelers often face the problem of finding a good tradeoff between computational time and the level of detail that can be modeled. This paper analyses the differences between a transport model and a DC load flow model to evaluate the validity of using a simple but faster transport model within the system optimization model in terms of system reliability. The main findings in this paper are that a higher regional resolution of a system leads to better results compared to an approach in which regions are clustered as more overloads can be detected. An aggregation of lines between two model regions compared to a line sharp representation has little influence on grid expansion within a system optimizer. In a DC load flow model overloads can be detected in a line sharp case, which is therefore preferred. Overall the regions that need to reinforce the grid are identified within the system optimizer. Finally the paper recommends the usage of a load-flow model to test the validity of the model results.

  14. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  15. Ferrocyanide safety program: Heat load and thermal characteristics determination for selected tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, J.M.; Cash, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the heat loads, conductivities, and heat distributions of waste tanks 241-BY-105, -106, -108, -110, -111, and 241-C-109 at the Hanford Site. The heat distribution of tank 241-BY-111 was determined to be homogeneously distributed throughout the sludge contained in the tank. All of the other tanks, with the exception of 241-C-109, showed evidence of a heat-producing layer at the bottom of the tanks. No evidence of a heat-producing layer in a position above the bottom was found. The thermal conductivities were determined to be within the ranges found by previous laboratory and computer analysis. The heat loads of the tanks were found to be below 2.81 kW (9,600 Btu/hr)

  16. PHAST Version 2-A Program for Simulating Groundwater Flow, Solute Transport, and Multicomponent Geochemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Charlton, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    The computer program PHAST (PHREEQC And HST3D) simulates multicomponent, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated groundwater flow systems. PHAST is a versatile groundwater flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. Major enhancements in PHAST Version 2 allow spatial data to be defined in a combination of map and grid coordinate systems, independent of a specific model grid (without node-by-node input). At run time, aquifer properties are interpolated from the spatial data to the model grid; regridding requires only redefinition of the grid without modification of the spatial data. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated groundwater systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock/water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, or density-dependent flow. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux (specified-flux), and leaky (head-dependent) conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers, drains, and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association or Pitzer specific interaction thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange sites, surface complexation sites, solid solutions, and gases; and

  17. Modeling of Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.

  18. High-uranium-loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program [contributed by N.M. Martin, ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 -Al Fuel Element Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages. The specific objective of the program is to develop the technological and engineering data base for U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements of maximal uranium content to the point of vendor qualification for full scale fabrication on a production basis. A program and management plan that details the organization, supporting objectives, schedule, and budget is in place and preparation for fuel and irradiation studies is under way. The current programming envisions a program of about four years duration for an estimated cost of about two million dollars. During the decades of the fifties and sixties, developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the use of U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center Reactor, and the High Flux Beam Reactor. Most of the developmental information however applies only up to a uranium concentration of about 55 wt % (about 35 vol % U 3 O 8 ). The technical issues that must be addressed to further increase the uranium loading beyond 55 wt % involve plate fabrication phenomena of voids and dogboning, fuel behavior under long irradiation, and potential for the thermite reaction between U 3 O 8 and aluminum. (author)

  19. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Efficiency (2007) presented commonly used definitions for EM&V in the context of energy efficiency programs: (1) Evaluation (E) - The performance of studies and activities aimed at determining the effects and effectiveness of EE programs; (2) Measurement and Verification (M&V) - Data collection, monitoring, and analysis associated with the calculation of gross energy and demand savings from individual measures, sites or projects. M&V can be a subset of program evaluation; and (3) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) - This term is frequently seen in evaluation literature. EM&V is a catchall acronym for determining both the effectiveness of program designs and estimates of load impacts at the portfolio, program and project level. This report is a scoping study that assesses current practices and methods in the evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a focus on methods and practices currently used for determining whether projected (ex-ante) energy and demand savings have been achieved (ex-post). M&V practices for privately-funded energy efficiency projects (e.g., ESCO projects) or programs where the primary focus is greenhouse gas reductions were not part of the scope of this study. We identify and discuss key purposes and uses of current evaluations of end-use energy efficiency programs, methods used to evaluate these programs, processes used to determine those methods; and key issues that need to be addressed now and in the future, based on discussions with regulatory agencies, policymakers, program administrators, and evaluation practitioners in 14 states and national experts in the evaluation field. We also explore how EM&V may evolve in a future in which efficiency funding increases significantly, innovative mechanisms for rewarding program performance are adopted, the role of efficiency in greenhouse gas mitigation is more closely linked, and programs are increasingly funded from multiple sources

  20. EPRI flow-loop/in situ test program for motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.F.; Dorfman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute is undertaking a comprehensive research program to develop and validate methods for predicting the performance of common motor-operated gate, global, and butterfly valves. To assess motor-operated valve (MOV) performance characteristics and provide a basis for methods validation, full-scale testing was conducted on 62 MOVs. Tests were performed in four flow-loop facilities and in nine nuclear units. Forty-seven gate, five globe, and 10 butterfly valves were tested under a wide range of flow and differential pressure conditions. The paper describes the test program scope, test configurations, instrumentation and data acquisition, testing approach, and data analysis methods. Key results are summarized

  1. Reducibility of ceria-lanthana mixed oxides under temperature programmed hydrogen and inert gas flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Blanco, G.; Cifredo, G.; Perez-Omil, J.A.; Pintado, J.M.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of La/Ce mixed oxides, with La molar contents of 20, 36 and 57%. We carry out the study of the structural, textural and redox properties of the mixed oxides, comparing our results with those for pure ceria. For this aim we use temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. The mixed oxides are more easy to reduce in a flow of hydrogen than ceria. Moreover, in an inert gas flow they release oxygen in higher amounts and at lower temperatures than pure CeO 2 . The textural stability of the mixed oxides is also improved by incorporation of lanthana. All these properties make the ceria-lanthana mixed oxides interesting alternative candidates to substitute ceria in three-way catalyst formulations. (orig.)

  2. Petri Nets Based Modelling of Control Flow for Memory-Aid Interactive Programs in Telemedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Khoromskaia, V K

    2004-01-01

    Petri Nets (PN) based modelling of the control flow for the interactive memory assistance programs designed for personal pocket computers and having special requirements for robustness is considered. The proposed concept allows one to elaborate the programs which can give users a variety of possibilities for a day-time planning in the presence of environmental and time restrictions. First, a PN model for a known simple algorithm is constructed and analyzed using the corresponding state equations and incidence matrix. Then a PN graph for a complicated algorithm with overlapping actions and choice possibilities is designed, supplemented by an example of its analysis. Dynamic behaviour of this graph is tested by tracing of all possible paths of the flow of control using the PN simulator. It is shown that PN based modelling provides reliably predictable performance of interactive algorithms with branched structures and concurrency requirements.

  3. MININR: a geochemical computer program for inclusion in water flow models - an application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, A.R.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Zachara, J.M.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    MININR is a reduced form of the computer program MINTEQ which calculates equilibrium precipitation/dissolution of solid phases, aqueous speciation, adsorption, and gas phase equilibrium. The user-oriented features in MINTEQ were removed to reduce the size and increase the computational speed. MININR closely resembles the MINEQL computer program developed by Westall (1976). The main differences between MININR and MINEQL involve modifications to accept an initial starting mass of solid and necessary changes for linking with a water flow model. MININR in combination with a simple water flow model which considers only dilution was applied to a laboratory column packed with retorted oil shale and percolated with distilled water. Experimental and preliminary model simulation results are presented for the constituents K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and pH.

  4. A Sequential Convex Semidefinite Programming Algorithm for Multiple-Load Free Material Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stingl, M.; Kočvara, Michal; Leugering, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2009), s. 130-155 ISSN 1052-6234 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1075402 Grant - others:commision EU(XE) EU-FP6-30717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : structural optimization * material optimization * semidefinite programming * sequential convex programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2009

  5. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  6. Optimum residential load management strategy for real time pricing (RTP) demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Monteiro, Cláudio; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers that utilizes the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. The strategy considers predictions of electricity prices, energy demand, renewable power production, and power-purchase of energy of the consumer in determining the optimal relationship between hourly electricity prices and the use of different household appliances and electric vehicles in a typical smart house. The proposed strategy is illustrated using two study cases corresponding to a house located in Zaragoza (Spain) for a typical day in summer. Results show that the proposed model allows users to control their diary energy consumption and adapt their electricity bills to their actual economical situation. - Highlights: ► This work shows an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers. ► It has been considered the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. ► A study case shows the optimal utilization of some appliances and electric vehicles. ► Results showed that the proposed model allows users to reduce their electricity bill.

  7. TOWARDS THE USE OF A NOVEL METHOD: The First Experiences on Measuring The Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Pas UYSAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and methods can enable educational researchers gain an insight into brain and cognitive processes as well. Therefore, this experimental study explored the previously learned OOP skills in terms of cognitive load. By using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method, we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. There were two research questions investigated by this study. The first research question explored whether the average oxygenation changed according to the participants’ academic achievements and task completion status. The second research question was for identifying the instant changes in the oxygenations to find out which programming tasks were more contributing to the oxygenation. Later, we compared the findings with experts’ judgments. We observed that the fNIRS system was an effective and promising technology for monitoring cognitive tasks both in classrooms and in experimental environments.

  8. PHAST--a program for simulating ground-water flow, solute transport, and multicomponent geochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Kipp, Kenneth L.; Engesgaard, Peter; Charlton, Scott R.

    2004-01-01

    The computer program PHAST simulates multi-component, reactive solute transport in three-dimensional saturated ground-water flow systems. PHAST is a versatile ground-water flow and solute-transport simulator with capabilities to model a wide range of equilibrium and kinetic geochemical reactions. The flow and transport calculations are based on a modified version of HST3D that is restricted to constant fluid density and constant temperature. The geochemical reactions are simulated with the geochemical model PHREEQC, which is embedded in PHAST. PHAST is applicable to the study of natural and contaminated ground-water systems at a variety of scales ranging from laboratory experiments to local and regional field scales. PHAST can be used in studies of migration of nutrients, inorganic and organic contaminants, and radionuclides; in projects such as aquifer storage and recovery or engineered remediation; and in investigations of the natural rock-water interactions in aquifers. PHAST is not appropriate for unsaturated-zone flow, multiphase flow, density-dependent flow, or waters with high ionic strengths. A variety of boundary conditions are available in PHAST to simulate flow and transport, including specified-head, flux, and leaky conditions, as well as the special cases of rivers and wells. Chemical reactions in PHAST include (1) homogeneous equilibria using an ion-association thermodynamic model; (2) heterogeneous equilibria between the aqueous solution and minerals, gases, surface complexation sites, ion exchange sites, and solid solutions; and (3) kinetic reactions with rates that are a function of solution composition. The aqueous model (elements, chemical reactions, and equilibrium constants), minerals, gases, exchangers, surfaces, and rate expressions may be defined or modified by the user. A number of options are available to save results of simulations to output files. The data may be saved in three formats: a format suitable for viewing with a text editor; a

  9. Neurite, a finite difference large scale parallel program for the simulation of electrical signal propagation in neurites under mechanical loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A García-Grajales

    Full Text Available With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite--explicit and implicit--were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon

  10. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  11. EURDYN: computer programs for the nonlinear transient analysis of structures submitted to dynamic loading. EURDYN (Release 3): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleux, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The EURDYN computer codes are mainly designed for the simulation of nonlinear dynamic response of fast-reactor compoments submitted to impulse loading due to abnormal working conditions. Two releases of the structural computer codes EURDYN 01 (2-D beams and triangles and axisymmetric conical shells and triangular tores), 02 (axisymmetric and 2-D quadratic isoparametric elements) and 03 (triangular plate elements) have already been produced. They include material (elasto-plasticity using the classical flow theory approach) and geometrical (large displacements and rotations treated by a corotational technique) nonlinearities. The new features of Release 3 roughly consist in: full large strain capability for 9-node isoparametric elements, generalized array dimensions, introduction of the radial return algorithm for elasto-plastic material modelling, extension of the energy check facility to the case of prescribed displacements, and, possible interface to a post-processing package including time plot facilities

  12. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  13. Numerical investigation of the influence of particle-particle and particle-wall collisions in turbulent wall-bounded flows at high mass loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alletto, Michael

    2014-05-16

    The present work deals with the simulation of turbulent particle-laden flows at high mass loadings. In order to achieve this goal, the fluid flow is described by means of the eddy-resolving concept known as Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and the particles are described in a Lagrangian frame of reference. Special emphasis is placed on the interparticle collisions and the impact of solid particles on rough walls. Both mechanisms are shown to be crucial for the correct description of the particle dynamics in wall-bounded flows. In order to distinguish the present methodology from the variety of methods available in the literature to treat turbulent flows laden with solid particles, the thesis starts with an overview of different simulation techniques to calculate this class of flows. In this overview special care is taken to underline the parameter space, where the different simulation methods are valid. After that, the governing equations and the boundary conditions applied for the continuous phase of the Euler-Lagrange approach used in the present thesis are given. In the subsequent section the governing equations for the solid particles and their interaction with smooth and rough walls are discussed. Here a new wall roughness model for the particles which incorporates an amplitude parameter used in technical applications such as the mean roughness height or the root-mean-squared roughness is presented. After that, the coupling mechanisms between the phases and the algorithmic realization are discussed. Furthermore, a new agglomeration model capable to treat interparticle collisions with friction is presented. However, the agglomeration model is not evaluated in such a detail as the interparticle collisions and the particle-wall collisions. The reason is that it does not represent a central aspect of this thesis. The numerical methods for the continuous and the disperse phase are presented in the subsequent section. The efficient algorithm to detect the interparticle

  14. The Relation between Gas Flow and Combustibility using Actual Engine (Basic Experiment of Gas Flow and Combustibility under Low Load Condition)

    OpenAIRE

    田坂, 英紀; 泉, 立哉; 木村, 正寿

    2003-01-01

    Abstract ###Consideration of the global environment problems by exhaust gas is becoming important in recent years. ###Especially about internal combustion engine, social demand has been increasing about low pollution, high ###efficiency and so on. Controlling gas flow in cylinder becomes the key getting good combustion state in ###various driving states. ###The purpose of the research is analysis about the relation between gas flow and combustibility in the cylinder. ###So we measured gas flo...

  15. Study on structural integrity of thinned wall piping against seismic loading-overview and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Otani, Akihito; Shiratori, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of thinned wall pipes under seismic events, cyclic in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending tests on thinned straight pipe and elbow and also shaking table tests using degraded piping system models were conducted. Relation between the failure mode and thinned condition and the influence of the final failure mode of degraded piping systems were investigated. In addition to these experiments, elastic-plastic FEM analysis using ABAQUS were conducted on thinned piping elements. It has been found that the strain concentrated point could be predicted and the cause of its generation could be explained by the simulated deformation behavior of the pipe. In order to predict the piping system's maximum response under elastic-plastic response, a simple response prediction method was proposed. Further tests and safety margin analyses of thinned pipes against seismic loading will be performed. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Burnout in Nurse Faculty: Relationships with Management Style, Collegial Support, and Work Load in Collegiate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Margaret Jorgensen

    1986-01-01

    A study of the relationship of management behavior of the dean, collegial support, and workload to burnout among faculty in collegiate nursing programs found that collegial support, positive feedback from the dean, and a participatory management style are more important for protecting faculty against burnout than attention to workload. (MSE)

  17. PIC simulations of conical magnetically insulated transmission line with LTD generator: Transition from self-limited to load-limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laqun; Wang, Huihui; Guo, Fan; Zou, Wenkang; Liu, Dagang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the 3-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code CHIPIC3D, with a new circuit boundary algorithm we developed, a conical magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a 1.0-MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is explored numerically. The values of switch jitter time of LTD are critical parameters for the system, which are difficult to be measured experimentally. In this paper, these values are obtained by comparing the PIC results with experimental data of large diode-gap MITL. By decreasing the diode gap, we find that all PIC results agree well with experimental data only if MITL works on self-limited flow no matter how large the diode gap is. However, when the diode gap decreases to a threshold, the self-limited flow would transfer to a load-limited flow. In this situation, PIC results no longer agree with experimental data anymore due to the anode plasma expansion in the diode load. This disagreement is used to estimate the plasma expansion speed.

