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Sample records for load characterization hydrogen

  1. Results of EDS uranium samples characterization after hydrogen loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicea, D.; Dash, J.

    2003-01-01

    Several experiments of loading natural uranium foils with hydrogen were done. Electrolysis was used for loading hydrogen into uranium, because it is the most efficient way for H loading. The composition of the surface and near surface of the samples was determined using an Oxford EDS spectrometer on a Scanning Electron Microscope, manufactured by ISI. Images were taken with several magnifications up to 3.4KX. Results reveal that when low current density was used, the surface patterns changed from granules on the surface having a typical size of 2-4 microns to pits under the surface having a typical size under one micron. When high current density was used the surface changed and presented deep fissures. The deep fissures are the result of the mechanical strain induced by the lattice expansion caused by hydrogen absorption. The surface composition was determined before and after hydrogen loading. Uranium, thorium platinum and carbon concentration were measured. Experiments suggest that the amount of thorium increases on the uranium sample with the total electric charge transported through electrolyte. Carbon concentration was found to decrease on the surface of the sample as the total electric charge transported through electrolyte increased. Platinum is used in electrolysis experiment as anode primarily because it does not dissolve in electrolyte and therefore it is not electro-deposited on the cathode surface. The results of the platinum concentration measurements on the surface of the samples we loaded with hydrogen reveal that the platinum concentration increased dramatically as the current density increased and that created platinum spots on the cathode surface. Work is in progress on the subject. (authors)

  2. Formulation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of praziquantel-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Ming; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Fenghua; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhou, WenZhong

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate praziquantel (PZQ)-loaded hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to enhance the bioavailability and prolong the systemic circulation of the drug. PZQ was encapsulated into HCO nanoparticles by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The physicochemical characteristics of SLN were investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetics were studied after oral, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration in mice. The diameter, polydispersivity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the nanoparticles were 344.0 +/- 15.1 nm, 0.31 +/- 0.08, -16.7 +/- 0.5 mV, 62.17 +/- 6.53% and 12.43 +/- 1.31%, respectively. In vitro release of PZQ-loaded HCO-SLN exhibited an initial burst release followed by a sustained release. SLN increased the bioavailability of PZQ by 14.9-, 16.1- and 2.6-fold, and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 7.6, 6.6 and 8.2 to 95.9, 151.6 and 48.2 h after oral, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration, respectively. The PZQ-loaded HCO-SLN could be a promising formulation to enhance the pharmacological activity of PZQ.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin- and florfenicol-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z; Yonghong, L; Changqing, S; Junfeng, L; Li, Z; Chunyu, J; Xianqiang, L

    2017-06-01

    To effectively control bovine mastitis, tilmicosin (TIL)- and florfenicol (FF)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) were prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, and pharmacokinetics of the TIL-FF-SLN were studied. The results demonstrated that TIL and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. The size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of nanoparticles were 289.1 ± 13.7 nm, 0.31 ± 0.05, and -26.7 ± 1.3 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiencies for TIL and FF were 62.3 ± 5.9% and 85.1 ± 5.2%, and the loading capacities for TIL and FF were 8.2 ± 0.6% and 3.3 ± 0.2%, respectively. The TIL-FF-SLN showed no irritation in the injection site and sustained release in vitro. After medication, TIL and FF could maintain about 0.1 μg/mL for 122 and 6 h. Compared to the control solution, the SLN increased the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-t ), elimination half-life (T ½ke ), and mean residence time (MRT) of TIL by 33.09-, 23.29-, and 37.53-fold, and 1.69-, 5.00-, and 3.83-fold for FF, respectively. These results of this exploratory study suggest that the HCO-SLN could be a useful system for the delivery of TIL and FF for bovine mastitis therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  5. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  6. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  7. Characterization of Hydrogen Bonds by IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojta, D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the identification and quantification of hydrogen bond, as one of the most abundant non-covalent interactions in phenomena like self-assembly and molecular recognition, IR spectrosopy has been employed as the most sensitive method. The performance of the high dilution method enables determination of the stability constant of hydrogen-bonded complex as one of the most important thermodynamic quantities used in their characterization. However, the alleged experimental simplicity of the mentioned method is loaded with errors originating not only from researcher intervention but also independent from it. The second source of error is particularly emphasized and elaborated in this paper, which is designed as the recipe for the successful characterization of hydrogen bonds. Besides the enumeration of all steps in the determination of hydrogen-bonded stability constants, the reader can be acquainted with the most important ex perimental conditions that should be fulfilled in order to minimize the naturally occurring errors in this type of investigation. In the spectral analysis, the application of both uni- and multivariate approach has been discussed. Some computer packages, considering the latter, are mentioned, described, and recommended. KUI -10/2012Received August 1, 2011Accepted October 24, 2011

  8. Development of a load cell for mechanical testing in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical testing in hydrogen environments is performed on materials to determine hydrogen compatibility. Many tests are performed on small test samples in pressure vessels where monitoring of actual sample load is difficult. A method was developed to monitor small samples by placing inside the vessel a miniature load cell which is capable of measuring loads of less than 100 lbs. The load cell monitors load by means of a Wheatstone Bridge circuit composed of four strain gages. Two of the gages are mounted on a stainless steel stub which becomes part of the vessel load string; the others are wired outside the pressure vessel. Previously, load cells have been short-lived because of hydrogen diffusion into the epoxy-phenolic adhesive used to attach the strain gages to the stub. The use of a flame-sprayed ceramic, however, rather than an organic epoxy to mount the strain gages appears to produce a load cell resistant to the hydrogen test environment

  9. Creating load for new hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provides an update of the activities of the Hydrogen Village. The Hydrogen Village is a public-private partnership of approximately 40 companies with the goal of advancing awareness of the environmental, economic and social benefits of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The intent of the hydrogen village is to create a sustainable commercial market for these technologies within the Greater Toronto Area and to help to catalyze such markets in other areas

  10. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  11. Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)

  12. Investigation of nanocrystalline Gd films loaded with hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Hruška, Petr; Čí žek, Jakub; Dobroň, Patrik; Anwand, Wolfgang; Mü cklich, Arndt; Gemma, Ryota; Wagner, Stefan; Uchida, Helmut; Pundt, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The present work reports on microstructure studies of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films prepared by cold cathode beam sputtering on sapphire (112¯0) substrates. The Gd films were electrochemically step-by-step charged with hydrogen and the structural development with increasing concentration of absorbed hydrogen was studied by transmission electron microscopy and in-situ   X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The relaxation of hydrogen-induced stresses was examined by acoustic emission measurements. In the low concentration range absorbed hydrogen occupies preferentially vacancy-like defects at GBs typical for nanocrystalline films. With increasing hydrogen concentration hydrogen starts to occupy interstitial sites. At the solid solution limit the grains gradually transform into the ββ-phase (GdH2). Finally at high hydrogen concentrations xH>2.0xH>2.0 H/Gd, the film structure becomes almost completely amorphous. Contrary to bulk Gd specimens, the formation of the γγ-phase (GdH3) was not observed in this work.

  13. Characterizations of Hydrogen Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energetics Inc

    2003-04-01

    In 1996, Dr. Ed Skolnik of Energetics, Incorporated, began a series of visits to the locations of various projects that were part of the DOE Hydrogen Program. The site visits/evaluations were initiated to help the DOE Program Management, which had limited time and limited travel budgets, to get a detailed snapshot of each project. The evaluations were soon found to have other uses as well: they provided reviewers on the annual Hydrogen Program Peer Review Team with an in-depth look at a project--something that is lacking in a short presentation--and also provided a means for hydrogen stakeholders to learn about the R&D that the Hydrogen Program is sponsoring. The visits were conducted under several different contract mechanisms, at project locations specified by DOE Headquarters Program Management, Golden Field Office Contract Managers, or Energetics, Inc., or through discussion by some or all of the above. The methodology for these site-visit-evaluations changed slightly over the years, but was fundamentally as follows: Contact the Principal Investigator (PI) and arrange a time for the visit; Conduct a literature review. This would include a review of the last two or three years of Annual Operating Plan submittals, monthly reports, the paper submitted with the last two or three Annual Peer Review, published reviewers' consensus comments from the past few years, publications in journals, and journal publications on the same or similar topics by other researchers; Send the PI a list of questions/topics about a week ahead of time, which we would discuss during the visit. The types of questions vary depending on the project, but include some detailed technical questions that delve into some fundamental scientific and engineering issues, and also include some economic and goal-oriented topics; Conduct the site-visit itself including--Presentations by the PI and/or his staff. This would be formal in some cases, informal in others, and merely a &apos

  14. Effect of organic loading on a novel hydrogen bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; El Naggar, M. Hesham; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Nakhla, George [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Baghchehsaraee, Bita [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated the impact of six organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 6.5 gCOD/L-d to 206 gCOD/L-d on the performance of a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier systems (IBRCSs) comprised a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) for biological hydrogen production, followed by an uncovered gravity settler for decoupling of solids retention time (SRT) from hydraulic retention time (HRT). The system was able to maintain a high molar hydrogen yield of 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose at OLR ranging from 6.5 to 103 gCOD/L-d, but dropped precipitously to approximately 1.2 and 1.1 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose for the OLRs of 154 and 206 gCOD/L-d, respectively. The optimum OLR at HRT of 8 h for maximizing both hydrogen molar yield and volumetric hydrogen production was 103 gCOD/L-d. A positive statistical correlation was observed between the molar hydrogen production and the molar acetate-to-butyrate ratio. Biomass yield correlated negatively with hydrogen yield, although not linearly. Analyzing the food-to-microorganisms (F/M) data in this study and others revealed that, both molar hydrogen yields and biomass specific hydrogen rates peaked at 2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 2.3 L/gVSS-d at F/M ratios ranging from 4.4 to 6.4 gCOD/gVSS-d. Microbial community analysis for OLRs of 6.5 and 25.7 gCOD/L-d showed the predominance of hydrogen producers such as Clostridium acetobutyricum, Klebsiella pneumonia, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium pasteurianum. While at extremely high OLRs of 154 and 206 gCOD/L-d, a microbial shift was clearly evident due to the coexistence of the non-hydrogen producers such as Lactococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. (author)

  15. Containment loadings due to hydrogen burning in LWR core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cybulskis, P.

    1981-01-01

    The potential pressure loadings due to hydrogen burning under conditions representative of meltdown accident conditions are examined for a variety of PWR and BWR containment designs. For the PWR, the large dry, ice condenser, as well as subatmospheric containments are considered. For the BWR, MARK I, II, and III pressure suppression containments are evaluated. The key factors considered are: free volume, design pressure, extend to hydrogen generation, and the flammability of the atmosphere under a range of accident conditions. The potential for and the possible implications of hydrogen detonation are also considered. The results of these analyses show that the accumulation and rapid burning of the quantities of hydrogen that would be generated during core meltdown accidents will lead to pressures above design levels in all of the containments considered. As would be expected, containments characterized by small volumes and/or low design pressures are the most vulnerable to damage due to hydrogen burning. Large volume, high pressure designs may also be threatened but offer significantly more potential for accomodating hydrogen burns. The attainment of detonable hydrogen mixtures is made easier by smaller containment volumes. Detonable mixtures are also possible in the larger volume containments, but imply the accumulation of hydrogen for long periods of time without prior ignition. Hydrogen detonations, if they occur, would probably challenge the integrity of any of the containments considered. (orig.)

  16. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F.; Garcia-De Maria, J.M.; Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg H2 , and CO 2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  17. Characterization of Carbamazepine-Loaded Solid Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loaded solid lipid nanoparticles by RESS as well as their characterization has been achieved in this study. Keywords: Rapid expansion of supercritical fluid, Stearic acid, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Carbamazepine, Co-precipitation ...

  18. Controlled delamination of metal films by hydrogen loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Eugen

    2008-11-18

    n this work we quantitatively determine the adhesion energy between metal films and their substrates. Therefore a new controlled buckling technique is established, applying the strong compressive in-plane stress that results in thin films clamped on rigid substrates during hydrogen loading. When the elastic energy stored in the H-loaded thin film exceeds the adhesion energy between film and substrate, delamination occurs. At the onset of delamination, a critical hydrogen concentration, a critical stress value and a critical bending of the substrate are present, which are quantitative measures for the adhesion energy and permit its calculation. As the critical values are determined at the onset of delamination, plastic deformation is negligible, which denies the quantitative determination of adhesion energies in conventional test setups. In multilayer-systems, adhesion energies between substrates and films that hardly absorb hydrogen can be measured by the controlled buckling technique, when the films of interest are coated with hydrogen absorbing films (active layer). The measurements are performed easily and can be repeated under the same test conditions, while variables such as the thickness of the coating materials or the boundary surface structure can be varied and optimized. In this work the adhesion energies of different materials on polycarbonate and niobium on sapphire are investigated. (orig.)

  19. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  20. Transient hydrogen diffusion analyses coupled with crack-tip plasticity under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Taketomi, Shinya; Miyazaki, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the material strengths of metals is known as the hydrogen embrittlement, which affects the structural integrity of a hydrogen energy system. In the present paper, we developed a computer program for a transient hydrogen diffusion-elastoplastic coupling analysis by combining an in-house finite element program with a general purpose finite element computer program to analyze hydrogen diffusion. In this program, we use a hypothesis that the hydrogen absorbed in the metal affects the yield stress of the metal. In the present paper, we discuss the effects of the cyclic loading on the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip. An important finding we obtained here is the fact that the hydrogen concentration near the crack tip greatly depends on the loading frequency. This result indicates that the fatigue lives of the components in a hydrogen system depend not only on the number of loading cycles but also on the loading frequency

  1. Hydrogen evolution reaction on electrodes with different PT/C loadings by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Chavez, L. [Inst. Tecnologico de Chihuahua 2, Chihuahua, Chih (Mexico); Ortega-Chavez, L.; Herrera-Peraza, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chiuahua, Chih (Mexico); Verde, Y. [Inst. Tecnologico de Cancun, Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    One of the most widely studied reactions in electrochemistry is the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). HER is important for the development of water hydrolysis and fuel cell technologies. Because hydrogen-substrate interaction determines oxygen reduction efficiency, an understanding of the chemical and electronic state of hydrogen adsorbed on the electrocatalyst surface is required. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a proven highly efficient technique for interface characterization and kinetic parameter determination for different reactions carried out on interfaces. This article presented a study that utilized EIS for characterizing electrodes under HER by implementing a rotating disc electrode with different carbon supported platinum nanoparticles loadings and different potentials in acidic solutions. The results collected by EIS were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits to calculate different parameters which were compared by statistical analysis. The study also considered the Volmer, Heyrovsky and Tafel steps in the HER reaction as well as a single electro-absorbed intermediate species. The article discussed the experimental set-up with reference to measurements, simulation and fitting. Parameters analysis using ANOVA were reviewed. It was concluded that an increase in impedance occurs when platinum loading decreases in both high and low frequencies. 22 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads in structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, G.R.; Lindberg, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    In presenting the characterization scheme, some general features are described first. A detailed analysis is given for the rigid-plastic system of one degree of freedom to illustrate the calculation of critical load curves in terms of peak load and impulse. This is followed by the presentation of critical load curves for uniformly loaded rigid-plastic beams and plates and for dynamic buckling of cylindrical shells under uniform lateral loads. The peak load-impulse characterization of critical pulse loads is compared with the dynamic load factor characterization, and some aspects of the history of the peak load-pulse scheme are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Transient dynamic finite element analysis of hydrogen distribution test chamber structure for hydrogen combustion loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Redlinger, R.; Breitung, W.

    2005-09-01

    Design and analysis of blast resistant structures is an important area of safety research in nuclear, aerospace, chemical process and vehicle industries. Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET) of Research Centre- Karlsruhe (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe or FZK) in Germany is pursuing active research on the entire spectrum of safety evaluation for efficient hydrogen management in case of the postulated design basis and beyond the design basis severe accidents for nuclear and non-nuclear applications. This report concentrates on the consequence analysis of hydrogen combustion accidents with emphasis on the structural safety assessment. The transient finite element simulation results obtained for 2gm, 4gm, 8gm and 16gm hydrogen combustion experiments concluded recently on the test-cell structure are described. The frequencies and damping of the test-cell observed during the hammer tests and the combustion experiments are used for the present three dimensional finite element model qualification. For the numerical transient dynamic evaluation of the test-cell structure, the pressure time history data computed with CFD code COM-3D is used for the four combustion experiments. Detail comparisons of the present numerical results for the four combustion experiments with the observed time signals are carried out to evaluate the structural connection behavior. For all the combustion experiments excellent agreement is noted for the computed accelerations and displacements at the standard transducer locations, where the measurements were made during the different combustion tests. In addition inelastic analysis is also presented for the test-cell structure to evaluate the limiting impulsive and quasi-static pressure loads. These results are used to evaluate the response of the test cell structure for the postulated over pressurization of the test-cell due to the blast load generated in case of 64 gm hydrogen ignition for which additional sets of computations were

  4. Two-phase model of hydrogen transport to optimize nanoparticle catalyst loading for hydrogen evolution reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Erno; Halme, Janne; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    is the evolution and transport of gaseous H2, since HER leads to the continuous formation of H2 bubbles near the electrode. We present a numerical model that includes the transport of both gaseous and dissolved H2, as well as mass exchange between them, and combine it with a kinetic model of HER at platinum (Pt......) nanoparticle electrodes. We study the effect of the diffusion layer thickness and H2 dissolution rate constant on the importance of gaseous transport, and the effect of equilibrium hydrogen coverage and Pt loading on the kinetic and mass transport overpotentials. Gaseous transport becomes significant when...

  5. Hydrogen ion induced ultralow wear of PEEK under extreme load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Anying; Fei, Jixiong; Wang, Zhenyang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Bin

    2018-03-01

    As a high-performance engineering polymer, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is a perfect candidate material for applications under extreme working conditions. However, its high wear rate greatly shortens its service life. In this study, ultralow friction and wear between PEEK and silicon nitride (Si3N4) under extreme-load conditions (with a mean contact pressure above 100 MPa) are found in acid lubricating solutions. Both friction and wear decrease sharply with decreasing pH. At pH = 1, the friction coefficient decreases by an order of magnitude and the wear rate of the PEEK decreases by two orders of magnitude compared to the results with water lubrication. These reductions in friction and wear occur for different speed, load, and surface roughness conditions. The underlying mechanism can be attributed to the formation of hydrogen-ion-induced electrical double layers on the surfaces of PEEK and Si3N4. The combined effect of the resulting repulsive force, electro-viscosity, and low shear strength of the water layer dramatically reduces both friction and wear.

  6. Damage process of high purity tungsten coatings by hydrogen beam heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Taniguchi, M.; Ezato, K.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Tsunekawa, Y.; Okumiya, M.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effects of heat load and hydrogen irradiation, cyclic heat load tests with a hydrogen beam and a comparable electron beam were performed for high purity CVD-tungsten coatings. Surface modification was examined as a function of the peak temperature by changing the heat flux. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis showed that the surface damage caused by the hydrogen beam was more severe than that by the electron beam. In the hydrogen beam case, cracking at the surface occurred at all peak temperatures examined from 300 deg. C to 1600 deg. C. These results indicate that the injected hydrogen induces embrittlement for the CVD-tungsten coating

  7. Theoretical Characterization of Hydrogen Bonding Interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest stabilization results in case of (H2N)CHO as hydrogen bond acceptor. The variation of the substituents at –OH functional group also influences the strength of hydrogen bond; nearly all the substituents increase the stabilization energy relative to HOH. The analysis of geometrical parameters; proton affinities, ...

  8. Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær

    2005-01-01

    for the role of hydrogen and deuterium in the UV-induced process. Previous arguments for the origins are systematically ruled out by reviewing existing literature. We note that the birefringence is made up of at least two components with different thermal stabilities, one consistent simply with molecular...... hydrogen being present in the system. Overall the birefringence, by deduction, is associated with anisotropy in hydrogen reactions within the fiber. As a result they lead, through known mechanisms of dilation in glass, to anisotropic stress relaxation that can be annealed out, with or without hydrogen...

  9. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  10. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  11. [Cleavage time for a hydrogen bond under a load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, S V; Tolpygo, K B

    1993-01-01

    Statistics of the hydrogen bond formation and break in a bundle of actin and myosin filaments realizing the attractive force in the sarcomere of a muscle is studied. Purely mechanical problem of the attractive-force formation and motion of myosin heads and action globules under their action is supplemented by accounting for the irreversible processes: 1. Thermal de-excitation of the latter in the chain of hydrogen bond during the elementary act of the ATP energy use resulting in fixing the extended actin filament. 2. Break of the hydrogen bonds, realizing this fixing, due to thermal fluctuations for the time tau. The average life-time turns out to be the order of time necessary for the movement of z-membrane sarcomere for the value of action filament extension delta 1, which is necessary for the process of muscle contraction to be continued.

  12. Investigation of microstructure changes in ODS-EUROFER after hydrogen loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanova, O.V.; Ganchenkova, M.G.; Malitskii, E.; Yagodzinskyy, Y.N.; Klimenkov, M.; Borodin, V.A.; Vladimirov, P.V.; Lindau, R.; Möslang, A.; Hänninen, H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the microstructure of mechanically tested ODS-EUROFER steel was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, and atomistic simulations. The presence of yttrium oxide particles notably increases hydrogen uptake in ODS-EUROFER steel as compared to ODS-free EUROFER 97. Under tensile loading, hydrogen accumulation promotes the loss of cohesion at the oxide particle interfaces. First-principles molecular dynamics simulations indicate that hydrogen can be trapped at nanoparticle/matrix interface, creating OH-groups. The accumulation of hydrogen atoms at the oxide particle surface can be the reason for the observed hydrogen-induced oxide/matrix interface weakening and de-cohesion under the action of external tensile stress.

  13. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bentaib; Alexandre Bleyer; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Jerome Dupas; Jerome Riviere

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  14. Dynamical Model of Rocket Propellant Loading with Liquid Hydrogen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dynamical model describing the multi-stage process of rocket propellant loading has been developed. It accounts for both the nominal and faulty regimes of...

  15. Hydrogenation of Phenol over Pt/CNTs: The Effects of Pt Loading and Reaction Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Li; Bo Cao; Wenxi Zhu; Hua Song; Keliang Wang; Cuiqin Li

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-supported Pt nanoparticles were prepared with selective deposition of Pt nanoparticles inside and outside CNTs (Pt–in/CNTs and Pt–out/CNTs). The effects of Pt loading and reaction solvents on phenol hydrogenation were investigated. The Pt nanoparticles in Pt–in/CNTs versus Pt–out/CNTs are smaller and better dispersed. The catalytic activity and reuse stability toward phenol hydrogenation both improved markedly. The dichloromethane–water mixture as the reaction solvent,...

  16. Fracture toughness of the F-82H steel-effect of loading modes, hydrogen, and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.-X.; Jones, R.H.; Hirth, J.P.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of loading mode, hydrogen, and temperature on fracture toughness and tearing modulus were examined for a ferritic/martensitic steel (F-82H). The introduction of a shear load component, mode III, significantly decreased the initiation and propagation resistance of cracks compared to the opening load, mode I, behavior. Mode I crack initiation and propagation exhibited the highest resistance. A minimum resistance occurred when the mode I and mode III loads were nearly equal. The presence of 4 wppm hydrogen decreased the cracking resistance compared to behavior without H regardless of the loading mode. The minimum mixed-mode fracture toughness with the presence of hydrogen was about 30% of the hydrogen-free mode I fracture toughness. The mixed-mode toughness exhibited a lesser sensitivity to temperature than the mode I toughness. The J IC value was 284 kJ/m 2 at room temperature, but only 60 kJ/m 2 at -55 C and 30 kJ/m 2 at -90 C. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was apparently higher than -55 C. (orig.)

  17. Fundamental Characterization of Spanwise Loading and Trailed Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Wake characterization, vortex formation , vortex...Configuration The test was conducted in the 7 × 10-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center (operating in its hard - wall mode) for a range of wind speeds up

  18. On problems of hydrogen load of sponge palladium and determination of hydrogen content in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittag, E.; Pleis, U.; Roemer, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the process of catalytic dehalogenation applied as a method for preparation of organic compounds labelled with tritium a special importance pertains to the determination of hydrogen (or tritium) bound on the catalyst. Hydrogen contained in palladium black may be determined quantitatively by oxidation with Pd ++ ions and successive potentiometric titration of the released H + ions. The method permits to obtain data on the quality of the catalyst and on the gas losses on the catalyst. Moreover, in connection with the radioactivity measurement, this method may be used for specific activity determination of the tritium gas

  19. Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices; Caracterisation par RMN du solide des matrices de stockage solide de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, Lab. de Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique Lab. Claude Frejacques - CEA/CNRS URA 331, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)

  20. Origin of excess heat generated during loading Pd-impregnated alumina powder with deuterium and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyeva, O., E-mail: olga.dmitriyeva@colorado.edu [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 (United States); Coolescence LLC, 2450 Central Ave Ste F, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Cantwell, R.; McConnell, M. [Coolescence LLC, 2450 Central Ave Ste F, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Moddel, G. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied heat produced by hydrogen and deuterium in Pd-impregnated alumina powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples were fabricated using light and heavy water isotopes and varied the gas used for loading. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of hydrogen and deuterium influenced the amount of heat released or consumed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pd nanoparticles appear to catalyze hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous heating can be accounted for by chemical rather than nuclear reactions. - Abstract: We studied heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder in the presence of hydrogen and deuterium gases, investigating claims of anomalous heat generated as a result of nuclear fusion, usually referred to as a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). By selecting the water isotope used to fabricate the material and then varying the gas used for loading, we were able to influence the amount of heat released or consumed. We suggest that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. This hypothesis is supported by heat measurements, residual gas analysis (RGA) data, and calculations of energy available from H/D exchange reactions. Based on the results we conclude that the origin of the anomalous heat generated during deuterium loading of Pd-enriched alumina powder is chemical rather than nuclear.

  1. Origin of excess heat generated during loading Pd-impregnated alumina powder with deuterium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriyeva, O.; Cantwell, R.; McConnell, M.; Moddel, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied heat produced by hydrogen and deuterium in Pd-impregnated alumina powder. ► Samples were fabricated using light and heavy water isotopes and varied the gas used for loading. ► Incorporation of hydrogen and deuterium influenced the amount of heat released or consumed. ► Pd nanoparticles appear to catalyze hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reactions. ► Anomalous heating can be accounted for by chemical rather than nuclear reactions. - Abstract: We studied heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder in the presence of hydrogen and deuterium gases, investigating claims of anomalous heat generated as a result of nuclear fusion, usually referred to as a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). By selecting the water isotope used to fabricate the material and then varying the gas used for loading, we were able to influence the amount of heat released or consumed. We suggest that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. This hypothesis is supported by heat measurements, residual gas analysis (RGA) data, and calculations of energy available from H/D exchange reactions. Based on the results we conclude that the origin of the anomalous heat generated during deuterium loading of Pd-enriched alumina powder is chemical rather than nuclear.

  2. Hydrogen bonding characterization in water and small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi

    2017-06-01

    The prototypical hydrogen bond in water dimer and hydrogen bonds in the protonated water dimer, in other small molecules, in water cyclic clusters, and in ice, covering a wide range of bond strengths, are theoretically investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, considering not only a standard generalized gradient approximation functional but also, for the water dimer, hybrid and van der Waals corrected functionals. We compute structural, energetic, and electrostatic (induced molecular dipole moments) properties. In particular, hydrogen bonds are characterized in terms of differential electron density distributions and profiles, and of the shifts of the centres of maximally localized Wannier functions. The information from the latter quantities can be conveyed to a single geometric bonding parameter that appears to be correlated with the Mayer bond order parameter and can be taken as an estimate of the covalent contribution to the hydrogen bond. By considering the water trimer, the cyclic water hexamer, and the hexagonal phase of ice, we also elucidate the importance of cooperative/anticooperative effects in hydrogen-bonding formation.

  3. Characterization of hydrogen bonding motifs in proteins: hydrogen elimination monitoring by ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lindsay J; Chai, Wenrui; Rosenberg, Jake A; Henkelman, Graeme; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2017-08-02

    Determination of structure and folding of certain classes of proteins remains intractable by conventional structural characterization strategies and has spurred the development of alternative methodologies. Mass spectrometry-based approaches have a unique capacity to differentiate protein heterogeneity due to the ability to discriminate populations, whether minor or major, featuring modifications or complexation with non-covalent ligands on the basis of m/z. Cleavage of the peptide backbone can be further utilized to obtain residue-specific structural information. Here, hydrogen elimination monitoring (HEM) upon ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) of proteins transferred to the gas phase via nativespray ionization is introduced as an innovative approach to deduce backbone hydrogen bonding patterns. Using well-characterized peptides and a series of proteins, prediction of the engagement of the amide carbonyl oxygen of the protein backbone in hydrogen bonding using UVPD-HEM is demonstrated to show significant agreement with the hydrogen-bonding motifs derived from molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal structures.

  4. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  5. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Raffaele; Lavorato, Cristina; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Argurio, Pietro; Drioli, Enrico; Poerio, Teresa

    2016-03-22

    Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU) membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (meso)porosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP) to produce phenylethanol (PE), an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)). The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat(-1)·h(-1)).

  6. Preparation of Pd-Loaded Hierarchical FAU Membranes and Testing in Acetophenone Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Molinari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pd-loaded hierarchical FAU (Pd-FAU membranes, containing an intrinsic secondary non-zeolitic (mesoporosity, were prepared and tested in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone (AP to produce phenylethanol (PE, an industrially relevant product. The best operating conditions were preliminarily identified by testing different solvents and organic hydrogen donors in a batch hydrogenation process where micron-sized FAU seeds were employed as catalyst support. Water as solvent and formic acid as hydrogen source resulted to be the best choice in terms of conversion for the catalytic hydrogenation of AP, providing the basis for the design of a green and sustainable process. The best experimental conditions were selected and applied to the Pd-loaded FAU membrane finding enhanced catalytic performance such as a five-fold higher productivity than with the unsupported Pd-FAU crystals (11.0 vs. 2.2 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1. The catalytic performance of the membrane on the alumina support was also tested in a tangential flow system obtaining a productivity higher than that of the batch system (22.0 vs. 11.0 mgproduct gcat−1·h−1.

  7. Characterization of dynamic loads on the LMFBR rotating shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.

    1979-01-01

    The rotating shields structure is a potential weak point of some current designs of primary containment against postulated whole core explosions. The calculation of the effect of transient loads on this structure, resulting from such an explosion, is therefore important in developing a safety case. The transient loads are usually calculated by computer codes such as ASTARTE, SEURBNUK, REXCO or ICECO and the effect of these loads on the structure by a suitable finite element code. Such procedure can be lengthly and costly. The present paper proposed a procedure which allows the consequences of changes in the transient loads, resulting from design changes for example, to be quickly and simply gauged. The load-impulse method of characterizing dynamic response of a structural system is well established. Provided loads with a similar temporal variation are compared, it can be shown that the dynamic response depends on only two features of the load, an average load and a time intregrated load or impulse. The scope of this approach has been extended by Youngdahl who has shown, for structures which deform in a rigid-plastic manner, that complex laoding histories can be equated to a rectangular form of loading, in a precise manner for simple structures and in an approximate manner for more complicated structures. This paper proposes that the failure characteristics of the rotating shields for which extensive plastic deformation is involved, be calculated for rectangular type loadings. The complex transient loadings calculated for various explosions and various changes in the primary vessel design can then be reduced to an equivalent rectangular form and the consequencial response of the shields structure deduced. (orig.)

  8. Metal-loaded SBA-16-like silica – Correlation between basicity and affinity towards hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouargli-Saker, R.; Bouazizi, N.; Boukoussa, B.; Barrimo, Diana; Paola-Nunes-Beltrao, Ana; Azzouz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal dispersion in longitudinal channels confers adsorption properties to SBA-16. • Both Fe"0-NPs and Cu"0-NPs seem to be responsible of this effect. • Effect of the repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles on CO_2 and water sorption. • Hydrogen storage on the functionalized materials. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of Cu"o (CuNPs) and Fe"o (FeNPs) were dispersed in SBA-16-like silica, resulting metal-loaded materials (Cu-SBA-16 and Fe-SBA-16) with improved affinity towards hydrogen. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that MNP dispersion occurs mainly inside SBA-16 channels. MNP incorporation was found to confer affinity to the silica surface, since higher CO_2 retention capacity (CRC) was registered Cu/SBA-16 and Fe/SBA-16. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of the affinity towards hydrogen, as supported by hydrogen adsorption tests. This was explained in terms of strong hydrogen interaction with MNP and lattice oxygen atoms. The results reported herein open new prospects for SBA-16 as potential adsorbents for hydrogen storage.

  9. Metal-loaded SBA-16-like silica – Correlation between basicity and affinity towards hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouargli-Saker, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, El M’naouer, BP 1505, Oran (Algeria); Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Bouazizi, N. [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Unité de recherche, Electrochimie, Matériaux et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Université de Gabès, Cité Erriadh, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Boukoussa, B. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Science and Technology, El M’naouer, BP 1505, Oran (Algeria); Lqamb, Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental, Faculdade de Química, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Barrimo, Diana [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Paola-Nunes-Beltrao, Ana [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada); Laboratory of Materials Chemistry L.C.M, University of Oran1 Ahmed Ben Bella, BP 1524, El-Mnaouer, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Azzouz, A., E-mail: azzouz.a@uqam.ca [Nanoqam, Department of Chemistry, University of Quebec at Montreal, H3C3P8 (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Metal dispersion in longitudinal channels confers adsorption properties to SBA-16. • Both Fe{sup 0}-NPs and Cu{sup 0}-NPs seem to be responsible of this effect. • Effect of the repetitive adsorption-desorption cycles on CO{sub 2} and water sorption. • Hydrogen storage on the functionalized materials. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of Cu{sup o} (CuNPs) and Fe{sup o} (FeNPs) were dispersed in SBA-16-like silica, resulting metal-loaded materials (Cu-SBA-16 and Fe-SBA-16) with improved affinity towards hydrogen. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that MNP dispersion occurs mainly inside SBA-16 channels. MNP incorporation was found to confer affinity to the silica surface, since higher CO{sub 2} retention capacity (CRC) was registered Cu/SBA-16 and Fe/SBA-16. This was accompanied by a significant improvement of the affinity towards hydrogen, as supported by hydrogen adsorption tests. This was explained in terms of strong hydrogen interaction with MNP and lattice oxygen atoms. The results reported herein open new prospects for SBA-16 as potential adsorbents for hydrogen storage.

  10. Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Some behaviors of hydrogen and impurities studied by film characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, Takeshi; Kubota, Kazuyoshi; Ushita, Katsumi; Hiraki, Akio

    1980-06-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and infrared absorption measurement were applied to determine composition in hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated either by glow discharge in SiH/sub 4/ plus H/sub 2/ or by reactive sputtering in Ar containing H/sub 2/ in a tetrode or diode sputtering apparatus. The atomic density of Si, the content and depth distribution of H, and the amount of impurities such as Ar were studied for the films deposited under several conditions of substrate temperature and gas pressure and constitution. Some difference was clarified between glow-discharge and sputter deposited films.

  11. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  12. Characterization of biological particulate loads in metropolitan air

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Snow; R. D. Schein; W. J. Moroz

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric particulate load includes a wide range of naturally occurring particles of biological origin that serve as a reservoir of allergenic agents in respiratory disease. Improved knowledge of potential aeroallergens is needed by medical clinicians. Aims are to better characterize air spora, qualitatively and quantitatively, and determine daily (by hour)...