  18. Preliminary analysis of effects of thermal loading on gas and heat flow within the framework of the LBNL/USGS site-scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Chen, G.; Bodvarsson, G.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is performing detailed site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as a geological repository site for high level nuclear wastes. As part of these research efforts, a three-dimensional, site-scale unsaturated-zone model has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the US Geological Survey (USGS). The primary objectives of developing the 3-D site-scale model are to predict the ambient hydrogeological conditions and the movement of moisture and gas within the unsaturated zone of the mountain. In addition, the model has the capability of modeling non-isothermal flow and transport phenomena at the mountain. Applications of such a site-scale model should include evaluation of effects of thermal loading on heated gas and heat flow through the mountain for long-term performance assessment of the repository. Emplacement of heat-generating, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain would create complex multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer processes. The physical mechanisms include conductive and convective heat transfer, phase change phenomena (vaporization and condensation), flow of liquid and gas phases under variably-saturated condition, diffusion and dispersion of vapor and gas, vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering effects. The heterogeneity of complicated geological setting at Yucca Mountain, such as alternating, layers of porous-fractured rocks, will significantly affect the processes of fluid and heat flow

  19. Assessment model validity document. NAMMU: A program for calculating groundwater flow and transport through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised

  20. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  1. Estudio del efecto del Compensador Estático de Reactivos en el problema de Flujo de Carga; Study of the effect of the Static Var Compensator on the Load Flow problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ruiz Porras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consiste en estudiar, modelar y simular un Compensador Estático de Reactivos (SVC, para analizar el efecto del mismo en el problema de Flujo de Carga de un Sistema Eléctrico de Potencia (SEP. Se emplea un programa, de la literatura revisada, escrito en Matlab. Se presenta el modelo matemático del SVC que se emplea en el programa y que utiliza el concepto de susceptancia en derivación variable e incorpora el modelo del ángulo de disparo de los tiristores como variable de estado en la fórmula de Newton Raphson. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos en el flujo de carga, sin SVC, en los ensayos que se realizan con el sistema de 9 barras de la IEEE con los resultados alcanzado utilizando la versión académica del Simulador Power World. El SVC se emplea para controlar el valor de la tensión en una de las barras del caso estudio.  This work consists on studying, to model and to simulate a Static Vars Compensator (SVC, to analyze the effect of the same one in the Load Flow problem of an Electric Power System (SEP. A program is used, of the revised literature, written in Matlab. The mathematical model of the SVC is presented that is used in the program and that it uses the concept of susceptance variable shunt and it incorporates the model of the fire angle of the tiristores like state variable in Newton Raphson methods. The results obtained are compared in the load flow, without SVC, in the rehearsals that are carried out with the system of 9 bars of the IEEE with the reached results using the academic version of the Power World Simulator. The SVC is used to control the value of the voltage in one of the bars of the case study.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations of aerodynamic loads and 3D flow over non-rotating MEXICO blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Gillebaart, T.; van Zuijlen, A.H.; van Bussel, G.J.W.; Bijl, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental and numerical study on MEXICO wind turbine blades. Previous work by other researchers shows that large deviations exist in the loads comparison between numerical predictions and experimental data for the rotating MEXICO wind turbine. To reduce complexities and

  3. SAFSIM theory manual: A computer program for the engineering simulation of flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1993-12-01

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow SIMulator) is a FORTRAN computer program for simulating the integrated performance of complex flow systems. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a fluid mechanics module with flow network capability; (2) a structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange surface capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. Any or all of the physics modules can be implemented, as the problem dictates. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems. Both the fluid mechanics and structure heat transfer modules employ a one-dimensional finite element modeling approach. This document contains a description of the theory incorporated in SAFSIM, including the governing equations, the numerical methods, and the overall system solution strategies.

  4. Development of free-flowing peppermint essential oil-loaded hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles via atomization with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junsi; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to overcome the issues related to the volatility and strong smell that limit the efficient utilization of essential oils as "natural" antimicrobials in the food industry. Peppermint essential oil-loaded hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles were successfully formed using a novel "green" method based on atomization of CO 2 -expanded lipid mixture. The highest essential oil loading efficiency (47.5%) was achieved at 50% initial essential oil concentration at 200bar expansion pressure and 50μm nozzle diameter, whereas there was no significant difference between the loading efficiencies (35%-39%) at 5%, 7%, 10%, and 20% initial essential oil concentrations (p>0.05). Particles generated at all initial essential oil concentrations were spherical but increasing the initial essential oil concentration to 20% and 50% generated a less smooth particle surface. After 4weeks of storage, 61.2%, 42.5%, 0.2%, and 2.0% of the loaded essential oil was released from the particles formed at 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% initial essential oil concentrations, respectively. This innovative simple and clean process is able to form spherical hollow micro- and nanoparticles loaded with essential oil that can be used as food grade antimicrobials. These novel hollow solid lipid micro- and nanoparticles are alternatives to the solid lipid nanoparticles, and overcome the issues associated with the solid lipid nanoparticles. The dry free-flowing products make the handling and storage more convenient, and the simple and clean process makes the scaling up more feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parameter estimation of an ARMA model for river flow forecasting using goal programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Kourosh; Eslami, H. R.; Kahawita, Rene

    2006-11-01

    SummaryRiver flow forecasting constitutes one of the most important applications in hydrology. Several methods have been developed for this purpose and one of the most famous techniques is the Auto regressive moving average (ARMA) model. In the research reported here, the goal was to minimize the error for a specific season of the year as well as for the complete series. Goal programming (GP) was used to estimate the ARMA model parameters. Shaloo Bridge station on the Karun River with 68 years of observed stream flow data was selected to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results when compared with the usual method of maximum likelihood estimation were favorable with respect to the new proposed algorithm.

  6. Use of Gene Expression Programming in regionalization of flow duration curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced artificial intelligence technique known as Gene Expression Programming (GEP) has been employed to perform symbolic regression for developing a parametric scheme of flow duration curve (FDC) regionalization, to relate selected FDC characteristics to catchment characteristics. Stream flow records of selected catchments located in the Auckland Region of New Zealand were used. FDCs of the selected catchments were normalised by dividing the ordinates by their median value. Input for the symbolic regression analysis using GEP was (a) selected characteristics of normalised FDCs; and (b) 26 catchment characteristics related to climate, morphology, soil properties and land cover properties obtained using the observed data and GIS analysis. Our study showed that application of this artificial intelligence technique expedites the selection of a set of the most relevant independent variables out of a large set, because these are automatically selected through the GEP process. Values of the FDC characteristics obtained from the developed relationships have high correlations with the observed values.

  7. Learning Based Approach for Optimal Clustering of Distributed Program's Call Flow Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abofathi, Yousef; Zarei, Bager; Parsa, Saeed

    Optimal clustering of call flow graph for reaching maximum concurrency in execution of distributable components is one of the NP-Complete problems. Learning automatas (LAs) are search tools which are used for solving many NP-Complete problems. In this paper a learning based algorithm is proposed to optimal clustering of call flow graph and appropriate distributing of programs in network level. The algorithm uses learning feature of LAs to search in state space. It has been shown that the speed of reaching to solution increases remarkably using LA in search process, and it also prevents algorithm from being trapped in local minimums. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed algorithm over others.

  8. K-FIX: a computer program for transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, W.C.; Torrey, M.D.

    1976-11-01

    The transient dynamics of two-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds using the K-FIX program. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The six field equations for the two phases couple through mass, momentum, and energy exchange. The equations are solved using an Eulerian finite difference technique that implicitly couples the rates of phase transitions, momentum, and energy exchange to determination of the pressure, density, and velocity fields. The implicit solution is accomplished iteratively without linearizing the equations, thus eliminating the need for numerous derivative terms. K-FIX is written in a highly modular form to be easily adaptable to a variety of problems. It is applied to growth of an isolated steam bubble in a superheated water pool

  9. Subsurface lateral flow from hillslope and its contribution to nitrate loading in streams through an agricultural catchment during subtropical rainstorm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface lateral flow from agricultural hillslopes is often overlooked compared with overland flow and tile drain flow, partly due to the difficulties in monitoring and quantifying. The objectives of this study were to examine how subsurface lateral flow generated through soil pedons from cropped hillslopes and to quantify its contribution to nitrate loading in the streams through an agricultural catchment in the subtropical region of China. Profiles of soil water potential along hillslopes and stream hydro-chemographs in a trenched stream below a cropped hillslope and at the catchment outlet were simultaneously recorded during two rainstorm events. The dynamics of soil water potential showed positive matrix soil water potential over impermeable soil layer at 0.6 to 1.50 m depths during and after the storms, indicating soil water saturation and drainage processes along the hillslopes irrespective of land uses. The hydro-chemographs in the streams, one trenched below a cropped hillslope and one at the catchment outlet, showed that the concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus corresponded well to stream flow during the storm, while the nitrate concentration increased on the recession limbs of the hydrographs after the end of the storm. All the synchronous data revealed that nitrate was delivered from the cropped hillslope through subsurface lateral flow to the streams during and after the end of the rainstorms. A chemical mixing model based on electricity conductivity (EC and H+ concentration was successfully established, particularly for the trenched stream. The results showed that the subsurface lateral flow accounted for 29% to 45% of total stream flow in the trenched stream, responsible for 86% of total NO3-N loss (or 26% of total N loss, and for 5.7% to 7.3% of total stream flow at the catchment outlet, responsible for about 69% of total NO3-N loss (or 28% of total N

  10. Development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flows analyzer. Annual technical report for program renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C.

    1993-05-01

    This progress report details the theoretical development, numerical results, experimental design (mechanical), experimental design (electronic), and experimental results for the research program for the development of an electrical impedance computed tomographic two-phase flow analyzer.

  11. [Development and effectiveness of a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on smartphone application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Jung Ha; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop and evaluate a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on a smartphone application. Calculation ability, dosage calculation related self-efficacy and anxiety were measured. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Smartphone application and a handout for self-study were developed and administered to the experimental group and only a handout was provided for control group. Intervention period was 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ²-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 18.0. The experimental group showed more 'self-efficacy for drug dosage calculation' than the control group (t=3.82, psmartphone application is effective in improving dosage calculation related self-efficacy and calculation ability. Further study should be done to develop additional interventions for reducing anxiety.

  12. Effect of engine load and biogas flow rate to the performance of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel (dieselbiogas) mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target on reduction Green Houses Gases emissions (GHG) by 26% from level business-as-usual by 2020, and the target can be up to 41% by international supports. In the energy sector, this target can be reached effectively by promoting fossil fuel replacement or blending with biofuel. One of the potential solutions is operating compression ignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel (diesel-biogas) mode. In this study effects of engine load and biogas flow rate on the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a compression ignition engine run in dual-fuel mode are investigated. In the present study, the used biogas is refined with methane content 70% of volume. The objectives are to explore the optimum operating condition of the CI engine run in dual-fuel mode. The experiments are performed on a four-strokes CI engine with rated output power of 4.41 kW. The engine is tested at constant speed 1500 rpm. The engine load varied from 600W to 1500W and biogas flow rate varied from 0 L/min to 6 L/min. The results show brake thermal efficiency of the engine run in dual-fuel mode is better than pure diesel mode if the biogas flow rates are 2 L/min and 4 L/min. It is recommended to operate the present engine in a dual-fuel mode with biogas flow rate of 4 L/min. The consumption of diesel fuel can be replaced up to 50%.

  13. Construction program for a large superconducting MHD magnet system at the coal-fired flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Genens, L.; Gonczy, J.; Ludwig, H.; Lieberg, M.; Kraft, E.; Gacek, D.; Huang, Y.C.; Chen, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory has designed and is constructing a 6 T large aperture superconducting MHD magnet for use in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee. The magnet system consists of the superconducting magnet, a magnet power supply, an integrated instrumentation for operation, control and protection, and a complete cryogenic facility including a CTI Model 2800 helium refrigerator/liquefier with two compressors, helium gas handling system and a 7500 liter liquid helium dewar. The complete system will be tested at Argonne, IL in 1981. The magnet design is reviewed, and the coil fabrication programs are described in detail

  14. NAMMU: finite element program for coupled heat and groundwater flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, J.; Robinson, P.C.

    1979-11-01

    NAMMU is a computer program which will calculate the evolution in time of coupled water and heat flow in a porous medium. It is intended to be used primarily for modelling studies of underground nuclear waste repositories. NAMMU is based on the Galerkin-Finite-element method and has self-adjusting time stepping. The present version is written for 2-dimensional cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems. It has been checked against two calculations from the KBS study and an exact solution by Hodgkinson for a very idealised repository design. (author)

  15. Subchannel analysis program for boiling water reactor fuel bundles based on five conservation equations of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Y.; Uchikawa, S.

    1985-01-01

    A subchannel analysis program, MENUETT, is developed for evaluation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiling water reactor fuel bundles. This program is based on five conservation equations of two-phase flow with the drift-flux correlation. The cross flows are calculated separately for liquid and vapor phases from the lateral momentum conservation equation. The effects of turbulent mixing and void drift are accounted for in the program. The conservation equations are implicitly differentiated with the convective terms by the donor-cell method, and are solved iteratively in the axial and lateral directions. Data of the 3 X 3 rod bundle experiments are used for program verification. The lateral distributions of equilibrium quality and mass flow rate at the bundle exit calculated by the program compare satisfactorily with the experimental results

  16. K-TIF: a two-fluid computer program for downcomer flow dynamics. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsden, A.A.; Harlow, F.H.

    1977-10-01

    The K-TIF computer program has been developed for numerical solution of the time-varying dynamics of steam and water in a pressurized water reactor downcomer. The current status of physical and mathematical modeling is presented in detail. The report also contains a complete description of the numerical solution technique, a full description and listing of the computer program, instructions for its use, with a sample printout for a specific test problem. A series of calculations, performed with no change in the modeling parameters, shows consistent agreement with the experimental trends over a wide range of conditions, which gives confidence to the calculations as a basis for investigating the complicated physics of steam-water flows in the downcomer.

  17. A research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Philbin, Jeffrey S.; Foushee, Fabian C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: a) typical operating conditions, b) anticipated, new operating regimes, and c) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel. (author)

  18. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  19. Effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of loading-dose ticagrelor on coronary blood flow, left ventricular remodeling and myocardial enzyme spectrum in patients with acute myocardial infarction after interventional therapy. Methods: A total of 86 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI in our hospital between May 2013 and May 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, ticagrelor group received perioperative ticagrelor therapy and clopidogrel group received perioperative clopidogrel therapy. After PCI, coronary blood flow reperfusion was evaluated, serum myocardial remodeling indexes and myocardial enzymes were determined, and cardiac color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine the cardiac function indexes. Results: TIMI grading and TMPG grading of ticagrelor group after PCI were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group; serum MMP9, BNP, CITP, PICP, PIIINP, CK, CK-MB, cTnI and cTnT content of ticagrelor group 24h after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group; LVEDD, LVSED and LVMI of ticagrelor group 2 weeks after operation were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group while LVEF was significantly higher than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusion: Peri-PCI loading-dose ticagrelor can improve coronary blood perfusion and reduce ventricular remodeling and myocardial injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  20. The Impact of Phosphorus Load and Water Through-Flow on Phytoplankton Standing Crop in a Dimitic Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut L. Seip

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model has been developed for the mesotrophic Lake Mjesa (365 x 106 m2, 61' N, 11° E. Emphasis has been made on the interaction between biological and hydrodynamic variables. Simulation results for phytoplankton and nutrient concentrations in both the epilimnion and the hypolimnion compare fairly well with observations. Investigative simulations have been made to study the effects of injecting nutrients at different depths assuming three alternative schemes for diffusion across the thermoclinc. The overall results indicate that the phytoplankton standing crop is less sensitive to nutrient injection depths when diffusion increases, and that the high efficiency of hypolimnetic injection reported for some lakes in the literature will not be obtained in the present lake. Simulation studies of changes in river flow indicate that changes in peak flow time (inside the domain of natural variability have a greater impact on the phytoplankton standing crop ( less than 20% than changes in flow volume ( less than 6%. Simulations also indicate that light extinction caused by suspended particles associated with river flow may be important in sections of the lake.

  1. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediated prostaglandin release regulates blood flow in connective tissue during mechanical loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Skovgaard, D

    2003-01-01

    prior to the experiment) or COX unspecific (n = 8, indomethacin 100 mg (12 and 1 h pre-experiment) and acetyl salicylic acid 500 mg day-1 for 3 days pre-experiment). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration was determined by microdialysis and blood flow by 133Xe washout. In C, interstitial PGE2 rose from...

  2. Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) Relaxation Based Optimal Power Flow with Hybrid VSC-HVDC Transmission and Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    The detailed topology of renewable resource bases may have the impact on the optimal power flow of the VSC-HVDC transmission network. To address this issue, this paper develops an optimal power flow with the hybrid VSC-HVDC transmission and active distribution networks to optimally schedule...... the generation output and voltage regulation of both networks, which leads to a non-convex programming model. Furthermore, the non-convex power flow equations are based on the Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) relaxation approach. Thus, the proposed model can be relaxed to a SOCP that can be tractably solved...

  3. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.

  4. Water Hammer Simulations of MMH Propellant - New Capability Demonstration of the Generalized Fluid Flow Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Z.; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure-density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK does not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine (MMH). This paper will illustrate the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight. Rigorous code validation of this approach will be done and reported at a future date.

  5. Quantifying the combined effects of land use and climate changes on stream flow and nutrient loads: A modelling approach in the Odense Fjord catchment (Denmark).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Nielsen, Anders; Thodsen, Hans; Trolle, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Water pollution and water scarcity are among the main environmental challenges faced by the European Union, and multiple stressors compromise the integrity of water resources and ecosystems. Particularly in lowland areas of northern Europe, high population density, flood protection and, especially, intensive agriculture, are important drivers of water quality degradation. In addition, future climate and land use changes may interact, with uncertain consequences for water resources. Modelling approaches have become essential to address water issues and to evaluate ecosystem management. In this work, three multi-stressor future storylines combining climatic and socio-economic changes, defined at European level, have been downscaled for the Odense Fjord catchment (Denmark), giving three scenarios: High-Tech agriculture (HT), Agriculture for Nature (AN) and Market-Driven agriculture (MD). The impacts of these scenarios on water discharge and inorganic and organic nutrient loads to the streams have been simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results revealed that the scenario-specific climate inputs were most important when simulating hydrology, increasing river discharge in the HT and MD scenarios (which followed the high emission 8.5 representative concentration pathway, RCP), while remaining stable in the AN scenario (RCP 4.5). Moreover, discharge was the main driver of changes in organic nutrients and inorganic phosphorus loads that consequently increased in a high emission scenario. Nevertheless, both land use (via inputs of fertilizer) and climate changes affected the nitrate transport. Different levels of fertilization yielded a decrease in the nitrate load in AN and an increase in MD. In HT, however, nitrate losses remained stable because the fertilization decrease was counteracted by a flow increase. Thus, our results suggest that N loads will ultimately depend on future land use and management in an interaction with climate changes, and

  6. The Effects of Game Strategy and Preference-Matching on Flow Experience and Programming Performance in Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Chen, Ming-Puu

    2010-01-01

    Learning to program is difficult for novices, even for those undergraduates who have majored in computer science. The study described in this paper has investigated the effects of game strategy and preference-matching on novice learners' flow experience and performance in learning to program using an experiential gaming activity. One hundred and…

  7. Stakeholder Participation in Freshwater Monitoring and Evaluation Programs: Applying Thresholds of Potential Concern within Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallin, John; McLoughlin, Craig A.; Campbell, Josh; Knight, Roger; Bright, Troy; Fisher, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The complex nature of freshwater systems provides challenges for incorporating evidence-based techniques into management. This paper investigates the potential of participatory evidence-based techniques to involve local stakeholders and make decisions based on different "knowledge" sources within adaptive management programs. It focuses on the application of thresholds of potential concern (TPC) within strategic adaptive management (SAM) for facilitating inclusive decision-making. The study is based on the case of the Edward-Wakool (E-W) "Fish and Flows" SAM project in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia. We demonstrate the application of TPCs for improving collaborative decision-making within the E-W, associated with environmental watering requirements, and other natural resource management programs such as fish stocking. The development of TPCs in the E-W fish and flows SAM project helped improve stakeholder involvement and understanding of the system, and also the effectiveness of the implemented management interventions. TPCs ultimately helped inform environmental flow management activities. The TPC process complemented monitoring that was already occurring in the system and provided a mechanism for linking formal and informal knowledge to form explicit and measurable endpoints from objectives. The TPC process faced challenges due to the perceived reduction in scientific rigor within initial TPC development and use. However, TPCs must remain tangible to managers and other stakeholders, in order to aid in the implementation of adaptive management. Once accepted by stakeholders, over time TPCs should be reviewed and refined in order to increase their scientific rigor, as new information is generated.

  8. In-core flow measurement and calibration of gags using on-load instrumented stringers in a C.A.G.R. at Hinkley Point 'B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.E.; Carrick, I.H.

    1982-06-01

    The initial fuel loading of the first CAGR at Hinkley Point included 5 specially instrumented stringers (OLIS) each containing a flow-measuring venturi and additional thermocouples. Venturi absolute and differential pressures were measured by transducers mounted on the pile-cap. Transducers and thermocouples were routed to a computer/logger and processed into stringer performance data. The venturi was engineered to comply closely with appropriate British Standards but compromises were made to minimise interaction with other functions of the OLIS plug unit, justifying rig calibration of venturis to check for deviation in behaviour. High accuracy and reliability of the flow measuring system were established by thorough commissioning procedures. The transducers were selected for low sensitivity to their operational environment. Nevertheless calibration of all transducers was carried out both in laboratory and in-situ. Errors introduced by signal processing were identified and zero drift monitored. Pipe-runs were scrupulously leak-tested and leak sensitivity was evaluated. After one year re-calibration and recommissioning gave confidence of long term stability. Measurements of stringer behaviour were collected in a series of tests spanning the full range of both the setting of the channel flow control gags and the reactor power. Throughout these tests comprehensive monitoring, with intercalibration between the OLIS and comparison with installed reactor instrumentation has quantified residual error. These measurements were used to check the theoretical model used by the station for channel flow assessment. The excellent agreement obtained justified proceeding to the derivation of a universal gag resistance calibration applying to all power levels. In performance tests aimed at evaluation of overall generating efficiency, the theoretical model was used to make accurate estimates of reactor power and flow which agreed well with estimates based directly on further OLIS

  9. The Analysis of Nonlinear Vibrations of Top-Tensioned Cantilever Pipes Conveying Pressurized Steady Two-Phase Flow under Thermal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina S. Adegoke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the nonlinear vibrations of top-tensioned cantilevered pipes conveying pressurized steady two-phase flow under thermal loading. The coupled axial and transverse governing partial differential equations of motion of the system were derived based on Hamilton’s mechanics, with the centerline assumed to be extensible. Using the multiple-scale perturbation technique, natural frequencies, mode shapes, and first order approximate solutions of the steady-state response of the pipes were obtained. The multiple-scale assessment reveals that at some frequencies the system is uncoupled, while at some frequencies a 1:2 coupling exists between the axial and the transverse frequencies of the pipe. Nonlinear frequencies versus the amplitude displacement of the cantilever pipe, conveying two-phase flow at super-critical mixture velocity for the uncoupled scenario, exhibit a nonlinear hardening behavior; an increment in the void fractions of the two-phase flow results in a reduction in the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies and the coupled amplitude of the system. However, increases in the temperature difference, pressure, and the presence of top tension were observed to increase the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies without a significant change in the coupled amplitude of the system.

  10. User's guide to HEATRAN: a computer program for three-dimensional transient fluid-flow and heat-transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides the HEATRAN user with programming and input information. HEATRAN is a computer program which is written to analyze the transient three dimensional single phase incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer problem. In this report, the programming information is given first. This information includes details concerning the code and structure. The description of the required input variables is presented next. Following the input description, the sample problems are described and HEATRAN's results are presented

  11. California Publicly-Owned Utilities (POUs) – LBNL ‘Beyond Widgets’ Project. Task: ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. System Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair; Mathew, Paul A.; Regnier, Cynthia; Schwartz, Peter; Schakelford, Jordan; Walter, Travis

    2017-09-01

    This program manual contains detailed technical information for implementing an incentive program for task-ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. This manual was developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in collaboration with the California Publicly-Owned Utilities (CA POUs) as a partner in the ‘Beyond Widgets’ program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office. The primary audience for this manual is the program staff of the various CA POUs. It may also be used by other utility incentive programs to help develop similar programs. It is anticipated that the content of this manual be utilized by the CA POU staff for developing related documents such as the Technical Resource Manual and other filings pertaining to the rollout of an energy systems-based rebate incentive program.

  12. The established mega watt linear programming-based optimal power flow model applied to the real power 56-bus system in eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muhawesh, Tareq A.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2008-01-01

    A current trend in electric power industries is the deregulation around the world. One of the questions arise during any deregulation process is: where will be the future generation expansion? In the present paper, the study is concentrated on the wheeling computational method as a part of mega watt (MW) linear programming-based optimal power flow (LP-based OPF) method. To observe the effects of power wheeling on the power system operations, the paper uses linear interactive and discrete optimizer (LINDO) optimizer software as a powerful tool for solving linear programming problems to evaluate the influence of the power wheeling. As well, the paper uses the optimization tool to solve the economic generation dispatch and transmission management problems. The transmission line flow was taken in consideration with some constraints discussed in this paper. The complete linear model of the MW LP-based OPF, which is used to know the future generation potential areas in any utility is proposed. The paper also explains the available economic load dispatch (ELD) as the basic optimization tool to dispatch the power system. It can be concluded in the present study that accuracy is expensive in terms of money and time and in the competitive market enough accuracy is needed without paying much

  13. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  14. Analysis and effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch in the presence of Unified Power Flow Controller using UDTPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintalapudi V. Suresh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to analyze the effect of multi-fuel and practical constraints on economic load dispatch problem using a novel uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization (UDTPSO algorithm without and with unified power flow controller (UPFC while satisfying equality, inequality, practical constraints such as ramp-rate and prohibited operating zone (POZ limits and device operating limits. A Novel severity function is formulated based on the transmission line overloads and bus voltage violations to identify an optimal location to install UPFC. A multi-objective optimization problem is solved for multi-fuel non-convex cost and transmission power loss objectives. Obtained results for considered standard test functions and electrical systems indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and can obtain efficient solution when compared to existing methods. Hence, the proposed method is a promising method and can be easily applied to optimize the power system objectives.

  15. Scaling up watershed model parameters: flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin, South Carolina, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variable in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD–H, and LOADEST. Because the focus of this investigation was on scaling up the models from McTier Creek, water-quality concentrations that were previously collected in the McTier Creek Basin were used in the water-quality load models.

  16. Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study......, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware co-synthesis system under development at the Technical University of Denmark. The translator, together...... with the other components of LYCOS, provides a means for moving parts of C programs to dedicated hardware, thereby obtaining better performance. The translator was refined in steps, starting with an abstract specification and ending with a concrete specification from which C++ code was then automatically...

  17. RICE: a computer program for multicomponent chemically reactive flows at all speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, W.C.; Farmer, O.A.; Butler, T.D.

    1974-11-01

    The fluid dynamics of chemically reactive mixtures are calculated at arbitrary flow speeds with the RICE program. The dynamics are governed by the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations together with the species transport equations and the mass-action rate equations for the chemical reactions. The mass and momentum equations for the mixture are solved implicitly by the ICE technique. The equations for total energy and species transport are solved explicitly while the chemical rate equations are solved implicitly with a time step that may be a submultiple of the hydrodynamic time step. Application is made to continuous wave HF chemical lasers to compute the supersonic mixing and chemical reactions that take place in the lasing cavity. (U.S.)

  18. Acoustic programming in step-split-flow lateral-transport thin fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, Claire; Hoyos, Mauricio

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new separation scheme for micrometer-sized particles combining acoustic forces and gravitational field in split-flow lateral-transport thin (SPLITT)-like fractionation channels. Acoustic forces are generated by ultrasonic standing waves set up in the channel thickness. We report on the separation of latex particles of two different sizes in a preliminary experiment using this proposed hydrodynamic acoustic sorter, HAS. Total binary separation of 5 and 10 microm diameter particles has been achieved. Numerical simulations of trajectories of particles flowing through a step-SPLITT under the conditions which combine acoustic standing waves and gravity show a very good agreement with the experiment. Calculations in order to compare separations obtained by the acoustic programming s-SPLITT fractionation and the conventional SPLITT fractionation show that the improvement in separation time is around 1 order of magnitude and could still be improved; this is the major finding of this work. This separation technique can be extended to biomimetic particles and blood cells.

  19. Security constrained economic load dispatch in the presence of interline power flow controller using modified BAT algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Vijay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of electrical energy due to urbanization and industrialization is increasing day by day, and due to this, there is chance of increasing the uncertainties in a given power system and that affects the economy of the country. The conventional power system in the presence of flexible AC transmission system (FACTS controllers is an alternative to solve this problem and can increase the power system capability to handle rapid changes in operating conditions of the system. In general, multi-line FACTS controllers are effective than single line FACTS controllers. In this paper, a detailed mathematical modeling of IPFC is presented and the effect of an optimal location is also analyzed. A novel optimization algorithm i.e. modified BAT algorithm is proposed to solve optimal power flow problem in the presence of IPFC including system constraints and device limits. The proposed methodology has been tested on standard test systems.

  20. Distribution and disinfection of bacterial loadings associated with particulate matter fractions transported in urban wet weather flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2012-12-15

    Urban runoff is a resource for reuse water. However, runoff transports indicator and pathogenic organisms which are mobilized from sources of fecal contamination. These organisms are entrained with particulate matter (PM) that can serve as a mobile substrate for these organisms. Within a framework of additional treatment for reuse of treated runoff which requires the management of PM inventories in unit operations and drainage systems there is a need to characterize organism distributions on PM and the disinfection potential thereof. This study quantifies total coliform, Escherichia coli, fecal streptococcus, and enterococcus generated from 25 runoff events. With the ubiquity and hetero-dispersivity of PM in urban runoff this study examines organism distributions for suspended, settleable and sediment PM fractions differentiated based on PM size and transport functionality. Hypochlorite is applied in batch to elaborate inactivation of PM-associated organisms for each PM fraction. Results indicate that urban runoff bacterial loadings of indicator organisms exceed U.S. wastewater reuse, recreational contact, and Australian runoff reuse criteria as comparative metrics. All monitored events exceeded the Australian runoff reuse criteria for E. coli in non-potable residential and unrestricted access systems. In PM-differentiated events, bacteriological mobilization primarily occurred in the suspended PM fraction. However, sediment PM shielded PM-associated coliforms at all hypochlorite doses, whereas suspended and settleable PM fractions provide less shielding resulting in higher inactivation by hypochlorite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total maximum allocated load calculation of nitrogen pollutants by linking a 3D biogeochemical-hydrodynamic model with a programming model in Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aiquan; Li, Keqiang; Ding, Dongsheng; Li, Yan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Yanbin; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-12-01

    The equal percent removal (EPR) method, in which pollutant reduction ratio was set as the same in all administrative regions, failed to satisfy the requirement for water quality improvement in the Bohai Sea. Such requirement was imposed by the developed Coastal Pollution Total Load Control Management. The total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of nitrogen pollutants in the sea-sink source regions (SSRs) around the Bohai Rim, which is the maximum pollutant load of every outlet under the limitation of water quality criteria, was estimated by optimization-simulation method (OSM) combined with loop approximation calculation. In OSM, water quality is simulated using a water quality model and pollutant load is calculated with a programming model. The effect of changes in pollutant loads on TMAL was discussed. Results showed that the TMAL of nitrogen pollutants in 34 SSRs was 1.49×105 ton/year. The highest TMAL was observed in summer, whereas the lowest in winter. TMAL was also higher in the Bohai Strait and central Bohai Sea and lower in the inner area of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay. In loop approximation calculation, the TMAL obtained was considered satisfactory for water quality criteria as fluctuation of concentration response matrix with pollutant loads was eliminated. Results of numerical experiment further showed that water quality improved faster and were more evident under TMAL input than that when using the EPR method