  13. A study on hydrogen-storage behaviors of nickel-loaded mesoporous MCM-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seul-Yi

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the possibility of improving the hydrogen-storage capacity of mesoporous MCM-41 containing nickel (Ni) oxides (Ni/MCM-41). The MCM-41 and Ni/MCM-41 were prepared using a hydrothermal process as a function of Ni content (2, 5, and 10 wt.% in the MCM-41). The surface functional groups of the Ni/MCM-41 were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure and morphology of the Ni/MCM-41 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). XRD results showed a well-ordered hexagonal pore structure; FE-TEM also revealed, as a complementary technique, the structure and pore size. The textural properties of the Ni/MCM-41 were analyzed using N(2) adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The hydrogen-storage capacity of the Ni/MCM-41 was evaluated at 298 K/100 bar. It was found that the presence of Ni on mesoporous MCM-41 created hydrogen-favorable sites that enhanced the hydrogen-storage capacity by a spillover effect. Furthermore, it was concluded that the hydrogen-storage capacity was greatly influenced by the amount of nickel oxide, resulting in a chemical reaction between Ni/MCM-41 and hydrogen molecules. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal and dynamic loads on the EPR containment due to hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.; Petzold, K.G.; Kotchourko, A.; Royl, P.; Travis, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    A major aspect of the EPR safety concept is to cope with severe accidents including core melt and to maintain the integrity of the containment even for those hypothetical events. One potential threat for the containment is related to the combustion of hydrogen, which may be produced in a large amount during core degradation. The European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) hydrogen mitigation concept consists of about 44 recombiners, located mainly in the equipment rooms (only 4 recombiners are located in the dome area). This paper is devoted to two important potential threats on the containment related to hydrogen removal: - Thermal loads resulting from recombiner action and/or combustion are of importance also with respect to the integrity of the local composite liner foreseen at some crucial locations of the containment; - Dynamic loads resulting from fast deflagration may impair containment wall or internal walls even if the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) pressure is below the design pressure. Two types of combustion calculations have been performed: a) In cases, where fast deflagration cannot be excluded, combustion has been calculated with COM3D, a special CFD code developed to calculate dynamic pressure loads on walls, and b) 'Standing flame' combustion as well as recombination processes have been calculated with GASFLOW for bounding scenarios in order to evaluate maximum containment wall surface temperatures for cases of long-lasting combustion, mainly with emphasis on the application of a partial liner. Because of the depressurization of the reactor coolant system directly into the containment atmosphere via a relief tank and rupture discs a high concentration of steam is available for nearly all scenarios. For these scenarios no threat to internal walls is expected based on the combustion loads identified by the analyses presented here. In case of fast secondary cool-down a large amount of energy is removed to the secondary side of the SG and

  15. On the Hydrogen Cyanide Removal from Air using Metal loaded Polyacrylonitrile Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozorgmehr Maddah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the potential application of electrospun polyacrylonitrile/metal salts (CrO3, CuCO3 nanofibrous filter media impregnated with TEDA (PAN-M-TEDA as an efficient adsorbent for hydrogen cyanide removal from air. The PAN-M-TEDA nanofiber before and after adsorption of hydrogen cyanide was characterized with Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR. The concentration of hydrogen cyanide passes through the samples was determined by measuring the absorption of hydrogen cyanide in the solution containing indicator via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that introducing metal salts to PAN nanofiber along with their impregnation with TEDA, significantly increases the adsorption capacity of nanofibrous filter media. The adsorption of hydrogen cyanide over PAN-M-TEDA nanofiber was also studied as a function of thickness, PAN concentration and TEDA concentration by response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design. It is found that the highest adsorption capacity can be achieved at thickness 28.42 mm, PAN concentration 16.19 w/v % and TEDA concentration 14.80 w/v %.

  16. FIBER OPTICS: Role of point defects in the photosensitivity of hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Yu V.

    2010-08-01

    It is shown that point defect modifications in hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate glass (PSG) do not play a central role in determining its photosensitivity. Photochemical reactions that involve a two-step point defect modification and pre-exposure effect are incapable of accounting for photoinduced refractive index changes. It seems likely that a key role in UV-induced refractive index modifications is played by structural changes in the PSG network. Experimental data are presented that demonstrate intricate network rearrangement dynamics during UV exposure of PSG.

  17. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  18. Influence of ni addition to a low-loaded palladium catalyst on the selective hydrogenation of 1-heptyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia R. Lederhos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-hydrogenation of alkynes has industrial and academic relevance on a large scale. To increase the activity, selectivity and lifetime of monometallic catalysts, the development of bimetallic catalysts has been investigated. 1-Heptyne hydrogenation over low-loaded Pd and Ni monometallic and PdNi bimetallic catalysts was studied in liquid phase at mild conditions. XPS results suggest that nickel addition to Pd modifies the electronic state of palladium as nickel loading is increased. Low-loaded Pd catalysts showed the highest selectivities (> 95%. The most active prepared catalyst, PdNi(1%, was more selective than the Lindlar catalyst.

  19. Stress development in thin yttrium films on hard substrates during hydrogen loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornheim, M.; Pundt, A.; Kirchheim, R.; Molen, S. J. v. d.; Kooij, E. S.; Kerssemakers, J.; Griessen, R.; Harms, H.; Geyer, U.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline (0002)-textured yttrium (Y) films of 50-500 nm thickness on sapphire substrates were loaded electrolytically with hydrogen (H). The stresses which build up in these films were measured in situ using curvature measurements. The results are compared to the behavior of bulk Y-H. A linear elastic model is used to predict the behavior of clamped thin films. Basic properties of the bulk Y-H phase diagram and elastic constants resemble the measured values of the thin films. Compressive stress builds up during H-loading in the α-Y phase and in the (α-Y+β-YH 2 ) two-phase field, showing an initial stress increase of -1.3 GPa per hydrogen concentration X H (compressive stress). While bulk Y-H samples are known to show a contraction in the β-YH 2 phase during H loading, thin films show no evidence for such a contraction during the first loading cycle of the film. The stress remains constant in the bulk β-phase concentration range (ΔX H =0.1 H/Y). This is attributed to the narrow β-phase field (ΔX H =0.02 H/Y) of the thin film during the first loading. Only samples which have been kept at a hydrogen concentration of about 1.5 H/Y for weeks show tensile stress in the concentration range of the bulk β phase. Amazingly a stress increase of about +0.5 GPa/X H (tensile stress) is measured in the β+γ two-phase field. This is attributed to the smaller in-plane nearest-neighbor distance in the γ phase compared to the β phase. In the γ-phase field compressive stress is built up again, compensating the tensile stress. It increases by -1.3 GPa/X H . In total, the net stress in Y-H films remains comparably small. This could be a reason for the good mechanical stability of such Y-H switchable mirrors during H cycling

  20. Breaking through the hydrogen cost barrier by using electrolysis loads to access ancillary services and demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; McGillivray, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation described the use of hydrogen electrolysis as a load resource for handling grid instability resulting from the increased penetration of intermittent renewable power. In particular, it focused on Hydrogenics, the leading global supplier of industrial scale electrolysis equipment and fuel cells. The presentation included an overview of the current incentive and market value of ancillary services provided by the company and demand responses in a number of grids around the world. There is a link between the amount of ancillary services required by the grid and the penetration level of renewable energy power such as wind and solar. The ability of hydrogen generation from electrolysis to satisfy all the requirements of ancillary services markets was also demonstrated. The economic analysis of hydrogen generation was discussed with particular reference to the cost of hydrogen fully loading all capital, energy and operating costs. The resulting reduction in the cost of hydrogen was compared to the existing markets for hydrogen, including use of hydrogen as a fuel for municipal bus fleets relative to the existing cost of fossil fuel fleets. Current industrial hydrogen merchant and bulk market prices were also compared

  1. The effect of organic loading rate and retention time on hydrogen production from a methanogenic CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, O; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of shifting a methanogenic process for hydrogen production by changing the process parameters viz., organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated. At first, two parallel semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated as methanogenic reactors (M1 and M2) for 78 days. Results showed that a methane yield of 198-218 L/kg volatile solids fed (VS(fed)) was obtained when fed with grass silage at an OLR of 2 kgVS/m³/d and HRT of 30 days. After 78 days of operation, hydrogen production was induced in M2 by increasing the OLR from 2 to 10 kgVS/m³/d and shortening the HRT from 30 to 6 days. The highest H₂ yield of 42 L/kgVS(fed) was obtained with a maximum H₂ content of 24%. The present results thus demonstrate that methanogenic process can be shifted towards hydrogen production by increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2018-06-15

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Chen, Zhuo; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Ultracompact directional couplers (DCs) based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are analyzed using the effective index method (EIM), with the coupling, both in the parallel interaction region and in- and out-coupling regions, being taken into account. Near-field...... characterization of fabricated DCs performed with a scanning near-field optical microscope verifies the applicability of the EIM in the analysis and design of DLSPPW-based wavelength-selective DCs. The design approach applicable to a large variety of integrated optical waveguides is developed, enabling...

  4. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  5. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  6. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  7. Dome load control and crane land path evaluation for Tank 241-SY-101 during hydrogen mitigation pump removal and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, M.P.; Lawler, D.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report revisits and consolidates two analyses previously performed for the installation of the Hydrogen Mitigation Pump (HMT) pump. The first report determines, as a function of the crane-imposed dome load, the point to which the crane can encroach into the exclusion zone without exceeding the 50-ton limit. The second performs a load evaluation for the crane and the components in the load path (crane lift accessories and pump). In doing so, it determines the weakest component in the load path and the effect of this component on the allowable encroachment distance. Furthermore, the second report sets operational limits on the allowable load decrease (unload) during installation in the event the pump sticks in the riser. The analysis presented here expands on the latter subject by setting an operational limit on the amount of allowable load increase (overload) during pump removal in the event the pump sticks in the riser.

  8. Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

    2005-11-01

    Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.

  9. Development and characterization of a solar-hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, P.J.; Vejar, S.; Gonzalez, E.; Perez, M.; Gamboa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': The details of the development of a PV-hydrogen hybrid energy system are presented. An arrangement of photovoltaic modules (125 W/module) was established to provide 9 kW installed power in a three-phase configuration at 127 Vrms/phase. A 5 kW fuel cell system (hydrogen/oxygen) operates as a dynamic backup of the photovoltaic system. The autonomous operation of the hybrid power system implies the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen is produced by water electrolysis using an electrolyzer of 1 kW of power. The electrical energy used to produce hydrogen is supplied from solar panels by using 1 kW of photovoltaic modules. The photovoltaic modules are installed in a sun-tracker arrangement for increasing the energy conversion efficiency. The hydrogen is stored in solar to electric commercial metal hydride based containers and supplied to the fuel cell. The hybrid system is monitored by internet, and some dynamic characteristics such as demanding power, energy and power factor could be analyzed independently from the system. Some energy saving recommendations have been implemented as a pilot program at CIE-UNAM to improve the efficient use of clean energy in normal operating conditions in offices and laboratories. (author)

  10. Characterization of hydrogenated fats for margarine manufacturing purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight samples of hydrogenated vegetable fats were characterized by their fatty acid composition, trans isomers content and thermal behaviour, using gas chromatography (GC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (pNMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques, respectively. Fatty acid composition showed some variations In relation to the unsaturated fatty acids. Trans isomer content, values varied from 22.8% to 35.6%. Solid fat content values were measured using AOCS and lUPAC methods, which differ In the tempering procedures. Values obtained by IUPAC method were higher than the AOCS ones, only at lower temperatures (10 and 21,1°C. Samples were divided Into three groups according to their solids profile: superior (C/E/G/H intermediate (F and Inferior (A/B/D. Melting and crystallization curves were obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Melting enthalpies ranged from 51.3 to 76.5 J.g-1 and crystallization enthalpies varied from -34.2 to -18.9 J.g-1 Characteristic temperatures showed little differences between the samples and each of them showed a characteristic DSC curve. All samples showed a great melting range as expected for hydrogenated fats used for margarines manufacture.

    Ocho muestras de aceites vegetales hidrogenados fueron caracterizados por su composición en ácidos grasos, contenido de isómeros trans y comportamiento térmico, usando las técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa (CG, espectroscopía Infrarrojo (IR, Resonancia Magnética Nuclear Pulsante (pRMN, Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos mostró algunas variaciones respecto a los ácidos grasos insaturados. El contenido en isómeros trans varió de valores de 22,8 a 35,6%. El valor del contenido en grasa sólido fue medido usando los métodos de la AOCS y lUPAC, que difieren en los procedimientos de atemperado. Los valores obtenidos por el método l

  11. Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over MoS2 nanosheets loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Xu, Mengqiu; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Zhandong

    2018-02-01

    The MoS2/CdS composites with layered MoS2 loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres were synthesized by a two-step process combination hydrothermal and solvothermal treatments, and then applied in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and photoelectrochemical tests. The effects of loading contents of MoS2 in the composites on the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity were comparatively investigated with 0.45 mol L-1 Na2S and 0.55 mol L-1 Na2SO3 as sacrificial agents. The results showed that the 5 wt% MoS2/CdS composite could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 372 μmol h-1 and apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) about 7.31% under 420 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of MoS2/CdS composite could be attributed to the effective transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and MoS2 being as a cocatalyst to facilitating photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. A tentative mechanism of MoS2/CdS composites as photocatalysts for H2 evolution was proposed.

  12. Characterization of Hydrogen Complex Formation in III-V Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Michael D

    2006-09-28

    Atomic hydrogen has been found to react with some impurity species in semiconductors. Hydrogenation is a methodology for the introduction of atomic hydrogen into the semiconductor for the express purpose of forming complexes within the material. Efforts to develop hydrogenation as an isolation technique for AlGaAs and Si based devices failed to demonstrate its commercial viability. This was due in large measure to the low activation energies of the formed complexes. Recent studies of dopant passivation in long wavelength (0.98 - 1.55m) materials suggested that for the appropriate choice of dopants much higher activation energies can be obtained. This effort studied the formation of these complexes in InP, This material is extensively used in optoelectronics, i.e., lasers, modulators and detectors. The experimental techniques were general to the extent that the results can be applied to other areas such as sensor technology, photovoltaics and to other material systems. The activation energies for the complexes have been determined and are reported in the scientific literature. The hydrogenation process has been shown by us to have a profound effect on the electronic structure of the materials and was thoroughly investigated. The information obtained will be useful in assessing the long term reliability of device structures fabricated using this phenomenon and in determining new device functionalities.

  13. Preparation and characterization of clove essential oil-loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Jraij, Alia; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    In this study, suitable formulations of natural soybean phospholipid vesicles were developed to improve the stability of clove essential oil and its main component, eugenol. Using an ethanol injection method, saturated (Phospholipon 80H, Phospholipon 90H) and unsaturated soybean (Lipoid S100) phospholipids, in combination with cholesterol, were used to prepare liposomes at various eugenol and clove essential oil concentrations. Liposomal batches were characterized and compared for their size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, loading rate, encapsulation efficiency and morphology. The liposomes were tested for their stability after storing them for 2 months at 4°C by monitoring changes in their mean size, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values. It was found that liposomes exhibited nanometric oligolamellar and spherical shaped vesicles and protected eugenol from degradation induced by UV exposure; they also maintained the DPPH-scavenging activity of free eugenol. Liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of volatile unstable essential oil constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tritium release from advanced beryllium materials after loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.chakin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, Rolf; Moeslang, Anton; Kurinskiy, Petr; Vladimirov, Pavel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dorn, Christopher [Materion Beryllium & Composites, 6070 Parkland Boulevard, Mayfield Heights, OH 44124-4191 (United States); Kupriyanov, Igor [Bochvar Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova str., 5, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A major tritium release peak for beryllium samples occurs at temperatures higher than 1250 K. • A beryllium grade with comparatively smaller grain size has a comparatively higher tritium release compared to the grade with larger grain size. • The pebbles of irregular shape with the grain size of 10–30 μm produced by the crushing method demonstrate the highest tritium release rate. - Abstract: Comparison of different beryllium samples on tritium release and retention properties after high-temperature loading by tritium/hydrogen gas mixture and following temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) tests has been performed. The I-220-H grade produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) having the smallest grain size, the pebbles of irregular shape with the smallest grain size (10–30 μm) produced by the crushing method (CM), and the pebbles with 1 mm diameter produced by the fluoride reduction method (FRM) having a highly developed inherent porosity show the highest release rate. Grain size and porosity are considered as key structural parameters for comparison and ranking of different beryllium materials on tritium release and retention properties.

  15. Surface morphology changes of tungsten exposed to high heat loading with mixed hydrogen/helium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Maier, H.; Balden, M.; Böswirth, B.; Elgeti, S.; Schmid, K.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the surface morphology modification of W samples observed after simultaneous heat and particle loading using a mixed H/He particle beam with a He concentration of 1 at.%. The applied heat flux of 10 MW/m 2 is representative for the normal operation of the divertor of DEMO or a power plant. The long pulse high heat flux experiments on actively water-cooled W samples were performed in the GLADIS facility at surface temperatures between 600 °C and 2000 °C. This allows together with the applied total fluences between 1 × 10 24 m −2 and 1 × 10 26 m −2 the temperature- and fluence dependent study of the growing nano-structures. We analyse in detail the surface modifications up to a depth of several μm by scanning electron microscopy combined with focussed ion beam preparation. The hydrogen and helium release of the samples is analysed by long term thermal desorption spectroscopy and compared with the prediction of a diffusion trapping model

  16. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation with Ag-loaded LiNbO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    rhodamine B decomposition under solar illumination was also reported (Stock ... photocatalytic hydrogen production. ... lytic hydrogen production from a methanol aqueous solu- .... estimated bandgap energy of Nb2O5 and LiNbO3 samples.

  17. Oxide characterization and hydrogen behaviors of Zr-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Kwon, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Oh, S. J.; Yim, B. J.; Son, S. B.; Yun, S. P.

    2006-03-01

    The work scope and contents of the research are as follows : basic properties of zirconium alloys, hydrogen pick-up mechanism of zirconium alloy, effects of hydride on the corrosion behaviors of zirconium alloys, estimation on stress of oxide layer in the zirconium alloy, microstructure and characteristic of oxide in pre-hydrided zirconium alloys

  18. Characterization of micron-size hydrogen clusters using Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, S; Tanaka, H; Matsui, R; Kanasaki, M; Sakaki, H; Kando, M; Kondo, K; Sugiyama, A; Uesaka, M; Kishimoto, Y; Fukuda, Y

    2017-08-07

    Hydrogen clusters with diameters of a few micrometer range, composed of 10 8-10 hydrogen molecules, have been produced for the first time in an expansion of supercooled, high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum through a conical nozzle connected to a cryogenic pulsed solenoid valve. The size distribution of the clusters has been evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method including the instrumental functions, the validity of which was assessed by performing a calibration study using a reference target consisting of standard micro-particles with two different sizes. The size distribution of the clusters was found discrete peaked at 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.65 ± 0.05, 0.81 ± 0.06, 1.40 ± 0.06 and 2.00 ± 0.13 µm in diameter. The highly reproducible and impurity-free nature of the micron-size hydrogen clusters can be a promising target for laser-driven multi-MeV proton sources with the currently available high power lasers.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of DNA-loaded zein nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regier Mary C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulates incorporating DNA are promising vehicles for gene delivery, with the ability to protect DNA and provide for controlled, localized, and sustained release and transfection. Zein, a hydrophobic protein from corn, is biocompatible and has properties that make it a promising candidate material for particulate delivery, including its ability to form nanospheres through coacervation and its insolubility under physiological conditions, making it capable of sustained release of encapsulated compounds. Due to the promise of this natural biomaterial for drug delivery, the objective of this study was to formulate zein nanospheres encapsulating DNA as the therapeutic compound, and to characterize size, charge, sustained release, cell cytotoxicity and cellular internalization of these particles. Results Zein nanospheres encapsulating DNA were fabricated using a coacervation technique, without the use of harsh solvents or temperatures, resulting in the preservation of DNA integrity and particles with diameters that ranged from 157.8 ± 3.9 nm to 396.8 ± 16.1 nm, depending on zein to DNA ratio. DNA encapsulation efficiencies were maximized to 65.3 ± 1.9% with a maximum loading of 6.1 ± 0.2 mg DNA/g zein. The spheres protected encapsulated DNA from DNase I degradation and exhibited sustained plasmid release for at least 7 days, with minimal burst during the initial phase of release. Zein/DNA nanospheres demonstrated robust biocompatibility, cellular association, and internalization. Conclusions This study represents the first report on the formation of zein particles encapsulating plasmid DNA, using simple fabrication techniques resulting in preservation of plasmid integrity and tunable sizes. DNA encapsulation efficiencies were maximized to acceptable levels at higher zein to DNA ratios, while loading was comparable to that of other hydrophilic compounds encapsulated in zein and that of DNA incorporated

  20. Fabrication and characterization of DNA-loaded zein nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Mary C; Taylor, Jessica D; Borcyk, Tyler; Yang, Yiqi; Pannier, Angela K

    2012-12-02

    Particulates incorporating DNA are promising vehicles for gene delivery, with the ability to protect DNA and provide for controlled, localized, and sustained release and transfection. Zein, a hydrophobic protein from corn, is biocompatible and has properties that make it a promising candidate material for particulate delivery, including its ability to form nanospheres through coacervation and its insolubility under physiological conditions, making it capable of sustained release of encapsulated compounds. Due to the promise of this natural biomaterial for drug delivery, the objective of this study was to formulate zein nanospheres encapsulating DNA as the therapeutic compound, and to characterize size, charge, sustained release, cell cytotoxicity and cellular internalization of these particles. Zein nanospheres encapsulating DNA were fabricated using a coacervation technique, without the use of harsh solvents or temperatures, resulting in the preservation of DNA integrity and particles with diameters that ranged from 157.8 ± 3.9 nm to 396.8 ± 16.1 nm, depending on zein to DNA ratio. DNA encapsulation efficiencies were maximized to 65.3 ± 1.9% with a maximum loading of 6.1 ± 0.2 mg DNA/g zein. The spheres protected encapsulated DNA from DNase I degradation and exhibited sustained plasmid release for at least 7 days, with minimal burst during the initial phase of release. Zein/DNA nanospheres demonstrated robust biocompatibility, cellular association, and internalization. This study represents the first report on the formation of zein particles encapsulating plasmid DNA, using simple fabrication techniques resulting in preservation of plasmid integrity and tunable sizes. DNA encapsulation efficiencies were maximized to acceptable levels at higher zein to DNA ratios, while loading was comparable to that of other hydrophilic compounds encapsulated in zein and that of DNA incorporated into PLGA nano- and microspheres. The hydrophobic nature of zein resulted in

  1. Demonstration of a chamber for strain mapping of steel specimens under mechanical load in a hydrogen environment by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Matthew; Park, Jun-Sang; Bradley, Peter; Lauria, Damian; Slifka, Andrew; Drexler, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate a hydrogen gas chamber suitable for lattice strain measurements and capturing radiographs of a steel specimen under a mechanical load using high energy synchrotron x-rays. The chamber is suitable for static and cyclic mechanical loading. Experiments were conducted at the 1-ID-E end station of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Diffraction patterns show a high signal-to-noise ratio suitable for lattice strain measurements for the specimen and with minimal scattering and overlap from the gas chamber manufactured from aluminum. In situ radiographs of a specimen in the hydrogen chamber show the ability to track a growing crack and to map the lattice strain around the crack with high spatial and strain resolution.

  2. Influence of sample geometry and microstructure on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics under uniaxial load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureys, A., E-mail: aurelie.laureys@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Depover, T., E-mail: tom.depover@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Petrov, R., E-mail: roumen.petrov@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Verbeken, K., E-mail: kim.verbeken@ugent.be [Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Tech Lane Ghent Science Park - Campus A, Technologie park 903, B-9052 Gent (Belgium)

    2017-04-06

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking in a TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) assisted steel and pure iron. The goal of this work is to understand the effect of the macroscopic stress distribution in the material on the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon. Additionally, the effect of a complex multiphase microstructure on the characteristics of hydrogen induced cracking was investigated by comparing results for TRIP-assisted steel and pure iron as reference material. Tensile tests on notched and unnotched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. Tests were performed until the tensile strength was reached and until fracture. The resulting hydrogen induced cracks were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogen induced cracks showed a typical S-shape and crack propagation was mainly transgranular, independently of the presence of a notch or the material's microstructure. This was also the case for the V-shaped secondary crack network and resulting stepped crack morphology characteristic for hydrogen induced damage. These observations indicate that the stress state surrounding the crack tip has a very large impact on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics. The use of a notch or the presence of a different microstructure did not influence the overall hydrogen induced cracking features, but did change the kinetics of the hydrogen induced cracking process.

  3. Influence of sample geometry and microstructure on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics under uniaxial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureys, A.; Depover, T.; Petrov, R.; Verbeken, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking in a TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) assisted steel and pure iron. The goal of this work is to understand the effect of the macroscopic stress distribution in the material on the hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon. Additionally, the effect of a complex multiphase microstructure on the characteristics of hydrogen induced cracking was investigated by comparing results for TRIP-assisted steel and pure iron as reference material. Tensile tests on notched and unnotched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. Tests were performed until the tensile strength was reached and until fracture. The resulting hydrogen induced cracks were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogen induced cracks showed a typical S-shape and crack propagation was mainly transgranular, independently of the presence of a notch or the material's microstructure. This was also the case for the V-shaped secondary crack network and resulting stepped crack morphology characteristic for hydrogen induced damage. These observations indicate that the stress state surrounding the crack tip has a very large impact on the hydrogen induced cracking characteristics. The use of a notch or the presence of a different microstructure did not influence the overall hydrogen induced cracking features, but did change the kinetics of the hydrogen induced cracking process.

  4. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-10-28

    To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) +/- 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm +/- 40.01 SD; P lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  6. Chemometric characterization of the hydrogen bonding complexes of secondary amides and aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Jović, Branislav; Nikolić, Aleksandar; Petrović, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the study of hydrogen bonding complexes between secondary amides and various aromatic hydrocarbons. The possibility of using chemometric methods was investigated in order to characterize N-H•••π hydrogen bonded complexes. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on infrared spectroscopic and Taft parameters of 43 N-substituted amide complexes with different aromatic hydrocarbons. Results obtained in this report are...

  7. Microstructure Related Characterization of a-Si:H Thin Films PECVD Deposited under Varied Hydrogen Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vavrunkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the structure and optical properties of hydrogenated silicon thin films deposited by plasma - enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD from silane diluted with hydrogen in a wide dilution range. The samples deposited with dilutions below 30 were detected as amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H with crystalline grains of several nanometers in size which represent the medium-range order of a-Si:H. The optical characterization confirmed increasing ordering with the increasing dilution. The optical band gap was observed to be increasing function of the dilution.

  8. Comparative Study on The Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Methanol over Cu-, Pd-, Co- and Au-Loaded TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani P.P.C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a methanol-water solution was investigated in a semi-continuous reactor over different metal-loaded TiO2 catalysts under UltraViolet (UV light irradiation. The catalysts were mainly prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method by varying the metal weight ratio in the range of 1-10 wt%. The effects of metal loading and H2 pre-treatment on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. In addition, the activity of the catalysts was also compared with a reference Au-TiO2 catalyst from the World Gold Council (WGC. The photocatalysts were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and N2 physisorption before and after the activity measurements. The photocatalytic activity decreased in the order of Pd > Au > Cu > Co in the comparative study of Cu-TiO2, Co-TiO2, Au-TiO2 and Pd-TiO2. Optimum hydrogen evolution was achieved with 5 wt% Pd-TiO2 and 5 wt% Cu-TiO2.

  9. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Elvitegravir-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the drug as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using solvent injection method. Methods: EVG-loaded ... preparation SLN'S which include high pressure homogenization, high .... particles and high PDI value is due to increased viscosity of organic.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Pan, Yong; Cao, Shuya; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-05-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol phenyl group functionalized materials have great potential in the application of gas-sensitive materials for nerve agent detection, due to the formation of strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the group and the analytes. In this paper, take full advantage of ultra-large specific surface area and plenty of carbon-carbon double bonds and hexafluoroisopropanol phenyl functionalized graphene was synthesized through in situ diazonium reaction between -C=C- and p-hexafluoroisopropanol aniline. The identity of the as-synthesis material was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The synthesis method is simply which retained the excellent physical properties of original graphene. In addition, the novel material can be assigned as an potential candidate for gas sensitive materials towards organophosphorus nerve agent detection.

  11. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit

  12. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and its characterization by transient photoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a semiconductor material that has generated recent widespread interest because of its low manufacturing and processing costs compared with other semiconducting materials. The performance of devices incorporating a-Si:H depends to a large extent on the photoresponse of the a-Si:H. The work in this thesis involves the construction of an a-Si:H plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, characterization of the quality of the a-Si:H produced by this system, and measurement of the transient photoconductivity n response to pulses of laser illumination with different durations. The relationship of the design of the PECVD system to the quality of the a-Si:H is treated, emphasizing the features included in the system to reduce the incorporation of defects in the a-Si:H layers. These features include an ultra-high-vacuum deposition chamber, a load-lock chamber enabling samples to be loaded under vacuum, and an electrode assembly designed to produce a uniform electric field for decomposing the reactant gases. The quality of the A-Si:H films is examined. The dark conductivity activation energy, optical absorption, and photoconductivity are measured to characterize intrinsic, p-doped, and n-doped a-Si:H layers. The current vs. voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions, and the quantum efficiency are measured on a-Si:H p-i-n diodes made in our system, and the results show that these diodes compare favorably to similar high-quality p-i-n diodes produced at other laboratories. An investigation into the effect of the light-induced degradation associated with a-Si:H on the performance of OASLMs is also presented. Finally, the transient photoresponse to laser pulses ranging in duration from 1 μs to 1 s over a range of temperatures from 100 to 300 K is investigated. We have discovered that the response time of the initial photoconductivity decay increases as the excitation-pulse duration increases

  13. Direct 13C-detected NMR experiments for mapping and characterization of hydrogen bonds in RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fürtig, Boris; Schnieders, Robbin; Richter, Christian; Zetzsche, Heidi; Keyhani, Sara; Helmling, Christina; Kovacs, Helena; Schwalbe, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In RNA secondary structure determination, it is essential to determine whether a nucleotide is base-paired and not. Base-pairing of nucleotides is mediated by hydrogen bonds. The NMR characterization of hydrogen bonds relies on experiments correlating the NMR resonances of exchangeable protons and can be best performed for structured parts of the RNA, where labile hydrogen atoms are protected from solvent exchange. Functionally important regions in RNA, however, frequently reveal increased dynamic disorder which often leads to NMR signals of exchangeable protons that are broadened beyond 1 H detection. Here, we develop 13 C direct detected experiments to observe all nucleotides in RNA irrespective of whether they are involved in hydrogen bonds or not. Exploiting the self-decoupling of scalar couplings due to the exchange process, the hydrogen bonding behavior of the hydrogen bond donor of each individual nucleotide can be determined. Furthermore, the adaption of HNN-COSY experiments for 13 C direct detection allows correlations of donor–acceptor pairs and the localization of hydrogen-bond acceptor nucleotides. The proposed 13 C direct detected experiments therefore provide information about molecular sites not amenable by conventional proton-detected methods. Such information makes the RNA secondary structure determination by NMR more accurate and helps to validate secondary structure predictions based on bioinformatics.

  14. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  15. Effect of organic loading rate on fermentative hydrogen production from continuous stirred tank and membrane bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lihong [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bagley, David M. [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Dept. 3295, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Liss, Steven N. [Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of organic loading rates (OLRs) on the performance of fermentative hydrogen-producing bioreactors operating in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) modes was examined. Five OLRs were examined, ranging from 4.0 to 30 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, with influent glucose concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 g COD L{sup -1}. At OLRs up to 13 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, all influent glucose was utilized and the H{sub 2} yield was not significantly influenced by OLR, although the yield in the CSTR mode was significantly higher than that in the MBR mode, 1.25 versus 0.97 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1}, respectively. At an OLR of 30 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, both reactor modes were overloaded with respect to glucose utilization and also had significantly higher H{sub 2} yields of 1.77 and 1.49 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1} for the CSTR and MBR modes, respectively, versus the underloaded operation. At the intermediate OLR of 22 g COD L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, the H{sub 2} yield was maximized at 1.78 mol H{sub 2} (mol Gluc. Conv.){sup -1} for both the CSTR and MBR operation. Overall H{sub 2} production was 50% higher in the MBR mode, 0.78 versus 0.51 moles d{sup -1}, because the CSTR mode was overloaded with respect to glucose utilization at this OLR. These results suggest that an optimum OLR that maximizes H{sub 2} yield and H{sub 2} production may be near the OLR that causes overload with respect to substrate utilization. Additionally, while the CSTR mode is easier to operate and provides higher H{sub 2} yields at underloaded and overloaded OLRs, the MBR mode may be preferable when operating near the optimum OLR. (author)

  16. A combinatorial characterization scheme for high-throughput investigations of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R; Chiu, Chun; Bendersky, Leonid A; Tan Zhuopeng; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Heilweil, Edwin J; Maslar, James E

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase measurement throughput, a characterization scheme has been developed that accurately measures the hydrogen storage properties of materials in quantities ranging from 10 ng to 1 g. Initial identification of promising materials is realized by rapidly screening thin-film composition spread and thickness wedge samples using normalized IR emissivity imaging. The hydrogen storage properties of promising samples are confirmed through measurements on single-composition films with high-sensitivity (resolution <0.3 μg) Sievert's-type apparatus. For selected samples, larger quantities of up to ∼100 mg may be prepared and their (de)hydrogenation and micro-structural properties probed via parallel in situ Raman spectroscopy. Final confirmation of the hydrogen storage properties is obtained on ∼1 g powder samples using a combined Raman spectroscopy/Sievert's apparatus.

  17. Characterization of Celecoxib-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system with several advantages, including enhanced physical stability, dual loading ability for lipophilic and .... where kp is the release rate constant at the elapsed time t, n is a constant, where the value of n ≤ 0.45 indicates .... CXB and the hydrocarbon chain of the esterified fatty acids in the lipids. Upon emulsification CXB.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Nitrendipine-loaded Eudragit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of FTIR spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffractometry indicated the stable character of nitrendipne in drug-loaded microspheres and also revealed absence of drug-polymer interaction. The drug release profiles of the microspheres at pH 1.2 showed poor drug release characteristics while ...

  19. Load Characterization for small domestic appliances and electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sluis, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the energy consumption of small domestic loads has been analysed. To make the around 100 types of appliances considereda bit manageable, the appliances were categorized into several groups. The possibilities for time-shifting of the energy use of these small appliances was

  20. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  1. Literature research on the production, loading, flow, and heat transfer of slush hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Moo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Wonchon-dong san 5, Paldal-Gu, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study summarizes the available information on slush hydrogen and answer pending engineering questions that arise in the design of slush hydrogen propellant systems. The four methods for the production of slush are discussed. For storage, slush hydrogen must be pressurized, free from impurities, and continuously upgraded. Slush flowing at low flow rates has a higher viscosity than the liquid, however at higher velocities it approaches the viscosity of neat liquid. For the entire range of natural convection and nucleate boiling, the heat transfer at the triple-point temperature and pressure is nearly the same for the liquid and slush. The natural convection from smooth surfaces for slush can be predicted using available correlations. However, for engineering analysis and design of a system involving a slush cryogenic propellant, reliable information is required on production, flow, heat transfer, and instrumentation of these fluids. Some relevant and important aspects of slush hydrogen which have not yet been fully answered are presented. (author)

  2. Development and characterization of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dheeraj; Singh, Manpreet; Kumar, Punnet; Vikram, Vir; Mishra, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize intranasal delivery of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's diseases. After intranasal delivery, brain and blood drug concentrations were found to be higher for optimized morin hydrate loaded microemulsion as compared to plain morin hydrate. Significant (P microemulsion as compared to sham control group. Daily chronic treatment with morin loaded microemulsion till the 21st day significantly increased the memory in wistar rats with STZ-induced dementia.

  3. Physical and combustion characterization of pyrolytic oils derived from biomass material upgraded by catalytic hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitolo, S.; Ghetti, P. (Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica)

    1994-11-01

    Physical and combustion properties of a pyrolytic bio-oil are determined both as-obtained and after catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The tests demonstrate that the hydrogenation treatment improves the oil as regards combustibility, viscosity and acidity. Combustion properties of the oil have been characterized by evaporation and temperature programmed combustion profiles. Short communication. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Nobiletin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Luque-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavonoid with a remarkable antiproliferative effect. In order to overcome its low aqueous solubility and chemical instability, the use of nanoparticles as carriers has been proposed. This study explores the possibility of binding nobiletin to chitosan nanoparticles, as well as to evaluate their antiproliferative activity. The association and loading efficiencies are 69.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The formation of an imine bond between chitosan amine groups and the carbonyl group of nobiletin, via Schiff-base, is proposed. Nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibit considerable inhibition (IC50=8 μg/mL of cancerous cells, revealing their great potential for applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Preparation and characterization of Tribulus terrestris-loaded nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khanavi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Tribulus terrestris is a flowering herb (Zygophyllaceae with several properties in folk medicine such as diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, and stomachic-lithotripter activities. Although, some extracts and phytochemicals represent excellent bio-activity in vitro, less or no in vivo activity is observed due to their improper molecular size. The intend of this research was investigation of the feasibility of encapsulating T. terrestris into [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid] PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with aqueous ethanol 85% by percolation apparatus. The nanoparticles of T. terrestris-loaded were prepared using a modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. Elucidations were made on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The content of nanoparticles was analyzed by HPLC with indirect method. Results: The results stated that increasing the portion of plant extract could cause bigger size with no considerable increase in polydispersity index (PDI. The encapsulation efficiency of T. terrestris-loaded nanoparticles was 40.3 to 78.5 and the drug loadings were 0.806 to 6.104, with different ratios of extract. The overall pattern of the release in SDS 1% in dialysis bag in all formulations showed similar and biphasic release kinetic, an initial burst release in the first day followed by constant release over 10 days. Conclusion: An effective approach for the preparation of T. terrestris-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was performed. The controlled release profile showed that these biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles had great potential and should be given particular consideration in further biological researches.

  6. Characterization of ceramic materials for electrochemical hydrogen sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serret, P.; Colominas, S. [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Reyes, G. [Industrial Engineering Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Universitat Ramon Llull, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Accurate and reliable tritium management is of basic importance for the correct operation conditions of the blanket tritium cycle. The Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) is working in the design and development of tritium sensors, based on proton solid state electrolytes to be used in molten lithium-lead eutectic. Different solid electrolyte proton conductors have been synthesized (Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55}, SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}}, Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}}) in order to be evaluated in a testing apparatus for hydrogen gas. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements have been performed. In all experiments the working temperature was 500 {sup o}C. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor element Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0.9}Ta{sub 1.1}O{sub 8.55} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation. When the proton conductor elements SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{alpha}} and Ba{sub 3}(Ca{sub 1.18}Nb{sub 1.82})O{sub 9-{alpha}} were used a deviation higher than 100 mV between theoretical and experimental data was obtained.

  7. Synthesis of the Mg Al alloy, their characterization and use for storing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampayo P, A.; Iturbe G, J. L.; Lopez M, B. E.; Sandoval J, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the MgAI intermetallic in two Mg25AI and Mg50AI stoichiometric relationships and its possible use for storing hydrogen. The intermetallic was prepared by thermal induction and argon atmosphere. The slug obtained was subjected to heat treatment for homogenization at 300 C during 72 hours. It decreased the particle size with a Spex mill high-energy type built at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, the milling time was 30 to 60 minutes. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X- ray diffraction tests were carried out hydrogenation in a micro-reactor by varying pressure, temperature and reaction time. The material was analyzed by thermal gravimetric system before and after the hydrogenation process. The results indicate that the intermetallic phase gamma through the milling process does not change with the times used for this purpose were obtained particle sizes smaller than a micron, as demonstrated by the analysis of scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction it was found that there is no phase change in the structure of intermetallic with times of up to one hour of milling. Regarding the amount of hydrogen absorbed in this material with the experimental conditions made especially pressure and temperature, the first results reported 3% hydrogen around, these results were obtained by thermal gravimetric system. (Author)

  8. Fabrication of Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Thin Layer Film and ItsCharacterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Santoso; Lely-Susita RM; Tjipto-Sujitno

    2000-01-01

    Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous Germanium thin film by vacuumevaporation method and then deposition with hydrogen atom by glow dischargeplasma radio frequency has been done. This germanium amorphous (a-Ge) thinfilm involves a lot of dangling bonds in the network due to the irregularityof the atomic structures and it will decrease is conductivity. To improve theband properties of (a-Ge) thin film layer a hydrogenated plasma isintroduced. Process of introducing of the hydrogen into the a-Ge film is meanto reduce the dangling bonds so that the best electric conductivity of a Ge:Hthin film will obtained. To identify the hydrogen atom in the sample acharacterization using infrared spectrometer has been done, as well as themeasurement of conductivity of the samples. From the characterization usinginfrared spectroscopy the existence of hydrogen atom was found at absorptionpeak with wave number 1637.5 cm -1 , while the optimum conductivity of thesample 1634.86 Ω -1 cm -1 was achieved at 343 o K. (author)

  9. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  10. Analyses of containment loading by hydrogen burning during hypothetical core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.; Tiltmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of occurance of violent hydrogen burning during a LWR meltdown accident and its consequences to containment atmosphere conditions are discussed. Two accident sequences with low and high system pressure during the in-vessel-melt phase of a meltdown accident are considered. In both sequences only deflagration, but no detonation may become possible, presuming homogeneity of the containment atmospheres. In a low pressure szenario the pressure increase due to deflagration will not reach the failure pressure of the containment, if combustion takes place when the flammability limit is reached. For the special situation of a rapid release of steam and hydrogen after a high-pressure failure of a reactor pressure vessel, calculations with a multicompartment code show that the possibility for hydrogen burning does not exist. Thus, an additional augmentation of the steam spike as a consequence of the failure of the pressure vessel cannot occur. (orig.)

  11. Chemometric characterization of the hydrogen bonding complexes of secondary amides and aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of the study of hydrogen bonding complexes between secondary amides and various aromatic hydrocarbons. The possibility of using chemometric methods was investigated in order to characterize N-H•••π hydrogen bonded complexes. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA have been applied on infrared spectroscopic and Taft parameters of 43 N-substituted amide complexes with different aromatic hydrocarbons. Results obtained in this report are in good agreement with conclusions of other spectroscopic and thermodynamic analysis.

  12. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  13. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.C.; Barker, J.G.; Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 6100, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6100 (United States); Gagnon, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lindstrom, R.M. [Scientist Emeritus, Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8395, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Ibberson, R.M.; Neumann, D.A. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 6100, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6100 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  14. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Barker, J. G.; Rowe, J. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gagnon, C.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Ibberson, R. M.; Neumann, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  15. Hydrogen or Fossil Combustion Nuclear Combined Cycle Systems for Baseload and Peak Load Electricity Production. Annex X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    A combined cycle power plant is described that uses: (i) heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to meet baseload electrical demands; and (ii) heat from the same high temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen to meet peak load electrical demands. For baseload electricity production, fresh air is compressed, then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900{sup o}C by using heat provided by a high temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat transport loop, and finally exits through a high temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts and heats the air to 1300{sup o}C - the operating conditions for a standard natural gas fired combined cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until required. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electrical grid can vary from zero (i.e. when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. As nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electrical grid. This combined

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Minoxidil Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxi; Chen, Lina; Huang, Xinyan; Shao, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are interesting delivery systems for enhancing the penetration of an active substance through the skin after topical administration. The present paper described the development of a novel NLCs for minoxidil (MXD) topical delivery. Stearic acid and oleic acid that showed the highest solubility for MXD were selected as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively, and the NLCs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method. The minoxidil loaded NLCs prepared accordingly to the optimal formulation exhibited spherical shape with a mean diameter of 281.4 ± 7.4 nm, polydispersity of 0.207 ± 0.009, zeta potential of -32.90 ± 1.23 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 92.48 ± 0.31%, and drug loading of 13.85 ± 0.47%. Storage stability studies demonstrated that the particle size and entrapment efficiency of the MXD-NLCs were not changed during 3 months both at 4°C and room temperature. Moreover, the release of MXD from the NLCs was faster than drug release from SLNs. In vitro skin permeability test demonstrated that MXD-NLCs had a more pronounced permeation and retention profile than MXD-SLNs. Furthermore, no erythema was observed after administration of MXD-NLCs. All these results indicated that the developed MXD-NLCs could be a promising and effective nanocarrier for topical delivery of MXD.

  17. [Isolation and characterization of vaginal lactobacilli producing hydrogen peroxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaian, M M; Oganesian, G G

    2011-01-01

    Isolation and characteristics of vaginal lactobacilli that actively generate H2O2 and have high antagonistic activity. Staphylococcus aureus 8956, Escherichia coli 8852, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8795 and Candida albicans 5646 were used as target-strains. Skim milk and MRS medium were used for lactobacilli isolation and cultivation. Antagonism was studied in complete agar and Saburo medium. Merckoquant peroxide test (Merck) stripes were used for the determination of H2O2. Antibacterial activity was determined by diffusion into agar. Specific culture growth rate was determined by conventional method, acidification of the culture medium--by pH-meter. 12 strains were isolated from vaginal smears of healthy women. These strains have an ability to ferment milk among which a highly active H2O2 producer was isolated and attributed to Lactobacillus delbrueckii by the results of 16S rRNA and alpha-subunit RNA polymerase gene sequence analysis (16S rDNA and rpoA genes are registered in GenBank, numbers HQ379171 and HQ379180 respectively). L. delbrueckii MH-10 bacterial cells were characterized by specific growth speed 1.26 per hour, reaching a maximum titer of 2 x 10(9) PFU/ml with lowering medium pH to 4.0. Under aerated conditions H2O2 concentration reached 100 microg/ml or more. L. delbrueckii MH-10 has high antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae. L. delbrueckii MH-10 isolate is an active H2O2 producer, has high growth speed and broad antibacterial activity spectrum, is a perspective candidate for the development of probiotic preparation for the prophylaxis and therapy of vaginoses.

  18. Novel thin/tunable gas diffusion electrodes with ultra-low catalyst loading for hydrogen evolution reactions in proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Zhenye; Yang, Gaoqiang; Mo, Jingke; Li, Yifan; Yu, Shule; Cullen, David A.; Retterer, Scott T.; Toops, Todd J.; Bender, Guido; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Green, Johney B.; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs) have received great attention for hydrogen/oxygen production due to their high efficiencies even at low-temperature operation. Because of the high cost of noble platinum-group metal (PGM) catalysts (Ir, Ru, Pt, etc.) that are widely used in water splitting, a PEMEC with low catalyst loadings and high catalyst utilizations is strongly desired for its wide commercialization. In this study, the ultrafast and multiscale hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) phenomena in an operating PEMEC is in-situ observed for the first time. The visualization results reveal that the HER and hydrogen bubble nucleation mainly occur on catalyst layers at the rim of the pores of the thin/tunable liquid/gas diffusion layers (TT-LGDLs). This indicates that the catalyst material of the conventional catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) that is located in the middle area of the LGDL pore is underutilized/inactive. Based on this discovery, a novel thin and tunable gas diffusion electrode (GDE) with a Pt catalyst thickness of 15 nm and a total thickness of about 25 um has been proposed and developed by taking advantage of advanced micro/nano manufacturing. The novel thin GDEs are comprehensively characterized both ex-situ and in-situ, and exhibit excellent PEMEC performance. More importantly, they achieve catalyst mass activity of up to 58 times higher than conventional CCM at 1.6 V under the operating conditions of 80 degrees C and 1 atm. This study demonstrates a promising concept for PEMEC electrode development, and provides a direction of future catalyst designs and fabrications for electrochemical devices.

  19. Hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. Elaboration, characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxembourg, D.

    2004-10-01

    This work deals with hydrogen storage for supplying fuel cells. Hydrogen storage by adsorption in carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers is a very controversial issue because experimental results are very dispersed and adsorption mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Physi-sorption cannot explain in fact all the experimental results. All the potential adsorption sites, physical and chemical, are discussed as detailed as possible in a state of the art. Experimental works includes the steps of elaboration, characterization, and measurements of the hydrogen storage properties. Nano-fibers are grown using a CVD approach. Single wall carbon nano-tubes (SWNT) synthesis is based on the vaporization/condensation of a carbon/catalysts mixture in a reactor using a fraction of the available concentrated solar energy at the focus of the 1000 kW solar facility of IMP-CNRS at Odeillo. Several samples are produced using different synthesis catalysts (Ni, Co, Y, Ce). SWNT samples are purified using oxidative and acid treatments. Hydrogen storage properties of these materials are carefully investigated using a volumetric technique. The applied pressure is up to 6 MPa and the temperature is 253 K. Hydrogen uptake of the investigated materials are less than 1 % wt. at 253 K and 6 MPa. (author)

  20. A study on metal organic framework (MOF-177) synthesis, characterization and hydrogen adsorption -desorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viditha, V.; Venkateswer Rao, M.; Srilatha, K.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085, A.P. (India); Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu [Director, TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen has long been considered to be an ideal alternative to fossil-fuel systems and much work has now been done on its storage. There are four main methods of hydrogen storage: as a liquid; as compressed hydrogen; in the form of metal hydrides; and by physisorption. Among all the materials metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered to have desirable properties like high porosity, pore volume and high thermal stability. MOF-177 is considered to be an ideal storage material. In this paper we study about its synthesis and hydrogen storage capacities of MOF-177 at different pressures ranging from 25, 50, 75 and 100 bar respectively. The obtained samples are characterized by XRD, BET and SEM. The recorded results show that the obtained hydrogen capacity is 1.1, 2.20, 2.4 and 2.80 wt%. The desorption capacity is 0.9, 2.1, 2.37 and 2.7 wt% at certain temperatures like 373 K.

  1. Non-intrusive load characterization of an airfoil using PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudheusden, B.W. van; Scarano, F.; Casimiri, E.W.F. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-06-15

    An assessment is made of the feasibility of using PIV velocity data for the non-intrusive aerodynamic force characterization (lift, drag and pitching moment) of an airfoil. The method relies upon the application of control-volume approaches in combination with the deduction of the pressure from the PIV experimental data, by making use of the momentum equation. First, the consistency of the method is verified by means of synthetic data obtained from CFD. Subsequently, the procedure was applied in an experimental investigation, in which the PIV approach is validated against standard pressure-based methods (surface pressure distribution and wake rake). (orig.)

  2. Containment loads due to direct containment heating and associated hydrogen behavior: Analysis and calculations with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Bergeron, K.D.; Carroll, D.E.; Gasser, R.D.; Tills, J.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1987-05-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues governing risk in many nuclear power plants involves the phenomenon called direct containment heating (DCH), in which it is postulated that molten corium ejected under high pressure from the reactor vessel is dispersed into the containment atmosphere, thereby causing sufficient heating and pressurization to threaten containment integrity. Models for the calculation of potential DCH loads have been developed and incorporated into the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis. Using CONTAIN, DCH scenarios in PWR plants having three different representative containment types have been analyzed: Surry (subatmospheric large dry containment), Sequoyah (ice condenser containment), and Bellefonte (atmospheric large dry containment). A large number of parameter variation and phenomenological uncertainty studies were performed. Response of DCH loads to these variations was found to be quite complex; often the results differ substantially from what has been previously assumed concerning DCH. Containment compartmentalization offers the potential of greatly mitigating DCH loads relative to what might be calculated using single-cell representations of containments, but the actual degree of mitigation to be expected is sensitive to many uncertainties. Dominant uncertainties include hydrogen combustion phenomena in the extreme environments produced by DCH scenarios, and factors which affect the rate of transport of DCH energy to the upper containment. In addition, DCH loads can be aggravated by rapid blowdown of the primary system, co-dispersal of moderate quantities of water with the debris, and quenching of de-entrained debris in water; these factors act by increasing steam flows which, in turn, accelerates energy transport. It may be noted that containment-threatening loads were calculated for a substantial portion of the scenarios treated for some of the plants considered

  3. Preparation and characterization of enamel coating on pure titanium as a hydrogen penetration barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jie, E-mail: taojie@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Guo, Xunzhong [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Huang, Zhendong [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, oshida-Nihonmatsu-Cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto shi 606-8501 (Japan); Liu, Hongbing [Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co,. Ltd, Shanghai 200436 (China); Wang, Tao [College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The enamel coating was prepared by spin-coating and enameling method. ► The dense enamel coatings were chemically bonded with TA1 substrate. ► The coatings possessed better thermal shock resistance property. ► The coatings had excellent ball-dropping impact properties. ► The enamel coating exhibited a good barrier effect to hydrogen isotope penetration. -- Abstract: The enamel coating with a thickness of 90–110 × 10{sup −6} m was prepared on TA1 substrate by spin-coating and enameling to solve the problems of hydrogen isotope penetration for commercial pure titanium TA1. The microstructure and the interfacial morphology of the samples were characterized respectively by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The profiles of main elements at the interface were analyzed by EDS line-scanning. The experimental results indicated that the dense enamel coatings were chemically bonded with TA1 substrate, and possessed better thermal shock resistance and ball-dropping impact properties. It was concluded from the results of hydrogen charging test with Vickers microhardness measurement and deuterium penetration experiments that the as-prepared dense enamel coating exhibited a good barrier effect to hydrogen isotope penetration.

  4. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen in the characterization of saturated hydrocarbonic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Neto, A.; Soares, V.L.P.; Costa Neto, C.

    1979-01-01

    Alkanes and cycloalkanes are characterized by a methyl-methylene-methine groups proportion, the percentual absorption in prefixed regions and the pattern of the spectrum of nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen. The GPI is calculated from the contribution of the areas corresponding to prefixed regions of the hydrogen magnetic resonance spectra (60 Mc). These regions are (for the saturated hydrocarbons): 0,5-1,05ppm (X), 1,05ppm (Y) and 1,50-2,00ppm (Z). The validity of the index was verified for the homologous series of linear hydrocarbons and methyl-, dimethyl-, ethyl-, cyclopentyl- and cyclohexyl-branched hydrocarbons. Its application to shale oil chemistry (xistoquimica) is discussed. (author) [pt

  5. Experimental characterization of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators at near-infrared wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-racetrack resonators (WRTRs) were designed and fabricated for operating at near-infrared wavelengths (750–850 nm) and characterized using leakage-radiation microscopy. The transmission spectra of the WRTRs are found experimentally and compared to the calculat...

  6. Characterization of non-linear household loads for frequency domain modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernando Romero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Component-based harmonic studies in public Low Voltage grids require realistic models of individual loads as well as their typical penetration ratios. As fundamental basis for the development of comprehensive models for residential users, this paper identifies the most commonly used household loads in Colombia. The loads are classified according to their Power Factor Correction (PFC circuit topology in no-PFC, passive-PFC and active-PFC devices, and a comprehensive set of loads is selected. Their behavior in terms of harmonic emission is characterized by intensive lab measurements with systematically varied supply voltage distortion. Based on several indices, the suitability of different frequency-domain modeling approaches (e.g. constant current source, decoupled and coupled Norton models is assessed.

  7. Preparation and characterization of bee venom-loaded PLGA particles for sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Ho; Jun, Hye-Suk; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Sook; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2016-12-14

    Bee venom-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation, and characterized for a sustained-release system. Factors such as the type of organic solvent, the amount of bee venom and PLGA, the type of PLGA, the type of polyvinyl alcohol, and the emulsification method were considered. Physicochemical properties, including the encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, particle size, zeta-potential and surface morphology were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size of the bee venom-loaded PLGA particles was 500 nm (measured using sonication). Zeta-potentials of the bee venom-loaded PLGA particles were negative owing to the PLGA. FT-IR results demonstrated that the bee venom was completely encapsulated in the PLGA particles, indicated by the disappearance of the amine and amide peaks. In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that the bee venom in the bee venom-loaded PLGA particles was intact. In vitro release of the bee venom from the bee venom-loaded PLGA particles showed a sustained-release profile over 1 month. Bee venom-loaded PLGA particles can help improve patients' quality of life by reducing the number of injections required.

  8. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  9. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Nurhadi, M., Kusumawardani, R., Nur, H. (2018. Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 113-118 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1171.113-118

  10. Nondestructive characterization of hydrogen concentration in zircaloy cladding tubes with laser ultrasound technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Che Hua; Lai, Yu An

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a laser ultrasound technique (LUT) for nondestructive characterization of hydrogen concentration (HC) in Zircaloy cladding tubes. With the LUT, guided ultrasonic waves are generated remotely and then propagate in the axial direction of Zircaloy tubes, and finally detected remotely by an optical probe. By measuring the dispersion spectra with the LUT, relations between the dispersion spectra and the HC of the Zircaloy tubes can be established. The LUT is non-contact, capable of remote inspection, and therefore suitable for nondestructive inspection of HC in Zircaloy cladding tubes used in nuclear power plant.

  11. Decontamination flange film characterization for a boiling water reactor under hydrogen water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Garbauskas, M.F.; Bozeman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stainless steel artifacts removed from a boiling water reactor class 4 plant that operated under hydrogen water chemistry and experienced a difficult decontamination were submitted for oxide film characterization. The results reported for the corrosion film composition and structure are consistent with existing theoretical concepts for stainless steel corrosion, spinel structure site preferences (octahedral or tetrahedral) for transition metal ions, and potential-pH diagrams. The observed zinc effects on film stability and lower cobalt incorporation are also consistent with these theoretical concepts

  12. Seven harmonic susceptibility in oxygen and hydrogen loading of sintered YBCO by μs pulsed electrolysis in an aqueous solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripodi, P.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Celani, F.

    1996-09-01

    The complex AC susceptibility of high T c superconducting materials has been described in terms of the first seven harmonic component of Fourier series. Has been measured the χ' n and χ n (n=1,7) of sintered YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bulk oxygen and hydrogen loaded samples versus amplitude and frequency of AC magnetic field at fixed temperature. The sample have been loaded by μs current pulses electrolysis in an aqueous solution (0.3N LiOH+H 2 O) at room temperature. In addition to the simplicity of the experimental setup, this procedure allows to obtain extremely high equivalent hydrogen/oxygen gas pressure on the surface of the electrodes. The YBCO electrode is polarized by short pulse width (0.5-10 μs) and high power (120 W) peaks with a variable repetition rate (0.1-10000 Hz). The pulses are obtained by an home.made pulse generator. The difference in the behavior of the susceptibilities harmonic component between the deficiency and oxygen or hydrogen loaded samples give us the possibility to connect the susceptibilities with variations of the flux pinning in respect to normal losses in the superconducting materials. The loading can be a good probe to have information on the mechanism of the processes that sustain the critical current density Jc in this situation these affects appear strongly dependent on the loading conditions. By comparison of this measurements has been observed drastic change in behavior of susceptibility

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Loading-Dependent Diffusion of CO2, SO2, CH4, and Their Binary Mixtures in ZIF-10: The Role of Hydrogen Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Deshuai; Fisher, Trevor R; Qiao, Qi; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Na; Chen, Xiangshu; Huang, Liangliang

    2017-10-24

    The loading-dependent diffusion behavior of CH 4 , CO 2 , SO 2 , and their binary mixtures in ZIF-10 has been investigated in detail by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our simulation results demonstrate that the self-diffusion coefficient D i of CH 4 molecules decreases sharply and monotonically with the loading while those of both CO 2 and SO 2 molecules initially display a slight increase at low uptakes and follow a slow decrease at high uptakes. Accordingly, the interaction energies between CH 4 molecules and ZIF-10 remain nearly constant regardless of the loading due to the absence of hydrogen bonds (HBs), while the interaction energies between CO 2 (or SO 2 ) and ZIF-10 decease rapidly with the loading, especially at small amounts of gas molecules. Such different loading-dependent diffusion and interaction mechanisms can be attributed to the relevant HB behavior between gas molecules and ZIF-10. At low loadings, both the number and strength of HBs between CO 2 (or SO 2 ) molecules and ZIF-10 decrease obviously as the loading increases, which is responsible for the slight increase of their diffusion coefficients. However, at high loadings, their HB strength increases with the loading. Similar loading-dependent phenomena of diffusion, interaction, and HB behavior can be observed for CH 4, CO 2 , and SO 2 binary mixtures in ZIF-10, only associated with some HB competition between CO 2 and SO 2 molecules in the case of the CO 2 /SO 2 mixture.

  14. Hydrogen bonded nonlinear optical γ-glycine: Crystal growth and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Moolya, B.; Jayarama, A.; Sureshkumar, M. R.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2005-07-01

    Single crystals of γ-glycine(GG) were grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and ammonium nitrate at ambient temperature. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectral techniques were employed to characterize the crystal. The lattice parameters were calculated and they agree well with the reported values. GG exists as dipolar ions in which the carboxyl group is present as a carboxylate ion and the amino group as an ammonium ion. Due to this dipolar nature, glycine has a high decomposition temperature. The UV cutoff of GG is below 300 nm and has a wide transparency window, which is suitable for second harmonic generation of laser in the blue region. Nonlinear optical characteristics of GG were studied using Q switched Nd:YAG laser ( λ=1064 nm). The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of GG is 1.5 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate . The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies show the presence of strong hydrogen bonds which create and stabilize the crystal structure in GG. The main contributions to the nonlinear optical properties in GG results from the presence of the hydrogen bond and from the vibrational part due to very intense infrared bands of the hydrogen bond vibrations. GG is thermally stable up to 441 K.

  15. Two-dimensional gas chromatography-online hydrogenation for improved characterization of petrochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Govender, A; Rohwer, E

    2016-05-06

    The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces a variety of hydrocarbons over a wide carbon number range and during subsequent product workup a large variety of synthetic fuels and chemicals are produced. The complexity of the product slate obtained from this process is well documented and the high temperature FT (HT-FT) process products are spread over gas, oil and water phases. The characterization of these phases is very challenging even when using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Despite the increase in separation power, peak co-elution still occurs when samples containing isomeric compounds are analysed by comprehensive two dimensional GC. The separation of isomeric compounds with the same double bond equivalents is especially difficult since these compounds elute in a similar position on the GC×GC chromatogram and have identical molecular masses and similar fragmentation patterns in their electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. On-line hydrogenation after GC×GC separation is a possible way to distinguish between these isomeric compounds since the number of rings and alkene double bonds can be determined from the mass spectra of the compounds before and after hydrogenation. This paper describes development of a GC×GC method with post column hydrogenation for the determination of the backbone of cyclic/olefinic structures enabling us to differentiate between classes like dienes and cyclic olefins in complex petrochemical streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of chemical vapour deposited diamond films: correlation between hydrogen incorporation and film morphology and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C J; Neves, A J; Carmo, M C

    2005-01-01

    In order to tailor diamond synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for different applications, many diamond films of different colours and variable quality were deposited by a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD reactor under different growth conditions. The morphology, quality and hydrogen incorporation of these films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. From this study, a general trend between hydrogen incorporation and film colour, morphology and quality was found. That is, as the films sorted by colour gradually become darker, ranging from white through grey to black, high magnification SEM images illustrate that the smoothness of the well defined crystalline facet gradually decreases and second nucleation starts to appear on it, indicating gradual degradation of the crystalline quality. Correspondingly, Raman spectra evidence that the diamond Raman peak at 1332 cm -1 becomes broader and the non-diamond carbon band around 1500 cm -1 starts to appear and becomes stronger, confirming increase of the non-diamond component and decrease of the phase purity of the film, while FTIR spectra show that the CH stretching band and the two CVD diamond specific peaks around 2830 cm -1 rise rapidly, and this indicates that the total amount of hydrogen incorporated into the film increases significantly

  17. Preparation and characterization of tungsten-loaded titanium dioxide photocatalyst for enhanced dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saepurahman; Abdullah, M.A.; Chong, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO 2 , but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading ( 3 at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO 2 was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO 3 , decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 was superior to unmodified TiO 2 with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO 3 loading.

  18. Characterization of electrochemically deposited films from aqueous and ionic liquid cobalt precursors toward hydrogen evolution reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushatinski, Thomas; Huff, Clay; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M., E-mail: fattah@cnu.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Co films deposition via aqueous and ionic liquid Precursors. • Hydrogen evolution produced from reactive surfaces. • Co deposited films characterized by SEM, AFM, EDX and XRD techniques. - Abstract: Electrodepositions of cobalt films were achieved using an aqueous or an ethylene glycol based non-aqueous solution containing choline chloride (vitamin B4) with cobalt chloride hexahydrate precursor toward hydrogen evolution reactions from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as solid hydrogen feedstock (SHF). The resulting cobalt films had reflectivity at 550 nm of 2.2% for aqueously deposited films (ACoF) and 1.3% for non-aqueously deposited films (NCoF). Surface morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy showed a positive correlation between particle size and thickness. The film thicknesses were tunable between >100 μm and <300 μm for each film. The roughness (Ra) value measurements by Dektak surface profiling showed that the NCoF (Ra = 165 nm) was smoother than the ACoF (Ra = 418 nm). The NCoFs and ACoFs contained only α phase (FCC) crystallites. The NCoFs were crystalline while the ACoFs were largely amorphous from X-ray diffraction analysis. The NCoF had an average Vickers hardness value of 84 MPa as compared to 176 MPa for ACoF. The aqueous precursor has a single absorption maximum at 510 nm and the non-aqueous precursor had three absorption maxima at 630, 670, and 695 nm. The hydrogen evolution reactions over a 1 cm{sup 2} catalytic surface with aqueous NaBH{sub 4} solutions generated rate constants (K) = equal to 4.9 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, 4.6 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}, and 3.3 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1} for ACoF, NCoF, and copper substrate respectively.

  19. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  20. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  1. Hydrogen production over Au-loaded mesoporous-assembled SrTiO3 nanocrystal photocatalyst: Effects of molecular structure and chemical properties of hole scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puangpetch, Tarawipa; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Formic acid, which is the smallest and completely-dissociated water-soluble carboxylic acid, exhibited the highest hydrogen production enhancement ability over the 1 wt.% Au-loaded mesoporous-assembled SrTiO 3 nanocrystal photocatalyst. Display Omitted Research highlights: → The 1 wt.% Au-loaded mesoporous-assembled SrTiO 3 nanocrystal photocatalyst was synthesized. → The molecular structure and chemical properties of hole scavengers affected H 2 production rate. → Formic acid exhibited the highest photocatalytic H 2 production enhancement ability. -- Abstract: The hydrogen production via the photocatalytic water splitting under UV irradiation using different compounds as hole scavengers (including methanol, formic acid, acetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid) under a low concentration range ( 3 nanocrystal photocatalyst. The results indicated that the hydrogen production efficiency greatly depended on the molecular structure, chemical properties, and concentration of the hole scavengers. Formic acid, which is the smallest and completely-dissociated water-soluble carboxylic acid, exhibited the highest hydrogen production enhancement ability. The 2.5 vol.% aqueous formic acid solution system provided the highest photocatalytic hydrogen production rate.

  2. Predicting lake responses to phosphorus loading with measurement-based characterization of P recycling in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, S.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the time scales on which lake ecosystems respond to changes in anthropogenic phosphorus loadings is critical for devising efficient management strategies and setting regulatory limits on loading. Internal loading of phosphorus from sediments, however, can significantly contribute to the lake P budget and may delay recovery from eutrophication. The efficiency of mineralization and recycling of settled P in bottom sediments, which is ultimately responsible for this loading, is often poorly known and is surprisingly poorly characterized in the societally important systems such as the Great Lakes. We show that a simple mass-balance model that uses only a minimum number of parameters, all of which are measurable, can successfully predict the time scales over which the total phosphorus (TP) content of lakes responds to changes in external loadings, in a range of situations. The model also predicts the eventual TP levels attained under stable loading conditions. We characterize the efficiency of P recycling in Lake Superior based on a detailed characterization of sediments at 13 locations that includes chemical extractions for P and Fe fractions and characterization of sediment-water exchange fluxes of P. Despite the low efficiency of P remobilization in these deeply oxygenated sediments (only 12% of deposited P is recycled), effluxes of dissolved phosphorus (2.5-7.0 μmol m-2 d-1) still contribute 37% to total P inputs into the water column. In this oligotrophic large lake, phosphate effluxes are regulated by organic sedimentation rather than sediment redox conditions. By adjusting the recycling efficiency to conditions in other Laurentian Great Lakes, we show that the model reproduces the historical data for total phosphorus levels. Analysis further suggests that, in the Lower Lakes, the rate of P sequestration from water column into sediments has undergone a significant change in recent decades, possibly in response to their invasion by quagga mussels

  3. Neighboring Hetero-Atom Assistance of Sacrificial Amines to Hydrogen Evolution Using Pt-Loaded TiO2-Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Yasuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic H2 evolution was examined using Pt-loaded TiO2-photocatalyst in the presence of amines as sacrificial agents. In the case of amines with all of the carbon attached to the hetero-atom such as 2-aminoethanol, 1,2-diamonoethane, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, and 3-amino-1,2-propanediol, they were completely decomposed into CO2 and water to quantitatively evolve H2. On the other hand, the amines with both hetero-atoms and one methyl group at the β-positions (neighboring carbons of amino group such as 2-amino-1-propanol and 1,2-diaminopropane were partially decomposed. Also, the photocatalytic H2 evolution using amines without the hetero-atoms at the β-positions such as ethylamine, propylamine, 1-butylamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 2-propylamine, and 2-butylamine was inefficient. Thus, it was found that the neighboring hetero-atom strongly assisted the degradation of sacrificial amines. Moreover, rate constants for H2 evolution were compared among amines. In conclusion, the neighboring hetero-atom did not affect the rate constants but enhanced the yield of hydrogen evolution.

  4. Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized-Ru nanoclusters loaded onto reduced graphene oxide as high active catalyst for hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Hao, Jinghao; Ma, Qianli; Li, Chuanqi; Liu, Yushan; Li, Baojun; Liu, Zhongyi

    2017-06-01

    Ruthenium/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (Ru/rGO NCs) were synthesized via an electrostatic self-assembly approach. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized and positively charged metallic ruthenium nanoclusters about 1.2 nm were synthesized and uniformly loaded onto negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets via strong electrostatic interactions. The as-prepared Ru/rGO NCs exhibited superior performance in catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to generate H2. The hydrogen generation rate was up to 14.87 L H2 min-1 gcat -1 at 318 K with relatively low activation energy of 38.12 kJ mol-1. Kinetics study confirmed that the hydrolysis of NaBH4 was first order with respect to concentration of catalysts. Besides, the conversion of NaBH4 remained at 97% and catalytic activity retained more than 70% after 5 reaction cycles at room temperature. These results suggested that the Ru/rGO NCs have a promising prospect in the field of clean energy.