  2. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 3. Program listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This is the third of 3 volumes of the description of the VTT (Variable Thickness Transient) Groundwater Hydrologic Model - second level (intermediate complexity) two-dimensional saturated groundwater flow

  3. Development of a 3-D flow analysis computer program for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, H. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. K.; Whang, Y. D.; Kim, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    A 3-D computational fluid dynamics program TASS-3D is being developed for the flow analysis of primary coolant system consists of complex geometries such as SMART. A pre/post processor also is being developed to reduce the pre/post processing works such as a computational grid generation, set-up the analysis conditions and analysis of the calculated results. TASS-3D solver employs a non-orthogonal coordinate system and FVM based on the non-staggered grid system. The program includes the various models to simulate the physical phenomena expected to be occurred in the integral reactor and will be coupled with core dynamics code, core T/H code and the secondary system code modules. Currently, the application of TASS-3D is limited to the single phase of liquid, but the code will be further developed including 2-phase phenomena expected for the normal operation and the various transients of the integrator reactor in the next stage

  4. PWR FLECHT SEASET 21-rod bundle flow blockage task. Task plan report. FLECHT SEASET Program report No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Basel, R.A.; Dennis, R.J.; Lee, N.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; Loftus, M.J.; Rosal, E.R.; Valkovic, M.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a descriptive plan of tests for the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). This task will consist of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. All tests will be performed with a cosine axial power profile. These tests are planned to be used to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 161-rod flow blockage bundle tests

  5. A Guide to Axial-Flow Turbine Off-Design Computer Program AXOD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2014-01-01

    A Users Guide for the axial flow turbine off-design computer program AXOD2 is composed in this paper. This Users Guide is supplementary to the original Users Manual of AXOD. Three notable contributions of AXOD2 to its predecessor AXOD, both in the context of the Guide or in the functionality of the code, are described and discussed in length. These are: 1) a rational representation of the mathematical principles applied, with concise descriptions of the formulas implemented in the actual coding. Their physical implications are addressed; 2) the creation and documentation of an Addendum Listing of input namelist-parameters unique to AXOD2, that differ from or are in addition to the original input-namelists given in the Manual of AXOD. Their usages are discussed; and 3) the institution of proper stoppages of the code execution, encoding termination messaging and error messages of the execution to AXOD2. These measures are to safe-guard the integrity of the code execution, such that a failure mode encountered during a case-study would not plunge the code execution into indefinite loop, or cause a blow-out of the program execution. Details on these are discussed and illustrated in this paper. Moreover, this computer program has since been reconstructed substantially. Standard FORTRAN Langue was instituted, and the code was formatted in Double Precision (REAL*8). As the result, the code is now suited for use in a local Desktop Computer Environment, is perfectly portable to any Operating System, and can be executed by any FORTRAN compiler equivalent to a FORTRAN 9095 compiler. AXOD2 will be available through NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Software Repository.

  6. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation IV. Field programming achieved with channels of non-constant cross-sections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Matulík, František; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 955, č. 1 (2002), s. 95-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : gravitational field-flow fractionation * field programming * hydrodynamic lift forces Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2002

  7. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-02-01

    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

  8. Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT

  9. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Analysis of the interaction between a submerged jet and a receiver-diffuser in a reverse-flow diverter. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.V.; Counce, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Two mathematical models of the interaction between a submerged jet emanating from the nozzle of a reverse flow diverter (RFD) and a receiver-diffuser of a venturi-like reverse flow diverter are presented and compared with experimental data. Both models predict the output characteristics fairly accurately, although the experimentally measured flow is observed to saturate at higher values of jet dynamic pressure and at lower values of output load impedances. An analysis based on the inviscid flow model indicates cavitation as the likely cause of the flow saturation

  11. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, M.C.

    1981-08-01

    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  12. Hybrid Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach for Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Gas and Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuai, Hang; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid approximate dynamic programming (ADP) approach for the multiple time-period optimal power flow in integrated gas and power systems. ADP successively solves Bellman's equation to make decisions according to the current state of the system. So, the updated near future...

  13. A vectorization of the Hess McDonnell Douglas potential flow program NUED for the STAR-100 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boney, L. R.; Smith, R. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program NUED for analyzing potential flow about arbitrary three dimensional lifting bodies using the panel method was modified to use vector operations and run on the STAR-100 computer. A high speed of computation and ability to approximate the body surface with a large number of panels are characteristics of NUEDV. The new program shows that vector operations can be readily implemented in programs of this type to increase the computational speed on the STAR-100 computer. The virtual memory architecture of the STAR-100 facilitates the use of large numbers of panels to approximate the body surface.

  14. Heat-flow and lateral seismic-velocity heterogeneities near Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Robert P.; Stephen, Ralph A.

    1991-11-01

    Both conductive heat-flow and seismic-velocity data contain information relating to the permeability of the oceanic crust. Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504 is the only place where both detailed heat-flow and seismic-velocity field studies have been conducted at the same scale. In this paper we examine the correlation between heat flow and lateral heterogeneities in seismic velocity near Site 504. Observed heterogeneities in seismic velocity, which are thought to be related to variations in crack density in the upper 500 m of the basaltic crust, show little correlation with the heat-flow pattern. This lack of correlation highlights some of the current difficulties in using seismic-velocity data to infer details of spatial variations in permeability that are significant in controlling hydrothermal circulation.

  15. Development of a Program for Predicting Flow Instability in a Once-through Sodium-Heated Steam Generator (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Yoon, Jung; Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Two-phase flow systems can be subjected to several types of instability problems. Density-wave oscillation is the most common and important type of instability in boiling channels. Such instability gives difficulties in predictions of system performance and system control, and component failure due to thermal fatigue. A computer program developed for predicting two-phase flow instability in a steam generator heated by liquid sodium was presented in the previous works. Limit cycle was predicted even in a fixed node system. The amplitude of inlet flow rate is larger than that of outlet flow rate. The amplitude of phase change location oscillation within boiling-to-vapor boundary node is larger than that of liquid-to-boiling boundary node. Sodium and steam temperature are invariant at tube exit.

  16. Analytical scale purification of zirconia colloidal suspension using field programmed sedimentation field flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Quynh, Alexandra; Blanchart, Philippe; Battu, Serge; Clédat, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe

    2006-03-03

    Sedimentation field flow fractionation was used to obtain purified fractions from a polydispersed zirconia colloidal suspension in the potential purpose of optical material hybrid coating. The zirconia particle size ranged from 50/70 nm to 1000 nm. It exhibited a log-Gaussian particle size distribution (in mass or volume) and a 115% polydispersity index (P.I.). Time dependent eluted fractions of the original zirconia colloidal suspension were collected. The particle size distribution of each fraction was determined with scanning electron microscopy and Coulter sub-micron particle sizer (CSPS). These orthogonal techniques generated similar data. From fraction average elution times and granulometry measurements, it was shown that zirconia colloids are eluted according to the Brownian elution mode. The four collected fractions have a Gaussian like distribution and respective average size and polydispersity index of 153 nm (P.I. = 34.7%); 188 nm (P.I. = 27.9%); 228 nm (P.I. = 22.6%), and 276 nm (P.I. = 22.3%). These data demonstrate the strong size selectivity of SdFFF operated with programmed field of exponential profile for sorting particles in the sub-micron range. Using this technique, the analytical production of zirconia of given average size and reduced polydispersity is possible.

  17. Provably correct control flow graphs from Java bytecode programs with exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amighi, A.; de Carvalho Gomes, Pedro; Gurov, Dilian; Huisman, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting control flow graphs from Java bytecode that captures normal as well as exceptional control flow. We prove its correctness, in the sense that the behaviour of the extracted control flow graph is a sound over-approximation of the behaviour of the original

  18. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  19. A user`s guide to LUGSAN II. A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical and Thermal Environments Dept.

    1998-03-01

    LUG and Sway brace ANalysis (LUGSAN) II is an analysis and database computer program that is designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads for aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN II combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85, with a Macintosh Hypercard database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the LUGSAN II application program, which operates on the Macintosh System (Hypercard 2.2 or later) and includes function descriptions, layout examples, and sample sessions. Although this report is primarily a user`s manual, a brief overview of the LUGSAN II computer code is included with suggested resources for programmers.

  20. Calculation of quantities of interest in high energy physics using visual basic 3.0. The Flow Tensor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Jipa, A.; Zaharia, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Flow Tensor is an important physical quantity in High Energy Physics. The program used for the calculation of the Flow Tensor has been a complex menu-driven application, to allow the selection of various triggers for the studied reaction, of the number of traces in each studied event, of the momentum cut values for the resulting particles of fragments in each event, etc. We realised all that requests using a very modern and powerful tool: Visual Basic 3.0. This programming system allows the realisation of Windows-like programs and has numerous facilities: OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), the possibility to create professional graphics, to work with databases, to create and compile Windows-like help files. All these advantages make the effort to learn Visual Basic 3.0 worthwhile. (author)

  1. Computer automation of continuous-flow analyzers for trace constituents in water. Volume 4. Description of program segments. Part 3. TAASTART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes TAASTART, the third program in the series of programs necessary in automating the Technicon AutoAnalyzer. Included is a flow chart that illustrates the program logic and a description of each section and subroutine. In addition, all arrays, variables and strings are listed and defined, and a sample program listing with a complete list of symbols and references is provided

  2. Effect of the temperature and of the organic load in two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating of swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichuette, Alexandre Abud; Duda, Rose Maria; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: oliveira@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work the acting of two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) was evaluated, installed in series, in pilot scale (volumes of 908 L and 350 L, respectively) in the treatment swine wastewater, with concentrations of total solids suspended (TSS) around 10000 mg L{sup -1}. The organic loading rates (OLR) applied in first UASB were of 5,2 and of 8,6 g total COD (Ld){sup -1}. The medium efficiencies of removal of the chemical demand of total oxygen (total COD), TSS and TKN were higher than 89; 80 and 55%, respectively, for the system of anaerobic treatment composed by the reactors UASB in two apprenticeships. The rate of volumetric methane production in the system of anaerobic treatment with the reactors UASB were 0,08 and 0,16 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} (m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} reactor d){sup -1}. The number of total coliforms was reduced to 2,6x10{sup 4} NMP/100 mL. (author)

  3. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Schalkwijk, Casper; Desideri, Giovambattista; D’Angeli, Anatolia; Francavilla, Sandro; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2) Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols) or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3) Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006) and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest. PMID:27854314

  4. Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2 Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3 Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006 and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001. Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest.

  5. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Nightingale, Philp D.; Turner, Suzanne M.; Liss, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H 2 O 2 . •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  6. Thermal load determination in the mixing TEE impacted by a turbulent flow generated by two fluids at large gap of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillard, O.

    2005-01-01

    A 304L mixing tee mock-up is instrumented to assess the fluctuating temperature in the mixing area generated by two fluids (water) at large gap of temperature meet. The turbulent mixing layer impacts the structure wall and creates stresses, which lead to the damages. The case studied in this paper corresponds to the 'swinging streak' within a flow rate ratio of 25 %. The instrumentation is specifically planned to measure the fluctuating temperature in the fluid close to the internal skin and inside the wall too. This experiment is performed using a new sensor 'fluxmeter' which is non intrusive and typically designed to catch the fluctuation without any signal attenuation, within a frequency range 0-25Hz. The facility called 'Fatherino' supplies an available delta T of 70 degree C in water at 4 m/s mixture velocity in a mixing tee mock-up 50 mm in diameter. The flow features generate a large turbulent flow in the mixing layer and favour the heat flux transfer to the wall. By applying an inverse heat conduction method applied to the output data given by the fluxmeter, both the heat flux is deduced and the temperature (mean and fluctuating values) at the internal surface can be accurately determined. In addition, a calculation using the Trio U code (thermal hydraulic code) within the large eddy simulation module is computed to assess the fluid temperature distribution in the mixing area close to the internal surface. The output data in mean and standard deviation are compared with the Fatherino measurements. The comparison consists in analysing the main parameters as the mean and standard deviation in the fluid along the main axis and in a circumferential view. The mixing layer geometry and the frequency of the fluctuation are also analysed. These experiments added to the calculation allow us improving the state of the knowledge in the mixing tees and the thermal load to be used in the industrial mixing tees in operating for the long lifetime assessment or for the

  7. An experimental program for testing the validity of flow and transport models in unsaturated tuff: The Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, L.E.; Glass, R.J.; Siegel, M.D.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater flow and contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone are receiving increased attention as options for waste disposal in saturated media continue to be considered as a potential means for resolving the nation's waste management concerns. An experimental program is being developed to test the validity of conceptual flow and transport models that are being formulated to predict the long-term performance at Yucca Mountain. This program is in the developmental stage and will continue to evolve as information is acquired and knowledge is improved with reference to flow and transport in unsaturated fractured media. The general approach for directing the validation effort entails identifying those processes which may cause the site to fail relative to imposed regulatory requirements, evaluating the key assumptions underlying the conceptual models used or developed to describe these processes, and developing new conceptual models as needed. Emphasis is currently being placed in four general areas: flow and transport in unsaturated fractures; fracture-matrix interactions; infiltration flow instability; and evaluation of scale effects in heterogeneous fractured media. Preliminary results and plans or each of these areas for both the laboratory and field investigation components will be presented in the manuscript. 1 ref

  8. HUBBLE-BUBBLE 1. A computer program for the analysis of non-equilibrium flows of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, D.J.

    1978-02-01

    A description is given of the computer program HUBBLE-BUBBLE I which simulates the non-equilibrium flow of water and steam in a pipe. The code is designed to examine the transient flow developing in a pipe containing hot compressed water following the rupture of a retaining diaphragm. Allowance is made for an area change in the pipe. Particular attention is paid to the non-equilibrium development of vapour bubbles and to the transition from a bubble-liquid regime to a droplet-vapour regime. The mathematical and computational model is described together with a summary of the FORTRAN subroutines and listing of data input. (UK)

  9. Different elution modes and field programming in gravitational field-flow fractionation: Field programming using density and viscosity gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1118, č. 2 (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : gravitational field flow fractionation * focusing elution mode * carrier liquid density Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2006

  10. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with Uranium and Plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    1999-12-01

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide range of applicability of the optimization technique. The feature of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or in the

  11. Reliability Analysis of Time to Complete the Obstacle Course Portion of the Load Effects Assessment Program (LEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    the first plank segment. Jumping up onto the beam from the side is not permitted. The subject walks the entire length of each plank segment. Taking... WALKING OBSTACLE COURSES CIE(CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT) iii...1978; Robertson et al., 1982). Based upon investigations in which individuals walked with external loads on the body, researchers suggested that local

  12. Turbine endwall two-cylinder program. [wind tunnel and water tunnel investigation of three dimensional separation of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in an effort to study the three dimensional separation of fluid flow around two isolated cylinders mounted on an endwall. The design and performance of a hydrogen bubble generator for water tunnel tests to determine bulk flow properties and to measure main stream velocity and boundary layer thickness are described. Although the water tunnel tests are behind schedule because of inlet distortion problems, tests are far enough along to indicate cylinder spacing, wall effects and low Reynolds number behavior, all of which impacted wind tunnel model design. The construction, assembly, and operation of the wind tunnel and the check out of its characteristics are described. An off-body potential flow program was adapted to calculate normal streams streamwise pressure gradients at the saddle point locations.

  13. OTSGI--a program analysing two-phase flow instabilities in helical tubes of once-through steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shaoping; Zhou Fangde; Wang Maohua

    1998-01-01

    The author has studied the two-phases flow instabilities of the helical tubes of once-through steam generator. Using liner-frequency-domain analytical method, the authors have derived out a mathematical model and designed the program. In this model, the authors also have considered the thermal dynamic characteristics of the tube's wall. The program is used to calculate the threshold of the stability and the influences of some factors, such as entrance throttling coefficient, system pressure, entrance supercooling degree, et al. The outcomes are compared with other studies

  14. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combin...

  15. MODFLOW 2.0: A program for predicting moderator flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P. F.; Paik, I. K.

    1991-07-01

    Sudden changes in the temperature of flowing liquids can result in transient buoyancy forces which strongly impact the flow hydrodynamics via flow stratification. These effects have been studied for the case of potential flow of stratified liquids to line sinks, but not for moderator flow in SRS reactors. Standard codes, such as TRAC and COMMIX, do not have the capability to capture the stratification effect, due to strong numerical diffusion which smears away the hot/cold fluid interface. A related problem with standard codes is the inability to track plumes injected into the liquid flow, again due to numerical diffusion. The combined effects of buoyant stratification and plume dispersion have been identified as being important in the operation of the Supplementary Safety System which injects neutron-poison ink into SRS reactors to provide safe shutdown in the event of safety rod failure. The MODFLOW code discussed here provides transient moderator flow pattern information with stratification effects, and tracks the location of ink plumes in the reactor. The code, written in Fortran, is compiled for Macintosh II computers, and includes subroutines for interactive control and graphical output. Removing the graphics capabilities, the code can also be compiled on other computers. With graphics, in addition to the capability to perform safety related computations, MODFLOW also provides an easy tool for becoming familiar with flow distributions in SRS reactors.

  16. Code requirements document: MODFLOW 2.1: A program for predicting moderator flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1992-03-01

    Sudden changes in the temperature of flowing liquids can result in transient buoyancy forces which strongly impact the flow hydrodynamics via flow stratification. These effects have been studied for the case of potential flow of stratified liquids to line sinks, but not for moderator flow in SRS reactors. Standard codes, such as TRAC and COMMIX, do not have the capability to capture the stratification effect, due to strong numerical diffusion which smears away the hot/cold fluid interface. A related problem with standard codes is the inability to track plumes injected into the liquid flow, again due to numerical diffusion. The combined effects of buoyant stratification and plume dispersion have been identified as being important in operation of the Supplementary Safety System which injects neutron-poison ink into SRS reactors to provide safe shutdown in the event of safety rod failure. The MODFLOW code discussed here provides transient moderator flow pattern information with stratification effects, and tracks the location of ink plumes in the reactor. The code, written in Fortran, is compiled for Macintosh II computers, and includes subroutines for interactive control and graphical output. Removing the graphics capabilities, the code can also be compiled on other computers. With graphics, in addition to the capability to perform safety related computations, MODFLOW also provides an easy tool for becoming familiar with flow distributions in SRS reactors

  17. Development of quantification analysis software for measuring regional cerebral blood flow by the modified split-dose method with 123I-IMP before and after acetazolamide loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaki, Akio; Kobara, Kouichi; Matsutomo, Norikazu

    2003-01-01

    We developed a quantification analysis software program for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and under acetazolamide (ACZ) stress by the modified split-dose (MSD) method with iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and compared the rCBF values measured by the MSD method and by the split dose 123 I-IMP SPECT (SD) method requiring one continuous withdrawal of arterial blood. Since the MSD method allows the input of two arterial blood sampling parameter values, the background subtraction procedure for obtaining ACZ-induced images in the MSD method is not identical to the procedure in the SD method. With our software program for rCBF quantification, the resting rCBF values determined by the MSD method were closely correlated with the values measured by the SD method (r=0.94), and there was also a good correlation between the ACZ-induced rCBF values obtained by the MSD method and by the SD method (r=0.81). The increase in rCBF under ACZ stress was estimated to be approximately 26% by the SD method and 38% by the MSD method, suggesting that the MSD method tends to overestimate the increase in rCBF under ACZ stress in comparison with the SD method, but the variability of the rCBF values at rest and during ACZ stress analyzed by the MSD method was smaller than the variability with the SD method. Further clinical studies are required to validate our rCBF quantification analysis program for the MSD method. (author)

  18. Fluid Flow Programming in Paper-Derived Silica-Polymer Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Christelle; Herzog, Nicole; Rüttiger, Christian; Geißler, Andreas; Grange, Eléonor; Kunz, Ulrike; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Biesalski, Markus; Meckel, Tobias; Gutmann, Torsten; Gallei, Markus; Andrieu-Brunsen, Annette

    2017-01-10

    In paper-based devices, capillary fluid flow is based on length-scale selective functional control within a hierarchical porous system. The fluid flow can be tuned by altering the paper preparation process, which controls parameters such as the paper grammage. Interestingly, the fiber morphology and nanoporosity are often neglected. In this work, porous voids are incorporated into paper by the combination of dense or mesoporous ceramic silica coatings with hierarchically porous cotton linter paper. Varying the silica coating leads to significant changes in the fluid flow characteristics, up to the complete water exclusion without any further fiber surface hydrophobization, providing new approaches to control fluid flow. Additionally, functionalization with redox-responsive polymers leads to reversible, dynamic gating of fluid flow in these hybrid paper materials, demonstrating the potential of length scale specific, dynamic, and external transport control.

  19. Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Strahler, K.; Krustrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders...... have on experiencing flow, worry and perceived exertion. Furthermore, it should be investigated whether experiencing flow is linked to the long-term compliance of regular physical activity......., with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport...

  20. Flow analysis of HANARO flow simulated test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Wu, Jong-Sub; Jun, Byung-Jin

    2002-01-01

    The HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor of 30 MWth open-tank-in-pool type, has been under normal operation since its initial critical in February, 1995. Many experiments should be safely performed to activate the utilization of the NANARO. A flow simulated test facility is being developed for the endurance test of reactivity control units for extended life times and the verification of structural integrity of those experimental facilities prior to loading in the HANARO. This test facility is composed of three major parts; a half-core structure assembly, flow circulation system and support system. The half-core structure assembly is composed of plenum, grid plate, core channel with flow tubes, chimney and dummy pool. The flow channels are to be filled with flow orifices to simulate core channels. This test facility must simulate similar flow characteristics to the HANARO. This paper, therefore, describes an analytical analysis to study the flow behavior of the test facility. The computational flow analysis has been performed for the verification of flow structure and similarity of this test facility assuming that flow rates and pressure differences of the core channel are constant. The shapes of flow orifices were determined by the trial and error method based on the design requirements of core channel. The computer analysis program with standard k - ε turbulence model was applied to three-dimensional analysis. The results of flow simulation showed a similar flow characteristic with that of the HANARO and satisfied the design requirements of this test facility. The shape of flow orifices used in this numerical simulation can be adapted for manufacturing requirements. The flow rate and the pressure difference through core channel proved by this simulation can be used as the design requirements of the flow system. The analysis results will be verified with the results of the flow test after construction of the flow system. (author)

  1. Ecological effects of a long-term flood program in a flow-regulated river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Mannes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le régime hydrologique naturel de la grande majorité des rivières du globe a été modifié par une régulation artificielle, qui a profondément affecté la morphologie fluviale et la vie aquatique. L’intégration de critères hydrologiques comme le débit et la température dans les programmes de restauration constitue une étape importante pour la gestion de rivière. Cet article synthétise les observations, en terme de qualité physicochimique de l’eau et de biocénose aquatique, des effets d’une programmation de crues sur le long terme (15 crues artificielles en huit ans sur la rivière Spöl, dans le Parc National Suisse. Du fait des lâchers d’eau hypolimnétiques (issues des eaux profondes, ces crues ont peu d’impact sur les paramètres physiques et chimiques. La biomasse du périphyton a été réduite par les premières crues, puis s’est maintenue à des niveaux faibles pendant toute la période étudiée. La richesse spécifique, la biomasse et la densité de macro-invertébrés ont aussi été significativement réduites, et l’association de macroinvertébrés a évolué vers des taxons plus résistants aux perturbations. La qualité des habitats piscicoles, en particulier pour les zones de frai, a été sensiblement améliorée par les inondations. Une analyse plus approfondie a montré que la réponse de la biocénose à des crues d’ampleur similaire a changé pendant la période d’étude en parallèle avec la modification de la composition des associations biotiques.The natural flow regime of many rivers on the globe has been altered by regulation, strongly influencing river morphology and aquatic biota. The incorporation of regimebased criteria such as flow and temperature regimes in restoration plans is an important step in river management. This paper summarizes the effects of a long-term flood program (15 floods over 8 years on the river Spöl, Swiss National Park, on water physico-chemistry and river

  2. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  3. The Design and Pilot Evaluation of an Interactive Learning Environment for Introductory Programming Influenced by Cognitive Load Theory and Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Jan; De Backer, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the architecture and evaluation of a novel environment for programming education. The design of this programming environment, and the way it is used in class, is based on the findings of constructivist and cognitivist learning paradigms. The environment is evaluated based on qualitative student and teacher evaluations and…

  4. Reactor mass flow data base prepared for the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm III, R.T.C.

    1981-02-01

    This report presents charge and discharge mass flow data for reactors judged to have received sufficient technical development to enable them to be demonstrated or commercially available by the year 2000. Brief descriptions of the reactors and fuel cycles evaluated are presented. A discussion of the neutronics methods used to produce the mass flow data is provided. Detailed charge and discharge fuel isotopics are presented. U 3 O 8 , separative work, and fissile material requirements are computed and provided for each fuel cycle

  5. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  6. Assessment of dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads in the lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, as part of the Selenium Management Program, from 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2018-04-23

    The Gunnison Basin Selenium Management Program implemented a water-quality monitoring network in 2011 in the lower Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Selenium is a trace element that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other harmful effects. This report presents the percentile values of selenium because regulatory agencies in Colorado make decisions based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act Section 303(d) that uses percentile values of concentration. Also presented are dissolved-selenium loads at 18 sites in the lower Gunnison River Basin for water years (WYs) 2011–2016 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2016). Annual dissolved-selenium loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. Annual dissolved-selenium loads for WY 2011 through WY 2016 ranged from 179 and 391 pounds (lb) at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 11,100 and 17,300 lb at Gunnison River near Grand Junction (herein called Whitewater), respectively. Instantaneous loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and 13 ancillary sites where discrete water-quality sampling also took place, using discrete water-quality samples and the associated discharge measurements collected during the period. Median instantaneous loads ranged from 0.01 pound per day (lb/d) at Smith Fork near Lazear to 33.0 lb/d at Whitewater. Mean instantaneous loads ranged from 0.06 lb/d at Smith Fork near Lazear to 36.2 lb/d at Whitewater. Most tributary sites in the basin had a median instantaneous dissolved-selenium load of less than 20.0 lb/day. In general, dissolved-selenium loads at Gunnison River main-stem sites showed an increase from upstream to downstream. The State of Colorado water-quality standard for dissolved selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter (µg/L) was compared to the 85th percentiles for dissolved

  7. Ability of commercially available dairy ration programs to predict duodenal flows of protein and essential amino acids in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, D; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this analysis was to compare the rumen submodel predictions of 4 commonly used dairy ration programs to observed values of duodenal flows of crude protein (CP), protein fractions, and essential AA (EAA). The literature was searched and 40 studies, including 154 diets, were used to compare observed values with those predicted by AminoCow (AC), Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems (AMTS), Cornell-Penn-Miner (CPM), and National Research Council 2001 (NRC) models. The models were evaluated based on their ability to predict the mean, their root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), error bias, and adequacy of regression equations for each protein fraction. The models predicted the mean duodenal CP flow within 5%, with more than 90% of the variation due to random disturbance. The models also predicted within 5% the mean microbial CP flow except CPM, which overestimated it by 27%. Only NRC, however, predicted mean rumen-undegraded protein (RUP) flows within 5%, whereas AC and AMTS underpredicted it by 8 to 9% and CPM by 24%. Regarding duodenal flows of individual AA, across all diets, CPM predicted substantially greater (>10%) mean flows of Arg, His, Ile, Met, and Lys; AMTS predicted greater flow for Arg and Met, whereas AC and NRC estimations were, on average, within 10% of observed values. Overpredictions by the CPM model were mainly related to mean bias, whereas the NRC model had the highest proportion of bias in random disturbance for flows of EAA. Models tended to predict mean flows of EAA more accurately on corn silage and alfalfa diets than on grass-based diets, more accurately on corn grain-based diets than on non-corn-based diets, and finally more accurately in the mid range of diet types. The 4 models were accurate at predicting mean dry matter intake. The AC, AMTS, and NRC models were all sufficiently accurate to be used for balancing EAA in dairy rations under field conditions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association

  8. DFLOWZ: A free program to evaluate the area potentially inundated by a debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    2014-06-01

    The transport and deposition mechanisms of debris flows are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the interactions governing the behavior of water-sediment mixtures. Empirical-statistical methods can therefore be used, instead of more sophisticated numerical methods, to predict the depositional behavior of these highly dangerous gravitational movements. We use widely accepted semi-empirical scaling relations and propose an automated procedure (DFLOWZ) to estimate the area potentially inundated by a debris flow event. Beside a digital elevation model (DEM), the procedure has only two input requirements: the debris flow volume and the possible flow-path. The procedure is implemented in Matlab and a Graphical User Interface helps to visualize initial conditions, flow propagation and final results. Different hypothesis about the depositional behavior of an event can be tested together with the possible effect of simple remedial measures. Uncertainties associated to scaling relations can be treated and their impact on results evaluated. Our freeware application aims to facilitate and speed up the process of susceptibility mapping. We discuss limits and advantages of the method in order to inform inexperienced users.

  9. Quality assessment program for EuroFlow protocols: summary results of four-year (2010-2013) quality assurance rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Tomas; Flores-Montero, Juan; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Pedreira, Carlos E; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Novakova, Michaela; Mejstrikova, Ester; Hrusak, Ondrej; Böttcher, Sebastian; Karsch, Dennis; Sędek, Łukasz; Trinquand, Amelie; Boeckx, Nancy; Caetano, Joana; Asnafi, Vahid; Lucio, Paulo; Lima, Margarida; Helena Santos, Ana; Bonaccorso, Paola; van der Sluijs-Gelling, Alita J; Langerak, Anton W; Martin-Ayuso, Marta; Szczepański, Tomasz; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become essential for accurate diagnosis, classification, and disease monitoring in hemato-oncology. The EuroFlow Consortium has established a fully standardized "all-in-one" pipeline consisting of standardized instrument settings, reagent panels, and sample preparation protocols and software for data analysis and disease classification. For its reproducible implementation, parallel development of a quality assurance (QA) program was required. Here, we report on the results of four consecutive annual rounds of the novel external QA EuroFlow program. The novel QA scheme aimed at monitoring the whole flow cytometric analysis process (cytometer setting, sample preparation, acquisition and analysis) by reading the median fluorescence intensities (MedFI) of defined lymphocytes' subsets. Each QA participant applied the predefined reagents' panel on blood cells of local healthy donors. A uniform gating strategy was applied to define lymphocyte subsets and to read MedFI values per marker. The MedFI values were compared with reference data and deviations from reference values were quantified using performance score metrics. In four annual QA rounds, we analyzed 123 blood samples from local healthy donors on 14 different instruments in 11 laboratories from nine European countries. The immunophenotype of defined cellular subsets appeared sufficiently standardized to permit unified (software) data analysis. The coefficient of variation of MedFI for 7 of 11 markers performed repeatedly below 30%, average MedFI in each QA round ranged from 86 to 125% from overall median. Calculation of performance scores was instrumental to pinpoint standardization failures and their causes. Overall, the new EuroFlow QA system for the first time allowed to quantify the technical variation that is introduced in the measurement of fluorescence intensities in a multicentric setting over an extended period of time. EuroFlow QA is a proficiency test specific for

  10. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  11. Breaking through the hydrogen cost barrier by using electrolysis loads to access ancillary services and demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; McGillivray, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation described the use of hydrogen electrolysis as a load resource for handling grid instability resulting from the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power. In particular, it focused on Hydrogenics, the leading global supplier of industrial scale electrolysis equipment and fuel cells. The presentation included an overview of the current incentive and market value of ancillary services provided by the company and demand responses in a number of grids around the world. There is a link between the amount of ancillary services required by the grid and the penetration level of renewable energy power such as wind and solar. The ability of hydrogen generation from electrolysis to satisfy all the requirements of ancillary services markets was also demonstrated. The economic analysis of hydrogen generation was discussed with particular reference to the cost of hydrogen fully loading all capital, energy and operating costs. The resulting reduction in the cost of hydrogen was compared to the existing markets for hydrogen, including use of hydrogen as a fuel for municipal bus fleets relative to the existing cost of fossil fuel fleets. Current industrial hydrogen merchant and bulk market prices were also compared

  12. A mathematical programming framework for energy planning in services' sector buildings under uncertainty in load demand: The case of a hospital in Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Diakoulaki, Danae; Florios, Kostas; Georgiou, Paraskevas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an integrated modeling and optimization framework for energy planning in large consumers of the services' sector based on mathematical programming. The power demand is vaguely known and the underlying uncertainty is modeled using elements from fuzzy set theory. The defined fuzzy programming model is subsequently transformed to an equivalent multi-objective problem, where the minimization of cost and the maximization of demand satisfaction are the objective functions. The Pareto optimal solutions of this problem are obtained using a novel version of the ε-constraint method and represent the possibly optimal solutions of the original problem under uncertainty. In the present case, in order to select the most preferred Pareto optimal solution, the minimax regret criterion is properly used to indicate the preferred configuration of the system (i.e. the size of the installed units) given the load uncertainty. Furthermore, the paper proposes a model reduction technique that can be used in similar cases and further examines its effect in the final results. The above methodology is applied to the energy rehabilitation of a hospital in the Athens area. The technologies under consideration include a combined heat and power unit for providing power and heat, an absorption unit and/or a compression unit for providing cooling load. The obtained results demonstrate that, increasing the degree of demand satisfaction, the total annual cost increases almost linearly. Although data compression allows obtaining realistic results, the size of the proposed units might be slightly changed

  13. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Experimental studies of interaction mechanisms and phase transport processes in two-phase flow (NOVA program); Experimentelle Untersuchung von Wechselwirkungsmechanismen und Phasentransportprozessen in Zweiphasenstroemungen (NOVA-Vorhaben)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, H.; Meyder, R.; Philipp, P.; Samstag, M.