  5. Preparation, characterization, drug release and computational modelling studies of antibiotics loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, N K; Aparna, V; Maya, S; Biswas, Raja; Jayakumar, R; Mohan, C Gopi

    2017-12-01

    We present a computational investigation of binding affinity of different types of drugs with chitin nanocarriers. Understanding the chitn polymer-drug interaction is important to design and optimize the chitin based drug delivery systems. The binding affinity of three different types of anti-bacterial drugs Ethionamide (ETA) Methacycline (MET) and Rifampicin (RIF) with amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC-NPs) were studied by integrating computational and experimental techniques. The binding energies (BE) of hydrophobic ETA, hydrophilic MET and hydrophobic RIF were -7.3kcal/mol, -5.1kcal/mol and -8.1kcal/mol respectively, with respect to AC-NPs, using molecular docking studies. This theoretical result was in good correlation with the experimental studies of AC-drug loading and drug entrapment efficiencies of MET (3.5±0.1 and 25± 2%), ETA (5.6±0.02 and 45±4%) and RIF (8.9±0.20 and 53±5%) drugs respectively. Stability studies of the drug encapsulated nanoparticles showed stable values of size, zeta and polydispersity index at 6°C temperature. The correlation between computational BE and experimental drug entrapment efficiencies of RIF, ETA and MET drugs with four AC-NPs strands were 0.999 respectively, while that of the drug loading efficiencies were 0.854 respectively. Further, the molecular docking results predict the atomic level details derived from the electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of the drug and nanoparticle for its encapsulation and loading in the chitin-based host-guest nanosystems. The present results thus revealed the drug loading and drug delivery insights and has the potential of reducing the time and cost of processing new antibiotic drug delivery nanosystem optimization, development and discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage for hydrogen and methane production in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under high organic loading rate (OLR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shim, Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Anaerobic hydrogen and methane production from cassava stillage in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were investigated in this study. Results showed that the heat-pretreatment of inoculum did not enhance hydrogen yield compared to raw inoculum under mesophilic condition after continuous operation. However, the hydrogen yield increased from about 14 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under mesophilic condition to 69.6 ml H{sub 2}/gVS under thermophilic condition due to the decrease of propionate concentration and inhibition of homoacetogens. Therefore, temperature was demonstrated to be more important than pretreatment of inoculum to enhance the hydrogen production. Under high organic loading rate (OLR) (>10 gVS/(L.d)), the two-phase thermophilic CSTR for hydrogen and methane production was stable with hydrogen and methane yields of 56.6 mlH{sub 2}/gVS and 249 mlCH{sub 4}/gVS. The one-phase thermophilic CSTR for methane production failed due to the accumulation of both acetate and propionate, leading to the pH lower than 6. Instead of propionate alone, the accumulations of both acetate and propionate were found to be related to the breakdown of methane reactor. (author)

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and hydrogen uptake studies of magnesium nanoparticles by solution reduction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rather, Sami ullah

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of magnesium nanoparticles synthesized by solution reduction method with and without TOPO. - Highlights: • Simple and convenient method of preparing Mg nanoparticles. • Characterized by XRD, SEM, FESEM and TEM. • Trioctylphosphine oxide offers a greater control over the size of the particles. • Hydrogen uptake of samples at different temperatures and pressure of 4.5 MPa. - Abstract: Facile and simple, surfactant-mediated solution reduction method was used to synthesize monodisperse magnesium nanoparticles. Little amount of magnesium oxide nanoparticles were also formed due to the presence of TOPO and easy oxidation of magnesium, eventhough, all precautions were taken to avoid oxidation of the sample. Precise size control of particles was achieved by carefully varying the concentration ratio of two different types of surfactants, – trioctylphosphine oxide and hexadecylamine. Recrystallized magnesium nanoparticle samples with and without TOPO were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The peak diameters of particles were estimated from size distribution analysis of the morphological data. The particles synthesized in the presence and absence of TOPO found to have diameters 46.5 and 34.8 nm, respectively. This observed dependence of particle size on the presence of TOPO offers a convenient method to control the particle size by simply using appropriate surfactant concentrations. Exceptional enhancement in hydrogen uptake and kinetics in synthesized magnesium nanoparticles as compared to commercial magnesium sample was due to the smaller particle size and improved morphology. Overall hydrogen uptake not affected by the little variation in particle size with and without TOPO

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen/helium plasma characterization and simulation of pumping in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas have been employed to simulate the plasma conditions at the edge of a tokamak in order to investigate hydrogen/helium uptake in thin metal films. The process of microwave power absorption, important to characterizing the ECR plasma source, was investigated by measuring the electron density and temperature with a Langmuir probe and optical spectroscopy as a function of the magnetic field gradient and incident microwave power. A novel diagnostic, carbon resistance probe, provided a direct measure of the ion energy and fluence while measurements from a Langmuir probe were used for comparison. The Langmuir probe gave a plasma potential minus floating potential of 30 ± 5 eV, in good agreement with the carbon resistance probe result of ion energy ≤ 40 eV. The measured ion energy was consistent with the ion energy predicted from a model based upon divergent magnetic field extraction. Also, based upon physical sputtering of the carbon, the hydrogen fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec for 50 Watts of incident microwave power. ECR hydrogen/helium plasmas were used to study preferential pumping of helium in candidate materials for tokamak pump-limiters: nickel, vanadium, aluminum, and nickel/aluminum multi-layers. Nickel and vanadium exhibited similar pumping capacities whereas aluminum showed a reduced capacity due to increased sputtering. A helium retention model based upon ion implantation ranges and sputtering rates agreed with the experimental data. A new multilayer/bilayer pumping concept showed improved pumping above that for single element films

  9. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  10. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  11. Plasma density characterization at SPARC-LAB through Stark broadening of Hydrogen spectral lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippi, F., E-mail: francesco.filippi@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria (SBAI), ‘Sapienza’ Università di Roma, Via A. Scarpa 14-16, 00161 Roma (Italy); INFN-Roma1, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00161 Roma (Italy); Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Via E. Fermi, Frascati (Italy); Zigler, A. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma-based acceleration techniques are of great interest for future, compact accelerators due to their high accelerating gradient. Both particle-driven and laser-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments are foreseen at the SPARC-LAB Test Facility (INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, Italy), with the aim to accelerate high-brightness electron beams. In order to optimize the efficiency of the acceleration in the plasma and preserve the quality of the accelerated beam, the knowledge of the plasma electron density is mandatory. The Stark broadening of the Hydrogen spectral lines is one of the candidates used to characterize plasma density. The implementation of this diagnostic for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. - Highlights: • Stark broadening of Hydrogen lines has been measured to determine plasma density. • Plasma density diagnostic tool for plasma-based experiments at SPARC-LAB is presented. • Plasma density in tapered laser triggered ablative capillary discharge was measured. • Results of plasma density measurements in ablative capillaries are shown.

  12. Characterization of the hydrogen bond in molecular systems of biological interest by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavillon, F.

    2004-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the scattering spectra of neutrons on molecular liquids. This method is based on the adjustment of the molecular form factor concerning great momentum transfer. The subtraction of the intra-molecular contributions gives access to information on inter-molecular interactions such as the hydrogen bond. 3 systems with increasing levels of difficulty have been studied: the ammonia molecule, the N-methyl-formamide (NMF) and the N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). The value we get for the N-D intermolecular distance of the liquid ammonia molecule is 1.7 angstrom, this value is different from the value generally admitted (2.3 angstrom) but we have validated it by studying the isotopic substitution N 14 /N 15 . The adjustment to the NMF is obtained with a good accuracy but the characterization of the hydrogen bound is more delicate to infer. A preliminary study of the NMA molecule shows that this method can give relevant results on complex molecules

  13. Improved Sensitivity with Low Limit of Detection of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Based on rGO-Loaded Ni-Doped ZnO Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Vijendra Singh; Ranwa, Sapana; Rajamani, Saravanan; Kumari, Kusum; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-04-04

    We report enhanced hydrogen-gas-sensing performance of a Ni-doped ZnO sensor decorated with the optimum concentration of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Ni-doped ZnO nanoplates were grown by radio frequency sputtering, rGO was synthesized by Hummer's method and decorated by the drop cast method of various concentration of rGO (0-1.5 wt %). The current-voltage characteristics of the rGO-loaded sensor are highly influenced by the loading concentration of rGO, where current conduction decreases and sensor resistance increases as the rGO concentration is increased up to 0.75 wt % because of the formation of various Schottky heterojunctions at rGO/ZnO interfaces. With the combined effect of more active site availability and formation of various p-n heterojunctions due to the optimum loading concentration of rGO (0.75 wt %), the sensor shows the maximum sensing response of ∼63.8% for 100 ppm hydrogen at moderate operating temperature (150 °C). The rGO-loaded sensors were able to detect a minimum of 1 ppm hydrogen concentration and showed high selectivity. However, a further increase in the rGO concentration (1.5 wt %) leads to the reduction of the relative response of hydrogen gas, ascribed to the formation of interconnections of rGO between electrodes. Therefore, it reduces the total resistance of the sensor and minimizes the effect of p-n heterojunction on sensor response.

  14. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Direct {sup 13}C-detected NMR experiments for mapping and characterization of hydrogen bonds in RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fürtig, Boris, E-mail: fuertig@nmr.uni-frankfurt.de; Schnieders, Robbin; Richter, Christian; Zetzsche, Heidi; Keyhani, Sara; Helmling, Christina [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Germany); Kovacs, Helena [Bruker BioSpin (Switzerland); Schwalbe, Harald, E-mail: schwalbe@nmr.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ), Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    In RNA secondary structure determination, it is essential to determine whether a nucleotide is base-paired and not. Base-pairing of nucleotides is mediated by hydrogen bonds. The NMR characterization of hydrogen bonds relies on experiments correlating the NMR resonances of exchangeable protons and can be best performed for structured parts of the RNA, where labile hydrogen atoms are protected from solvent exchange. Functionally important regions in RNA, however, frequently reveal increased dynamic disorder which often leads to NMR signals of exchangeable protons that are broadened beyond {sup 1}H detection. Here, we develop {sup 13}C direct detected experiments to observe all nucleotides in RNA irrespective of whether they are involved in hydrogen bonds or not. Exploiting the self-decoupling of scalar couplings due to the exchange process, the hydrogen bonding behavior of the hydrogen bond donor of each individual nucleotide can be determined. Furthermore, the adaption of HNN-COSY experiments for {sup 13}C direct detection allows correlations of donor–acceptor pairs and the localization of hydrogen-bond acceptor nucleotides. The proposed {sup 13}C direct detected experiments therefore provide information about molecular sites not amenable by conventional proton-detected methods. Such information makes the RNA secondary structure determination by NMR more accurate and helps to validate secondary structure predictions based on bioinformatics.

  16. Characterization of hydrogenation behavior on Mo-modified Zr-Nb alloys as nuclear fuel cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.L.; Shibukawa, S.; Abe, H.; Satoh, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.; Kido, T.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Mo in Zr-Nb alloys are investigated in terms of their mechanical properties associated with microstructure, as well as their behavior under hydrogen environment. Zr-Nb-Mo alloys were fabricated by arc melting and subsequently cold rolling and annealing below the eutectoid temperature. Hydrogen was absorbed in a furnace under argon and hydrogen gas flow environment at high temperature. X-Ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction, and tensile test were jointly utilized to carry out detailed microstructural characterization and mechanical properties. Results showed that fcc-δ-ZrH 1.66 was formed in all hydrogen-absorbed alloys, and the amount of hydride enhanced with increasing of hydrogen content. In addition, it was clear that δ-ZrH 1.66 was precipitated both in grain boundary and interior, and preferential precipitation was observed on the habit planes of (0001) and {101-bar7}. Moreover, the strengthening effect by Mo addition was observed. The ductility loss by hydrogen absorption was found from fracture surface observation. Large area cleavage facets were found in Mo-free specimen, and less cleavage facets was observed in Mo-containing specimen, showing an appropriate addition of Mo can increase the tolerance to hydrogen embrittlement. (author)

  17. Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Biasin, Mara; Borelli, Manuela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies. Matherials & Methods We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation. Results Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines. Conclusion Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer. PMID:26795765

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Chemistry Using Relaxation Dispersion NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirich, Gennady; Holliday, Michael J; Lin, Jasper C; Nandy, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional heteronuclear relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy at 13 C natural abundance successfully characterized the dynamics of the hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction occurring at the N ε position in l-arginine by monitoring C δ in varying amounts of D 2 O. A small equilibrium isotope effect was observed and quantified, corresponding to ΔG = -0.14 kcal mol -1 . A bimolecular rate constant of k D = 5.1 × 10 9 s -1 M -1 was determined from the pH*-dependence of k ex (where pH* is the direct electrode reading of pH in 10% D 2 O and k ex is the nuclear spin exchange rate constant), consistent with diffusion-controlled kinetics. The measurement of ΔG serves to bridge the millisecond time scale lifetimes of the detectable positively charged arginine species with the nanosecond time scale lifetime of the nonobservable low-populated neutral arginine intermediate species, thus allowing for characterization of the equilibrium lifetimes of the various arginine species in solution as a function of fractional solvent deuterium content. Despite the system being in fast exchange on the chemical shift time scale, the magnitude of the secondary isotope shift due to the exchange reaction at N ε was accurately measured to be 0.12 ppm directly from curve-fitting D 2 O-dependent dispersion data collected at a single static field strength. These results indicate that relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy is a robust and general method for studying base-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange chemistry at equilibrium.

  19. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  20. Development of andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres: optimization, characterization and in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunxia; Wang, Fang; Xu, Hui; Liu, Hui; Meng, Qingguo; Liu, Wanhui

    2014-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sustained-release drug delivery system based on the injectable PLGA microspheres loaded with andrographolide. The andrographolide loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method with optimization of formulation using response surface methodology (RSM). Physicochemical characterization, in vitro release behavior and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation were then evaluated. The percent absorbed in vivo was determined by deconvolution using the Loo-Riegelman method, and then the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was established. Results showed that the microspheres were spherical with a smooth surface. Average particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug loading were found to be 53.18±2.11 μm, 75.79±3.02% and 47.06±2.18%, respectively. In vitro release study showed a low initial burst release followed by a prolonged release up to 9 days and the release kinetics followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. After a single intramuscular injection, the microspheres maintained relatively high plasma concentration of andrographolide over one week. A good linear relationship was observed between the in vitro and in vivo release behavior (R(2)=0.9951). These results suggest the PLGA microspheres could be developed as a potential delivery system for andrographolide with high drug loading capacity and sustained drug release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B., E-mail: hpaula@ufc.br [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S. [Department of Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Paula, Regina C.M. de [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceara, UFC, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10{sup -15} m{sup 2}/s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  2. Benzocaine loaded biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules: factorial design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Moraes, Carolina; Prado de Matos, Angelica; Paula, Eneida de; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief since they bind to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic that presents limited application in topical formulations due to its low water-solubility. This study aimed to develop polymeric nanocapsules as a drug delivery system for the local anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). To do so, BZC loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsules were prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized. The factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables on response to nanocapsules drug loading. The physical characteristics of PLGA nanocapsules were evaluated by analyzing the particle size, the polydispersion index and the zeta potential, using a particle size analyzer. The results of the optimized formulation showed a size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.12, an average diameter of 123 nm, zeta potential of -33.6 mV and a drug loading of more than 69%. The release profiles showed a significant difference in the release behavior for the pure drug in solution when compared with that containing benzocaine loaded PLGA nanocapsules. Thus, the prepared nanocapsules described here may be of clinical importance in both the processes of stabilization and delivery of benzocaine for pain treatment.

  3. Benzocaine loaded biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocapsules: factorial design and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Moraes, Carolina; Prado de Matos, Angelica; Paula, Eneida de [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.b [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Department of Environmental Engineering, State University of Sao Paulo, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Local anesthetics are able to induce pain relief since they bind to the sodium channel of excitable membranes, blocking the influx of sodium ions and the propagation of the nervous impulse. Benzocaine (BZC) is a local anesthetic that presents limited application in topical formulations due to its low water-solubility. This study aimed to develop polymeric nanocapsules as a drug delivery system for the local anesthetic benzocaine (BZC). To do so, BZC loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanocapsules were prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and were characterized. The factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables on response to nanocapsules drug loading. The physical characteristics of PLGA nanocapsules were evaluated by analyzing the particle size, the polydispersion index and the zeta potential, using a particle size analyzer. The results of the optimized formulation showed a size distribution with a polydispersity index of 0.12, an average diameter of 123 nm, zeta potential of -33.6 mV and a drug loading of more than 69%. The release profiles showed a significant difference in the release behavior for the pure drug in solution when compared with that containing benzocaine loaded PLGA nanocapsules. Thus, the prepared nanocapsules described here may be of clinical importance in both the processes of stabilization and delivery of benzocaine for pain treatment.

  4. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/cashew gum beads loaded with Lippia sidoides essential oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Haroldo C.B.; Sombra, Fernanda Matoso; Cavalcante, Rafaela de Freitas; Abreu, Flavia O.M.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Beads based on chitosan (CH) and cashew gum (CG), were prepared and loaded with an essential oil with larvicide activity (Lippia sidoides - Ls). CH and CH-CG beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as, regarding their larvicide loading, swelling, in vitro and in vivo release kinetics. The oil encapsulation was evidenced by FTIR analysis and LS loading ranges from 2.4% to 4.4%. CH beads duly showed swelling degree (Q) values from 4.0 to 6.7, reaching equilibrium after 30 min, whereas crosslinked CH-CG beads showed lower swelling values, from 0.4 to 3.8, exhibiting a longer equilibrium time. Liquid transport parameters have revealed diffusion coefficient for CH-CG beads, as low as 2 x 10 -15 m 2 /s. TGA and DSC revealed that CH:CG crosslinked beads are more thermally stable than CH beads. In vitro release follows a non-Fickian diffusion profile for both bead types, however, and a prolonged release being achieved only after beads crosslinking. In vivo release showed that both CH and CH-CG presented a prolonged larvicide effect. These aforesaid results, indicate that CH-CG beads loaded with LS are efficient for A. aegypti larval control.

  5. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area; and (4) A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  6. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    activated PEEK is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area. • A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. • Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. • Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  7. Seven harmonic susceptibility in oxygen and hydrogen loading of sintered YBCO by {mu}s pulsed electrolysis in an aqueous solution at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripodi, P.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Celani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-09-01

    The complex AC susceptibility of high T{sub c} superconducting materials has been described in terms of the first seven harmonic component of Fourier series. Has been measured the {chi}{sub n} (n=1,7) of sintered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulk oxygen and hydrogen loaded samples versus amplitude and frequency of AC magnetic field at fixed temperature. The sample have been loaded by {mu}s current pulses electrolysis in an aqueous solution (0.3N LiOH+H{sub 2}O) at room temperature. In addition to the simplicity of the experimental setup, this procedure allows to obtain extremely high equivalent hydrogen/oxygen gas pressure on the surface of the electrodes. The YBCO electrode is polarized by short pulse width (0.5-10 {mu}s) and high power (120 W) peaks with a variable repetition rate (0.1-10000 Hz). The pulses are obtained by an home.made pulse generator. The difference in the behavior of the susceptibilities harmonic component between the deficiency and oxygen or hydrogen loaded samples give us the possibility to connect the susceptibilities with variations of the flux pinning in respect to normal losses in the superconducting materials. The loading can be a good probe to have information on the mechanism of the processes that sustain the critical current density Jc in this situation these affects appear strongly dependent on the loading conditions. By comparison of this measurements has been observed drastic change in behavior of susceptibility.

  8. Characterization and Design of Zeolite Catalysts Solid Acidity, Shape Selectivity and Loading Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Niwa, Miki; Okumura, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents. Zeolite-based catalysts are used by industrial chemical companies in the interconversion of hydrocarbons and the alkylation of aromatic compounds. The current book deals with the characterization of specific properties of Zeolites and calculations for the design of catalysts. Measurements and utilization of solid acidity, shape selectivity, and loading properties, that are three prominent properties of a Zeolite catalyst, are treated in detail. These features concern chemical vapor deposition of silica, shape selectivity, loading properties, solid activity, Brønsted or Lewis character, ammonia temperature programmed desorption, control of the pore-opening size by chemical vapor deposition of silica and XAFS analysis of metals being highly dispersed inside and outside a framework.

  9. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m 3 d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m 3 d) and 32kgCOD/(m 3 d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Today various materials for fuel cell applications are urgently needed, including potential electrodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells. Identification of appropriate storage concepts are also urgently needed in order to initiate necessary steps for implementation of such technologies in daily life. Recent progress in nuclear analyses and observation/imaging techniques can significantly contribute to a successful achievement of ongoing research challenges. Primary importance is given to areas of characterization and in-situ testing of materials and/or components of hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems. Dedicated attention is addressed to issues related to hydrogen storage concepts, such as metal hydrides and other systems (e.g. fullerene structures) as well as their stability and the changes induced by hydrogen sorption process. In total 14 papers report on various scientific and research issues related to hydrogen storage and conversion technologies. Based on presented results, it can be concluded that nuclear- based techniques, specifically those involving neutrons, X rays and particle beams, play very important roles in ongoing research activities among many IAEA Member States. A short overview of individual reports is summarized below. The presented papers give an overview of typical applications of such techniques and their experimental setups based either on X ray or neutron sources, which can be used effectively to study specific properties of materials for hydrogen storage as well as microstructural features and hydrogen interaction with solid matter. The papers presented by Canadian, Dutch, Italian and Norwegian groups, report on research results related to application of thermal neutron scattering and neutron diffraction in studies of hydrogen containing materials, particularly in situ characterization as a means to study metal hydrides' structure and their modification upon hydrogen sorption. The investigation on solid state hydrogen storage

  11. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    Hydrogen storage for practical applications is under intense scrutiny worldwide since hopes are prevalent of being able to use hydrogen as energy vector in a continually difficult time in terms of having access to clean and affordable energy in the world. Hydrogen can be stored in compressed or l...

  12. Quantum-chemical prediction of the effects of Ni-loading on the hydrogenation and water-splitting efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticles with an experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Kuo; Chuang, Chung-Ching; Raghunath, Putikam; Srinivasadesikan, V.; Wang, T. T.; Lin, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Ni-loading on TiO2 nanoparticles can pronouncedly reduce the barriers for dissociation of H2 from 48 kcal/mol on the pure TiO2 to as low as 1-3 kcal/mol on the loaded samples facilitating the hydrogenation of NPs. Preliminary data of our test indicate that the hydrogenation of Ni-loaded TiO2 NPs results in a significant UV-visible absorption extending well beyond 750 nm with an increase in water splitting efficiency by as much as 67 times over those of pure and hydrogenated TiO2 NPs without Ni-loading under our mild hydrogenation condition using 800 Torr of H2 at 300 °C for 3 h.

  13. Effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emissions performance of a gasoline rotary engine at part load and stoichiometric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changwei; Su, Teng; Wang, Shuofeng; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Menghui; Cong, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a H_2-blended gasoline rotary engine was studied. • The p, Bmep, T_m_a_x and η_b increased after H_2 blending. • Both the CA0-10 and CA10-90 were shortened by the H_2 addition. • H_2 addition resulted in the reduced HC, CO and CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: The rotary engines may encounter high fuel consumption and emissions due to its narrow and long combustion chamber design. The low ignition energy and high flame speed of hydrogen may help improve the combustion of rotary engines. In this paper, a gasoline rotary engine equipped with gasoline and hydrogen injectors was developed to investigate the combustion and emissions of hydrogen-blended gasoline rotary engines. The engine was run at 3000 rpm and a manifolds absolute pressure of 37.5 kPa with the stoichiometric excess air ratio. The spark timing was set to be 25°CA before the top dead center. The engine was first fueled with the pure gasoline and then blended with the hydrogen. The hydrogen volume fractions in the intake were gradually increased from 0% to 5.2%. The results showed that the combustion pressure, brake mean effective pressure, cylinder temperature and thermal efficiency were simultaneously increased after the hydrogen blending. The crank angle of peak pressure was advanced with the hydrogen addition. The hydrogen enrichment was effective on reducing flame development and propagation periods. HC emissions were reduced by 44.8% when the hydrogen volume fraction in the intake was raised from 0% to 5.2%, CO and CO_2 emissions were also reduced after the hydrogen blending.

  14. Microfiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor base on co-sputtered Pd/Ni composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaopeng; Yang, Minghong; Dai, Jixiang; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Yinqian

    2015-07-01

    A novel hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ni co-sputtered coating on micro fiber Bragg grating (MFBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The microfiber is stretched uniformly and the Bragg grating is directly inscribed on the microfiber without hydrogen loading using 193 nm ArF excimer laser and a phase mask. Palladium and nickel coatings are co-sputtered on the micro fiber Bragg grating for hydrogen sensing. The MFBG hydrogen sensors are characterized concerning their response to the hydrogen, ambient temperature and ambient refractive index, respectively. The performance of the proposed MFBG hydrogen sensor is obviously enhanced, especially when compared to standard FBG hydrogen sensors.

  15. Preparation and characterization of isoniazid-loaded crude soybean lecithin liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanga, Christian Isalomboto; Krause, Rui Werner; Noundou, Xavier Siwe; Walker, Roderick Bryan

    2017-06-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty related infectious disease that is rapidly giving rise to public health concerns. Lengthy drug administration and frequent adverse side-effects associated with TB treatment make anti-tubercular drugs (ATDs) good candidates for drug delivery studies. This work aimed to formulate and prepare liposomes as a cost-effective option for ATD delivery. Liposomes were prepared by film hydration using crude soybean lecithin (CL) and not pure phospholipids as in the normal practice. Cholesterol was also used (up to 25% mass ratio), and isoniazid (INH) was encapsulated as model drug using a freeze-thaw loading technique. Purified soybean lecithin (PL) was also used for comparative purposes, under the same conditions. INH-loaded liposomes were characterized for particle size, Zeta Potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency (EE) and drug release. Physicochemical properties were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared. INH-loaded CL-based liposomes showed high EE (79±2.45%). The average particle size (813.00±9.21nm) and ZP (-42.80±4.31mV) of this formulation are promising for the treatment of TB by pulmonary delivery. These findings suggest the possibility of encapsulating ATDs in liposomes made of crude soybean lecithin that is cheap and readily available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of silver loaded montmorillonite modified with sulfur amino acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tian, E-mail: phdlitian@163.com; Lin, Oulian; Lu, Zhiyuan; He, Liuimei; Wang, Xiaosheng

    2014-06-01

    The Na{sup +} montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with sulfur containing amino acid (L-cystine, L-cysteine or L-methionine) and characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The results showed the modification was smooth and the surface condition of MMT was changed with sulfur containing groups. Then silver was loaded on the modified MMTs via ion-exchange reaction under microwave irradiation, the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), EDS and FT-IR confirmed the successful loading of massive silver and the strong interaction between sulfur and silver, the silver loaded L-cystine modified MMT (Ag@AA-MMT-3) with a silver content of 10.93 wt% was the highest of all. Further more, the Ag@AA-MMT-3 was under the irradiation of a UV lamp to turn silver ions to silver nano particles (Ag NPs). The XPS, specific surface area (SSA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD patterns and UV–vis spectra proved the existence of uniform nano scaled metallic Ag NPs. By contrast, the UV irradiated Ag@AA-MMT-3 (Ag@AA-MMT-UV) showed a much better slow release property than Ag@AA-MMT-3 or Ag@MMT. The Ag@AA-MMT-UV showing a large inhibition zone and high inhibition ratio presented very good antibacterial property.

  17. Dynamic characterization and modeling of magneto-rheological elastomers under compressive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jeong-Hoi; Khan, Fazeel; Jang, Dong-Doo; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the research reported in this paper has been to characterize and model the compression properties of magneto-rheological elastomers (MREs). MRE samples were fabricated by curing a two-component elastomer resin with 30% content of 10 µm sized iron particles by volume. In order to vary the magnetic field during compressive testing, a test fixture was designed and fabricated in which two permanent magnets could be variably positioned on either side of the specimen. Changing the distance between the magnets of the fixture allowed the strength of the magnetic field passing uniformly through the sample to be varied. Using this test setup and a dynamic test frame, a series of compression tests of MRE samples were performed, by varying the magnetic field and the frequency of loading. The results show that the MR effect (per cent increase in the material 'stiffness') increases as the magnetic field increases and the loading frequency increases within the range of the magnetic field and input frequency considered in this study. Furthermore, a phenomenological model was developed to capture the dynamic behaviors of the MREs under compression loadings. (technical note)

  18. Dynamic characterization and modeling of magneto-rheological elastomers under compressive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J H; Khan, F; Jang, D D; Jung, H J

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to characterize and model the compression properties of Magneto-Rheological Elastomers (MREs). MRE samples were fabricated by curing a two component elastomer resin with 30% content of 10 μm sized iron particles by volume. In order to vary the magnetic field during compressive testing, a test fixture was designed and fabricated in which two permanent magnets could be variably positioned on either side of the specimen. By changing the distance between the magnets, the fixture allowed for varying the magnetic field that passes uniformly through the sample. Using this test setup and a dynamic test frame, a series of compression tests of MRE samples was performed by varying the magnetic field and frequency of loading. The results show the MR effect (percent increase in the materials 'stiffness') increases as the magnetic field increases and loading frequency increases within the range of the magnetic field and input frequency considered in this study. Furthermore, a phenomenological model was developed to capture the dynamic behaviours of the MREs under compression loadings.

  19. Microstructural characterization of hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel by EBSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureys, A., E-mail: Aurelie.Laureys@UGent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Depover, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Verbeken, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking by performing an elaborate EBSD (Electron BackScatter Diffraction) study in a steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP-assisted steel). This type of steel exhibits a multiphase microstructure which undergoes a deformation induced phase transformation. Additionally, each microstructural constituent displays a different behavior in the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms governing hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation in the hydrogen saturated multiphase structure. Tensile tests on notched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. The tests were interrupted at stresses just after reaching the tensile strength, i.e. before macroscopic failure of the material. This allowed to study hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EBSD. A correlation was found between the presence of martensite, which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and the initiation of hydrogen induced cracks. Initiation seems to occur mostly by martensite decohesion. High strain regions surrounding the hydrogen induced crack tips indicate that further crack propagation may have occurred by the HELP (hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity) mechanism. Small hydrogen induced cracks located nearby the notch are typically S-shaped and crack propagation was dominantly transgranularly. The second stage of crack propagation consists of stepwise cracking by coalescence of small hydrogen induced cracks. - Highlights: • Hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel is evaluated by EBSD. • Tensile tests were conducted on notched hydrogen saturated samples. • Crack initiation occurs by a H-Enhanced Interface DEcohesion (HEIDE) mechanism. • Crack propagation involves growth and coalescence of small cracks. • Propagation is governed by the characteristics of

  20. Microstructural characterization of hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel by EBSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureys, A.; Depover, T.; Petrov, R.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present work evaluates hydrogen induced cracking by performing an elaborate EBSD (Electron BackScatter Diffraction) study in a steel with transformation induced plasticity (TRIP-assisted steel). This type of steel exhibits a multiphase microstructure which undergoes a deformation induced phase transformation. Additionally, each microstructural constituent displays a different behavior in the presence of hydrogen. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding on the mechanisms governing hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation in the hydrogen saturated multiphase structure. Tensile tests on notched samples combined with in-situ electrochemical hydrogen charging were conducted. The tests were interrupted at stresses just after reaching the tensile strength, i.e. before macroscopic failure of the material. This allowed to study hydrogen induced crack initiation and propagation by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EBSD. A correlation was found between the presence of martensite, which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and the initiation of hydrogen induced cracks. Initiation seems to occur mostly by martensite decohesion. High strain regions surrounding the hydrogen induced crack tips indicate that further crack propagation may have occurred by the HELP (hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity) mechanism. Small hydrogen induced cracks located nearby the notch are typically S-shaped and crack propagation was dominantly transgranularly. The second stage of crack propagation consists of stepwise cracking by coalescence of small hydrogen induced cracks. - Highlights: • Hydrogen induced cracking in TRIP-assisted steel is evaluated by EBSD. • Tensile tests were conducted on notched hydrogen saturated samples. • Crack initiation occurs by a H-Enhanced Interface DEcohesion (HEIDE) mechanism. • Crack propagation involves growth and coalescence of small cracks. • Propagation is governed by the characteristics of

  1. EFFECT OF OPTICAL FIBER HYDROGEN LOADING ON THE INSCRIPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHIRPED BRAGG GRATINGS BY MEANS OF KrF EXCIMER LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Varzhel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present comparative results of the chirped Bragg gratings inscription efficiency in optical fiber of domestic production with and without low-temperature hydrogen loading. Method. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings inscription was made by the Talbot interferometer with chirped phase mask having a chirp rate of 2.3 nm/cm used for the laser beam amplitude separation. The excimer laser system Coherent COMPexPro 150T, working with the gas mixture KrF (248 nm, was used as the radiation source. In order to increase the UV photosensitivity, the optical fiber was placed in a chamber with hydrogen under a pressure of 10 MPa and kept there for 14 days at 40 °C. Main Results. The usage of the chirped phase mask in a Talbot interferometer scheme has made it possible to get a full width at half-maximum of the fiber Bragg grating reflection spectrum of 3.5 nm with induced diffraction structure length of 5 mm. By preliminary hydrogen loading of optical fiber the broad reflection spectrum fiber Bragg gratings with a reflectivity close to 100% has been inscribed. Practical Relevance. The resulting chirped fiber Bragg gratings can be used as dispersion compensators in optical fiber communications, as well as the reflective elements of distributed fiber-optic phase interferometric sensors.

  2. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of

  3. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Muyang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses

  4. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M and O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky

  5. Mixed diphosphine/diamine ruthenium (II) isomers: Synthesis, structural characterization and catalytic hydrogenation of ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rebecca D.; Silva, Andressa K.; Lião, Luciano M.; Deflon, Victor M.; Ueno, Leonardo T.; Dinelli, Luis R.; Bogado, André L.

    2018-01-01

    The complexes trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(cydn)] (1), trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(opda)] (2) and cis-[RuCl2(dppb)(cydn)] (3) were synthesized from [{RuCl2(dppb)}2-μ-(dppb)] {where: dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane; cydn = cis and trans (±) 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, and opda = o-phenylenediamine}. The complexes were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance of phosphorus (31P{1H} NMR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), infrared and ultraviolet/visible spectra (IR and UV/vis) as well as elemental analyses (CHN). The X-ray structures of (1) and (3) were determined and they are presented here. DFT calculations and experimental data showed that the trans isomers are obtained as thermodynamic products while the cis isomers are kinetic products. This behavior is different than described in the literature for similar complexes, where the cis isomer is obtained from the trans isomer. Additionally, the catalytic activity of the complexes (1), (2) and (3) was investigated, as pre-catalysts, in the reduction of the acetophenone and 4-methylacetophenone by transfer-hydrogenation.

  6. Growth and characterization of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals from single diffusion gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, K.; Dale Keefe, C. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, CHPD) a dissolved mineral in urine is known to cause renal or bladder stones in both human and animals. Growth of CHPD or brushite using sodium metasilicate gel techniques followed by light and polarizing microscopic studies revealed its structural and morphological details. Crystal identity by powder x-ray diffraction confirmed the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques as alternate methods for fast analysis of brushite crystals which could form as one type of renal stones. P-O-P asymmetric stretchings in both FT-IR (987.2, 874.1 and 792 cm{sup -1}) and FT-Raman (986.3 cm{sup -1}, 1057.6 cm{sup -1} and 875.2 cm{sup -1}) were found as characteristics of brushite crystals. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed brushite crystallization purity using gel method by studying their endothermic peaks. This study incorporated a multidisciplinary approach in characterizing CHPD crystals grown in vitro to help formulate prevention or dissolution strategy in controlling urinary stone growth. Initial studies with 0.2 M citric acid ions as controlling agent in the nucleation of brushite crystals further support the presented approach. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Functionalized cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) bipyridine complexes: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application in hydrogenation of ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hui; Suna, Yuki; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2013-07-14

    A series of highly functionalized cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) complexes, [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) (Cp' = substituted cyclopentadienyl), was synthesized from various multi-substituted cyclopentadienes (Cp'H). [Rh(cod)Cl]2 and Cp'H were firstly converted to [Cp'Rh(cod)] complexes, which were then treated with Br2 to give the rhodium(III) dibromides [Cp'RhBr2]2. The novel complexes [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) were obtained readily by the reaction of 2,2'-bipyridine with [Cp'RhBr2]2. These rhodium complexes [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) were fully characterized and utilized in the hydrogenation of cyclohexanone and acetophenone with generally high yields, but they did not exhibit the same reactivity trends for the two substrate ketones. The different activity of these complexes for the different substrates may be due to the influence of the substituents on the Cp' rings.

  8. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-01-18

    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Ethyl Cellulose-Based Polymeric Calcium(II) Hydrogen Phosphate Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Faruq; Arfin, Tanvir; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.

    2018-03-01

    The present report deals with the synthesis, characterization and testing of an ethyl cellulose-calcium(II) hydrogen phosphate (EC-CaHPO4) composite, where a sol-gel synthesis method was applied for the preparation of the composite so as to test its efficacy towards the electrochemical, biological, and adsorption related applications. The physical properties of the composite were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet- visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. On testing, the mechanical properties indicated that the composite is highly stable due to the cross-linked rigid framework and the enhanced interactions offered by the EC polymer supported for its binding very effectively. In addition, the conductivity of EC-CaHPO4 is completely governed by the transport mechanism where the electrolyte concentration has preference towards the adsorption of ions and the variations in the conductivity significantly affected the material's performance. We observed an increasing order of KCl > NaCl for the conductivity when 1:1 electrolytes were applied. Further, the material was tested for its usefulness towards the purification of industrial waste waters by removing harmful metal ions from the samples collected near the Aligarh city, India where the data indicates that the material has highest affinity towards Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. Finally, the biological efficiency of the material was confirmed by means of testing the antibacterial activity against two gram positive (staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two gram negative bacteriums (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Patoea dispersa). Thus, from the cumulative study of outcomes, it indicates that the EC-CaHPO4 composite found to serve as a potential smart biomaterial due to its efficiency in many different applications that includes the electrical conductivity, adsorption capability, and antimicrobial activity.