    1995-08-01

    The NOVA program was continued with turbulent, vertical, upward two-phase flow experiments. The development of a local gas distribution along the test section was visualized by X-ray tomography. (orig.)

  15. Computer automation of continuous-flow analyzers for trace constituents in water. Volume 4. Description of program segments. Part 2. TAAINRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    TAAINRE, the second program in the series of programs necessary in automating the Technicon AutoAnalyzer, is presented. A flow chart and sequence list that describes and illustrates the function of each logical group of coding, and a description of the contents and function of each section and subroutine in the program is included. In addition, all arrays, strings, and variables are listed and defined, and a sample program listing with a complete list of symbols and references provided

  16. Computer automation of continuous-flow analyzers for trace constituents in water. Volume 4. Description of program segments. Part 1. TAAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes TAAIN, the first program in the series of programs necessary in automating the Technicon AutoAnalyzer. A flow chart and sequence list that describes and illustrates each logical group of coding, and a description of the contents and functions of each section and subroutine in the program is included. In addition, all arrays, strings, and variables are listed and defined, and a sample program listing with a complete list of symbols and references is provided

  17. Linear genetic programming for time-series modelling of daily flow rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currents in a tide dominated area; J. Engineering for the. Maritime Environment 221 147–163. Charhate S B, Deo M C and Londhe S N 2008 Inverse modelling to derive wind parameters from wave measure- ments; Applied Ocean Research 30(2) 120–129. Cigizoglu H K and Kisi O 2000 Flow prediction by two back.

  18. Hardware architecture and associated programming flow for the design of digital fault-tolerant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyret, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Whether in automotive with heat stress or in aerospace and nuclear field subjected to cosmic, neutron and gamma radiation, the environment can lead to the development of faults in electronic systems. These faults, which can be transient or permanent, will lead to erroneous results that are unacceptable in some application contexts. The use of so-called rad-hard components is sometimes compromised due to their high costs and supply problems associated with export rules. This thesis proposes a joint hardware and software approach independent of integration technology for using digital programmable devices in environments that generate faults. Our approach includes the definition of a Coarse Grained Re-configurable Architecture (CGRA) able to execute entire application code but also all the hardware and software mechanisms to make it tolerant to transient and permanent faults. This is achieved by the combination of redundancy and dynamic reconfiguration of the CGRA based on a library of configurations generated by a complete conception flow. This implemented flow relies on a flow to map a code represented as a Control and Data Flow Graph (CDFG) on the CGRA architecture by obtaining directly a large number of different configurations and allows to exploit the full potential of architecture. This work, which has been validated through experiments with applications in the field of signal and image processing, has been the subject of two publications in international conferences and of two patents. (author) [fr

  19. Flow rate control in pressure-programmed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1990-01-01

    A versatile and simple system is described that allows variation of the column flow rate in open-tubular capillary supercritical fluid chromatography using both on-column and postcolumn detection. The system is based on column-effluent splitting in a low-dead-volume T piece at the column exit just

  20. Dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and its reuse test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency to the Nuclear Safety Commission was presented on the validity of the dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule and the method of its reuse test. The safety in both aspects of the capsule was confirmed. The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), in which the water-flow capsule is set, is a swimming pool type reactor, fueled with enriched uranium, having heat output of 300 kW in normal operation and maximum instantaneous heat output of 23,000 MW in pulse operation. The type 2 water-flow capsule, with the initial conditions simulating a power generating LWR plant and being appropriately set, is used to acquire the data on fuel behavior and destructive power in pulse irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  1. Dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and its reuse test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency to the Nuclear Safety Commission was presented on the validity of the dynamic design load of type 2 water-flow capsule and the method of its reuse test. The safety in both aspects of the capsule was confirmed. The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), in which the water-flow capsule is set, is a swimming pool type reactor, fueled with enriched uranium, having heat output of 300 kW in normal operation and maximum instantaneous heat output of 23,000 MW in pulse operation. The type 2 water-flow capsule, with the initial conditions simulating a power generating LWR plant and being appropriately set, is used to acquire the data on fuel behavior and destructive power in pulse irradiation.

  2. Box-triangular multiobjective linear programs for resource allocation with application to load management and energy market problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekel, P.Y.; Galperin, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Models for multicriteria resource allocation are constructed with the specific box-triangular structure of a feasible region. The method of balance set equations is extended for the satisfaction level representation of the cost function space including the case of linearly dependent cost functions. On this basis, different goal criteria on the balance set are investigated for linear cases. Procedures for determining the balance set and finding goal-optimal Pareto solutions are illustrated on examples. The results of the paper are of universal character and can find wide applications in allocating diverse types of resources on the multiobjective basis in planning and control of complex systems including load management and energy market problems. (Author)

  3. Culvert Analysis Program Graphical User Interface 1.0--A preprocessing and postprocessing tool for estimating flow through culvert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The peak discharge of a flood can be estimated from the elevation of high-water marks near the inlet and outlet of a culvert after the flood has occurred. This type of discharge estimate is called an “indirect measurement” because it relies on evidence left behind by the flood, such as high-water marks on trees or buildings. When combined with the cross-sectional geometry of the channel upstream from the culvert and the culvert size, shape, roughness, and orientation, the high-water marks define a water-surface profile that can be used to estimate the peak discharge by using the methods described by Bodhaine (1968). This type of measurement is in contrast to a “direct” measurement of discharge made during the flood where cross-sectional area is measured and a current meter or acoustic equipment is used to measure the water velocity. When a direct discharge measurement cannot be made at a streamgage during high flows because of logistics or safety reasons, an indirect measurement of a peak discharge is useful for defining the high-flow section of the stage-discharge relation (rating curve) at the streamgage, resulting in more accurate computation of high flows. The Culvert Analysis Program (CAP) (Fulford, 1998) is a command-line program written in Fortran for computing peak discharges and culvert rating surfaces or curves. CAP reads input data from a formatted text file and prints results to another formatted text file. Preparing and correctly formatting the input file may be time-consuming and prone to errors. This document describes the CAP graphical user interface (GUI)—a modern, cross-platform, menu-driven application that prepares the CAP input file, executes the program, and helps the user interpret the output

  4. Loading rate effects on strength and fracture toughness of pipe steels used in Task 1 of the IPIRG program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschall, C.W.; Landow, M.P.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1993-10-01

    Material characterization tests were conducted on laboratory specimens machined from pipes to determine the effect of dynamic loading (i.e., rates comparable to those for high amplitude seismic events) on tensile properties and fracture resistance at 288 C (550 F). Specimens were fabricated from seven different pipes, including carbon steels and stainless steels (both base metal and weld metal), which were to be subjected to full-scale pipe tests in IPIRG Task 1.0. For the stainless steels tested at 288 C (550 F), tensile strength was unchanged, while yield strength and fracture resistance were increased. The increase in fracture resistance was modest for the wrought base metals and substantial for the weld metal and the cast base metal. The carbon steels tested were sensitive to dynamic strain aging, and hence the strength and toughness was affected by both temperature and strain rate effects. The carbon steel base metal and welds exhibited ultimate tensile strength values at 288 C (550 F) that were greater than at room temperature. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength at 288 C (550 F) was lowered significantly by increased strain rate and, in the carbon steel base metals, increased strain rate also lowered the fracture resistance, substantially in the base metal of one pipe. In comparing these results to the IPIRG pipe test results to date, it was found that the trends of these tests agree well with the Subtask 1.2 quasi-static and dynamic pipe fracture experiments. Loads measured in the Subtask 1.1 pipe experiments were, however, somewhat higher than would have been expected by the trends observed in the laboratory tests

  5. Building a Steganography Program Including How to Load, Process, and Save JPEG and PNG Files in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Mary F.; Stix, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Instructors teaching beginning programming classes are often interested in exercises that involve processing photographs (i.e., files stored as .jpeg). They may wish to offer activities such as color inversion, the color manipulation effects archived with pixel thresholding, or steganography, all of which Stevenson et al. [4] assert are sought by…

  6. Effects of a Specifically Designed Physical Conditioning Program on the Load Carriage and Lifting Performance of Female Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    66 TRAINING AND TESTING RELATED INJURIES ................ 68 iv Pre-tests ................................................ 68 T raining...74 BASIC TRAINING VS. THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM ......... 74 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSIVENESS TO TRAINING.. 74 INJURY RISK IN HIGH-LEVEL...USED FOR TRAINING ............ SAMPLE WORKOUTS .................................... vi Sample Monday and Thursday Weightlifting and Running W orkout

  7. Towards the Use of a Novel Method: The First Experiences on Measuring the Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Murat Pasa

    2013-01-01

    Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP) is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and…

  8. Evaluation of Learning Environments for Object-Oriented Programming: Measuring Cognitive Load with a Novel Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Murat Pasa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods and tools have been proposed to overcome the learning obstacles for Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). However, it remains difficult especially for novice learners. The problem may be not only adopting an instructional method, but also an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Learners employ IDEs as a means to solve programming…

  9. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  10. Cyltran: finite element programs for flow and mass transport under cylindrically symmetric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1984-11-01

    A group of finite element programs are described which may be used for the analysis of complex single borehole hydraulic and tracer experiments in porous media. An outline is given of the theoretical development of the model and the computational procedures used. The equations are solved with the aid of routines specifically designed for efficient operation on vector processing machines. Finally, two simple examples of output generated by the programs are given. (author)

  11. Exact solutions to traffic density estimation problems involving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model using mixed integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Exact solutions to traffic density estimation problems involving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model using mixed integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  14. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  15. Supplementation of Flow Accelerated Corrosion Prediction Program Using Numerical Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyeong Mo; Jin, Tae Eun; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) leads to thinning of steel pipe walls that are exposed to flowing water or wet steam. From experience, it is seen that FAC damage to piping at fossil and nuclear plants can result in outages that require expensive repairs and can affect plant reliability and safety. CHECWORKS have been utilized in domestic nuclear plants as a predictive tool to assist FAC engineers in planning inspections and evaluating the inspection data so that piping failures caused by FAC can be prevented. However, CHECWORKS may be occasionally ignore local susceptible portions when predicting FAC damage in a group of pipelines after constructing a database for all the secondary side piping in nuclear plants. This paper describes the methodologies that can complement CHECWORKS and the verifications of CHECWORKS prediction results using numerical analysis. FAC susceptible locations determined using CHECWORKS for two pipeline groups of a nuclear plant was compared with determined using the numerical-analysis-based FLUENT

  16. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  17. Interfacing Computer-Assisted Drafting and Design with the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    architectural engineering community, its status as a de facto standard CADD package, and its extensibility via AutoLISP (Autodesk’s proprietary subset of...actually invokes AutoCAD and the AutoLISP program portion of Drawing Navigator. By using a pointing device such as a mouse, the user interacts with...shown in Figure 4 (for the developed prototype) is AutoCAD. The Drawing Navigator box shows three subcomponents. The embedded code is the AutoLISP

  18. Phase II investigation of the response of columns to short duration loadings: scaling report. Mark I Program, Task 3.2.1. Teledyne report TR-2488(e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Phase II of a two-phase column testing program which will determine short-term load capacities for the Mark I containment columns is now under way. The scaling report is submitted to outline the scaling procedures and also to present the scaled quantities such as geometry, load eccentricity, and load time duration. Dimensional analysis and similarity techniques were applied to the experimental models to obtain a set of twelve scaling laws. These scaling laws provide a rational basis for modeling the columns. The scaling laws give nondimensional relationships which are common to both the model and prototype. Parameters which are known to be important in column buckling and which were found to be important during Phase I testing were used as the independent variables in the scaling laws. Column specimens for Phase II testing have been designed to be representative of the prototype columns. Combined bending and compression are characteristic of the Mark I columns with the maximum moment applied at the column-ring girder junction. The experimental columns reflect these characteristics, even though special fixtures and equipment will be required to perform the tests. The column specimens include the scaled rotational stiffness of the ring girder as well as the boundary condition of the pinned or sliding end. To properly incorporate the effects of residual stress, the models will be constructed from ''off-the-shelf', carbon steel pipe and rolled sections, and built-up sections will be fabricated from standard plate. The column geometries scale almost exactly, even though ''replica'' modeling was not used

  19. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  20. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina González, Rafael; Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María Del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz de; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results obtained from the 2014 SEIMC (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of 5 standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining 4 contained plasma from 3 different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; 2 of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (30.8% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 95.8% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A feasibility Study: The Succinct Solver v2.0, XSB Prolog v2.6, and Flow-Logic Based Program Analysis for Carmel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of the {Succinct Solver v2.0} and {XSB Prolog v2.6} based on experiments with {Control Flow Analyses} of scalable {Discretionary Ambient programs} and {Carmel programs}. To facilitate this comparison we expand ALFP clauses accepted by the Succinct Solver into more g...

  2. Structural review of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads for the Systematic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.Y.; Debeling, A.; Tsai, N.C.

    1981-12-01

    A structural reassessment of the containment structure of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program. Conclusions about the ability of the containment structure to withstand the Abnormal/Extreme Environment are presented. The reassessment focused mainly on the overall structural integrity of the containment building for the Abnormal/Extreme Environment. In this case, the Abnormal Environmental condition is caused by the worst case of either a Loss-of-Coolant Accident or a main steam line break. The Extreme Environmental condition is the Safe Shutdown Earthquake

  3. Government Style as a Factor in Information Flow: Television Programming in Argentina, l979-l988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jeffrey Alan

    Noting that Argentina's recent history is particularly useful for analysis of the varying effects that differing government styles can have on a single mass communication system, a study compared Argentine (specifically Buenos Aires) television's 1979 programming schedule, prepared during a military dictatorship, with recent schedules prepared…

  4. A Foundation for Flow-Based Program Matching Using Temporal Logic and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Doligez, Damien; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    an extension of the temporal logic CTL has been applied to the problem of specifying and verifying the transformations commonly performed by optimizing compilers. Nevertheless, in developing the Coccinelle program transformation tool for performing Linux collateral evolutions in systems code, we have found......, using a transformation rule that fixes several reference count bugs in Linux code....

  5. Application of Genetic Programing to Develop a Modular Model for the Simulation of Stream Flow Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgi, A.; Babovic, V.; Chui, T. F. M.; Schmitter, P.

    2014-12-01

    Developing reliable methods to estimate stream flow has been a subject of interest due to its importance in planning, design and management of water resources within a basin. Machine learning tools such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Programming (GP) have been widely applied for rainfall-runoff modeling as they require less computational time as compared to physically-based models. As GP is able to generate a function with understandable structure, it may offer advantages over other data driven techniques and therefore has been used in different studies to generate rainfall-runoff functions. However, to date, proposed formulations only contain rainfall and/or streamflow data and consequently are local and cannot be generalized and adopted in other catchments which have different physical characteristics. This study investigated the capability of GP in developing a physically interpretable model with understandable structure to simulate stream flow based on hydrological parameters (e.g. precipitation) and catchment conditions (e.g., initial groundwater table elevation and area of the catchment) by following a modular approach. The modular model resulted in two sub-models where the baseflow was first predicted and the direct runoff was then estimated for a semi-urban catchment in Singapore. The simulated results matched very well with observed data in both the training and the testing of data sets, giving NSEs of 0.97 and 0.96 respectively demonstrated the successful estimation of stream flow using the modular model derived in this study. The results of this study indicate that GP is an effective tool in developing a physically interpretable model with understandable structure to simulate stream flow that can be transferred to other catchments.

  6. Contribution to the physical validation of computer programs for reactor cores flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    A κ-ε turbulence model was implemented in the FLICA computer code which is devoted to thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor cores flows. Foreseen applications concern single-phase flows in rod bundles. First-moment closure principles are reminded. Low Reynolds wall effects are accounted for by a two-layer approach. A computational method for the distance from the wall must have been developed to do so. Two two-layer κ-ε models are proposed and studied: the classical isotropic version, based on the Boussinesq's hypothesis, and an original anisotropic version which supposes a non-linear relation between Reynolds stresses and mean deformation rate. The second one permits the treatment of anisotropy, which is encountered in non-circular ducts in general, and in rod bundles in particular. Turbulent solver is linearized implicit, based on a finite volume method - VF9 scheme for the viscous part, upwind scheme for passive scalar for the convective part, centered scheme for the source terms. Several numerical simulations on 2D and 3D configurations were conducted (validation standard test, industrial application). (author) [fr

  7. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  8. Comparison of Different Methods for Optimal Control of UPFC for Load Flow Control and Voltage Flicker Elimination and Current Harmonics Elimination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al Asooly, H.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 65-75 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : voltage source inverter * unified power flow controller (UPFC) Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Modeling of flows in heat exchangers with distributed load loss. Simulation of wet-type cooling tower operation with the two-dimensional calculation code ETHER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coic, P.

    1984-01-01

    The principle of a cooling tower is first presented. The equations of the problem are given; the modeling of load losses and heat transfer is described. Then, the numerical method based on a finite difference discrete method is described. Finally, the different results of the calculations carried out in the case of an industrial operation are presented [fr

  10. Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m 3 low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m 3 . Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li 2 O, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 . HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m 2 of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m 2 at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate

  11. Application of integer programming on logistics solution for load transportation: the solver tool and its limitations in the search for the optimal solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo França Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to solve a typical logistics problem of Navy of Brazil regards the allocation, transportation and distribution of genera refrigerated for Military Organizations within Grande Rio (RJ. After a brief review of literature on Linear/Integer Programming and some of their applications, we proposed the use of Integer Programming, using the Excel’s Solver as a tool for obtaining the optimal load configuration for the fleet, obtaining the lower distribution costs in order to meet the demand schedule. The assumptions were met in a first attempt with a single spreadsheet, but it could not find a convergent solution, without degeneration problems and with a reasonable solution time. A second solution was proposed separating the problem into three phases, which allowed us to highlight the potential and limitations of the Solver tool. This study showed the importance of formulating a realistic model and of a detailed critical analysis, which could be seen through the lack of convergence of the first solution and the success achieved by the second one.

  12. NASA-VOF2D: a computer program for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, M. D.; Cloutman, L. D.; Mjolsness, R. C.; Hirt, C. W.

    1985-12-01

    We present the NASA-VOF2D two-dimensional, transient, free-surface hydrodynamics program. It has a variety of options that provide capabilities for a wide range of applications, and it is designed to be relatively easy to use. It is based on the fractional volume-of-fluid method, and allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion. It also has a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. This report includes a discussion of the numerical method, a code listing, and a selection of sample problems.

  13. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  14. Towards agile large-scale predictive modelling in drug discovery with flow-based programming design principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Samuel; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Spjuth, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modelling in drug discovery is challenging to automate as it often contains multiple analysis steps and might involve cross-validation and parameter tuning that create complex dependencies between tasks. With large-scale data or when using computationally demanding modelling methods, e-infrastructures such as high-performance or cloud computing are required, adding to the existing challenges of fault-tolerant automation. Workflow management systems can aid in many of these challenges, but the currently available systems are lacking in the functionality needed to enable agile and flexible predictive modelling. We here present an approach inspired by elements of the flow-based programming paradigm, implemented as an extension of the Luigi system which we name SciLuigi. We also discuss the experiences from using the approach when modelling a large set of biochemical interactions using a shared computer cluster.Graphical abstract.

  15. Regulation of Dynamical Systems to Optimal Solutions of Semidefinite Programs: Algorithms and Applications to AC Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers a collection of networked nonlinear dynamical systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek optimal operating points corresponding to the solution of pertinent network-wide optimization problems. Particular emphasis is placed on the solution of semidefinite programs (SDPs). The design of the feedback controller is grounded on a dual e-subgradient approach, with the dual iterates utilized to dynamically update the dynamical-system reference signals. Global convergence is guaranteed for diminishing stepsize rules, even when the reference inputs are updated at a faster rate than the dynamical-system settling time. The application of the proposed framework to the control of power-electronic inverters in AC distribution systems is discussed. The objective is to bridge the time-scale separation between real-time inverter control and network-wide optimization. Optimization objectives assume the form of SDP relaxations of prototypical AC optimal power flow problems.

  16. NASA-VOF3D: A three-dimensional computer program for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, M. D.; Mjolsness, R. C.; Stein, L. R.

    1987-07-01

    Presented is the NASA-VOF3D three-dimensional, transient, free-surface hydrodynamics program. This three-dimensional extension of NASA-VOF2D will, in principle, permit treatment in full three-dimensional generality of the wide variety of applications that could be treated by NASA-VOF2D only within the two-dimensional idealization. In particular, it, like NASA-VOF2D, is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low g environment. The code is presently restricted to cylindrical geometry. The code is based on the fractional volume-of-fluid method and allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion. It also has a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. This report provides a brief discussion of the numerical method, a code listing, and some sample problems.

  17. Heat transfer and fluid flow research relevant to India's nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Venkatraj, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Indian Nuclear Power Programme envisages three important stages viz., installation of thermal reactors, fast reactors and utilization of Thorium. By the year 2000 AD, it is proposed to have an installed total capacity of nuclear power of about 10,000 MWe. Starting from the present installed capacity of 1330 MWe, the additional contribution will be mainly made by thermal power reactors of the Pressurized Heavy Water type (PHWR). Apart from the reactors presently under construction about 12 numbers of 235 MWe units are planned to be constructed, which will be based on the standardized design of the reactors at Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP). In addition, 10 units of 500 MWe capacity each, the design for which is currently under progress, will also be installed. The design, construction and operating agency is the Nuclear Power Board (NPB), while the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is responsible for the research and development work required. In addition to the programme on thermal power reactors, a thermal research reactor (DHRUVA) of 100 MWth capacity has been designed, constructed and has been commissioned. Some of the important heat transfer and fluid flow research problems relevant to the Indian nuclear power and research reactors are discussed in this paper

  18. Environmental Assessment of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Well Flow Test Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project, a coordinated research effort of the University of Hawaii, funded by the County and State of Hawaii, and ERDA, was initiated in 1973 in an effort to identify, generate, and use geothermal energy on the Big Island of Hawaii. A number of stages are involved in developing geothermal power resources: exploration, test drilling, production testing, field development, power plant and powerline construction, and full-scale production. Phase I of the Project, which began in the summer of 1973, involved conducting exploratory surveys, developing analytical models for interpretation of geophysical results, conducting studies on energy recovery from hot brine, and examining the legal and economic implications of developing geothermal resources in the state. Phase II of the Project, initiated in the summer of 1975, centers on drilling an exploratory research well on the Island of Hawaii, but also continues operational support for the geophysical, engineering, and socioeconomic activities delineated above. The project to date is between the test drilling and production testing phase. The purpose of this assessment is to describe the activities and potential impacts associated with extensive well flow testing to be completed during Phase II.

  19. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ohuchi, Jin; Tsuboya, Takao; Ando, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  20. TRUST: A Computer Program for Variably Saturated Flow in Multidimensional, Deformable Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A. E.; Key, K. T.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Nelson, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code, TRUST. provides a versatile tool to solve a wide spectrum of fluid flow problems arising in variably saturated deformable porous media. The governing equations express the conservation of fluid mass in an elemental volume that has a constant volume of solid. Deformation of the skeleton may be nonelastic. Permeability and compressibility coefficients may be nonlinearly related to effective stress. Relationships between permeability and saturation with pore water pressure in the unsaturated zone may include hysteresis. The code developed by T. N. Narasimhan grew out of the original TRUNP code written by A. L. Edwards. The code uses an integrated finite difference algorithm for numerically solving the governing equation. Narching in time is performed by a mixed explicit-implicit numerical procedure in which the time step is internally controlled. The time step control and related feature in the TRUST code provide an effective control of the potential numerical instabilities that can arise in the course of solving this difficult class of nonlinear boundary value problem. This document brings together the equations, theory, and users manual for the code as well as a sample case with input and output.

  1. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  2. Developed generalised unified power flow controller model in the Newton–Raphson power-flow analysis using combined mismatches method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, Salah; Jurado, Francisco; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    values are calculated during the iterative process based on the desired controlled values and buses voltage at the terminals of GUPFC. The parameters of GUPFC can be calculated during the iterative process and the final values are updated after load flow convergence. Using the developed GUPFC model......, the original structure and symmetry of the admittance and Jacobian matrices can still be kept, the changing of Jacobian matrix is eliminated. Consequently, the complexities of the computer load flow program codes with GUPFC are reduced. The HPCIM load flow code with the proposed model is written in C......++ programming language. Where, the SuperLU library is utilised to handle the sparse Jacobian matrix. The proposed model has been validated using the standard IEEE test systems....

  3. Development of a program BFQ/VER1 to simulate vapour pull through and liquid entrainment under stratified flow condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Mukhopadyay, D.; Lele, H.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2000-08-01

    Whether in process industries or nuclear industries, we come across lot of horizontal components, where two-phase or two-component fluids exist in normal or abnormal working conditions. Situations which lead to separation of the phases sees vapour pull through or liquid entrainment phenomena occurring when fluid discharges from horizontal components to the off - take branches. In order to capture the phenomena and applying it to the Indian PHWR during LOCA, a program 'BFQ' has been developed using various models for different fluids and conditions. These models have been validated with various experimental data available in the literature. Smoglie's model has been found to comply with most of the experiments even though it has been developed for air-water system. A modification of the model also been successfully used for feeders located at 45 deg. The result has been well validated with Hassan (1997) experiment for the same configuration. For a typical case of LOCA, RELAP4/MOD6, a widely used Homogenous model for simulating systems, is found to over predict the off-take flow quality from Header under stratified flow condition. (author)

  4. Calculation of loading on pipes during filling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Swidersky, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Filling processes in pipe systems do normally not belong to load design cases for which the integrity of pipelines and their mountings are verified with fluid- and structure-dynamic analysis. However, their frequency of occurrence is several times higher than those of the postulated incident-induced transients. That is why they have to be taken into consideration within fatigue analysis. The loading on pipes or rather on their mountings during filling processes originates from differences in the density of the transported fluids, e.g. at transport of gas slugs within water flow. The exposure time of the flow momentum force is fixed by the height of the flow velocity and by the length of discontinuities in the pipeline sections. Filling procedures frequently end with a pressure surge which was caused by the impingement and decelaration of the water plug at orifices in pipe systems. The calculation of such processes with 1D fluid-dynamic or rather thermal-hydraulic programs requires an idealization of the real form of the two phase flow or respectively of the two phase interface. In the past, several two phase flow regime maps were developed and implemented in codes for this. In this paper, the applicability of the thermo-hydraulic program RELAP5/MOD3.3 which is established in nuclear engineering is examined in order to calculate realistic loads from plug flows during the filling processes. For this, post-test calculations of experiments have been performed and the results have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the classical analytical approach according to Joukowsky. The comparison shows that, dependent on the discretization, the calculated loads are indeed partly underestimated, though the calculation results according to the Joukowsky-approach lie above the measurements. (orig.)

  5. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  6. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  7. Comparison of the Gen Expression Programming, Nonlinear Time Series and Artificial Neural Network in Estimating the River Daily Flow (Case Study: The Karun River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zamani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the daily flow forecasting of rivers is an important issue in hydrology and water resources and thus can be used the results of daily river flow modeling in water resources management, droughts and floods monitoring. In this study, due to the importance of this issue, using nonlinear time series models and artificial intelligence (Artificial Neural Network and Gen Expression Programming, the daily flow modeling has been at the time interval (1981-2012 in the Armand hydrometric station on the Karun River. Armand station upstream basin is one of the most basins in the North Karun basin and includes four sub basins (Vanak, Middle Karun, Beheshtabad and Kohrang.The results of this study shown that artificial intelligence models have superior than nonlinear time series in flow daily simulation in the Karun River. As well as, modeling and comparison of artificial intelligence models showed that the Gen Expression Programming have evaluation criteria better than artificial neural network.

  8. Development of Millimeter-Wave Velocimetry and Acoustic Time-of-Flight Tomography for Measurements in Densely Loaded Gas-Solid Riser Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-04-01

    The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser

  9. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    of the estimation of the probability of critically delayed delivery beyond a specified threshold value given a certain production batch size and try to establish a relation to certain parameters that can be linked to the degree of regularity of the arrival stream of parts to the job/flow-shop. This last aspect...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  10. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss aspects of the computation of tail-probabilities by simulation in the context of a generic job/flow-shop model consisting of structural elements such as bottle-necks, re-entrance as well as a mixture of these two fundamental types of production complexity and all thi...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  11. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George L.; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  12. Finite-element three-dimensional ground-water (FE3DGW) flow model - formulation, program listings and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow

  13. Assessment model validity document - HYDRASTAR. A stochastic continuum program for groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, B. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars [Equa Simulation AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The prevailing document addresses validation of the stochastic continuum model HYDRASTAR designed for Monte Carlo simulations of groundwater flow in fractured rocks. Here, validation is defined as a process to demonstrate that a model concept is fit for its purpose. Preferably, the validation is carried out by comparison of model predictions with independent field observations and experimental measurements. In addition, other sources can also be used to confirm that the model concept gives acceptable results. One method is to compare results with the ones achieved using other model concepts for the same set of input data. Another method is to compare model results with analytical solutions. The model concept HYDRASTAR has been used in several studies including performance assessments of hypothetical repositories for spent nuclear fuel. In the performance assessments, the main tasks for HYDRASTAR have been to calculate groundwater travel time distributions, repository flux distributions, path lines and their exit locations. The results have then been used by other model concepts to calculate the near field release and far field transport. The aim and framework for the validation process includes describing the applicability of the model concept for its purpose in order to build confidence in the concept. Preferably, this is made by comparisons of simulation results with the corresponding field experiments or field measurements. Here, two comparisons with experimental results are reported. In both cases the agreement was reasonably fair. In the broader and more general context of the validation process, HYDRASTAR results have been compared with other models and analytical solutions. Commonly, the approximation calculations agree well with the medians of model ensemble results. Additional indications that HYDRASTAR is suitable for its purpose were obtained from the comparisons with results from other model concepts. Several verification studies have been made for

  14. Investigations on the use of pneumatic cross-flow nebulizers with dual solution loading including the correction of matrix effects in elemental determinations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Mathieu; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The use of a so-called trihedral and a T-shaped cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer with dual solution loading for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been studied. By these devices analyte clouds from two solutions can be mixed during the aerosol generation step. For both nebulizers the correction of matrix effects using internal standardization and standard addition calibration in an on-line way was investigated and compared to elemental determinations using a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and calibration with synthetic standard solutions without matrix matching. A significant improvement of accuracy, both for calibration with internal standardization and standard addition, was obtained in the case of four synthetic solutions containing each 40 mmol L -1 Na, K, Rb and Ba as matrix elements and 300 μg L -1 Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb as analytes. Calibration by standard addition in the case of dual solution loading has been shown to be very useful in the determination of elements at minor and trace levels in steel and alumina reference materials. The results of analysis for minor concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in steel as well as for Ca, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si and Zn in alumina powder certified reference materials subsequent to sample dissolution were found to be in good agreement with the certificates. Limits of detection were found to be only slightly above those for a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and a precision better than 3% was realized with both novel nebulizers

  15. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    data. Base flow samples indicated that point sources are likely affecting nutrient concentrations and E. coli bacteria densities at several sites. Concentrations of all analytes in storm runoff samples were characterized by substantial variability among sites and samples. About one-half of the sites, representing different watersheds, had storm runoff samples with nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter. About one-third of the sites, representing different watersheds, had storm runoff samples with total phosphorus concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter. Six sites had samples with E. coli densities greater than 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. Total suspended solids concentrations of about 12,000 milligrams per liter or greater occurred in samples from three sites.Data collected for this monitoring program may be useful for some general assessment purposes but may also be limited in potential to fully inform stormwater management activities. Valuable attributes of the monitoring program design included incorporating many sites across the county for comparisons among watersheds and municipalities, using fixed-stage samplers to collect multiple samples during single events, collection of base flow samples in addition to storm samples to isolate possible point sources from stormwater sources, and use of continuous monitors to characterize variability. Limiting attributes of the monitoring program design included location of monitoring sites along municipal boundaries to satisfy permit requirements rather than using watershed-based criteria such as locations of tributaries, potential pollutant sources, and implemented management practices. Additional limiting attributes include having a large number of widespread sampling locations, which presented logistical challenges for predicting localized rainfall and collecting and analyzing samples during short timeframes associated with storms, and collecting storm samples at fixed

  16. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I of the upper limb - treatment based on Stress Loading Program: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sarturi Ponte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of an individual suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CPRS I becomes limited, because this syndrome causes signs and symptoms located in the affected limb, and may occur in other parts. From this premise, this study aims to present the contributions of Occupational Therapy and the Rehabilitation Stress Loading Program for a subject with CRPS I in the upper limb, attended by the Group of Pain from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM, Rio Grande do Sul state. This research is characterized as a case study, experimental, which deals with pre and post occupational therapy intervention. The instruments used for data collection were the protocols of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the Visual Analogue Scale, and goniometry (EVA. After assessment, the subject was exposed to the treatment of compressive active resistive exercises; after this treatment was completed, the subject was reassessed. It was observed that the treatment applied has contributed to the reduction of the pain and to the improvement in the Range of Motion (ROM of the subject. The use of the stress protocol and active compression contributed significantly to the reduction of pain, ADM gain and occupational performance improvement.