  10. Comparative study of hydrogen storage on metal doped mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, P. M.; Sapag, K.; Oliva, M. I.; Eimer, G. A.

    2018-06-01

    The hydrogen adsorption capacity of mesoporous materials MCM-41 modified with Co, Fe, Ti, Mg and Ni at 77 K and 10 bar was investigated. Various techniques including XRD, N2 adsorption and DRUV-vis were employed for the materials characterization. The results showed that a low nickel loading on MCM-41 support promoted the presence of hydrogen-favorable sites, increasing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of titania nanotubes and gold nanoparticles nanocomposites for hydrogen production improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Rhauane Almeida, E-mail: rhaugalvao@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE(Brazil); Silva, Germana Michelle Medeiros e; Machado, Giovanna [Centro de Tecnologias Estrategicas do Nordeste, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In the New Policies Scenario, world electricity demand increases by almost 80% over the period 2012-2040. According to this, the world will need to increase energy supply and cleanly-generated electricity. Besides renewable energy sources such as solar energy have a high cost, it can provide clean power. Because of this, it is of great interest to create new devices capable to absorb and convert solar into electrical energy. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a great searched semiconductor for solar energy conversion because of its great stability and low cost, besides its low solar energy absorption (± 5% of solar spectrum). Sensitization with nanoparticles, such as gold (Au), is a good alternative to increase its efficiency. Using architectures such as nanotubes (NTs) and nanoparticles (NPs) is of interesting because of the unique properties achieved at these dimensions. To bind Au Nps into TiO{sub 2} NTs is a great challenge. Using self assembled thin films is a good option because of its operability. On this study, amorphous TiO{sub 2} NTs were synthesized by anodization of a Ti foil using an organic electrolyte with a set potential during 30 minutes. After this, the self-assembly method was used on the tubes using Poly(Allylamine Hydrochloride) (PAH) as polycation and Poly(Acrilic Acid) (PAA) as polyanion, completing 10 and 10.5. Then, the samples were immersed in a solution of Tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl{sub 4}) at different pHs during 2 hours, lightly washed and submitted to UV-radiation during 24 hours. In order to make a comparison, it has been prepared samples without binds. At last, the samples were heat treated at 400°C during 3 hours to obtain TiO2 anatase phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy characterized the samples. Finally, the hydrogen production was evaluated using a solar simulator and gas chromatography. The results show that the use of a bind is greatly favorable to

  12. Synthesis, characterization, release kinetics and toxicity profile of drug-loaded starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; El-Rafie, M H; El-sheikh, M A; El-Feky, Gina S; Hebeish, A

    2015-11-01

    The current research work focuses on the medical application of the cost-effective cross-linked starch nanoparticles, for the transdermal delivery using Diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug. The prepared DS-cross-linked starch nanoparticles were synthesized using nanoprecipitation technique at different concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in the presence of Tween 80 as a surfactant. The resultant cross-linked starch nanoparticles loaded with DS were characterized using world-class facilities such as TEM, DLS, FT-IR, XRD, and DSc. The efficiency of DS loading was also evaluated via entrapment efficiency as well as in vitro release and histopathological study on rat skin. The optimum nanoparticles formulation selected by the JMP(®) software was the formula that composed of 5% maize starch, 57.7mg DS and 0.5% STPP and 0.4% Tween 80, with particle diameter of about 21.04nm, polydispersity index of 0.2 and zeta potential of -35.3mV. It is also worth noting that this selected formula shows an average entrapment efficiency of 95.01 and sustained DS release up to 6h. The histophathological studies using the best formula on rat skin advocate the use of designed transdermal DS loaded cross-linked starch nanoparticles as it is safe and non-irritant to rat skin. The overall results indicate that, the starch nanoparticles could be considered as a good carrier for DS drug regarding the enhancement in its controlled release and successful permeation, thus, offering a promising nanoparticulate system for the transdermal delivery non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Serap; Mustafaeva, Zeynep Akdeste; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-10-20

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in dogs. The 1 L15 and 7 L15 peptides overlap each other with QPDGGQPAV residues (7-15 of VP2 capsid protein of CPV) is shown to produce high immune response. PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have special properties such as; controlled antigen release, protection from degradation, elimination of booster-dose and enhancing the cellular uptake by antigen presenting cells. Nevertheless, there is no study available in literature, about developing vaccine based on PLGA nanoparticles with adjuvant properties against CPV. Thus, the aim of the present study was to synthesize and characterize high immunogenic W-1 L19 peptide (from the VP2 capsid protein of CPV) loaded PLGA nanoparticle and to evaluate their in vitro immunogenic activity. PLGA nanoparticles were produced with 5.26 ± 0.05 % loading capacity and high encapsulation efficiency with 81.2 ± 3.1 %. Additionally, it was evaluated that free NPs and W-1 L19 peptide encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles have Z-ave of 183.9 ± 12.1 nm, 221.7 ± 15.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.107 ± 0.08, 0.135 ± 0.12 respectively. It was determined that peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles were successfully phagocytized by macrophage cells and increased NO production at 2-folds (*P vaccine candidate against Canine Parvovirus. Studies targeting PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system must be maintained in near future in order to develop new and more effective nano-vaccine formulations.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of 5-Fluorouracil-Loaded Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked Chitosan Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra ÖZBAŞ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization and drug release behavior of 5-fluorouracil-loaded glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan hydrogels have been studied. The structure of the hydrogels were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, also their properties were compared with those of the drug-unloaded hydrogels. The equilibrium swelling studies and drug release profiles were determined at 37°C in two different pHs (2.1 and 7.4. The results indicated that increased chitosan concentration in the hydrogel decreased the swelling and drug release values and the hydrogels released nearly the same amount of 5-fluorouracil in both acidic (~59% and basic medium (~50%.

  15. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  16. In-situ load-deformation characterization of the CSM/OCRD jointed test block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, A.M.; Hustrulid, W.; Brown, S.; Ubbes, W.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive ambient-temperature test series has recently been completed on a block of Precambrian Gneiss at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) Experimental Mine in Idaho Springs, Colorado. Block tests came into existence out of a desire to test a relatively large volume of rock and thereby minimize the scaling problems encountered when laboratory test results are used to obtain modeling parameters for full-size structures. A typical block test involves isolation of a large, approximately two-meter cube of rock by cutting slots on four sides and inserting flatjacks for loading. Much interest has recently centered around block tests as a promising method for in-situ characterization of rock-masses for licensing future commercial nuclear-waste repositories in crystalline rock. To date only a few block tests have been conducted

  17. Artesunate-loaded chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Renu; Gupta, Sushma; Pathak, Natasha

    2012-12-01

    Artesunate (AST), the most widely used artemisnin derivative, has poor aqueous solubility and suffers from low oral bioavailability (~40%). Under these conditions, nanoparticles with controlled and sustained released properties can be a suitable solution for improving its biopharmaceuticals properties. This work reports the preparation and characterization of auto-assembled chitosan/lecithin nanoparticles loaded with AST and AST complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to boost its antimalarial activity. The nanoparticles prepared by direct injection of lecithin alcoholic solution into chitosan/water solution have shown the particle size distribution below 300 nm. Drug entrapment efficiency was found to be maximum (90%) for nanoparticles containing 100 mg of AST. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical shape with contrasted corona (chitosan) surrounded by a lipidic core (lecithin + isopropyl myristate). Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated the presence of drug in drug-loaded nanoparticles along with the disappearance of decomposition exotherm suggesting the increased physical stability of drug in prepared formulations. Negligible changes in the characteristic peaks of drug in Fourier-transform infrared spectra indicated the absence of any interaction among the various components entrapped in the nanoparticle formulation. In vitro drug release behavior was found to be influenced by pH value. Increased in vivo antimalarial activity in terms of less mean percent parasitemia was observed in infected Plasmodium berghei mice after the oral administration of all the prepared nanoparticle formulations.

  18. Insulin-loaded polymeric mucoadhesive nanoparticles: development, characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Henrique Honorato Gatti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucoadhesive nanoparticles are particularly interesting for delivery through nasal or pulmonary routes, as an approach to overcome the mucociliary clearance. Moreover, these nanoparticles are attractive for peptide and protein delivery, particularly for insulin to treat diabetes, as an alternative to conventional parenteral administration. Thus, chitosan, a cationic mucoadhesive polysaccharide found in shells of crustaceans, and the negatively-charged dextran sulfate are able to form nanoparticles through ionic condensation, representing a potential insulin carrier. Herein, chitosan/dextran sulfate nanoparticles at various ratios were prepared for insulin loading. Formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release. Moreover, the interaction with mucin and the cytotoxicity against a lung cell line were studied, which altogether have not been addressed before. Results evidenced that a proper selection of polyelectrolytes is necessary for smaller particle size formation and also the composition and zeta potential impact encapsulation efficiency, which is benefited by the positive charge of chitosan. Insulin remained stable after encapsulation as evidenced by calorimetric assays, and was released in a sustained manner in the first 10 h. Positively-charged nanoparticles based on chitosan/dextran-sulfate at the ratio of 6:4 successfully interacted with mucin, which is a prerequisite for delivery to mucus-containing tissues. Finally, insulin-loaded nanoparticles displayed no cytotoxicity effect against lung cells at tested concentrations, suggesting the potential for further in vivo studies.

  19. Characterization and Testing of Improved Hydrogen Getter Materials - FY16 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Kevin Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Cynthia Wathen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    Organic-based hydrogen getter materials have been in use for many years. These materials are able to prevent the dangerous buildup of hydrogen gas in sealed containers, and are also used to protect surrounding materials from degradation caused by chemical reactions. This document describes these materials.

  20. Xenon capture on silver-loaded zeolites: characterization of very strong adsorption sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Cecile; Elbaraoui, Adnane; Aguado, Sonia; Schuurman, Yves; Farrusseng, David; Springuel-Huet, Marie-Anne; Nossov, Andrei; Fontaine, Jean-Pierre; Topin, Sylvain; Taffary, Thomas; Deliere, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The number and strength of adsorption sites for Xe in silver-modified zeolites are estimated from isotherm measurements at various temperatures over a broad range of pressure (from 1 ppm to atmospheric pressure). Fully and partially exchanged silver zeolites were synthesized starting from Na-ZSM-5(25), Na-ZSM-5(40), Na-Beta, NaX, and NaY. We have discovered that silver-modified zeolites may present one or two distinct adsorption sites depending on the nature of the material and silver loadings. The strongest adsorption sites are characterized by isosteric heat of adsorption in the order of -40 to -50 kJ.mol -1 . For Pentasil-type zeolites, we observe a linear 2:1 correlation between the total amount of silver and the number of strong sites. The highest concentration of strong sites is found for fully silver exchanged ZSM-5 (5.7 * 10 -4 mol/g), which presents the largest silver content for Pentasil-type zeolite. The equilibrium constant of Ag-ZSM-5 at low pressure is about 50 times larger than that of AgX. Qualitative correlations were established between Xe adsorption isotherms and Xe NMR signals. We show that Xe NMR could be used as a quantitative method for the characterization of the strength and of the number of strong Xe adsorption sites on silver-exchanged zeolites. The numbers of strong adsorption sites responsible for the Xe adsorption at 10-1000 ppm can be determined by the length of the plateau observed at low Xe uptake. In practice, our findings give guidelines for the discovery and optimization of silver-loaded zeolites for the capture of Xe at ppm levels. It appears that the amount of silver is a key parameter. Silver-modified ZSM-5 shows adsorption capacities 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than currently applied adsorbents for atmospheric Xe capture. (authors)

  1. Preparation and characterization of DOX loaded keratin nanoparticles for pH/GSH dual responsive release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanmei; Zhi, Xuelian [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Lin, Jiantao [Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808 (China); You, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: jyuan@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Smart drug carriers are the current need of the hour in controlled drug delivery applications. In this work, pH and redox dual responsive keratin based drug-loaded nanoparticles (KDNPs) were fabricated through two-step strategies. Keratin nanoparticles were first prepared by desolvation method and chemical crosslinking, followed by electrostatic adsorbing doxorubicin (DOX) to afford drug loaded keratin nanoparticles (KDNPs). The size, size distribution, and morphology of the KDNPs were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scan electronic microscope (SEM). Drug delivery profiles showed that KDNPs exhibited pH and glutathione (GSH) dual-responsive characters. Under tumor tissue/cell microenvironments (more acidic and high GSH level), KDNPs tended to accumulate at the tumor region through a potential enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and perform surface negative-to-positive charge conversion. Hemolysis assay indicated that KDNPs had good blood compatibility. Cellular uptake assay demonstrated that KDNPs could be internalized by A 549 cells through endocytosis. Intriguingly, KDNPs were capable of promoting nitric oxide (NO) release from endogenous donor of S-nitrosoglutathione in the presence of GSH. All of these results demonstrated that keratin based drug carriers had potential for drug/NO delivery and cancer therapy in clinical medicine. - Graphical abstract: pH and redox dual responsive keratin based drug-loaded nanoparticles (KDNPs) were fabricated by desolvation with chemical crosslinking, followed by electrostatic adsorbing DOX to afford DOX loaded keratin nanoparticles (KDNPs). Drug delivery profiles showed that KDNPs exhibited pH and GSH dual-responsive characters. Under tumor tissue/cell microenvironments (more acidic and high GSH level), KDNPs tended to accumulate at the tumor region through a potential enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and perform surface negative-to-positive charge conversion. Hemolysis assay

  2. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M.; Pace, S.; Vecchione, A.; Tripodi, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA)

  3. An experimental study of a hydrogen-enriched ethanol fueled Wankel rotary engine at ultra lean and full load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrouche, F.; Erickson, P.A.; Varnhagen, S.; Park, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • H_2 was added at the intake of a single-rotor ethanol fueled Wankel engine. • The engine was operating at ultra-lean condition, WOT and 3000 rpm. • H_2 enrichment helps shortening the burn duration, enhance the thermal efficiency and reduce the BSEC. • H_2 addition helps to reduce HC, CO and CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: In this paper, the effect of hydrogen addition to ethanol in a monorotor Wankel engine at wide open throttle position and in an ultra-lean operating regime was experimentally investigated. For this aim, variation of hydrogen enrichment levels on the ethanol engine performance and emissions were considered. Experiments were carried out under a constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and fixed spark timing of 15 °BTDC. The test results showed that hydrogen enrichment improved the combustion process through shortening of the flame development and flame propagation periods and reducing the cyclic variation. Furthermore, the reduction of burn duration with the increase of hydrogen fraction enhances the thermal efficiency, reducing the brake-specific energy consumption, as well as reducing the unburned hydrocarbons emissions of the Wankel engine.

  4. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-01

    Ni2P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni2P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation. The porous Ni2P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni2P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni2P, H2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h- 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h- 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni2P-Cd0.5Zn0.5S composites. The effect of Ni2P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni2P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of two polyoxometalates consisting of different Cu-ligand hydrogen phosphate units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jinshuang; Zhao, Xiaofang; Huang, Jiao; Gong, Kaining; Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@126.com; Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15

    Two polyoxometalates [(Cu-mbpy){sub 4}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·H{sub 2}O (1) and [(Cu-mbpy){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}][PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·4H{sub 2}O (2) (mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl in 1; 5,5″-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl in 2) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. The structural features of 1–2 are in their cationic moieties consisting of different linkages of [Cu-mbpy]{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups. In 1 four Cu-mbpy bridged by two HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions form a discrete cluster with an interesting octahedron of (Cu{sub 4}P{sub 2}), while in 2 Cu-mbpy fragments are bridged by HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into 1D structure consisting of trigonal bipyramidal polyhedra of (Cu{sub 3}P{sub 2}). Photocatalytic experiments indicate that compounds 1 and 2 are actively photocatalytic for degradation of methyl orange in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Two polyoxometalate-based supramolecular compounds consisting of different linkages based on Cu-ligand and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups have been synthesized and characterized. The photocatalytic activity are studied. Highlights: • Two polyoxometalate-based supramolecular compounds consisting of different linkages based on Cu-ligand and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups have been synthesized. • Hydrogen bonding and π…π interactions play important roles in constructing crystal supramolecular frameworks. • Two compounds represent a high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange.

  7. Characterization of salinity loads and selenium loads in the Smith Fork Creek region of the Lower Gunnison River Basin, western Colorado, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rodney J.; Linard, Joshua I.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower Gunnison River Basin of the Colorado River Basin has elevated salinity and selenium levels. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of June 24, 1974 (Public Law 93–320, amended by Public Law 98–569), authorized investigation of the Lower Gunnison Basin Unit Salinity Control Project by the U.S. Department of the Interior. The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the Natural Resources Conservation Service are responsible for assessing and implementing measures to reduce salinity and selenium loading in the Colorado River Basin. Cost-sharing programs help farmers, ranchers, and canal companies improve the efficiency of water delivery systems and irrigation practices. The delivery systems (irrigation canals) have been identified as potential sources of seepage, which can contribute to salinity loading. Reclamation wants to identify seepage from irrigation systems in order to maximize the effectiveness of the various salinity-control methods, such as polyacrylamide lining and piping of irrigation canals programs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Reclamation, developed a study to characterize the salinity and selenium loading of seven subbasins in the Smith Fork Creek region and identify where control efforts can be maximized to reduce salinity and selenium loading. Total salinity loads ranged from 27.9±19.1 tons per year (t/yr) to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. The four natural subbasins—BkKm, RCG1, RCG2, and SF1—had total salinity loads of 27.9±19.1 t/yr, 371±248 t/yr, 2,180±1,590 t/yr, and 4,200±2,720 t/yr, respectively. The agriculturally influenced sites had salinity loads that ranged from 7,580±6,900 t/yr to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. Salinity loads for the subbasins AL1, B1, CK1, SF2, and SF3 were 7,580±6,900 t/yr; 28,300±26,700 t/yr; 48,700±36,100 t/yr; 87,500±80,900 t/yr; and 52,200±31,800 t/yr, respectively. The agricultural salinity load was separated into three components: tail water, deep percolation, and canal seepage

  8. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  9. Isolation and characterization of autotrophic, hydrogen-utilizing, perchlorate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Joshua D; Scheetz, Todd E; Casavant, Thomas L; Parkin, Gene F

    2005-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that perchlorate (ClO(4) (-)) can be degraded by some pure-culture and mixed-culture bacteria with the addition of hydrogen. This paper describes the isolation of two hydrogen-utilizing perchlorate-degrading bacteria capable of using inorganic carbon for growth. These autotrophic bacteria are within the genus Dechloromonas and are the first Dechloromonas species that are microaerophilic and incapable of growth at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Dechloromonas sp. JDS5 and Dechloromonas sp. JDS6 are the first perchlorate-degrading autotrophs isolated from a perchlorate-contaminated site. Measured hydrogen thresholds were higher than for other environmentally significant, hydrogen-utilizing, anaerobic bacteria (e.g., halorespirers). The chlorite dismutase activity of these bacteria was greater for autotrophically grown cells than for cells grown heterotrophically on lactate. These bacteria used fumarate as an alternate electron acceptor, which is the first report of growth on an organic electron acceptor by perchlorate-reducing bacteria.

  10. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  11. Life Time Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a promising technological solution for efficient energy conversion and production of hydrogen or syngas. The commercialization of the SOEC technology can be promoted if SOECs can be operated at high current density with stable performance over ~5 years...... - 3 years (continuous operation, setting 1.5 V as the upper voltage defining “end of life”). The results provide technological input to future design of electrolysis plants for hydrogen production. © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  12. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375–503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  13. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, Antonella, E-mail: antonellamaria.aresta@uniba.it; Calvano, Cosima Damiana [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio [University of Bari, Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences (Italy); Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-{beta}-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  14. Lysozyme-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and colloidal stability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, Burcu; Kara, Aslı; Vural, İmran; Bozkır, Asuman

    2016-11-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNPs) are polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers, which have emerged as a potent therapeutic nanocarrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. The aim of this work was to develop, characterize and evaluate LPNPs to deliver a model protein, lysozyme. Lysozyme-loaded LPNPs were prepared by using the modified w/o/w double-emulsion-solvent-evaporation method. Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) was used as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture was used to form a lipid shell around the LPNPs. LPNPs were evaluated for particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, stability and cytotoxicity. The DLS measurement results showed that the particle size of LPNPs ranged from 58.04 ± 1.95 nm to 2009.00 ± 0.52 nm. The AFM and TEM images of LPNPs demonstrate that LPNPs are spherical in shape. The protein-loading capacity of LPNPs ranged from 5.81% to 60.32%, depending on the formulation parameters. LPNPs displayed a biphasic drug release pattern with a burst release within 1 h, followed by sustained release afterward. Colloidal stability results of LPNPs in different media showed that particle size and zeta potential values of particles did not change significantly in all media except of FBS 100% for 120 h. Finally, the results of a cellular uptake study showed that LPNPs were significantly taken up by 83.3% in L929 cells. We concluded that the LPNPs prepared with PCL as polymeric core material and tripalmitin:lechitin mixture as lipid shell should be a promising choice for protein delivery.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of primaquine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omwoyo WN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Nyaigoti Omwoyo,1,2 Bernhards Ogutu,3,4 Florence Oloo,3,5 Hulda Swai,6 Lonji Kalombo,6 Paula Melariri,6 Geoffrey Maroa Mahanga,2 Jeremiah Waweru Gathirwa3,4 1Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya; 2Department of Chemistry, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Bondo, Kenya; 3Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 4Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Chemical Sciences and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Department of Polymers and Composites, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: Primaquine (PQ is one of the most widely used antimalarial drugs and is the only available drug that combats the relapsing form of malaria. PQ use in higher doses is limited by severe tissue toxicity including hematological- and gastrointestinal-related side effects. Nanoformulation of drugs in an appropriate drug carrier system has been extensively studied and shown to have the potential to improve bioavailability, thereby enhancing activity, reducing dose frequency, and subsequently reducing toxicity. The aim of this work was to design, synthesize, and characterize PQ-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs (PQ-SLNs as a potential drug-delivery system. SLNs were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification evaporation method based on a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsion. The mean particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and encapsulation efficiency of the PQ-SLNs were 236 nm, +23 mV, 14%, and 75%, respectively. The zeta potential of the SLNs changed dramatically, from -6.54 mV to +23.0 mV, by binding positively charged chitosan as surface modifier. A spherical morphology of PQ-SLNs was seen by scanning electron microscope. In vitro, release profile depicted a steady drug release over 72 hours. Differential scanning calorimeter thermograms demonstrated presence

  16. Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YQ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yi-qing Zhao, Li-ping Wang, Chao Ma, Kun Zhao, Ying Liu, Nian-ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine.Methods: The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10% as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats.Results: The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 µg/mL to 35.64 µg/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed

  17. Characterizing Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia of Soldiers' Loads Packed for Combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasselquist, Leif; Bensel, Carolyn K; Norton, Karen; Piscitelle, Louis; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2004-01-01

    ...) location and moment of inertia (MOI) may be influenced in combat load packing. In addition, the physical properties of the combat loads were compared to the properties of a laboratory fabricated backpack...

  18. Characterizing Axial Stiffness of Individual Batter Piles with Emphasis on Elevated, Laterally Loaded, Clustered Pile Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    using the appropriate stiffness based on the direction of the calculated pile load. 1...load cases. CPGA utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of three-dimensional pile group analysis for user-specified static loadings. The pile...CPGA analysis and coordinate systems (global and pile) As discussed in Chapter 1, the CPGA software utilizes the stiffness method (Saul 1968) of

  19. Ruthenium dioxide nanoparticles in ionic liquids: synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties in hydrogenation of olefins and arenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Liane M.; Dupont, Jairton; Machado, Giovanna; Fichtner, Paulo F.P.; Radtke, Claudio; Baumvol, Israel J.R.; Teixeira, Sergio R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of NaBH 4 with RuCl 3 dissolved in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI.PF 6 ) ionic liquid is a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of stable RuO 2 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution within 2-3 nm. RuO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, XPS, EDS and TEM. These nanoparticles showed high catalytic activity either in the solventless or liquid-liquid biphasic hydrogenation of olefins and arenes under mild reaction conditions. Hg(0) and CS 2 poisoning experiments and XRD and TEM analysis of particles isolated after catalysis indicated the formation of Ru(0) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles could be re-used in solventless conditions up to 10 times in the hydrogenation of 1-hexene yielding a total turnover number for exposed Ru atoms of 175,000. (author)

  20. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  1. High speed diagnostics for characterization of oxygen / hydrogen rocket injector flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Justin M.

    Temporally-resolved diagnostics are needed to characterize the highly-turbulent flowfields of rocket engine combustors. Two different high speed diagnostic techniques have been applied successfully to study the combustion and mixing characteristics of single-element shear-coaxial injector flowfield in a rocket combustor. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is applied to make in-situ measurements with combusting gas-gas propellants, and high speed imaging incorporating backlighting is applied to combusting and non-combusting liquid-gas and gas-gas propellants. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to make path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction measurements in a gaseous oxygen / gaseous hydrogen uni-element rocket chamber with hot background flow. Four mixture conditions were studied at a nominal chamber pressure of 115 psia. Near infrared diode lasers were utilized to target rovibrational transitions of water vapor, which is created through the combustion processes. Both direct absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic (1f-normalized WMS-2 f) techniques were applied, with the harmonic detection technique found to yield the best results. Centerline measurements were made at two axial locations, in the near-injector region and far-field region further downstream. Time-resolved measurements of temperature and H2O mole fraction in the rocket chamber are presented. The TDLAS measurements shows clear differences between the near-injector and downstream measurement locations. Mean path-integrated temperatures and H2O mole fractions in the near-injector region are lower than the downstream measurement location. Fluctuations in path-integrated temperature and H2O mole fraction in the downstream location are significantly greater than the near-injector region. This suggests increased turbulence and larger-scale mixing processes are occurring in the downstream

  2. Characterization of hydrogen levels by ultrasonic techniques in zirconium alloys of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Martin P.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a Master Thesis, it was examined the ratio between hydrogen quantity forming hydrides, and ultrasonic waves parameters such as propagation velocity and attenuation, for Zry-4 samples. It was to find some typical behavior for the studied parameters changing hydrogen quantity added as hydrides, for a future use as an on field NDT. With that purpose were constructed fourteen samples, eleven with added hydrogen. Three samples were left without charge as standard samples for charge and annealing processes. The quantity of hydrogen added as hydrides was varied between 0 and 516.7 ppm. Ultrasound measurements were made with compressive waves at frequencies of 10 and 30 MHz. Attenuation has been measured at both frequencies and velocity at 30 MHz. Propagation velocity showed a raising rate for test samples. For samples with hydridation conditions used in this work, this parameter would allow to measure hydrogen quantity forming hydrides with an error in the two digits of the ppm range. Attenuation measurements showed a raising tendency too, but in this case are unable for hydrides quantification, caused by a high error in attenuation measurements for both frequencies and for a fluctuating behavior at 30 MHz. (author) [es

  3. Characterization of wear debris from metal-on-metal hip implants during normal wear versus edge-loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovochich, Michael; Fung, Ernest S; Donovan, Ellen; Unice, Kenneth M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2018-04-01

    Advantages of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants include low volumetric wear rates and the release of nanosized wear particles that are chemically inert and readily cleared from local tissue. In some patients, edge loading conditions occur, which result in higher volumetric wear. The objective of this study was to characterize the size, morphology, and chemistry of wear particles released from MoM hip implants during normal (40° angle) and edge-loading (65° angle with microseparation) conditions. The mean primary particle size by volume under normal wear was 35 nm (range: 9-152 nm) compared with 95 nm (range: 6-573 nm) under edge-loading conditions. Hydrodynamic diameter analysis by volume showed that particles from normal wear were in the nano- (edge-loading conditions generated particles that ranged from Edge-loading conditions generated more elongated particles (4.5%) (aspect ratio ≥ 2.5) and more CoCr alloy particles (9.3%) compared with normal wear conditions (1.3% CoCr particles). By total mass, edge-loading particles contained approximately 640-fold more cobalt than normal wear particles. Our findings suggest that high wear conditions are a potential risk factor for adverse local tissue effects in MoM patients who experience edge loading. This study is the first to characterize both the physical and chemical characteristics of MoM wear particles collected under normal and edge-loading conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 986-996, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil); Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia (Brazil); Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Costa, Tania Hass [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Química, Instituto de Química (Brazil); Jablonski, André [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Departamento de Engenharia de Minas (Brazil); Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira, E-mail: alessandro.rios@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  5. Experimental Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Full Load Pressure Surge in Francis Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    Full load pressure surge limits the operating range of hydro-electric generating units by causing significant power output swings and by compromising the safety of the plant. It appears during the off-design operation of hydraulic machines, which is increasingly required to regulate the broad integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the existing power network. The underlying causes and governing physical mechanisms of this instability were investigated in the frame of a large European research project and this paper documents the main findings from two experimental campaigns on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. The multi-phase flow in the draft tube is characterized by Particle Image Velocimetry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, along with synchronized measurements of the relevant hydro-mechanical quantities. The final result is a comprehensive overview of how the unsteady draft tube flow and the mechanical torque on the runner shaft behave during one mean period of the pressure oscillation, thus defining the unstable fluid-structure interaction responsible for the power swings. A discussion of the root cause is initiated, based on the state of the art. Finally, the latest results will enable a validation of recent RANS flow simulations used for determining the key parameters of hydro-acoustic stability models.

  6. Characterization of ITER tungsten qualification mock-ups exposed to high cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, Gerald, E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bednarek, Maja; Gavila, Pierre [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gerzoskovitz, Stefan [Plansee SE, Innovation Services, 6600 Reutte (Austria); Linke, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lorenzetto, Patrick; Riccardi, Bruno [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, Frederic [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Mechanical deformation of CuCrZr in case a thermal barrier layer has been formed due to impurity content in the cooling water. • Crack formation at the W/Cu interface starting at the block edge. • Porosity formation in the pure Cu interlayer. • Microstructural changes in tungsten down to the W/Cu interface, which indicates also high temperatures for the pure Cu interlayer. • Macrocrack formation in tungsten which is assumed to be ductile at the initiation point and brittle when proceeding toward the cooling tube. - Abstract: High heat flux tested small-scale tungsten monoblock mock-ups (5000 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and up to 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}) manufactured by Plansee and Ansaldo were characterized by metallographic means. Therein, the macrocrack formation and propagation in tungsten, its recrystallization behavior and the surface response to different heat load facilities were investigated. Furthermore, debonding at the W/Cu interface, void formation in the soft copper interlayer and microcrack formation at the inner surface of the CuCrZr cooling tube were found.

  7. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla Pereira dos; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (−11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C)

  8. Development of lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules: physicochemical characterization and stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Priscilla Pereira; Paese, Karina; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Costa, Tania Hass; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop lycopene-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Lyc-LNCs) by the interfacial deposition of preformed poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). Lyc extract (93.9 %) was obtained from tomatoes, and the organic phase was prepared with polymer (PCL), caprylic/capric triglycerides, sorbitan monostearate, and Lyc in a mixture of acetone and ethanol under magnetic stirring at 40 °C. The organic phase was injected into an aqueous phase containing polysorbate 80, and the suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure. The formulation with a Lyc concentration of 85 µg/mL was characterized in terms of size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, pH, viscosity, and color. The Lyc-LNC formulation presented stable values for the z-average (193 ± 4.7 nm) and zeta potential (-11.5 ± 0.40 mV). Despite the lower pH, Lyc content, and color change of the suspension, the nanocapsules showed satisfactory stability, presenting around 50 % Lyc content after 14 days of storage at room temperature (25 °C).

  9. Fabrication, polarization, and characterization of PVDF matrix composites for integrated structural load sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghiashtiani, Ghazaleh; Greminger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate a new carbon fiber reinforced composite structure with integrated sensing capabilities. In this composite structure, the typical matrix material used for carbon fiber reinforced composites is replaced with the thermoplastic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF). Since PVDF has piezoelectric properties, it enables the structure to be used for integrated load sensing. In addition, the electrical conductivity property of the carbon fabric is harnessed to form the electrodes of the integrated sensor. In order to prevent the carbon fiber electrodes from shorting to each other, a thin Kevlar fabric layer is placed between the two carbon fiber electrode layers as a dielectric. The optimal polarization parameters were determined using a design of experiments approach. Once polarized, the samples were then used in compression and tensile tests to determine the effective d 33 and d 31 piezoelectric coefficients. The degree of polarization of the PVDF material was determined by relating the effective d 33 coefficient of the composite to the achieved d 33 of the PVDF component of the composite using a closed form expression. Using this approach, it was shown that optimal polarization of the composite material results in a PVDF component d 33 of 3.2 pC N −1 . Moreover, the Young’s modulus of the composite structure has been characterized. (paper)

  10. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  11. Characterization of SCC crack tip and hydrogen distribution in alloy 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Nobuo; Fukuya, Koji [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [Toyama Univ. (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In order to identify the mechanism of primary water stress corrosion cracking (SCC), direct observations of SCC crack tip microstructure and hydrogen distribution in alloy 600 were carried out. A new technique has been developed to prepare electron transparent foils including the crack tip using focused-ion beam (FIB) micro-processing technique. Cr-rich oxide and metal-Ni phase were identified in the crack tip and grain boundary ahead of the crack. >From the fact that similar microstructure was observed in the surface oxide layer, it is suggested that the oxidation mechanism is identical at the crack tip region and the surface. It became clear that the crack tip region and the oxidized grain boundary don't work as strong trapping sites of solute hydrogen under unloaded condition, because a homogeneous hydrogen distribution around the crack tip region was detected by tritium microautoradiography. (author)

  12. Development and Characterization of Titanium Dioxide Gel with Encapsulated Bacteriorhodopsin for Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kaitlin E; Gakhar, Sukriti; Risbud, Subhash H; Longo, Marjorie L

    2018-06-06

    We study bacteriorhodopsin (BR) in its native purple membrane encapsulated within amorphous titanium dioxide, or titania, gels and in the presence of titania sol-particles to explore this system for hydrogen production. Förster resonance energy transfer between BR and titanium dioxide sol particles was used to conclude that there is nanometer-scale proximity of bacteriorhodopsin to the titanium dioxide. The detection of BR-titania sol aggregates by fluorescence anisotropy and particle sizing indicated the affinity amorphous titania has for BR without the use of additional cross-linkers. UV-Visible spectroscopy of BR-titania gels show that methanol addition did not denature BR at a 25 mM concentration presence as a sacrificial electron donor. Additionally, confinement of BR in the gels significantly limited protein denaturation at higher concentration of added methanol or ethanol. Subsequently, titania gels fabricated through the sol-gel process using a titanium ethoxide precursor, water and the addition of 25 mM methanol were used to encapsulate BR and a platinum reduction catalyst for the production of hydrogen gas under white light irradiation. The inclusion of 5 µM bacteriorhodopsin resulted in a hydrogen production rate of about 3.8 µmole hydrogen mL -1 hr -1 , an increase of 52% compared to gels containing no protein. Electron transfer and proton pumping by BR in close proximity to the titania gel surface are feasible explanations for the enhanced production of hydrogen without the need to crosslink BR to the titania gel. This work sets the stage for further developments of amorphous, rather than crystalline, titania-encapsulated bacteriorhodopsin for solar-driven hydrogen production through water-splitting.