  17. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Compilation of functional languages using flow graph analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Glaser, Hugh; Wild, John M.

    A system based on the notion of a flow graph is used to specify formally and to implement a compiler for a lazy functional language. The compiler takes a simple functional language as input and generates C. The generated C program can then be compiled, and loaded with an extensive run-time system to

  19. An approach to quantify sources, seasonal change, and biogeochemical processes affecting metal loading in streams: Facilitating decisions for remediation of mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Walton-Day, K.

    2010-01-01

    Historical mining has left complex problems in catchments throughout the world. Land managers are faced with making cost-effective plans to remediate mine influences. Remediation plans are facilitated by spatial mass-loading profiles that indicate the locations of metal mass-loading, seasonal changes, and the extent of biogeochemical processes. Field-scale experiments during both low- and high-flow conditions and time-series data over diel cycles illustrate how this can be accomplished. A low-flow experiment provided spatially detailed loading profiles to indicate where loading occurred. For example, SO42 - was principally derived from sources upstream from the study reach, but three principal locations also were important for SO42 - loading within the reach. During high-flow conditions, Lagrangian sampling provided data to interpret seasonal changes and indicated locations where snowmelt runoff flushed metals to the stream. Comparison of metal concentrations between the low- and high-flow experiments indicated substantial increases in metal loading at high flow, but little change in metal concentrations, showing that toxicity at the most downstream sampling site was not substantially greater during snowmelt runoff. During high-flow conditions, a detailed temporal sampling at fixed sites indicated that Zn concentration more than doubled during the diel cycle. Monitoring programs must account for diel variation to provide meaningful results. Mass-loading studies during different flow conditions and detailed time-series over diel cycles provide useful scientific support for stream management decisions.

  20. Improved load flow control for distribution system operators under consideration of wind and solar performance prognosis; Verbesserte Lastflussfuehrung fuer Verteilnetzbetreiber unter Einbeziehung von Wind- und Solarleistungsprognosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ralf [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Strunk, Achim [EWC Weather Consult GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Smart grid and smart metering are the results from the social and legal intention to detach from the nuclear energy, to expand the production of renewable energy and to bring more competition into the energy market. The next decade will be characterized by extensive investments to integrate the myriad of distributed production plants into the network management, optimal use of the networks and the offer of flexible tariffs to end-users in order to respond to the effects of the weather-related production potential. With the predictability of depression measures distribution operators would be able to optimize the purchase from suppliers, the production in its own network and the feed-in performance of renewable energy systems and to derive the economic benefit from this. This requires a holistic approach to forecast which surpasses far beyond previous approaches for the optimization of the energy supply based on load profiles and forecasts of temperature and wind.

  1. The effects of material loading and flow rate on the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms using cation resin-silver nanoparticle filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Mthombeni, N. H.; Onyango, M. S.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Waterborne diseases have a negative impact on public health in instances where the available drinking water is of a poor quality. Decentralised systems are needed to provide safe drinking water to rural communities. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop and investigate the point-of-use (POU) water treatment filter packed with resin-coated silver nanoparticles. The filter performance was evaluated by investigating the effects of various bed masses (10 g, 15 g, 20 g) and flow rates (2 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 10 mL/min) by means of breakthrough curves for the removal efficiency of presumptive Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae from spiked groundwater samples. The results revealed that, as the bed mass increases the breakthrough time also increases with regards to all targeted microorganisms. However, when the flow rate increases the breakthrough time decreased. These tests demonstrated that resin-coated silver nanoparticle can be an effective material in removing all targeted microorganisms at 100% removal efficiency before breakthrough points are achieved. Moreover the filter system demonstrated that it is capable of producing 15 L/day of treated water at an operating condition of 10 mL/min flow rate and 15 g bed mass, which is sufficient to provide for seven individuals in the household if they consume 2 L/person/day for drinking purpose. Therefore, the bed mass of the filter system should be increased in order for it to produce sufficient water that will conform to the daily needs of an individual.

  2. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  3. Cost-effective flow injection amperometric system with metal nanoparticle loaded carbon nanotube modified screen printed carbon electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Themsirimongkon, Suwaphid; Saipanya, Surin; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    Various metal nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on carbon nanotube (CNT) was modified on the home-made screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to enhances sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination. The simple casting method was used for the electrode modification. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs modified electrodes were investigated for their electrochemical properties for H2O2 reduction. The Pd-CNT/SPCE is appropriated to measure the H2O2 reduction at a potential of -0.3 V, then this modified electrode was incorporated with a home-made flow through cell and applied in a simple flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Some parameters influencing the resulted modified electrode and the FI-Amp system were studied. The proposed detection system was able to detect H2O2 in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM, with detection limit of 20 µM. Relative standard deviation for 100 replicated injections of 0.6 mM H2O2 was 2.3%. The reproducibility of 6 electrodes preparing in 3 different lots was 8.2%. It was demonstrated for determination of H2O2 in disinfectant, hair colorant and milk samples. Recoveries in the range of 90-109% were observed. The developed system provided high stability, good repeatability, high sample throughput and low reagent consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  5. An iterative method for controlling reactive power flow in boundary transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, Angel L.; Martinez, Jose L.; Riquelme, Jesus; Romero, Esther [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Seville (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an operational tool designed to help the system operator to control the reactive power flow in transmission-subtransmission boundary transformers. The main objective is to determine the minimum number of control actions necessary to ensure that reactive power flows in transmission/subtransmission transformers remain within limits. The proposed iterative procedure combines the use of a linear programming problem and a load flow tool. The linear programming assumes a linear behaviour between dependent and control variables around an operating point, modelled with sensitivities. Experimental results regarding IEEE systems are provided comparing the performance of the proposed approach with that of a conventional optimal power flow. (author)

  6. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  7. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Behavior of fine droplet flow. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-7. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Yoshida, Kenji; Matsuura, Keizo

    2002-03-01

    Analytical and experimental researches were carried out on the behavior of fine droplet flow in relation to the fundamental phenomena of thermohydraulics in severe accident. Simulation program of fine droplet behavior in turbulent gas flow was developed based on the eddy interaction model with improvement of Graham's stochastic model on eddy lifetime and eddy size. Furthermore, the developed program are capable of simulating the droplet behavior in annular dispersed flow based on the models of droplet entrainment from liquid film and turbulence modification of gas phase by liquid film. This program was confirmed by the various experimental data on droplet diffusion, deposition. Furthermore, this program was applied to the three dimensional droplet flow with the satisfactory agreement of experimental data. This means the developed program can be used as a simulation program for analysis of severe accident. Experimental research was carried out on the effect of liquid film on the turbulence field of gas flow in annular and annular dispersed flow. Averaged and turbulent velocity of gas phase were measured under various gas and liquid film flow rates. Turbulent velocity of gas phase in annular flow increased compared with single phase gas flow. This is due to turbulence generation by waves in liquid film. Corresponding to the turbulence modification by liquid film, distribution of averaged velocity of gas phase became flattened compared with single phase gas flow. (author)

  8. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Behavior of fine droplet flow. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-7. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Isao; Yoshida, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka (Japan); Matsuura, Keizo [Nuclear Fuel Industry, Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Analytical and experimental researches were carried out on the behavior of fine droplet flow in relation to the fundamental phenomena of thermohydraulics in severe accident. Simulation program of fine droplet behavior in turbulent gas flow was developed based on the eddy interaction model with improvement of Graham's stochastic model on eddy lifetime and eddy size. Furthermore, the developed program are capable of simulating the droplet behavior in annular dispersed flow based on the models of droplet entrainment from liquid film and turbulence modification of gas phase by liquid film. This program was confirmed by the various experimental data on droplet diffusion, deposition. Furthermore, this program was applied to the three dimensional droplet flow with the satisfactory agreement of experimental data. This means the developed program can be used as a simulation program for analysis of severe accident. Experimental research was carried out on the effect of liquid film on the turbulence field of gas flow in annular and annular dispersed flow. Averaged and turbulent velocity of gas phase were measured under various gas and liquid film flow rates. Turbulent velocity of gas phase in annular flow increased compared with single phase gas flow. This is due to turbulence generation by waves in liquid film. Corresponding to the turbulence modification by liquid film, distribution of averaged velocity of gas phase became flattened compared with single phase gas flow. (author)

  9. CFD-based design load analysis of 5MW offshore wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. T.; Ryu, G. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    The structure and aerodynamic loads acting on NREL 5MW reference wind turbine blade are calculated and analyzed based on advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and unsteady Blade Element Momentum (BEM). A detailed examination of the six force components has been carried out (three force components and three moment components). Structure load (gravity and inertia load) and aerodynamic load have been obtained by additional structural calculations (CFD or BEM, respectively,). In CFD method, the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes approach was applied to solve the continuity equation of mass conservation and momentum balance so that the complex flow around wind turbines was modeled. Written in C programming language, a User Defined Function (UDF) code which defines transient velocity profile according to the Extreme Operating Gust condition was compiled into commercial FLUENT package. Furthermore, the unsteady BEM with 3D stall model has also adopted to investigate load components on wind turbine rotor. The present study introduces a comparison between advanced CFD and unsteady BEM for determining load on wind turbine rotor. Results indicate that there are good agreements between both present methods. It is importantly shown that six load components on wind turbine rotor is significant effect under Extreme Operating Gust (EOG) condition. Using advanced CFD and additional structural calculations, this study has succeeded to construct accuracy numerical methodology to estimate total load of wind turbine that compose of aerodynamic load and structure load.

  10. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  11. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  12. Effects of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction on muscle size and strength of professional soccer players with muscle imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Sergio Denadai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine whether low intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR could affect the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength ratio (Hcon:Qcon of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance (Study 1, and whether hamstrings strength response observed after LI-BFR is associated with muscle hypertrophy (Study 2. In the Study 1, athletes were randomly divided into a training group (n = 6 and a control group (n = 5. In the Study 2, all athletes (n = 11 have performed the training programme. The athletes participated in a 6-week (twice a week supervised training programme (unilateral knee flexion at 30% 1RM consisting of 12 training sessions. Peak concentric torque of knee flexors (+8%; P < 0.001 and Hcon:Qcon (+9%; P < 0.01 were significantly increased after LI-BFR. Moreover, the cross sectional area (CSA of the hamstrings was significantly increased (+10%; P < 0.001 after LI-BFR. Thus, the addition of hamstrings strength training programme using LI-BFR during preseason is able to enhance both Hcon:Qcon and hamstrings CSA of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance.

  13. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1...... per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes....

  14. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  15. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  16. ACVP-02: Plasma SIV/SHIV RNA Viral Load Measurements through the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SIV plasma viral load assay performed by the Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core (QMDC) utilizes reagents specifically designed to detect and accurately quantify the full range of SIV/SHIV viral variants and clones in common usage in the rese

  17. Voltage profile program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center voltage profile program computes voltages at all busses greater than 1 Kv in the network under various conditions of load. The computation is based upon power flow principles and utilizes a Newton-Raphson iterative load flow algorithm. Power flow conditions throughout the network are also provided. The computer program is designed for both steady state and transient operation. In the steady state mode, automatic tap changing of primary distribution transformers is incorporated. Under transient conditions, such as motor starts etc., it is assumed that tap changing is not accomplished so that transformer secondary voltage is allowed to sag.

  18. Sample intake position and loading rates from nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. E.; Daniel, T. C.; Stoffel, D.; Andraski, B.

    1980-01-01

    Paired water samples were simultaneously activated from two different vertical positions within the approach section of a flow-control structure to determine the effect of sample intake position on nonpoint runoff parameter concentrations and subsequent event loads. Suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP) and organic plus exchangeable nitrogen [(Or+Ex)-N] were consistently higher throughout each runoff event when sampled from the floor of the approach section as opposed to those samples taken at midstage. Dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus (DMRP) and ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the vertical difference in intake position. However, the nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen [(NO3+NO2)-N] concentrations were much higher when sampled from the midstage position. Although the concentration differences between the two methods were not appreciable, when evaluated in terms of event loads, discrepancies were evident for all parameters. Midstage sampling produced event loads for SS, TP, (Or + Ex)-N, DMRP, NH4-N, and (NO3+NO2)-N that were 44,39,35,80,71, and 181%, respectively, of floor sampling loads. Differences in loads between the two methods are attributed to the midstage position, sampling less of the bed load. The correct position will depend on the objective; however, such differences should be recognized during the design phase of the monitoring program.

  19. Design And Modeling An Automated Digsilent Power System For Optimal New Load Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electric power utilities seek to take advantage of novel approaches to meet growing energy demand. Utilities are under pressure to evolve their classical topologies to increase the usage of distributed generation. Currently the electrical power engineers in many regions of the world are implementing manual methods to measure power consumption for farther assessment of voltage violation. Such process proved to be time consuming costly and inaccurate. Also demand response is a grid management technique where retail or wholesale customers are requested either electronically or manually to reduce their load. Therefore this paper aims to design and model an automated power system for optimal new load locations using DPL DIgSILENT Programming Language. This study is a diagnostic approach that assists system operator about any voltage violation cases that would happen during adding new load to the grid. The process of identifying the optimal bus bar location involves a complicated calculation of the power consumptions at each load bus As a result the DPL program would consider all the IEEE 30 bus internal networks data then a load flow simulation will be executed. To add the new load to the first bus in the network. Therefore the developed model will simulate the new load at each available bus bar in the network and generate three analytical reports for each case that captures the overunder voltage and the loading elements among the grid.

  20. Operational procedure for computer program for design point characteristics of a compressed-air generator with through-flow combustor for V/STOL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    The computer program described in this report calculates the design-point characteristics of a compressed-air generator for use in V/STOL applications such as systems with a tip-turbine-driven lift fan. The program computes the dimensions and mass, as well as the thermodynamic performance of a model air generator configuration which involves a straight through-flow combustor. Physical and thermodynamic characteristics of the air generator components are also given. The program was written in FORTRAN IV language. Provision has been made so that the program will accept input values in either SI units or U.S. customary units. Each air generator design-point calculation requires about 1.5 seconds of 7094 computer time for execution.