  13. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-02

    Ni 2 P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H 2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni 2 P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H 2 generation. The porous Ni 2 P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni 2 P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni 2 P, H 2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h - 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h - 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni 2 P-Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S composites. The effect of Ni 2 P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni 2 P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  14. Hydrogen maser clocks in space for solid-Earth research and time-transfer applications: Experiment overview and evaluation of Russian miniature sapphire loaded cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, G.; Bernier, L. G.; Silvestrin, P.; Feltham, S.; Gaygerov, B. A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    The Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchatel (ON) is developing for ESTEC a compact H-maser for space use based upon a miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, a technique pioneered at VNIIFTRI. Various contacts between West-European parties, headed by ESA, and the Russian parties, headed by ESA, led to the proposal for flying two H-masers on Meteor 3M, a Russian meteorology satellite in low polar orbit. The experiment will include two masers, one provided by ON and the other by VNIIFTRI. T/F transfer and precise positioning will be performed by both a microwave link, using PRARE equipment, and an optical link, using LASSO-like equipment. The main objectives of the experiment are precise orbit determination and point positioning for geodetic/geophysical research, ultra-accurate time comparison and dissemination as well as in-orbit demonstration of operation and performance of H-masers. Within the scope of a preliminary space H-maser development phase performed for ESTEC at ON in preparation to the joint experiment, a Russian miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, on loan from VNIIFTRI, was evaluated in a full-size EFOS hydrogen maser built by ON. The experimental evaluation confirmed the theoretical expectation that with a hydrogen storage volume of only 0.65 liter an atomic quality factor of 1.5 x 10(exp 9) can be obtained for a -105 dBm output power. This represents a theoretical Allan deviation of 1.7 x 10(exp -15) averaged on a 1000 s time interval. From a full-size design to a compact one, therefore, the sacrifice in performance due to the reduction of the storage volume is very small.

  15. Electrical characterization of deep levels in n-type GaAs after hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamhere, C.; Botha, J.R.; Venter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (L-DLTS) have been used to investigate defects in an n-type GaAs before and after exposure to a dc hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation). DLTS revealed the presence of three prominent electron traps in the material in the temperature range 20-300 K. However, L-DLTS with its higher resolution enabled the splitting of two narrowly spaced emission rates. Consequently four electron traps at, E C -0.33 eV, E C -0.36 eV, E C -0.38 eV and E C -0.56 eV were observed in the control sample. Following hydrogenation, all these traps were passivated with a new complex (presumably the M3), emerging at E C -0.58 eV. Isochronal annealing of the passivated material between 50 and 300 o C, revealed the emergence of a secondary defect, not previously observed, at E C -0.37 eV. Finally, the effect of hydrogen passivation is completely reversed upon annealing at 300 o C, as all the defects originally observed in the reference sample were recovered.

  16. Electrical characterization of deep levels in n-type GaAs after hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamhere, C., E-mail: s210239522@live.nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R.; Venter, A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Laplace-DLTS (L-DLTS) have been used to investigate defects in an n-type GaAs before and after exposure to a dc hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation). DLTS revealed the presence of three prominent electron traps in the material in the temperature range 20-300 K. However, L-DLTS with its higher resolution enabled the splitting of two narrowly spaced emission rates. Consequently four electron traps at, E{sub C}-0.33 eV, E{sub C}-0.36 eV, E{sub C}-0.38 eV and E{sub C}-0.56 eV were observed in the control sample. Following hydrogenation, all these traps were passivated with a new complex (presumably the M3), emerging at E{sub C}-0.58 eV. Isochronal annealing of the passivated material between 50 and 300 {sup o}C, revealed the emergence of a secondary defect, not previously observed, at E{sub C}-0.37 eV. Finally, the effect of hydrogen passivation is completely reversed upon annealing at 300 {sup o}C, as all the defects originally observed in the reference sample were recovered.

  17. Characterization of hydrogen contained in passivated poly-Si and microcrystalline-Si by ERDA technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyryeva, Hanna; Honda, Shinya; Macková, Anna; Mates, Tomáš; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2006), s. 819-822 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ERDA * hydrogen concentration, * thin film solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2006

  18. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  19. Novel instrument for characterizing comprehensive physical properties under multi-mechanical loads and multi-physical field coupling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changyi; Zhao, Hongwei; Ma, Zhichao; Qiao, Yuansen; Hong, Kun; Ren, Zhuang; Zhang, Jianhai; Pei, Yongmao; Ren, Luquan

    2018-02-01

    Functional materials represented by ferromagnetics and ferroelectrics are widely used in advanced sensor and precision actuation due to their special characterization under coupling interactions of complex loads and external physical fields. However, the conventional devices for material characterization can only provide a limited type of loads and physical fields and cannot simulate the actual service conditions of materials. A multi-field coupling instrument for characterization has been designed and implemented to overcome this barrier and measure the comprehensive physical properties under complex service conditions. The testing forms include tension, compression, bending, torsion, and fatigue in mechanical loads, as well as different external physical fields, including electric, magnetic, and thermal fields. In order to offer a variety of information to reveal mechanical damage or deformation forms, a series of measurement methods at the microscale are integrated with the instrument including an indentation unit and in situ microimaging module. Finally, several coupling experiments which cover all the loading and measurement functions of the instrument have been implemented. The results illustrate the functions and characteristics of the instrument and then reveal the variety in mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the piezoelectric transducer ceramic, TbDyFe alloy, and carbon fiber reinforced polymer under coupling conditions.

  20. In situ characterization of Ti-peroxy gel during formation on titanium surfaces in hydrogen peroxide containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyco, Julie J.; Gray, Jeremy J.; Ratto, Timothy V.; Orme, Christine A.; McKittrick, Joanna; Frangos, John

    2006-01-01

    Three possible functions of Ti-peroxy gel are: reduction of the inflammatory response through the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species; creation of a favorable surface for calcium phosphate nucleation; and as a transitional layer between the compliant surrounding tissue and the stiff titanium. Traditional surface characterization techniques operate in high vacuum environments that alter the actual sample-solution interface. Our studies used techniques that allowed samples to remain in solution and be observed over time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Raman spectroscopy were each used in situ to define kinetic and mechanical properties of Ti-peroxy gel as it formed over time on titanium during exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Our studies enabled us to monitor real-time changes in the native oxide layer on titanium in hydrogen peroxide containing solution, including the formation of a Ti-peroxy gel layer above the native oxide. Peaks attributed to Ti-peroxy gel were seen to emerge over the course of several hours using in situ Raman spectroscopy. Force-distance curves suggest a layer that thickens with time on the titanium sample surface. EIS data showed that changes in the surface layers could be monitored in solution over time

  1. Stavudine loaded gelatin liposomes for HIV therapy: Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Debasis; Boxi, Ankita; Ashe, Sarbani; Thathapudi, Neethi Chandra; Nayak, Bismita, E-mail: nayakb@nitrkl.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous research and availability of 25 different active compounds for treating chronic HIV-1 infection, there is no absolute cure for this deadly disease. Primarily, the residual viremia remains hidden in latently infected reservoir sites and persistently release the viral RNA into the blood stream. The study proposes the dual utilization of the prepared stavudine-containing nanoformulations to control the residual viremia as well as target the reservoir sites. Gelatin nanoformulations containing very low dosage of stavudine were prepared through classical desolvation process and were later loaded in soya lecithin-liposomes. The nanoformulations were characterized through dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ATR-FTIR. All the formulations were in nano regime with high hemocompatibility and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards Raw 264.7 macrophages. Among the various formulations, SG-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nanoformulation sample 3) and SG-LP-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nano-Liposome formulation sample 3) showed the best results in terms of yield, size, charge, encapsulation efficiency, hemocompatibility and % cell viability. For the first time, liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs using nanocarriers has been demonstrated using very low dosage (lower than the recommended WHO dosage) showing the prominent linear release of stavudine for up to 12 h which would reduce the circulatory viremia as well as reach the sanctuary reservoir sites due to their nanosize. This method of liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs in very low concentrations using nanocarriers could provide a novel therapeutic alternative to target HIV reservoir sites. - Highlights: • Stavudine entrapped gelatin nanocarriers prepared with two step desolvation process • Linear and release of stavudine from liposomal formulations up to 12 h • All the SG nanoparticles and SG-LP formulations showed negligible

  2. Stavudine loaded gelatin liposomes for HIV therapy: Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Debasis; Boxi, Ankita; Ashe, Sarbani; Thathapudi, Neethi Chandra; Nayak, Bismita

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuous research and availability of 25 different active compounds for treating chronic HIV-1 infection, there is no absolute cure for this deadly disease. Primarily, the residual viremia remains hidden in latently infected reservoir sites and persistently release the viral RNA into the blood stream. The study proposes the dual utilization of the prepared stavudine-containing nanoformulations to control the residual viremia as well as target the reservoir sites. Gelatin nanoformulations containing very low dosage of stavudine were prepared through classical desolvation process and were later loaded in soya lecithin-liposomes. The nanoformulations were characterized through dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ATR-FTIR. All the formulations were in nano regime with high hemocompatibility and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards Raw 264.7 macrophages. Among the various formulations, SG-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nanoformulation sample 3) and SG-LP-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nano-Liposome formulation sample 3) showed the best results in terms of yield, size, charge, encapsulation efficiency, hemocompatibility and % cell viability. For the first time, liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs using nanocarriers has been demonstrated using very low dosage (lower than the recommended WHO dosage) showing the prominent linear release of stavudine for up to 12 h which would reduce the circulatory viremia as well as reach the sanctuary reservoir sites due to their nanosize. This method of liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs in very low concentrations using nanocarriers could provide a novel therapeutic alternative to target HIV reservoir sites. - Highlights: • Stavudine entrapped gelatin nanocarriers prepared with two step desolvation process • Linear and release of stavudine from liposomal formulations up to 12 h • All the SG nanoparticles and SG-LP formulations showed negligible

  3. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro/vivo studies of oleanolic acid-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojing Xia,1,2 Haowei Liu,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jing Zhang,1 Jianping Zhou,1 Zhiying Zhao3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, ZheJiang Pharmaceutical College, Ningbo, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a pentacyclic triterpene, is used to safely and economically treat hepatopathy. However, OA, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System IV category drug, has low bioavailability owing to low solubility (<1 µg/mL and biomembrane permeability. We developed a novel OA nanoparticle (OA-NP-loaded lactoferrin (Lf nanodelivery system with enhanced in vitro OA dissolution and improved oral absorption and bioavailability. The OA-NPs were prepared using NP albumin-bound technology and characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro dissolution test. The in vivo pharmacokinetics was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OA-NPs (OA:Lf =1:6, w/w% exhibited spherical morphology, 202.2±8.3 nm particle size, +(27.1±0.32 mV ζ potential, 92.59%±3.24% encapsulation efficiency, and desirable in vitro release profiles. An effective in vivo bioavailability (340.59% was achieved compared to the free drug following oral administration to rats. The Lf novel nanodelivery vehicle enhanced the dissolution rate, intestinal absorption, and bioavailability of OA. These results demonstrate that Lf NPs are a new strategy for improving oral absorption and bioavailability of poorly soluble and poorly absorbed drugs. Keywords: oleanolic acid, nanoparticle, lactoferrin nanodelivery system, drug absorption, bioavailability

  4. Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S Quantum Dots onto Onion-Like Carbon Nanoparticles to Boost Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Wang, Xina; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Wang, Hanbin; Liu, Chunlei; Han, Yibo; Wang, Hao; Li, Quan

    2017-07-12

    Carbon dots (C dots, size < 10 nm) have been conventionally decorated onto semiconductor matrixes for photocatalytic H 2 evolution, but the efficiency is largely limited by the low loading ratio of the C dots on the photocatalyst. Here, we propose an inverse structure of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S quantum dots (QDs) loaded onto the onionlike carbon (OLC) matrix for noble metal-free photocatalytic H 2 evolution. Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S QDs (6.9 nm) were uniformly distributed on an OLC (30 nm) matrix with both upconverted and downconverted photoluminescence property. Such an inverse structure allows the full optimization of the QD/OLC interfaces for effective energy transfer and charge separation, both of which contribute to efficient H 2 generation. An optimized H 2 generation rate of 2018 μmol/h/g (under the irradiation of visible light) and 58.6 μmol/h/g (under the irradiation of 550-900 nm light) was achieved in the Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S/OLC composite samples. The present work shows that using the OLC matrix in such a reverse construction is a promising strategy for noble metal-free solar hydrogen production.

  5. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The result concluded that Neem oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with more lecithin content in their colloid exhibit sustained effect which satisfactorily produced the antibacterial action on Acne microbes. Therefore Neem oil loaded SLN was used successfully for prolonged treatment of Acne.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical characterization of Chlamydomonas sp. the Hydrogen Production's Strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chader, S.; Belhamel, M.; H Hacene

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen produced by biological way became, one of the most interesting subjects of research relating to development the energy system starting from renewable sources. This study describes the closed relation between the physiological behaviour, biochemical and rate of gases produced by Chlamydomonas sp. strain AT14, isolated in the area of Touat (the Sahara Algerian) and cultivated in a toric photo-bioreactor. A considerable growth was noted, where the concentration of the biomass double in only two days after incubation. The micro-algal cells present a 100% of viability, which relocate has satisfactory behaviour in the toric engine. In addition, the displacement water level in the system of measurement implies has gas production (0.1 ml) in coordination with the anaerobic period of the reactional enclosure. The yield of this way of hydrogen production is depending on the species used, the light intensity, and the conditions of culture. (authors)

  7. Characterization of the martensite phase formed during hydrogen ion irradiation in austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Lim, Sangyeob; Kwon, Junhyun

    2017-10-01

    Microstructural changes in austenitic stainless steel caused by hydrogen ion irradiation were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It has been confirmed that the irradiation induced the formation of martensite along the grain boundary; the martensite phase exhibited a crystal orientation relationship with the adjacent austenite phase. The results of this study also indicate that the concentration of Cr in the martensite phase is lower compared to that in the austenite matrix. The TEM results showed the development of asymmetric radiation-induced segregation (RIS) near the grain boundary, which leads to local changes in the chemical composition such as reduction of Cr near the grain boundary. The asymmetric RIS serves as a prerequisite for the formation of the martensite under hydrogen irradiation.

  8. Preparation and characterization of nickel catalysts supported on cerium for obtaining hydrogen from steam reforming of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaninho, A.B.; Bergamaschi, V.S.; Ferreira, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni/Ce catalysts for were prepared by co- precipitation method with a view to their use in steam reforming of ethanol to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy; x-ray dispersive Spectroscopy and surface area BET method. This paper proposes to prepare, characterize and test nickel catalyst supported on cerium in order to obtain a material with higher activity and selectivity of the catalyst using the steam reforming reaction of ethanol, by varying the reaction temperature, molar ratio water/ethanol and uptime. The catalytic tests were monitored by chemical analysis of syngas from steam reforming of ethanol using an analysis online by gas Chromatograph in the reactor. (author)

  9. Characterization of leaks from compressed hydrogen dispensing systems and related components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; San Marchi, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chernicoff, W.P.; Englom, L. [US DOT-RSPA, Research and Special Programs Administration, 400 7th St SW Washington, DC 20590 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    The equations are developed for the calculation of leak flow rates in various leak regimes. Leaks due to pressure-driven convection and due to permeation through metals are considered. For convective leaks, the conditions under which the flow transitions from laminar to turbulent and from subsonic to choked (sonic) flow are discussed. Equations are presented to calculate leak rates for subsonic laminar and turbulent flows, as well as choked (sonic) flow rates. Given the advantages of using noncombustible gases for leak testing and measurement, equations are also developed for calculating the equivalent leak rate of helium when it is used as a surrogate for the combustible gases hydrogen and methane in each of these flow regimes. Equations are derived for the permeation rate of hydrogen through several common metals. Tabulated data is presented for the permeation rates of hydrogen through pure iron and two types of stainless steel over a pressure range from 5000 to 15,000psi and a temperature range of -40-100{sup |}C. The results clearly show the sensitivity of flux to temperature, with over an order of magnitude increase in flux as the temperature is increased from ambient to 373K (100{sup |}C). Permeation rates are also found to vary significantly with material. For example, permeation rates for construction steel (as estimated from pure iron) are about three orders of magnitude higher than 403 stainless steel and nearly five orders of magnitude higher than type 316L stainless steel for a given temperature and pressure. Under many combinations of pressure and temperature, leak rates for Fe exceed the permissible gaseous hydrogen leak rates, while rates for 316L stainless steel are well below permissible permeation rates at all combinations of temperature and pressure considered. (author)

  10. Performance characterization of hydrogen isotope exchange and recombination catalysts for tritium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppiah, S.; Ryland, D.; Marcinkowska, K.; Boniface, H.; Everatt, A.

    2010-01-01

    AECL's hydrogen isotope exchange catalyst and recombination catalysts have been successfully applied to a wide range of industrial tritium-removal applications. The catalysts are used for Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) and for gas-phase and trickle-bed recombination of hydrogen isotopes and have led to process simplification, improved safety and operational advantages. Catalyst performance design equations derived from laboratory testing of these catalysts have been validated against performance under industrial conditions. In a Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) demonstration plant analyses of LPCE and recombiner efficiency were carried out as a function of catalyst activity over a wide range of operation. A steady-state process simulation used to model and design the hydrogen-water isotopic exchange processes, such as the CECE detritiation plant, was validated using the results of this demonstration. Catalyst development for isotope-exchange and recombination applications has continued over the last decade. As a result, significant improvements in catalyst performance have been achieved for these applications. This paper outlines the uniqueness of AECL's specialized catalysts and process designs for these applications with examples from laboratory and industrial case studies.

  11. Hydrogen production system from photovoltaic panels: experimental characterization and size optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, M.L.; Rivarolo, M.; Massardo, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant optimization for hydrogen generation from renewable sources. • Experimental tests on a 42 kW alkaline electrolyser. • Time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic optimization. • Italian case for electricity costs and solar irradiation (Savona). - Abstract: In this paper an approach for the determination of the optimal size and management of a plant for hydrogen production from renewable source (photovoltaic panels) is presented. Hydrogen is produced by a pressurized alkaline electrolyser (42 kW) installed at the University Campus of Savona (Italy) in 2014 and fed by electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to analyze the performance curve of the electrolyser in different operative conditions, investigating the influence of the different parameters on the efficiency. The results have been implemented in a software tool in order to describe the behavior of the systems in off-design conditions. Since the electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels and used to feed the electrolyser is strongly variable because of the random nature of the solar irradiance, a time-dependent hierarchical thermo-economic analysis is carried out to evaluate both the optimal size and the management approach related to the system, considering a fixed size of 1 MW for the photovoltaic panels. The thermo-economic analysis is performed with the software tool W-ECoMP, developed by the authors’ research group: the Italian energy scenario is considered, investigating the impact of electricity cost on the results as well.

  12. Hydrogen effect on the fatigue behavior of LBM Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puydebois Simon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For several years, Inconel 718 made by Laser Beam Melting (LBM has been used for components of the Ariane propulsion systems manufactured by ArianeGroup. In the aerospace field, many components of space engines are used under hydrogen environment. The risk of hydrogen embrittlement (HE can be therefore a first order problem. Consequently, to improve the HE sensitivity of LBM Inconel 718, a systematic approach needs to be developed to characterize the microstructure at different scales and its interaction with hydrogen. This study addresses the impact of gaseous hydrogen on the material mechanical behavior under fatigue loadings. In a first step, the low cycle fatigue behavior under 300 bar of hydrogen gas has been evaluated with specimen loaded at a constant load ratio of R=0.1 and a frequency of 0.5 Hz. A reduction in the cycle number of fracture is shown. This reduction of fatigue life is a consequence of the impact of hydrogen damage processes. The impact of hydrogen is evaluated at the stages of crack initiation, crack propagation. These results are discussed in relation with the hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms and particularly in terms of hydrogen / plasticity interactions. To achieve this, the fracture surface morphology was first examined using scanning electron microscopy and second samples near the fracture surface were extracted using Focused-Ion Beam machining from regions containing striation. The main result observed is a reduction of the size of dislocation organization in relation with a decrease of the striation distance.

  13. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  14. Characterization of Chlorhexidine-Loaded Calcium-Hydroxide Microparticles as a Potential Dental Pulp-Capping Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasankar M. Priyadarshini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the delivery of novel calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] microparticles loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX for potential dental therapeutic and preventive applications. Herein, we introduce a new approach for drug-delivery to deep dentin-surfaces in the form of drug-loaded microparticles. Unloaded Ca(OH2 [Ca(OH2/Blank] and CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles were fabricated by aqueous chemical-precipitation technique. The synthesized-microparticles were characterized in vitro for determination of surface-morphology, crystalline-features and thermal-properties examined by energy-dispersive X-ray scanning and transmission electron-microscopy (EDX-SEM/TEM, Fourier-transform infrared-spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning-calorimetry (DSC. Time-related pH changes, initial antibacterial/biofilm-abilities and cytotoxicity of CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles were evaluated. Microparticles were delivered to dentin-surfaces with subsequent SEM examination of treated dentin-substrates. The in vitro and ex vivo CHX-release profiles were characterized. Ca(OH2/Blank were hexagonal-shaped with highest z-average diameter whereas CHX-inclusion evidenced micro-metric spheres with distinguishable surface “rounded deposits” and a negative-shift in diameter. CHX:Ca(OH2/50 mg exhibited maximum encapsulation-efficiency with good antibacterial and cytocompatible properties. SEM examination revealed an intact layer of microparticles on exposed dentin-surfaces with retention of spherical shape and smooth texture. Microparticles loaded on dentin-surfaces showed prolonged release of CHX indicating substantial retention on dentin-substrates. This study validated the inherent-applicability of this novel drug-delivery approach to dentin-surfaces using micro-metric CHX-loaded/Ca(OH2 microparticles.

  15. Realization of an Electronic Load for Testing Low Power PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Šaponjić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A realized electronic load system intended for testing and characterization of hydrogen fuel sells is described. The system is based on microcontroller PIC16F877 by applying the concept of virtual instrumentation. The accomplished accuracy of the developed electronic system allows performing efficiently investigations of the electro-chemical phenomena involved in the process of designing hydrogen fuel cells.

  16. Analysis of the technique Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and its Application for the Characterization of Metal -Hydrogen Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental developments made to study the desorption of hydrogen from metallic samples by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS). With this technique gas desorption is stimulated by the programmed heating of the sample. To perform the study we set up a newly designed equipment and develop theoretical models of the kinetic processes involved. The equipment and the models are used to analyze the desorption process in a real system. We begin by analyzing the models developed to interpret the results of the experiments. These models consider simultaneously bulk diffusion and surface reaction processes in metal-hydrogen systems with one or two thermodynamic phases. We present numerical results, computer simulations and analytical approximations of the original models. Based on these results we analyze the main features of the spectra for the different relevant kinetic processes, and determine the changes induced in them when material parameters (activation energies, geometry) or experimental parameters (heating speed, initial concentration) are modified.We present the original equipment, designed and constructed during this work to perform the TDS experiments. We describe its main characteristics, its components, its range of operation and its sensibility. We also offer an analysis of the background spectrum. We use the Pd-H system to test the equipment and the models. The samples chosen, powders, granules, foils and wires, were previously characterized to analyze their composition, their morphology and their characteristic size. We show the results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation, X ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) analysis.We then present and analyze in depth the experimental desorption spectra of the palladium powder. Based on the analysis we determine the rate limiting step for desorption and the characteristic activation energies. When the system is on the b phase (hydride) the rate

  17. In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Yoshiki; Hioki, Tatsumi; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi; Ohshima, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes and metal interaction with respect to Pd under high hydrogen isotope potential at moderate temperature region around 300 °C was studied. A dry electrolysis technique using BaZr 1−x Y x O 3 solid state electrolyte was developed to generate high hydrogen isotope potential. Hydrogen or deuterium was loaded into a 200 nm thick Pd cathode. The cathode is deposited on SiO 2 substrate and covered with the solid state electrolyte and a Pd anode layer. Time resolved in situ monochromatic x-ray diffraction measurement was performed during the electrolysis. Two phase states of the Pd cathodes with large and small lattice parameters were observed during the electrolysis. Numerous sub-micron scale voids in the Pd cathode and dendrite-like Pd precipitates in the solid state electrolyte were found from the recovered samples. Hydrogen induced super-abundant-vacancy may take role in those phenomena. The observed two phase states may be attributed to phase separation into vacancy-rich and vacancy-poor states. The voids formed in the Pd cathodes seem to be products of vacancy coalescence. Isotope effects were also observed. The deuterium loaded samples showed more rapid phase changes and more formation of voids than the hydrogen doped samples. - Highlights: • High amount hydrogen loading into Pd by all solid-state electrolysis was performed. • Two phase states with large and small lattice parameters were observed. • Lattice contractions were observed suggesting formations of super-abundant-vacancy. • The absence of mechanical pressure might stimulate the formation of the vacancy. • Sub-micron void formations were found in the Pd from recovered samples

  18. In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Yoshiki, E-mail: yoshiki_fukada@mail.toyota.co.jp [Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Mishuku, Susono-shi, Shizuoka-ken, 410-1193 (Japan); Hioki, Tatsumi; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R& D Labs.,Inc, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center & Graduate School of Engineering Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Ohshima, Shigeki [Toyota Central R& D Labs.,Inc, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-10-25

    Hydrogen isotopes and metal interaction with respect to Pd under high hydrogen isotope potential at moderate temperature region around 300 °C was studied. A dry electrolysis technique using BaZr{sub 1−x} Y{sub x}O{sub 3} solid state electrolyte was developed to generate high hydrogen isotope potential. Hydrogen or deuterium was loaded into a 200 nm thick Pd cathode. The cathode is deposited on SiO{sub 2} substrate and covered with the solid state electrolyte and a Pd anode layer. Time resolved in situ monochromatic x-ray diffraction measurement was performed during the electrolysis. Two phase states of the Pd cathodes with large and small lattice parameters were observed during the electrolysis. Numerous sub-micron scale voids in the Pd cathode and dendrite-like Pd precipitates in the solid state electrolyte were found from the recovered samples. Hydrogen induced super-abundant-vacancy may take role in those phenomena. The observed two phase states may be attributed to phase separation into vacancy-rich and vacancy-poor states. The voids formed in the Pd cathodes seem to be products of vacancy coalescence. Isotope effects were also observed. The deuterium loaded samples showed more rapid phase changes and more formation of voids than the hydrogen doped samples. - Highlights: • High amount hydrogen loading into Pd by all solid-state electrolysis was performed. • Two phase states with large and small lattice parameters were observed. • Lattice contractions were observed suggesting formations of super-abundant-vacancy. • The absence of mechanical pressure might stimulate the formation of the vacancy. • Sub-micron void formations were found in the Pd from recovered samples.

  19. Capsaicin-loaded nanolipoidal carriers for topical application: design, characterization, and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang XR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xia-Rong Wang,1 Si-Qian Gao,1 Xiao-Qian Niu,1 Long-Jian Li,2 Xiao-Ying Ying,1 Zhong-Jie Hu,2 Jian-Qing Gao1,3 1Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2Zhejiang Provincial Corps Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 3Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for New-Type External and Transdermal Preparations, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Capsaicin has been used in clinical applications for the treatment of pain disorders and inflammatory diseases. Given the strong pungency and high oil/water partition coefficient of capsaicin, capsaicin-loaded nanolipoidal carriers (NLCs were designed to increase permeation and achieve the analgesic, anti-inflammatory effect with lower skin irritation. Capsaicin-loaded NLCs were prepared and later optimized by the Box–Behnken design. The physicochemical characterizations, morphology, and encapsulation of the capsaicin-loaded NLCs were subsequently confirmed. Capsaicin-loaded NLCs and capsaicin-loaded NLCs gel exhibited sustained release and no cytotoxicity properties. Also, they could significantly enhance the penetration amount, permeation flux, and skin retention amounts of capsaicin due to the application of NLCs. To study the topical permeation mechanism of capsaicin, 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (Dio was used as a fluorescent dye. Dio-loaded NLCs and Dio-loaded NLCs gel could effectively deliver Dio up to a skin depth of 260 and 210 µm, respectively, primarily through the appendage route on the basis of version skin sections compared with Dio solution, which only delivered Dio up to 150 µm. In vivo therapeutic experiments demonstrated that capsaicin-loaded NLCs and capsaicin-loaded NLCs gel could improve the pain threshold in a dose-dependent manner and inhibit inflammation, primarily by reducing the prostaglandin E2 levels in the tissue compared with capsaicin cream and capsaicin solution

  20. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Anil Kumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Raj, Deepa K., E-mail: kdeeps3@gmail.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities towards cancer. In order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, curcumin is encapsulated in alginate aldehyde–gelatin (Alg Ald-Gel) nanogels. Alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared by inverse miniemulsion technique. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded nanogels are evaluated by, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Curcumin loaded nanogels show hydrodynamic diameter of 431 ± 8 nm and a zeta potential of − 36 ± 4 mV. The prepared nanogels exhibit an encapsulation efficiency of 72 ± 2%. In vitro drug release studies show a controlled release of curcumin from nanogels over a period of 48 h. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the nanogels are evaluated. Bare nanogels are cytocompatible and curcumin loaded nanogels induce anticancer activity towards MCF-7 cells. In vitro cellular uptake of the curcumin loaded nanogels using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirms the uptake of nanogels in MCF-7 cells. Hence, the developed nanogel system can be a suitable candidate for curcumin delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared. • Alg Ald-Gel nanogels maintained spherical morphology after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Cytotoxicity analysis proved the toxicity of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intra cellular uptake.

  1. Qualification and post-mortem characterization of tungsten mock-ups exposed to cyclic high heat flux loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, G., E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bobin-Vastra, I.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP PTCMI-F, Centre Technique, Fusion, F-71200 Le Creusot (France); Gavila, P. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Rödig, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Euratom Association, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Riccardi, B. [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We characterize tungsten mono-block components after exposure to ITER relevant heat loads. • We qualify the manufacturing technology, i.e., hot isostatic pressing and hot radial pressing, and repair technologies. • We determine the microstructural influences, i.e., rod vs. plate material, on the damage evolution. • Needle like microstructures increase the risk of deep crack formation due to a limited fracture strength. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the option to start the ITER operation with a full tungsten (W) divertor, high heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility FE200, Le Creusot, France. Thereby, in total eight small-scale and three medium-scale monoblock mock-ups produced with different manufacturing technologies and different tungsten grades were exposed to cyclic steady state heat loads. The applied power density ranges from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2} with a maximum of 1000 cycles at each particular loading step. Finally, on a reduced number of tiles, critical heat flux tests in the range of 30 MW/m{sup 2} were performed. Besides macroscopic and microscopic images of the loaded surface areas, detailed metallographic analyses were performed in order to characterize the occurring damages, i.e., crack formation, recrystallization, and melting. Thereby, the different joining technologies, i.e., hot radial pressing (HRP) vs. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of tungsten to the Cu-based cooling tube, were qualified showing a higher stability and reproducibility of the HIP technology also as repair technology. Finally, the material response at the loaded top surface was found to be depending on the material grade, microstructural orientation, and recrystallization state of the material. These damages might be triggered by the application of thermal shock loads during electron beam surface scanning and not by the steady state heat load only. However, the superposition of thermal fatigue loads and thermal shocks as also expected

  2. Characterization of narrow micropores in almond shell biochars by nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of biochars usually includes surface area and pore volume determination by nitrogen adsorption. In this study, we show that there is a substantial pore volume in biochars created via slow pyrolysis from low- and high-ash almond shells that cannot be characterized in this fashion due...

  3. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of K-Ta Mixed Oxides for Hydrogen Generation in Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zielińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available K-Ta mixed oxides photocatalysts have been prepared by impregnation followed by calcination. The influence of the reaction temperature (450°C–900°C on the phase formation, crystal morphology, and photocatalytic activity in hydrogen generation of the produced materials was investigated. The detailed analysis has revealed that all products exhibit high crystallinity and irregular structure. Moreover, two different crystal structures of potassium tantalates such as KTaO3 and K2Ta4O11 were obtained. It was also found that the sample composed of KTaO3 and traces of unreacted Ta2O5 (annealed at 600°C exhibits the highest activity in the reaction of photocatalytic hydrogen generation. The crystallographic phases, optical and vibronic properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and diffuse reflectance (DR UV-vis and resonance Raman spectroscopic methods, respectively. Morphology and chemical composition of the produced samples were studied using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX as its mode.

  5. Characterization of 109 Ah Ni-MH batteries charging with hydrogen sensing termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, J. C.; González, M.; Liaw, B. Y.; Ferrero, F. J.; Álvarez, J. C.; Campo, J. C.; Blanco, C.

    The use of Ni-MH batteries for traction applications in electric and hybrid vehicles is increasingly attractive and reliable. Besides the energy and power handling, and the cost issues, high tolerance to abuse is an important aspect of the Ni-MH technology. Thus, the ability to reduce charging time and to absorb regenerative breaking is highly desirable in these traction applications. This requires an accurate control of the charge termination. To facilitate an easy and reliable charging control and to avoid battery premature failure or ageing it is very important to know the behavior of the battery under a range of charging conditions. In this paper, we described the performance of high capacity commercial Ni-MH traction batteries (12 V, 109 Ah modules) when subjected to different charging rates (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 C) from 100% depth of discharge (DOD). Changes in battery voltage and temperature during charging were monitored, with a particular emphasis on the detection of the presence of hydrogen near the battery. This unique hydrogen detection outside the battery was used as the method for the end-of-charge termination to prevent overcharging of the battery. Relevant parameters, such as charge acceptance, energy efficiency, and charging time, were analyzed for comparison.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of novel intermetallic catalysts for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Chorkendorff, Ib

    Novel Ni5Ga3 and Pd2Ga catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol are prepared by impregnation of aqueous Ni-Ga or Pd-Ga solutions of metal nitrates into high surface area SiO2, followed by drying, calcinations and reduction of the precursor in a H2 flow. Steady state experiments are performed...... in a reactor at atmospheric pressure and stoichiometric CO2/H2 mixture, while reaction products are analyzed by gas chromatography. The results are compared to the highly optimized Cu/ZnO/Al2O3. The activity and selectivity of the novel catalysts is close to that of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 and the equilibrium conversion...... to CH3OH is found to be higher. XRD and XRF are used to investigate the phase and composition of the supported catalysts at the 5 stages of testing, i.e. after drying, calcination, reduction, CO2 hydrogenation, rapid ageing. SEM and TEM images of the exact same locations are acquired after each of the 5...

  7. Characterization and hydrogen gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidry, Azhar Ali [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Puskelova, Jarmila [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, Tomas; Durina, Pavol; Gregus, Jan; Truchly, Martin; Roch, Tomas; Zahoran, Miroslav [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Vargova, Melinda [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of hydrogen sensing TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing effect on the structure, electrical, optical and sensing properties was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best sensitivity show the films composed of rutile with grain size of {approx}100 nm. - Abstract: Thin films of titanium dioxide with thickness of about 150 nm were deposited by spin coating method on a sapphire substrate from a sol-gel and annealed at various temperatures (from 600 Degree-Sign C to 1000 Degree-Sign C). Structural, optical and hydrogen gas sensing properties of the films were investigated. The annealing temperatures from 600 to 800 Degree-Sign C led to anatase phase with grain size in the range of 14-28 nm. Further increase of the annealing temperature resulted in transformation to rutile phase with larger grain size of about 100-120 nm. The optical band gap tended to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The estimated values of activation energy for charge transport were in the range of 0.6-1.0 eV for films annealed at temperatures from 600 Degree-Sign C to 800 Degree-Sign C and 0.37-0.38 eV for films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C. The films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C showed better hydrogen sensitivity, what can be at least partially caused by their higher surface roughness.

  8. Characterization of load dependent creep behavior in medically relevant absorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Maureen L; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Bui, Hieu; Hong, Danny

    2014-01-01

    While synthetic absorbable polymers have a substantial history of use in medical devices, their use is expanding and becoming more prevalent for devices where long term loading and structural support is required. In addition, there is evidence that current absorbable medical devices may experience permanent deformations, warping (out of plane twisting), and geometric changes in vivo. For clinical indications with long term loading or structural support requirements, understanding the material's viscoelastic properties becomes increasingly important whereas these properties have not been used historically as preclinical indications of performance or design considerations. In this study we measured the static creep, creep recovery and cyclic creep responses of common medically relevant absorbable materials (i.e., poly(l-lactide, PLLA) and poly(l-co-glycolide, PLGA) over a range of physiologically relevant loading magnitudes. The results indicate that both PLLA and PLGA exhibit creep behavior and failure at loads significantly less than the yield or ultimate properties of the material and that significant material specific responses to loading exist. In addition, we identified a strong correlation between the extent of creep in the material and its crystallinity. Results of the study provide new information on the creep behavior of PLLA and PLGA and support the use of viscoelastic properties of absorbable polymers as part of the material selection process. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Resveratrol-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) microparticles: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Jessica B.E.; Mainardes, Rubiana M.; Farago, Paulo V.; Michel, Milton D.; Zawadzki, Sonia F.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles were obtained by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Three drug-loaded formulations were prepared with the aim of investigating the influence of composition on the encapsulation efficiency. Morphological and spectroscopic methods were performed for these materials. The microparticles revealed residual moisture close to 1.5% and encapsulation efficiency above 80%. Spherical shape and smooth surface were observed by SEM. No pores were either verified. Resveratrol-loaded microparticles showed an average particle size of around 50 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the microencapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. The FTIR results suggest that no chemical bond was formed between polymer and drug. (author)

  10. Characterization and In Vitro Skin Permeation of Meloxicam-Loaded Liposomes versus Transfersomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureewan Duangjit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate the potential use of liposome and transfersome vesicles in the transdermal drug delivery of meloxicam (MX. MX-loaded vesicles were prepared and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (%EE, loading efficiency, stability, and in vitro skin permeation. The vesicles were spherical in structure, 90 to 140 nm in size, and negatively charged (−23 to −43 mV. The %EE of MX in the vesicles ranged from 40 to 70%. Transfersomes provided a significantly higher skin permeation of MX compared to liposomes. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analysis indicated that the application of transfersomes significantly disrupted the stratum corneum lipid. Our research suggests that MX-loaded transfersomes can be potentially used as a transdermal drug delivery system.

  11. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes. Determination of hydrogen concentration and blister characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    Heavy water reactors (HWRs) comprise significant numbers of today's operating nuclear power plants, and more are under construction. Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems, especially pressure tubes, are an important factor in ensuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Intercomparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. This CRP was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). The TWG-HWR is a group of experts nominated by their governments and designated by the IAEA to provide advice and to support implementation of IAEA's project on advanced technologies for HWRs. The objective of the CRP was to compare non-destructive inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of this CRP participants investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase participants collaborated to detect and characterize hydride blisters and to determine the hydrogen concentration in zirconium alloys. The intention was to identify the most effective pressure tube inspection and diagnostic methods and to identify further development needs. The organizations which participated in phase 2 of this CRP are: - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina; - Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada; - Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India; - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Republic of Korea; - National Institute for Research and Development for Technical Physics (NIRDTP), Romania; - Nuclear Non-Destructive Testing Research and Services (NNDT), Romania. IAEA-TECDOC-1499

  12. Optimization, formulation, and characterization of multiflavonoids-loaded flavanosome by bulk or sequential technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Kura, Aminu Umar; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    This study involves adaptation of bulk or sequential technique to load multiple flavonoids in a single phytosome, which can be termed as "flavonosome". Three widely established and therapeutically valuable flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), kaempferol (K), and apigenin (A), were quantified in the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves extract and were commercially obtained and incorporated in a single flavonosome (QKA-phosphatidylcholine) through four different methods of synthesis - bulk (M1) and serialized (M2) co-sonication and bulk (M3) and sequential (M4) co-loading. The study also established an optimal formulation method based on screening the synthesized flavonosomes with respect to their size, charge, polydispersity index, morphology, drug-carrier interaction, antioxidant potential through in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics, and cytotoxicity evaluation against human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG). Furthermore, entrapment and loading efficiency of flavonoids in the optimal flavonosome have been identified. Among the four synthesis methods, sequential loading technique has been optimized as the best method for the synthesis of QKA-phosphatidylcholine flavonosome, which revealed an average diameter of 375.93±33.61 nm, with a zeta potential of -39.07±3.55 mV, and the entrapment efficiency was >98% for all the flavonoids, whereas the drug-loading capacity of Q, K, and A was 31.63%±0.17%, 34.51%±2.07%, and 31.79%±0.01%, respectively. The in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics of the flavonoids indirectly depicts the release kinetic behavior of the flavonoids from the carrier. The QKA-loaded flavonosome had no indication of toxicity toward human hepatoma cell line as shown by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide result, wherein even at the higher concentration of 200 µg/mL, the flavonosomes exert >85% of cell viability. These results suggest that sequential loading technique may be a promising

  13. Characterization of defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on different substrates by capacitance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwich, R.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited on crystalline silicon and Corning glass substrate were analyzed using different capacitance techniques. The distribution of localized states and some electronic properties were studied using the temperature, frequency and bias dependence of the Schottky barrier capacitance and deep level transient spectroscopy. Our results show that the distribution of the gap states depends on the type of substrate. We have found that the films deposited on c-Si substrate represent only one positively charged or prerelaxed neutral deep state and one interface state, while the films deposited on glass substrate have one interface state and three types of deep defect states, positively or prerelaxed neutral, neutral and negatively charged.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a new hydrogen-utilizing bacterium from the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu-Lesme, F; Fonty, G; Doré, J

    1995-01-01

    A new H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacterium was isolated from the rumen of a mature deer. This is the first report of a spore-forming Gram-negative bacterial species from the rumen. The organism was a strictly anaerobic, motile rod and was able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetate was the major product detected. Glucose, fructose and lactate were also fermented heterotrophically. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-7.5, and the optimum temperature was 37-42 degrees C. Yeast extract was required for growth and rumen fluid was highly stimulatory. The DNA base ratio was 52.9 +/- 0.5 mol% G+C. On the basis of these characteristics and fermentation products, the isolate was considered to be different from acetogenic bacteria described previously.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Quantum Dot-Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Nanocomposite Fibers by an Electrospinning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Kim, Jongsung

    2017-04-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of the most successfully developed biodegradable polymers. PLGA is a copolymer of polylactic and glycolic acid. In this work, quantum dot (QD)-loaded PLGA nanofibers were fabricated via a simple one-step electrospinning process. The surface morphology of the fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that the PLGA nanofibers had both smooth and rough surfaces with an average fiber diameter of 150 ± 25 nm and 350 ± 60 nm for the PLGA and QD-loaded PLGA nanofibers, respectively. The needle size, applied voltage, and solvent flow rate in the syringe were maintained at 23 G, 20 kV, and 1.5 mL/h, respectively. The SEM analysis showed that nanofibers with a very thin and uniform size were formed and the InP/ZnS QDs were homogeneously loaded into the PLGA nanofiber matrix. The thermal properties of the PLGA-QD nanofibers were explored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface chemical structure and functionalities were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

  16. siRNA-loaded cationic liposomes for cancer therapy: Development, characterization and efficacy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bo

    Cancer is a major health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. However, cancer treatment is severely limited by the lack of highly effective cytotoxic agents and selective delivery methods which can serve as the "magic bullet" (first raised by Dr. Paul Ehrlich, the goal of targeting a specific location without causing harm to surrounding tissues or to more distant regions in the body). The revolutionary finding that tumors cannot grow beyond a microscopic size without dedicated blood supply provided a highly effective alternative for the treatment of cancer. Currently, anti-angiogenic therapy and the discovery of RNA interference makes it possible to treat some conditions by silencing disorder-causing genes of targeting cells which are otherwise difficult to eradicate with more conventional therapies. However, before siRNA technology could be widely used as a therapeutic approach, the construct must be efficiently and safely delivered to target cells. Strategies used for siRNA delivery should minimize uptake by phagocytes, enzymatic degradation by nucleases and should be taken up preferentially, if not specifically, by the intended cell population. Kinesin spindle proteins (KSP) are the motor proteins which play critical roles during mitosis. Different from tubulins which are also present in post-mitotic cells, such as axons, KSP is exclusively expressed in mitotic cells, which makes them the ideal target for anti-mitotics. In the present study, we intend to develop, characterize and evaluate a liposome-based delivery system which can deliver KSP siRNA selectively to the tumor vasculature (thus inhibiting angiogenesis, destroying tumor vasculature and eventually, eradicating tumor growth). We first developed ten different liposome preparation types with different compositions of lipids. Next, the capacity for loading siRNA and efficiency of targeting the tumor vascular supply was evaluated using relevant cellular and tumor models

  17. Study and characterization of an integrated circuit-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor for the detection of particles and radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.

    2006-03-01

    Next generation experiments at the European laboratory of particle physics (CERN) require particle detector alternatives to actual silicon detectors. This thesis presents a novel detector technology, which is based on the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensor on top of an integrated circuit. Performance and limitations of this technology have been assessed for the first time in this thesis in the context of particle detectors. Specific integrated circuits have been designed and the detector segmentation, the interface sensor-chip and the sensor leakage current have been studied in details. The signal induced by the track of an ionizing particle in the sensor has been characterized and results on the signal speed, amplitude and on the sensor resistance to radiation are presented. The results are promising regarding the use of this novel technology for radiation detection, though limitations have been shown for particle physics application. (author)

  18. Characterization of 13 and 30 mum thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes deposited over CMOS integrated circuits for particle detection application

    CERN Document Server

    Despeisse, M; Commichau, S C; Dissertori, G; Garrigos, A; Jarron, P; Miazza, C; Moraes, D; Shah, A; Wyrsch, N; Viertel, Gert M; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.022

    2004-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained with a novel monolithic silicon pixel detector which consists in depositing a n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) diode straight above the readout ASIC (this technology is called Thin Film on ASIC, TFA). The characterization has been performed on 13 and 30mum thick a-Si:H films deposited on top of an ASIC containing a linear array of high- speed low-noise transimpedance amplifiers designed in a 0.25mum CMOS technology. Experimental results presented have been obtained with a 600nm pulsed laser. The results of charge collection efficiency and charge collection speed of these structures are discussed.

  19. Preparation, characterization of a ceria loaded carbon nanotubes nanocomposites photocatalyst and degradation of azo dye Acid Orange 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Tao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A ceria loaded carbon nanotubes (CeO2/CNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by chemical precipitation, and the preparation conditions were optimized using an orthogonal experiment method. HR-TEM, XRD, UV-Vis/DRS, TGA and XPS were used to characterize the photocatalyst. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption was employed to determine the BET specific surface area. The results indicated that the photocatalyst has no obvious impurities. CeO2 was dispersed on the carbon nanotubes with a good loading effect and high loading efficiency without agglomeration. The catalyst exhibits a strong ability to absorb light in the ultraviolet region and some ability to absorb light in the visible light region. The CeO2/CNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst was used to degrade azo dye Acid Orange 7 (40 mg/L. The optical decolorization rate was 66.58% after xenon lamp irradiation for 4 h, which is better than that of commercial CeO2 (43.13%. The results suggested that CeO2 loading on CNTs not only enhanced the optical decolorization rate but also accelerated the separation of CeO2/CNTs and water.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Zinc (II)-loaded Zeolite/Graphene oxide nanocomposite as a new drug carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatamian, M. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, C.P. 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Divband, B., E-mail: baharakdivband@yahoo.com [Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, C.P. 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farahmand-zahed, F. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, C.P. 51664 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Current research has focused on the preparation of Zinc-clinoptilolite/Graphene Oxide (Zn-Clin/GO) hybrid nanostructure and investigating its biocompatibility for the first time. As prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). In order to use it as a drug carrier two important factors were investigated: cytocompatibility of nanocomposites and their drug loading capacity. The results showed that the prepared nanocomposite is cytocompatible and its high loading capacity and slow release performance for Doxorubicin (DOX), as a cancer drug, proved that it can be used as a drug carrier. At last in-vitro toxicity of DOX loaded nanocomposite was compared with pure DOX. - Graphical abstract: Biocompatible Zn-clinoptilolite/Graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure as in vitro drug delivery systems (DDS) was able to store and release substantial amounts of doxorubicin to the lung cancer cell lines. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-Clin/GO nanocomposite as a new in vitro drug carrier with high loading capacity is synthesized. • Two synthesis methods (Microwave assisted hydrothermal method and Reflux method) are used. • All of the carriers (Zn-Clin, Zn-Clin/GO, GO) showed high biocompatibility.

  1. Preparation and in vitro characterization of SN-38-loaded, self-forming polymeric depots as an injectable drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaspon, Chawan; Hongeng, Suradej; Boongird, Atthaporn; Nasongkla, Norased

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of anticancer-loaded injectable polymeric depots that consisted of D,L-lactide (LA), ε-caprolactone (CL), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or [poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)]-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-random-poly(D,L-lactide)] (PLEC) copolymers for malignant gliomas treatment. PLECs were polymerized with different percentages of LA to deliver 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a highly potent anticancer drug. SN-38-loaded depots could form directly in phosphate buffer saline with more than 98% encapsulation efficiency. The release rate of SN-38 from depots was found to depend on the amount of LA in PLECs, loading content of SN-38 in the depots, and depot weight. Encapsulation of SN-38 inside depots could enhance the stability of SN-38 where all of SN-38 released after 60 days was in an active form. Depots without SN-38 were evaluated as noncytotoxic against U-87MG, whereas SN-38-loaded depots showed cytotoxic effect as a function of concentration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Zinc (II)-loaded Zeolite/Graphene oxide nanocomposite as a new drug carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamian, M.; Divband, B.; Farahmand-zahed, F.

    2016-01-01

    Current research has focused on the preparation of Zinc-clinoptilolite/Graphene Oxide (Zn-Clin/GO) hybrid nanostructure and investigating its biocompatibility for the first time. As prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). In order to use it as a drug carrier two important factors were investigated: cytocompatibility of nanocomposites and their drug loading capacity. The results showed that the prepared nanocomposite is cytocompatible and its high loading capacity and slow release performance for Doxorubicin (DOX), as a cancer drug, proved that it can be used as a drug carrier. At last in-vitro toxicity of DOX loaded nanocomposite was compared with pure DOX. - Graphical abstract: Biocompatible Zn-clinoptilolite/Graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure as in vitro drug delivery systems (DDS) was able to store and release substantial amounts of doxorubicin to the lung cancer cell lines. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-Clin/GO nanocomposite as a new in vitro drug carrier with high loading capacity is synthesized. • Two synthesis methods (Microwave assisted hydrothermal method and Reflux method) are used. • All of the carriers (Zn-Clin, Zn-Clin/GO, GO) showed high biocompatibility.

  3. Olmesartan medoxomil-loaded mixed micelles: Preparation, characterization and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Gendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM is highly lipophilic in nature (log p = 4.31 which attributes to its low aqueous solubility contributing to its low bioavailability 25.6%. OLM was loaded into mixed micelles carriers in a trial to enhance its solubility, thus improving its oral bioavailability. OLM-loaded mixed micelles were prepared, using a Pluronic® mixture of F127 and P123, adopting the thin-film hydration method. Three drug: Pluronic® mixture ratios (1:40, 1:50and 1: 60 and various F127: P123 ratios were prepared. OLM Loaded mixed micelles showed stability up to 12 h. The particle size of the systems varied from 364.00 nm (F3 to 13.73 nm (F18 with accepted Poly dispersity index (PDI values. The in-vitro release studies of OLM from mixed micelles versus drug aqueous suspension were assessed using the reverse dialysis technique in a USP Dissolution tester apparatus (type II. The highest RE% (43% was achieved with OLM-loaded mixed micelles (F8 when compared to (35% of drug suspension.

  4. Characterization and testing of a 238Pu loaded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will describe the preparation and progress of the effort at Argonne National Laboratory-West to produce ceramic waste forms loaded with 238 Pu. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of damage, if any, that alpha decay events will play over time to the ceramic waste form under development at Argonne. The ceramic waste form is glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is utilized to encapsulate the fission products and transuranics which are present in a chloride salt matrix which results from a spent fuel conditioning process. 238 Pu possesses approximately 250 times the specific activity of 239 Pu and thus allows for a much shorter time frame to address the issue. In preparation for production of 238 Pu loaded waste forms 239 Pu loaded samples were produced. Data is presented for samples produced with typical reactor grade plutonium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrographs and durability test results will be presented. The ramifications for the production of the 238 Pu loaded samples will be discussed

  5. Numerical and experimental characterization of ceramic pebble beds under cycling mechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupeschi, S., E-mail: pupeschi.simone@hotmail.it [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Knitter, R.; Kamlah, M. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Gan, Y. [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical response of pebble beds was assessed. • Numerical simulations were performed with KIT-DEM code. • The numerical simulations were compared with the experimental outcomes. • A good qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation results was found. • The pebble size distribution affects the mechanical response of the assemblies. - Abstract: All solid breeder concepts considered to be tested in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), make use of lithium-based ceramics in the form of pebble-packed beds as tritium breeder. A thorough understanding of the thermal and mechanical properties of the ceramic pebble beds under fusion relevant conditions is essential for the design of the breeder blanket modules of future fusion reactors. In this study, the effect of cyclic loading on the mechanical behaviour of pebble bed assemblies was investigated using a Discrete Element Method (DEM) code. The numerical simulations were compared with the experimental outcomes. The results of numerical simulations show that the pebble size distribution affects noticeably the stress-strain behaviour of the assemblies. A good qualitative agreement between experimental and simulation results was found in terms of difference between residual strains of consecutive cycles. An increase of the oedometric modulus with the compressive load was observed for all investigated compositions in both experimental and DEM simulations. The numerical results show an increase of the oedometric modulus (E) with progressive compaction of the assemblies due to the cycling loading, while no significant influence of the pebbles size distribution was observed.

  6. Nondimensional characterization and asymptotic model development for multifunctional structures with application to load-bearing antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santapuri, Sushma; Bechtel, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    This paper (i) presents a mathematical approach to formulate leading-order models for complex multifunctional systems with coupled thermomechanical and electromagnetic field interactions, and (ii) demonstrates its applicability to the modeling and analysis of a load-bearing antenna, a multifunctional sensing and transmitting device integrated with a load-bearing structure. Starting from first-principle equations, i.e. the thermomechanical balance laws coupled with Maxwell’s equations, nondimensionalization and perturbation techniques are employed to formulate a leading-order model for the coupled system. Depending on the design of the structure and nature of the excitation, the nondimensional numbers arising in the coupled multifunctional system are quantified, and through a relative ordering of these quantities, the dominant physical effects are extracted. The resulting dominant effects determine the regime of operation of the structure, and in turn dictate the appropriate computational model. This approach is demonstrated through an application to a load-bearing antenna for a prototypical design. The resulting leading-order model is subsequently solved, and the electrical and structural response of the load-bearing antenna is analyzed and compared for different combinations of material properties. The framework introduced in this paper is envisioned to have applications in developing leading-order models for a wide range of complex multifunctional systems and can be utilized for their efficient design. (paper)

  7. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain

  8. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas, E-mail: shoja-sa@modares.ac.ir [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Marvian, Amir Tayaranian [Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain.

  9. Preparation and in vitro characterization of gallic acid-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Morshedi, Dina; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Marvian, Amir Tayaranian

    2015-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA), as an antioxidant and antiparkinson agent, was loaded onto cationic human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA NPs). Polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated HSA (PEI-HSA) NPs were prepared using three different methods: (I) coating negatively charged HSA NPs with positively charged PEI through attractive electrostatic interactions, (II) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent amide bond formation using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, and (III) coating HSA NPs with PEI via covalent bonding using glutaraldehyde for linking amine groups of PEI and amine groups of albumin NPs. Method II was selected since it resulted in a higher shift in the zeta potential value (mV) and less zeta potential value deviation, and also less size polydispersity. GA was loaded by adsorption onto the surface of PEI-HSA NPs of two different sizes: 117 ± 2.9 nm (PEI-P1) and 180 ± 3.1 nm (PEI-P2) NPs. Both GA-entrapment and GA-loading efficiencies increased slightly with the increasing size of NPs, and were affected intensely by the mass ratio of GA to PEI-HSA NPs. Free radical scavenging of GA was quantified based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The obtained results showed that GA remains active during the preparation of GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs. The cytotoxicities of HSA, PEI-HSA, and GA-loaded PEI-HSA NPs on the PC-12 cells, as the neuroendocrine cell line, were measured. Our results indicate that positively charged PEI-HSA NPs are good candidates for efficient and safe delivery of GA to the brain.

  10. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model for Load Carriage: Phase III Part B: Characterization of Load Control During a Human Trials Circuit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevenson, J. M; Good, J. A; Devenney, I. A; Morin, E. L; Reid, S. A; Bryant, J. T

    2005-01-01

    .... The goals of the study were to examine the relationships among aerobic demand, performance time and load as well as the relationships between posture, shoulder and lumbar reaction forces and load...

  12. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  13. Purification and characterization of the hydrogen uptake hydrogenase from the hyperthermpholic archaebacterium Pyrodictium brockii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihl, T.D.; Maier, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Pyrodictium brockii is a hyperthermophilic archaebacterium with an optimal growth temperature of 105C. P. brokii is also a chemolithotroph, requiring H 2 and CO 2 for growth. The authors have purified the hydrogen uptake hydrogenase from membranes of P. brockii by reactive red affinity chromatography and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Colorometric analysis of Fe and S content in reactive red-purified hydrogenase revealed 8.7 ± 0.6 mol of Fe and 6.2 ± 1.2 mol of S per mol of hydrogenase. Growth of cells in 63 NiCl 2 resulted in label incorporation into reactive red-purified hydrogenase. Temperature stability studies indicated that the membrane-bound form of the enzyme was more stable than the solubilized purified form over a period of minutes with respect to temperature. However, the membranes were not able to protect the enzyme from thermal inactivation over a period of hours. The artificial electron acceptor specificity of the pure enzyme was similar to that of the membrane-bound form, but the purified enzyme was able to evolve H 2 in the presence of reduced methyl viologen. The K m of membrane-bound hydrogenase for H 2 was approximately 19 μM with methylene blue as the electron acceptor, whereas the purified enzyme had a higher K m value

  14. Synthesis and characterization of boron-oxygen-hydrogen thin films at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, D.; Koelpin, H.; Atiser, A.; Kreissig, U.; Bobek, T.; Hadam, B.; Schneider, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the influence of synthesis temperature on chemical composition and mechanical properties of X-ray amorphous boron-oxygen-hydrogen (B-O-H) films. These B-O-H films have been synthesized by RF sputtering of a B-target in an Ar atmosphere. Upon increasing the synthesis temperature from room temperature to 550 deg. C, the O/B and H/B ratios decrease from 0.73 to 0.15 and 0.28 to 0.07, respectively, as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. It is reasonable to assume that potential sources of O and H are residual gas and laboratory atmosphere. The elastic modulus, as measured by nanoindentation, increases from 93 to 214 GPa, as the O/B and H/B ratios decreases within the range probed. Hence, we have shown that the effect of impurity incorporation on the elastic properties is extensive and that the magnitude of the incorporation is a strong function of the substrate temperature

  15. [Analysis on preparation and characterization of asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; He, Xing-Dong; Shang, Bei-Cheng; Bao, Xiu-Kun; Wang, Yan-Fang; Ma, Ji-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Asiaticoside is a compound extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Centella asiatica, and mainly used in wound healing and scar repair in clinical, with notable efficacy. However, its poor transdermal absorption and short action time restrict its wide application. In this experiment, the reserve-phase-extrusion-lyophilization method was conducted to prepare the lyophilized asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes (LAFL). Its characteristics including electron microscope structure, particle size, Zeta potential, entrapment rate, drug-loading rate, stability and drug release were determined with the intelligent transdermal absorption instrument. LAFL were white spheroids, with pH, particle size and zeta potential of 7. 03, 70. 14 nm and - 36. 5 mV, respectively. The average entrapment rate of the 3 batch samples were 31. 43% , and the average asiaticoside content in 1 mg lyophilized simple was 0. 134 mg. The results indicated that LAFL have good physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical characteristics, with an improved transdermal performance.

  16. Optimization, formulation, and characterization of multiflavonoids-loaded flavanosome by bulk or sequential technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthivashan G

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Govindarajan Karthivashan,1 Mas Jaffri Masarudin,2 Aminu Umar Kura,1 Faridah Abas,3,4 Sharida Fakurazi1,5 1Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 3Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 4Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, 5Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: This study involves adaptation of bulk or sequential technique to load multiple flavonoids in a single phytosome, which can be termed as “flavonosome”. Three widely established and therapeutically valuable flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q, kaempferol (K, and apigenin (A, were quantified in the ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves extract and were commercially obtained and incorporated in a single flavonosome (QKA–phosphatidylcholine through four different methods of synthesis – bulk (M1 and serialized (M2 co-sonication and bulk (M3 and sequential (M4 co-loading. The study also established an optimal formulation method based on screening the synthesized flavonosomes with respect to their size, charge, polydispersity index, morphology, drug–carrier interaction, antioxidant potential through in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl kinetics, and cytotoxicity evaluation against human hepatoma cell line (HepaRG. Furthermore, entrapment and loading efficiency of flavonoids in the optimal flavonosome have been identified. Among the four synthesis methods, sequential loading technique has been optimized as the best method for the synthesis of QKA–phosphatidylcholine flavonosome, which revealed an average diameter of 375.93±33.61 nm, with a zeta potential of -39.07±3.55 mV, and the entrapment efficiency was >98% for all the flavonoids, whereas the drug-loading capacity of Q, K, and A was 31.63%±0

  17. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen loaded eudragit RS polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Anh, Nguyen; Tuyen Dao, T P; Nhan Le, N T; Mau Chien, Dang; To Hoai, Nguyen; T Chi, Nguyen; Tran, T Khai

    2012-01-01

    Nanospheres containing ketoprofen (Keto) and polymer eudragit RS were prepared using an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The ultrasonic probe (VCX500, vibracell) was used as a tool to disperse oil phase into aqueous phase leading to water/oil emulsion. Nanoparticles were successfully prepared and their morphologies and diameters were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The result showed that particles were spherical with submicron size. The particle size was dependent on the RS concentration, emulsification tools and the types of organic solvents. For the encapsulation ability, Keto-loaded RS nanoparticle showed 9.8% of Keto in nanoparticle, which was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, the drug release behavior of Keto-loaded eudragit RS nanoparticle was also investigated in vitro at pH 7.4 and compared to referential profenid. (paper)

  18. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L.

    2007-01-01

    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI TM , for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  19. Nefopam hydrochloride loaded microspheres for post-operative pain management: synthesis, physicochemical characterization and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelam; Arora, Sandeep; Madan, Jitender

    2018-02-01

    Once-daily oral dosage of nefopam hydrochloride loaded sustained release microspheres (NPH-MS) was investigated as novel therapeutic strategy for post-operative pain management. Microspheres were synthesized using poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. NPH-MS were characterized through FTIR, PXRD and SEM. In-vitro drug release study revealed sustained behavior till 24 h. Haemolysis was pain model, reversal of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia by NPH-MS was statistically significant (p < .001) as compared with NPH till 24 h post-dose.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt ferrocyanides loaded on organic anion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P. [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)], E-mail: tpvalsala@yahoo.co.in; Joseph, Annie [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Shah, J.G. [Back End Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Raj, Kanwar [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India); Venugopal, V. [Radiochemistry and Isotope Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay 400 085 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Transition metal ferrocyanides have important applications in the selective removal of radioactive caesium from low level and intermediate level radioactive liquid waste streams. The microcrystalline nature of these materials renders them useless for application in column mode operations. Special preparation procedures have been developed to prepare granular solids by in situ precipitation of metal ferrocyanides on organic anion exchangers, which is suitable for column mode operations. The elemental compositions of the metal ferrocyanides precipitated inside the pores of anion exchanger were determined by analysing the dissolved samples using ICP-AES system and flame photometer. From the XRD and EDX analyses and the elemental composition of the synthesized materials, the nature of the compound formed inside the anion exchanger was found to be cobalt ferrocyanide. From SEM analysis of the samples, the particle size of the cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated inside the anion exchanger was found to be much less than that of cobalt ferrocyanide precipitated outside. The efficiency of these materials for removal of Cs was evaluated by measuring the distribution coefficient (Kd), ion exchange capacity and kinetics of Cs uptake. The Kd of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was found to be of the order of 10{sup 5} ml/g. The Cs uptake kinetics of the materials loaded on anion exchanger was slower than that of precipitated materials. The ion exchange capacity of the cobalt ferrocyanide loaded on anion exchanger was found to be much higher than that of the precipitated cobalt ferrocyanide.

  1. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  2. Electrical Characterization and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Properties of Gold/Nafion:Polypyrrole/MWCNTs Electrochemical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Saitta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical devices using as substrates copier grade transparency sheets are developed by using ion conducting Nafion:polypyrrole mixtures, deposited between gold bottom electrodes and upper electrodes based on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical properties of the Nafion:polypyrrole blends and of the gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs devices are investigated under dry conditions and in deionized water by means of frequency dependent impedance measurements and time domain electrical characterization. According to current-voltage measurements carried out in deionized water, the steady state current forms cycles characterized by redox peaks, the intensity and position of which reversibly change in response to H2O2, with a lower detection limit in the micromolar range. The sensitivity that is obtained is comparable with that of other electrochemical sensors that however, unlike our devices, require supporting electrolytes.

  3. Preparation and characterization of metallic supported thin Pd-Ag membranes for hydrogen separation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Ekain; Medrano, Jose Antonio; Melendez, Jon; Parco, Maria; Viviente, J.L.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto; Pacheco Tanaka, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of thin-film (4-5 µm thick) Pd-Ag metallic supported membranes for high temperature applications. Various thin film membranes have been prepared by depositing a ceramic interdiffusion barrier layer prior to the simultaneous Pd-Ag electroless plating deposition. Two deposition techniques for ceramic layers (made of zirconia and alumina) have been evaluated: atmospheric plasma spraying and dip coating of a powder suspension. Initially, the...

  4. Applications of hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX for the characterization of conformational dynamics in light-activated photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eLindner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of optogenetic tools is inherently linked to the understanding of photoreceptor function. Structural analysis of elements involved in signal integration in individual sensor domains provides an initial idea of their mode of operation, but understanding how local structural rearrangements eventually affect signal transmission to output domains requires inclusion of the effector regions in the characterization. However, the dynamic nature of these assemblies renders their structural analysis challenging and therefore a combination of high- and low-resolution techniques is required to appreciate functional aspects of photoreceptors.This review focuses on the potential of Hydrogen-Deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS for complementing the structural characterization of photoreceptors. In this respect, the ability of HDX-MS to provide information on the conformational dynamics and the possibility to address multiple functionally relevant states in solution render this methodology ideally suitable. We highlight recent examples demonstrating the potential of HDX-MS and discuss how these results can help to improve existing optogenetic systems or guide the design of novel optogenetic tools.

  5. Characterizing the 21-cm Signal from Neutral Hydrogen in the IGM at Redshifts 27>z>6 with EDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalve, Raul A.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Mozdzen, Thomas J.; Mahesh, Nivedita

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the period when the first stars formed and ionized the InterGalactic Medium (IGM) during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) represents one of the main objectives of modern cosmology. The Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) strives to characterize this period by measuring, for the first time, the all-sky spectrum of the 21-cm signal produced by neutral hydrogen in the IGM at redshifts 27>z>6. In this talk I will describe recent EDGES constraints for the 21-cm signal. Specifically, with measurements from the EDGES High-Band instrument in the range 90-190 MHz, we rule out traditional Tanh models for the epoch of reionization with durations of up to dz=1 over the redshift range 14>z>7. We also rule out a wide range of phenomenological and physically-motivated 21-cm models that contain a large absorption feature in this redshift range, produced by the complex interaction between UV and X-ray radiation from the first sources and the neutral hydrogen in the IGM. Finally, I will describe our efforts to detect the 21-cm signal in the range 27>z>13 with two Low-Band instruments that have observed over 50-100 MHz since 2015. These instruments implement refined calibration techniques and lessons learned from previous generations of EDGES, and have achieved a level of systematic uncertainty low enough to enable detection. I will present Low-Band analysis results, including a variety of cross-checks performed to discriminate between residual instrumental effects and spectral structure that is intrinsic to the sky. I will conclude by describing the preparation of the next observational campaign with upgraded instrumentation.

  6. Meso-Scale Progressive Damage Behavior Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Tensile Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yiru; Zhang, Songjun; Jiang, Hongyong; Xiang, Jinwu

    2018-04-01

    Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), a sophisticated 3D meso-scale finite element (FE) model is proposed to characterize the progressive damage behavior of 2D Triaxial Braided Composites (2DTBC) with 60° braiding angle under quasi-static tensile load. The modified Von Mises strength criterion and 3D Hashin failure criterion are used to predict the damage initiation of the pure matrix and fiber tows. A combining interface damage and friction constitutive model is applied to predict the interface damage behavior. Murakami-Ohno stiffness degradation scheme is employed to predict the damage evolution process of each constituent. Coupling with the ordinary and translational symmetry boundary conditions, the tensile elastic response including tensile strength and failure strain of 2DTBC are in good agreement with the available experiment data. The numerical results show that the main failure modes of the composites under axial tensile load are pure matrix cracking, fiber and matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows, matrix tension failure in axial fiber tows and interface debonding; the main failure modes of the composites subjected to transverse tensile load are free-edge effect, matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows and interface debonding.

  7. Characterization of the various catalyst for solvent hydrogenation at 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru kakushu yozai suisoka shokubai no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakebayashi, H.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Aihara, Y.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Performance of various catalysts for hydrogenation of recycle solvent was evaluated for the operation of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU). Distillate between 220 and 538{degree}C derived from the liquefaction of Tanito Harum coal was used as recycle solvent. Deactivation behaviors of catalysts were compared using a prediction equation of catalyst life, by which aromatic carbon index (fa) after hydrogenation can be determined from the fa of recycle oil before hydrogenation, reaction temperature, and total hydrogenation time. Total hydrogenation time satisfying the {Delta}fa, 0.05 before and after hydrogenation were 8,000, 4,000, and 2,000 hours for NiMo-based catalysts C, A, and B, respectively. Catalyst C showed the longest life. Used catalysts were also characterized. The catalyst C showed larger mean pore size than those of the others, which resulted in the longer life due to the delay of pore blockage. From measurements by XPS and EPMA, relative atomic concentration of carbon increased remarkably after the use for all of catalysts, which was considered to be due to the adhesion of hydrocarbons. Increase of metal atoms, such as Fe and Cr, was also observed due to the contamination of entrainment residues. Deactivation of catalysts was caused by the adhesion of hydrocarbons, and metallic compounds, such as Fe and Cr. 3 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Novel targeted siRNA-loaded hybrid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dim, Nneka; Perepelyuk, Maryna; Gomes, Olukayode; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Liu, Yi; Den, Robert; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Shoyele, Sunday A

    2015-09-26

    siRNAs have a high potential for silencing critical molecular pathways that are pathogenic. Nevertheless, their clinical application has been limited by a lack of effective and safe nanotechnology-based delivery system that allows a controlled and safe transfection to cytosol of targeted cells without the associated adverse effects. Our group recently reported a very effective and safe hybrid nanoparticle delivery system composing human IgG and poloxamer-188 for siRNA delivery to cancer cells. However, these nanoparticles need to be optimized in terms of particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. In the present study, we explored the effects of certain production parameters on particle size, loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. Further, to make these nanoparticles more specific in their delivery of siRNA, we conjugated anti-NTSR1-mAb to the surface of these nanoparticles to target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these antiNTSR1-mAb functionalized nanoparticles was also elucidated. It was demonstrated that the concentration of human IgG in the starting nanoprecipitation medium and the rotation speed of the magnetic stirrer influenced the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and the size of the nanoparticles produced. We also successfully transformed these nanoparticles into actively targeted nanoparticles by functionalizing with anti-NTSR1-mAb to specifically target NTSR1-overexpressing cancer cells, hence able to avoid undesired accumulation in normal cells. The mechanism of siRNA release from these nanoparticles was elucidated to be by Fickian diffusion. Using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, we were able to confirm the active involvement of NTSR1 in the uptake of these anti-NTSR1-mAb functionalized hybrid nanoparticles by lung adenocarcinoma cells. This hybrid nanoparticle delivery system can be used as a platform technology for intracellular delivery of siRNAs to NTSR1

  9. Characterization of effluents from coal and oil heating 2. Coalheated boilers, full load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassbotn, T.; Hagen, R.I.; Hustad, J.

    1983-02-01

    The report contains the results of the second measurement series. The concentration/emission of dust, particles size distribution and content of heavy metals and PAH-compounds in certain dust fractions are measured after the multiceplon. The particle size distribution seems to be binodal with increasing amount of larger particles at heavier load. The heavy metal concentration has a tendency to increase with decreasing particle size. The concentration of PAH-compounds were low. The main constituents of the extractable organic material were polar compounds. The PAH and lighter organic compounds content was determined in the exhaust gases. 3 drawings, 18 tables.

  10. Fabrication, characterization, in vitro drug release and glucose uptake activity of 14-deoxy, 11, 12-didehydroandrographolide loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Kamaraj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymer based novel drug delivery systems brought a considerable attention in enhancing the therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability of various drugs. 14-deoxy 11, 12-didehydro andrographolide (poorly water soluble compound loaded polycaprolactone (nano-DDA was synthesized using the solvent evaporation technique. Nano-DDA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS studies. Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR was used to investigate the structural interaction between the drug and the polymer. Functional characterization of the formulation was determined using drug content, cellular uptake and in vitro drug release. 2-deoxy-D-[1-3H] glucose uptake assay was carried out to assess the antidiabetic potential of nano-DDA in L6 myotubes. The nano-DDA displayed spherical shape with a smooth surface (252.898 nm diameter, zeta potential, encapsulation and loading efficiencies of −38.9 mV, 91.98 ± 0.13% and 15.09 ± 0.18% respectively. No structural alteration between the drug and the polymer was evidenced (FTIR analysis. Confocal microscopy studies with rhodamine 123 loaded polycaprolactone nanoparticles (Rh123-PCL NPs revealed the internalization of Rh123-PCL NPs in a time dependent manner in L6 myoblasts. A dose dependent increase in glucose uptake was observed for nano-DDA with a maximal uptake of 108.54 ± 1.42% at 100 nM on L6 myotubes, thereby proving its anti-diabetic efficacy. A biphasic pattern of in vitro drug release demonstrated an initial burst release at 24 h followed by a sustained release for up to 11 days. To conclude, our results revealed that nano-DDA formulation can be a potent candidate for antidiabetic drug delivery.

  11. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Soheili, Marzieh; Dadashzadeh, Simin; Saghiri, Reza

    2010-08-09

    The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol)-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC) as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume) on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84), and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs) have a better physicochemical characterization and can be developed as a drug carrier in order to treat different malignancies.

  12. Formulation, physicochemical characterization and stability study of lithium-loaded microemulsion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Abdelkader; Legrand, Philippe; El Ghzaoui, Abdeslam; Dorandeu, Christophe; Maurel, Jean Claude; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie

    2016-04-11

    Lithium biocompatible microemulsion based on Peceol(®), lecithin, ethanol and water was studied in attempt to identify the optimal compositions in term of drug content, physicochemical properties and stability. Lithium solubilization in microemulsion was found to be compatible with a drug-surfactant binding model. Lithium ions were predominantly solubilized within lecithin head group altering significantly the interfacial properties of the system. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of drug free and drug loaded microemulsions were built at constant ethanol/lecithin weight ratio (40/60). Lithium loaded microemulsion has totally disappeared in the Peceol(®) rich part of phase diagram; critical fractions of lecithin and ethanol were required for the formation of stable microemulsion. The effect of lithium concentration on the properties and physical stability of microemulsions were studied using microscopy, Karl Fischer titrations, rheology analyses, conductivity measurements and centrifugation tests. The investigated microemulsions were found to be stable under accelerated storage conditions. The systems exhibited low viscosity and behaved as Newtonian fluid and no structural transition was shown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the behavior under impact loading of a maraging steel strengthened by nano-precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, E.; Redjaïmia, A.; Leitner, H.; Clemens, H.

    2006-08-01

    Nanometer-sized precipitates are responsible for the high strength of steel alloys well known as maraging steels. The term maraging relates to aging reactions in very low-carbon martensitic steels. Due to precipitation hardening 0.2% yield stress values of up to 2.4 GPa can be achieved. The class of stainless maraging steels exhibits an excellent combination of very high strength and hardness, ductility and toughness, combined with good corrosion resistance. In many applications like crash worthiness or ballistic protection the materials are loaded at high strain-rates. The most important characteristic of material behavior under dynamic load is the dynamic yield stress. In this work compression tests had been conducted at strain-rates in the order of 5 x 10 - 3 s - 1 up to 3 x 103 s - 1 to study the materials behaviour. Additionally high dynamic compression tests had been performed in the temperature range from -40circC up to 300circC.

  14. Monitoring and Characterization of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in a Large Retail Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile-Polese, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lobato, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rader, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Buildings account for 40% of primary energy consumption in the United States (residential 22%; commercial 18%). Most (70% residential and 79% commercial) is used as electricity. Thus, almost 30% of U.S. primary energy is used to provide electricity to buildings. Plug loads play an increasingly critical role in reducing energy use in new buildings (because of their increased efficiency requirements), and in existing buildings (as a significant energy savings opportunity). If all installed commercial building miscellaneous electrical loads (CMELs) were replaced with energy-efficient equipment, a potential annual energy saving of 175 TWh, or 35% of the 504 TWh annual energy use devoted to MELs, could be achieved. This energy saving is equivalent to the annual energy production of 14 average-sized nuclear power plants. To meet DOE's long-term goals of reducing commercial building energy use and carbon emissions, the energy efficiency community must better understand the components and drivers of CMEL energy use, and develop effective reduction strategies. These goals can be facilitated through improved data collection and monitoring methodologies, and evaluation of CMELs energy-saving techniques.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Naringenin-Loaded Elastic Liposomes for Topical Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jun Tsai

    Full Text Available Excessive production of radical oxygen species in skin is a contributor to a variety of skin pathologies. Naringenin is a potent antioxidant. The purpose of the present study was to develop elastic liposomes for naringenin topical application. Naringenin-loaded elastic liposomes containing different amounts of Tween 80 and cholesterol were prepared. The physicochemical properties including vesicle size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency, and permeability capacity were determined to evaluate the effect of components. The stability of formulation and skin irritation caused by drug-loaded elastic liposomes were also evaluated for assessment of the clinical utility of elastic liposomes. Saturated aqueous solution of naringenin and naringenin dissolved in 10% Tween 80 solution (5 mg/mL were used as the control group. The result showed that in using elastic liposomes as carrier, the deposition amounts in the skin of naringenin were significantly increased about 7.3~11.8-fold and 1.2~1.9-fold respectively, when compared with the saturated aqueous solution and Tween 80 solution-treated groups. The level of drug was more than 98.89±3.90% after 3 months of storage at 4℃. In a skin irritation test, the result showed experimental formulation exhibit considerably less irritating than the positive control (paraformaldehyde-treated group, suggesting its potential therapeutic application.

  16. Minoxidil-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): characterization and rheological behaviour of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Santos, D; Ferreira, D C; Souto, E B

    2009-03-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are used as biocompatible carriers for several types of drugs intended for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biochemical purposes. The wide range of lipids and surfactants available for the production of such particles turns these carriers highly suitable for distinct applications (topical, dermal and transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, and oral administration). This work describes the development of a special type of lipid particles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), for minoxidil as an alternative to conventional topical alcoholic solutions. NLC were composed of stearic acid and oleic acid, being the matrix stabilized with poloxamer 188 in aqueous dispersion. To develop a suitable topical formulation, lipid dispersions were further mixed with freshly prepared Carbopol or perfluorocarbon based hydrogels. Minoxidil-loaded NLC were approximately 250 nm in size before the entrapment within the gel network and remained below 500 nm after mixing with both types of hydrogels. The occurrence of minoxidil crystallization in the aqueous phase of lipid dispersions was discarded under analysis by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to assess the recrystallization index (i.e. measure of the percentage of lipid matrix that is crystallized) of the particles, which was shown to be 62% for minoxidil-free dispersions and 68% for minoxidil-loaded NLC dispersions. Rheological analysis of hydrogels containing NLC dispersions showed typical pseudoplastic behaviour which makes them suitable for topical purposes.

  17. Characterization of the bone-metal implant interface by Digital Volume Correlation of in-situ loading using neutron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Tudisco, Erika; Perdikouri, Christina; Belfrage, Ola; Kaestner, Anders; Hall, Stephen; Tägil, Magnus; Isaksson, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Metallic implants are commonly used as surgical treatments for many orthopedic conditions. The long-term stability of implants relies on an adequate integration with the surrounding bone. Unsuccessful integration could lead to implant loosening. By combining mechanical loading with high-resolution 3D imaging methods, followed by image analysis such as Digital Volume Correlation (DVC), we aim at evaluating ex vivo the mechanical resistance of newly formed bone at the interface. X-rays tomography is commonly used to image bone but induces artefacts close to metallic components. Utilizing a different interaction with matter, neutron tomography is a promising alternative but has not yet been used in studies of bone mechanics. This work demonstrates that neutron tomography during in situ loading is a feasible tool to characterize the mechanical response of bone-implant interfaces, especially when combined with DVC. Experiments were performed where metal screws were implanted in rat tibiae during 4 weeks. The screws were pulled-out while the samples were sequentially imaged in situ with neutron tomography. The images were analyzed to quantify bone ingrowth around the implants. DVC was used to track the internal displacements and calculate the strain fields in the bone during loading. The neutron images were free of metal-related artefacts, which enabled accurate quantification of bone ingrowth on the screw (ranging from 60% to 71%). DVC allowed successful identification of the deformation and cracks that occurred during mechanical loading and led to final failure of the bone-implant interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Gold Loading of Polystyrene-Poly(pyridyl methacrylate) Core-Shell Latex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    In this research, novel 3-(2-pyridyl)propyl methacrylate and 3-(3-pyridyloxy)propyl methacrylate monomers were synthesized and emulsion polymerized on colloidal polystyrene seeds, resulting in core–shell latex systems. The cores and the core–shell particles were characterized by static light

  19. Characterization of the bacterial community in a biotrickling filter treating high loads of H(2)S by molecular biology tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Rovira, Roger; Gamisans, Xavier; Kinney, Kerry A; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David

    2009-01-01

    The diversity and spatial distribution of bacteria in a lab-scale biotrickling filter treating high loads of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) were investigated. Diversity and community structure were studied by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). A 16S rRNA gene clone library was established. Near Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, and clones were clustered into 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Nearly 74% and 26% of the clones were affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, respectively. Beta-, epsilon- and gamma-proteobacteria accounted for 15, 9 and 48%, respectively. Around 45% of the sequences retrieved were affiliated to bacteria of the sulfur cycle including Thiothrix spp., Thiobacillus spp. and Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Sequences related to Thiothrix lacustris accounted for a 38%. Rarefaction curve demonstrated that clone library constructed can be sufficient to describe the vast majority of the bacterial diversity of this reactor operating under strict conditions (2,000 ppm(v) of H(2)S). A spatial distribution of bacteria was found along the length of the reactor by means of the T-RFLP technique. Although aerobic species were predominant along the reactor, facultative anaerobes had a major relative abundance in the inlet part of the reactor, where the sulfide to oxygen ratio is higher.

  20. Catalytic performance and characterization of cobalt-nickel nano catalysts for CO hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Babakhanian, Arash

    2014-01-01

    A series of Co-Ni nano catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method. We investigated the effect of Co/Ni molar ratios precipitate and calcination conditions on the catalytic performance of cobalt nickel catalysts for Fisher-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The catalyst containing 90%Co/10%Ni was found to be optimal for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. The activity and selectivity of the optimal catalyst were studied in different operational conditions. The results show that the best operational conditions are the H 2 /CO=2/1 molar feed ratio at 310 .deg. C and GHSV=1,200 h - 1 under 5 bar of pressure. The prepared catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurements such as BET and BJH methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)

  1. Life Time Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Yi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    . In this work, long-term durability of Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supported planar SOECs were investigated at 800 oC for electrolysis of steam. The cells, which represent the state-of-the-art SOEC technology at Technical University of Denmark (DTU), have a Ni/YSZ support and active fuel electrode......, OCV) to -1.25 A/cm2. Detailed electrochemical and post-mortem characterizations were further conducted in order to clarify the cell or electrode degradation mechanisms. The cells show stable performance, with a steady-state degradation rate of up to 2 %/1000 h for electrolysis tests with current......Globally the amount of electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy is increasing. To integrate high amount of fluctuating renewable energy into the existing energy grid, efficient and cost competitive conversion of electricity into other kinds of energy carriers...

  2. Preparation and characterization of flexible nanoliposomes loaded with daptomycin, a novel antibiotic, for topical skin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li, Xiaolin Zhang, Xinliang Huang, Xiaoying Wang, Guojian Liao, Zhangbao ChenCollege of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate flexible nanoliposomes for mediating topical delivery of daptomycin, and to document permeation rates and bacteriostatic activity towards skin infections. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the daptomycin-loaded flexible nanoliposomes (DAP-FL, and the amount of drug loaded into the particles was evaluated as the investigation index. The optimal lipid ratio was lecithin to sodium cholate 17:1 (w/w and the lipid to drug ratio was 14:1 (w/w. The hydration temperature was set at 37°C and the duration of treatment with ultrasound was 20 minutes. The DAP-FL obtained had a small mean particle size (55.4 nm with a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index 0.15. The mean entrapment efficiency was 87.85% ± 2.15% and the mean percent drug loading was 5.61% ± 0.14%. Using skin mounted between the donor and receptor compartments of a modified Franz diffusion cell, the percentage and quantity of cumulative daptomycin permeation from DAP-FL within 12 hours were measured at 96.28% ± 0.70% and (132.23 ± 17.73 µg/cm2 *5 = 661.15 ± 88.65 µg/cm2, directly, showing rapid and efficient antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Following local administration of DAP-FL, daptomycin was detected in multilayer tissues within the skin and underlying structures in the dorsal skin of the mouse. Effective therapeutic concentrations were maintained for several hours, and significantly inhibited bacterial growth and injury-induced biofilms. These results demonstrate that the DAP-FL can enhance the ability of daptomycin to permeate the skin efficiently, where it has a powerful antibacterial action and activity against biofilms. This novel formulation of daptomycin has potential as a new approach in the

  3. Meloxicam-loaded Phospholipid/solutol® HS15 Based Mixed Nanomicelles: Preparation, Characterization, and in vitro Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, Jessy; Varkey, Dhanila

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease which results in joint destruction, mainly due to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Meloxicam (MLX) is a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor with potential free radical scavenging activity. Mixed nanomicelles (NMs) of MLX can augment its antioxidant effects. The present study aims to prepare, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant effects of MLX-loaded mixed nanomicelles (MLXNMs). Conventional thin-film hydration method was employed to fabricate MLX-NMs. The formulations were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL). Additionally, the optimized formulation was characterized for small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), in vitro drug release, and morphology. MLX encapsulation in NMs was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), studies. The cell uptake of sulforhodamine B (SRB)- labeled NMs was studied in RAW 264.7 cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity of optimized MLX-NMs was studied by different antioxidant assays. The optimized MLX-NMs exhibited average size and zeta potential of 88 ± 42 nm and -47.4 ± 16.2 mV, respectively. The EE and DL of MLX were 94.13 ± 1.01 % and 4.20 ± 0.05 %, respectively. Morphology studies confirmed the oblate ellipsoidal shape of MLXNMs. The in vitro release study exhibited a biphasic release pattern. MLX encapsulation into the micelle core was confirmed by FTIR, DSC, 1H NMR, and XRD studies. Additionally, SRB-labeled NMs demonstrated efficient in vitro cell uptake in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant studies exhibited superior free radical scavenging activity of MLXNMs as compared to free MLX. The NMs potentiate the in vitro antioxidant effects of MLX. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles: preparation, physico-chemical characterization and in vitro evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Maniscalco, Laura; Licciardi, Mariano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2004-11-20

    Several samples of polymeric micelles, formed by amphiphilic derivatives of PHEA, obtained by grafting into polymeric backbone of PEGs and/or hexadecylamine groups (PHEA-PEG-C(16) and PHEA-C(16)) and containing different amount of Tamoxifen, were prepared. All Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed to increase drug water solubility. TEM studies provided evidence of the formation of supramolecular core/shell architectures containing drug, in the nanoscopic range and with spherical shape. Samples with different amount of encapsulated Tamoxifen were subjected to in vitro cytotoxic studies in order to evaluate the effect of Tamoxifen micellization on cell growth inhibition. All samples of Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity in comparison with free drug, probably attributable to fluidification of cellular membranes, caused by amphiphilic copolymers, that allows a higher penetration of the drug into tumoral cells. To gain preliminary information about the potential use of prepared micelles as Tamoxifen drug delivery systems, studies evaluating drug release ability of micelle systems in media mimicking biological fluids (buffer solutions at pH 7.4 and 5.5) and in human plasma were carried out. These studies, performed evaluating the amount of Tamoxifen that remains in solution as a function of time, showed that at pH 7.4, as well as in plasma, PHEA-C(16) polymeric micelles were able to release lower drug amounts than PHEA-PEG(5000)-C(16) ones, while at pH 5.5, the behavior difference between two kind of micelles was less pronounced.

  5. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influences of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Zhu, Luyan; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yan; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2011-04-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared using fatty acids (tetradecanoic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid) as lipid matrix by hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The effect of fatty acids on the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the SLN were investigated. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of nanoparticles varied with fatty acids in the order of stearic acid>palmitic acid>tetradecanoic acid. Furthermore, stearic acid-SLN had larger particle size, bigger polydispersity index (PDI) and higher zeta potential compared with the other two fatty acid formulated SLN. The SLN showed sustained releases in vitro and the released enrofloxacin had the same antibacterial activity as that of the native enrofloxacin. Although in vitro release exhibited similar patterns, within 24 h the releasing rates of the three formulations were significantly different (tetradecanoic acid-SLN>palmitic acid-SLN>stearic acid-SLN). Pharmacokinetic study after a single dose of intramuscular administration to mice demonstrated that tetradecanoic acid-SLN, palmitic acid-SLN, and stearic acid-SLN increased the bioavailability by 6.79, 3.56 and 2.39 folds, and extended the mean residence time (MRT) of the drug from 10.60 h to 180.36, 46.26 and 19.09 h, respectively. These results suggest that the enrofloxacin-fatty acid SLN are promising formulations for sustained release while fatty acids had significant influences on the characteristics and performances of the SLN. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  7. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads

  8. A 4 MA, 500 ns pulsed power generator CQ-4 for characterization of material behaviors under ramp wave loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiji; Luo, Binqiang; Zhang, Xuping; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Tan, Fuli; Chong, Tao; Mo, Jianjun; Wu, Gang; Tao, Yanhui

    2013-01-01

    A pulsed power generator CQ-4 was developed to characterize dynamic behaviors of materials under ramp wave loading, and to launch high velocity flyer plates for shock compression and hypervelocity impact experiments of materials and structures at Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics. CQ-4 is composed of twenty capacitor and primary discharge switch modules with total capacitance of 32 μF and rated charging voltage of 100 kV, and the storage energy is transmitted by two top and bottom parallel aluminum plates insulated by twelve layers of polyester film with total thickness of 1.2 mm. Between capacitor bank and chamber, there are 72 peaking capacitors with total capacitance of 7.2 μF and rated voltage of 120 kV in parallel, which are connected with the capacitor bank in parallel. Before the load, there is a group of seven secondary self-breaking down switches connected with the total circuit in series. The peaking capacitors and secondary switches are used to shape the discharging current waveforms. For short-circuit, the peak current of discharging can be up to 3 ~ 4 MA and rise time varies from 470 ns to 600 ns when the charging voltages of the generator are from 75 kV to 85 kV. With CQ-4 generator, some quasi-isentropic compression experiments under ramp wave loadings are done to demonstrate the ability of CQ-4 generator. And some experiments of launching high velocity flyer plates are also done on CQ-4. The experimental results show that ramp wave loading pressure of several tens of GPa on copper and aluminum samples can be realized and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.35 mm can be accelerated to about 11 km/s and the velocity of aluminum flyer plate with size of 10 mm × 6 mm × 0.6 mm can be up to about 9 km/s, which show that CQ-4 is a good and versatile tool to realize ramp wave loading and shock compression for shock physics.

  9. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Sensitive Hydrogen (H2 Sensing Device Based on Ag Doped SnO2 Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorui Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pure and Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, respectively. The gas sensing performance of the pure, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, and 5 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 sensing devices toward hydrogen (H2 were systematically evaluated. The results indicated that compared with pure SnO2 nanospheres, Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres could not only decrease the optimum working temperature but also significantly improve H2 sensing such as higher gas response and faster response-recovery. Among all the samples, the 3 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 showed the highest response 39 to 100 μL/L H2 at 300 °C. Moreover, its gas sensing mechanism was discussed, and the results will provide reference and theoretical guidance for the development of high-performance SnO2-based H2 sensing devices.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of NiFe2O4–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoğlu, E.; Özel, U.; Caner, C.; Baykal, A.; Summak, M.M.; Sözeri, H.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel superparamagnetic NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst was fabricated through co-precipitation. ► It could be reused several times without significant loss in catalytic activity for hydrogenation reaction. ► No further modification of the NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst is necessary for utilization as catalyst. -- Abstract: Herein we report the fabrication and characterization magnetically recyclable catalysts of NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd nanocomposite as highly effective catalysts for reduction reactions in liquid phase. The reduction Pd 2+ was accomplished with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) instead of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) and NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemically using FeCI 3 ·6H 2 O and NiCl 2 . The chemical characterization of the product was done with X-ray diffractometry, Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry and inductively coupled plasma. Thus formed NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd MRCs showed a very high activity in reduction reactions of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase. It was found out that the catalytic activity of NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd MRCs on the reduction of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase are between 99–93% and 98–93%, respectively. Magnetic character of this system allowed recovery and multiple use without significant loss of its catalytic activity. It is found that NiFe 2 O 4 –Pd MRCs showed very efficient catalytic activity and multiple usability.

  12. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Derakhshandeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Katayoun Derakhshandeh1, Marzieh Soheili1, Simin Dadashzadeh2, Reza Saghiri31Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Science, Kermanshah 67145-1673, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Deptartment of Biochemistry, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84, and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs have a better physicochemical characterization

  13. One-pot synthesis and characterization of rhodamine derivative-loaded magnetic core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin, E-mail: jzhang@eng.uwo.ca; Li Jiaxin [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada); Razavi, Fereidoon S. [Brock University, Department of Physics (Canada); Mumin, Abdul Md. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    A new method to produce elaborate nanostructure with magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity is reported in this article. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) coated with fluorescent silica (SiO{sub 2}) shell was produced through the one-pot reaction, in which one reactor was utilized to realize the synthesis of superparamagnetic core of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the formation of SiO{sub 2} coating through the condensation and polymerization of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and the encapsulation of tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate-dextran (TRITC-dextran) within silica shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to investigate the core-shell structure. The magnetic core of the core-shell nanoparticles is 60 {+-} 10 nm in diameter. The thickness of the fluorescent SiO{sub 2} shell is estimated at 15 {+-} 5 nm. In addition, the fluorescent signal of the SiO{sub 2} shell has been detected by the laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) with emission wavelength ({lambda}{sub em}) at 566 nm. In addition, the magnetic properties of TRITC-dextran loaded silica-coating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs) were studied. The hysteresis loop of the core-shell NPs measured at room temperature shows that the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) is not reached even at the field of 70 kOe (7T). Meanwhile, the very low coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) are 0.375 kOe and 6.6 emu/g, respectively, at room temperature. It indicates that the core-shell particles have the superparamagnetic properties. The measured blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the TRITC-dextran loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs is about 122.5 K. It is expected that the multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles can be used in bio-imaging.

  14. Preparation and characterization of LTA-type zeolite framework dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles and their catalytic application in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane for efficient hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahmakiran, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ru(0)NPs-ZK-4 were prepared and characterized by advanced analytical techniques. ► They achieve the hydrolysis of ammonia-borane with TOF = 5410 h −1 and TTO = 36700. ► They maintain 85% of their activity even at the fifth catalytic run. - Abstract: The safe and efficient hydrogen storage and production are major obstacles to use hydrogen as an energy carrier. Therefore, significant efforts have been focused on the development of new materials for the chemical hydrogen storage and production. Of particular importance, ammonia–borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) is emerging as one of the most promising solid hydrogen carrier due to its high gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (19.6 wt.%) and low molecular weight (30.8 g/mol). ammonia–borane can release hydrogen gas upon catalytic hydrolysis under mild conditions. Herein, the discovery of a new catalytic material, ruthenium nanoparticles stabilized by ZK-4 zeolite framework, for this important reaction has been reported. This new catalyst system was prepared by borohydride reduction of ruthenium(III)-exchanged ZK-4 zeolite in water at room temperature. The characterization of the resulting material by advanced analytical tools shows the formation of ZK-4 zeolite dispersed ruthenium nanoparticles (2.9 ± 0.9 nm). The catalytic performance of the resulting supported ruthenium nanoparticles depending on activity, lifetime and reusability was demonstrated in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia–borane. They were found to be highly active (initial TOF = 5410 h −1 ), long-lived (TTO = 36,700) and reusable catalyst (retaining of >85% of initial activity in the 5th reuse) in this important catalytic reaction at room temperature under air.

  15. Characterization of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form loaded with U and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkler, W.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Frank, S. M.; Richmann, M. K.; Johnson, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents microscopic characterization of four samples of a ceramic waste form (CWF) developed for disposal of actinide-containing electrorefiner salts. The four samples were prepared to investigate the influence of water content and the Pu:U ratio on CWF microstructure and performance. While the overall phase content is not strongly influenced by either variable, the presence of water in the initial zeolite has a detectable effect on CWF microstructure. It is found to influence the distribution of the major actinide host phase, a (U,Pu)O 2 mixed oxide

  16. Characterization through nano indentation technique of mechanical properties of an aluminium alloy welded zone for hydrogen storage; Apport de la nanoindentation pour la caracterisation d'un cordon de soudure par faisceau d'electrons d'un reservoir d'hydrogene sous pression en alliage d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delobelle, P.; Perreux, D.; Russo, C. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174, Depart. LMARC, 25 - Besancon (France); Meunier, E. [CEA Valduc (DRMN/SMCM/LCSi), 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Decamps, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209, 94 - Vitry-Thiais, (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this study we use the nano indentation technique which is a powerful tool to characterise the mechanical properties of a welded bond. The Berkovich indentation has the advantage to test small material volumes compared to the conventional tensile tests. The welded process with electrons beam of hydrogen vessels induces different regions and the aim of this study is to characterize the differences of the mechanical properties of the different zones of the weld. To identify the stress-strain curves of the tested material, F.E. inverse method has been used. After treatment, for one pass, the hardness of the melted zone is greater than those of the base material and for the two passes, the hardness is still lower than those of the base material. The interface zones present a hardness which is always higher than those of the weld. A relation of the Hall-Petch type which correlates the evolution of the hardness with the zinc concentration and the grain size has been proposed. Moreover a relation between the normalized hardness and the hydrogen concentration CH has been found. The parameters of the stress-strain curves of the four regions; base material, interface, one and two passes melted zones, have been deduced. The identified laws are used in a F.E. model of a welded sphere to model its radial deformation under internal pressure loading. (authors)

  17. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline.

  18. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles made from beeswax and carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandnia, Soheila; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Nosrati, Mohsen; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2010-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been proposed as suitable colloidal carriers for delivery of drugs with limited solubility. Ketoprofen as a model drug was incorporated into SLNs prepared from a mixture of beeswax and carnauba wax using Tween 80 and egg lecithin as emulsifiers. The characteristics of the SLNs with various lipid and surfactant composition were investigated. The mean particle size of drug-loaded SLNs decreased upon mixing with Tween 80 and egg lecithin as well as upon increasing total surfactant concentration. SLNs of 75 ± 4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.02 were obtained using 1% (vol/vol) mixed surfactant at a ratio of 60:40 Tween 80 to egg lecithin. The zeta potential of these SLNs varied in the range of -15 to -17 (mV), suggesting the presence of similar interface properties. High drug entrapment efficiency of 97% revealed the ability of SLNs to incorporate a poorly water-soluble drug such as ketoprofen. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the stability of nanoparticles with negligible drug leakage after 45 days of storage. It was also found that nanoparticles with more beeswax content in their core exhibited faster drug release as compared with those containing more carnauba wax in their structure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Pt-loaded carbon nanostructures derived from polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Gong Da; Kim, Pil; Lee, Youn Sik [Div. of Chemical Engineering, Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk NationalUniversity, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are one of the most advanced fuel cells for future energy, owing to their high conversion efficiency, quick start-up, rapid response to variable loading, and relatively low operating temperature, compared with of her conventional energy conversion devices. PANTs were synthesized to have various aspect ratios and inner diameters. As the aniline concentration increased, the PANTs’ inner diameter greatly decreased, but their outer diameters only slightly increased, leading to a decrease in their aspect ratios. Carbonization of PANTs resulted in the formation of corresponding CNSs. Pt nanoparticles were successfully formed on the CNSs under N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}/NH{sub 3} flow. The Pt nanoparticles of the Pt- CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} catalysts were smaller in size, less aggregated, and more uniformly dispersed than those of the Pt- CNS-N{sub 2} catalysts. The ECSA values of Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} were larger than those of Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} and Pt/C. The half wave potentials of the Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} catalysts were lower than those of the Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} , and close to those of the Pt/C. The Pt-CNS-N{sub 2} /NH{sub 3} catalysts exhibited better kinetic performance than the Pt-CNS -N{sub 2} catalysts and Pt/C.

  20. Tamoxifen-loaded lecithin organogel (LO) for topical application: Development, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amit; Singh, Bhupinder; Raza, Kaisar; Wadhwa, Sheetu; Katare, Om Prakash

    2013-02-28

    Lecithin organogels (LOs) are semi-solid systems with immobilized organic liquid phase in 3-D network of self-assembled gelators. This paper attempts to study the various attributes of LOs, starting from selection of materials, optimization of influential components to LO specific characterization. After screening of various components (type of gelators, organic and aqueous phase) and construction of phase diagrams, a D-optimal mixture design was employed for the systematic optimization of the LO composition. The response surface plots were constructed for various response variables, viz. viscosity, gel strength, spreadability and consistency index. The optimized LO composition was searched employing overlay plots. Subsequent validation of the optimization study employing check-point formulations, located using grid search, indicated high degree of prognostic ability of the experimental design. The optimized formulation was characterized for morphology, drug content, rheology, spreadability, pH, phase transition temperatures, and physical and chemical stability. The outcomes of the study were interesting showing high dependence of LO attributes on the type and amount of phospholipid, Poloxamer™, auxillary gelators and organic solvent. The optimized LO was found to be quite stable, easily applicable and biocompatible. The findings of the study can be utilized for the development of LO systems of other drugs for the safer and effective topical delivery. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of altretamine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidwani, Bina; Vyas, Amber

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of altretamine (ALT) by the hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The study was conducted using the Box-Behnken design (BBD), with a 3(3) design and a total of 17 experimental runs, performed in combination with response surface methodology (RSM). The SLNs were evaluated for mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, and drug-loading. The optimized formulation, with a desirability factor of 0.92, was selected and characterized. In vitro release studies showed a biphasic release pattern from the SLNs for up to 24 h. The results of % EE (93.21 ± 1.5), %DL (1.15 ± 0.6), and mean diameter of (100.6 ± 2.1) nm, were very close to the predicted values.

  2. Tadalafil inclusion in microporous silica as effective dissolution enhancer: optimization of loading procedure and molecular state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Motawaa, Adel M; Samaha, Magda W

    2011-05-01

    Tadalafil is an efficient drug used to treat erectile dysfunction characterized by poor water solubility, which has a negative influence on its bioavailability. Utilization of microporous silica represents an effective and facile technology to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Our strategy involved directly introducing tadalafil as guest molecule into microporous silica as host material by incipient wetness impregnation method. To optimize tadalafil inclusion, response surface methodology (RSM) using 3(3) factorial design was utilized. Furthermore, to investigate the molecular state of tadalafil, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermal gravimetrical analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were carried out. The results obtained pointed out that the quantity of microporous silica was the predominant factor that increased the loading efficiency. For the optimized formula, the loading efficiency was 42.50 wt %. Adsorption-desorption experiments indicated that tadalafil has been introduced into the micropores. Powder XRD and differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that tadalafil is arranged in amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution rate of tadalafil from the microporous silica was faster than that of free drug. Amorphous tadalafil occluded in microporous silica did not crystallize over 3 months. These findings contributed in opening a new strategy concerning the utilization of porous silica for the dissolution rate enhancement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Kaempferol loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and their potential applications as a sustainable antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Sedef; Saglam, Necdet; Özgen, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Flavonoid compounds are strong antioxidant and antifungal agents but their applications are limited due to their poor dissolution and bioavailability. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture has received increasing attention, with the development of new formulations containing active compounds. In this study, kaempferol (KAE) was loaded into lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles (LC NPs) to determine antifungal activity compared to pure KAE against the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporium to resolve the bioavailability problem. The influence of formulation parameters on the physicochemical properties of KAE loaded lecithin chitosan nanoparticles (KAE-LC NPs) were studied by using the electrostatic self-assembly technique. KAE-LC NPs were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties. KAE has been successfully encapsulated in LC NPs with an efficiency of 93.8 ± 4.28% and KAE-LC NPs showed good physicochemical stability. Moreover, in vitro evaluation of the KAE-LC NP system was made by the release kinetics, antioxidant and antifungal activity in a time-dependent manner against free KAE. Encapsulated KAE exhibited a significantly inhibition efficacy (67%) against Fusarium oxysporium at the end of the 60 day storage period. The results indicated that KAE-LC NP formulation could solve the problems related to the solubility and loss of KAE during use and storage. The new nanoparticle system enables the use of smaller quantities of fungicide and therefore, offers a more environmentally friendly method of controlling fungal pathogens in agriculture.

  4. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghavi N; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Majrad, Mohamed S; Injeti, Elisha R; Gollmer, Steven M; Shah, Zahoor A; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to advance solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) preparation methodology by preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles using a temperature-modulated solidification process. The technique was reproducible and prepared nanoparticles without the need of organic solvents. An anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was incorporated in the SLNs. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta potential analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cell viability studies. Particle size of the SLN dispersion was below 100 nm, and that of redispersed lyophilizates was ~500 nm. DSC and infrared spectroscopy suggested that the degree of crystallinity did not decrease appreciably when compared to GMS. TEM and AFM images showed well-defined spherical to oval particles. The drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be approximately 46%. In vitro drug release studies showed that 80% of the encapsulated drug was released within 1 h. In vitro cell cultures were biocompatible with blank SLNs but demonstrated concentration-dependent changes in cell viability to 5-FU-loaded SLNs. The 5-FU-loaded SLNs can potentially be utilized in an anticancer drug delivery system.

  5. Structural characterization of hydrogen separating membranes based on lanthanide-tungstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    . The oxygen vacancies are not ordered in this system. In the NdWO system, cations order at temperatures above 1300 C to form a superstructure. For Nd/W ∝ 5.6, these compounds crystallize with the tetragonal space group I-4. For a Nd/W ratio of 6, an additional Nd 2 O 3 phase has been observed. For a Nd/W ratio of 5, the cations and the oxygen vacancies order completely, and the compound crystallizes in space group Pbcn with a composition of Nd 10 W 2 O 21 . In the YWO system, the previously known crystal structure, with ordered cations and oxygen vacancies in the space group R-3, has been confirmed. Single phase samples can only be synthesized with a precise Y/W ratio of 6. In addition to structural characterization, the water absorption and transport properties of the samples Ln 2y W 1-Y O 3 were investigated by thermogravimetry, and electrical conductivity was studied under reducing and oxidizing atmospheres. The water absorption and protonic conductivity of the samples is strongly dependent on the crystal structure, the Ln/W ratio and the phase composition. Among the materials studied here, La 6 WO 12 showed high water absorption and the best protonic conductivity, mainly due to the disordered oxygen vacancies in the crystal structure. It was demonstrated that Ln 6 WO 12 compounds, crystallizing in a cubic crystal structure with ordered cations and highly delocalized oxygen atom positions, show the highest water uptake and protonic conductivity. This connection has been developed and proven in this work.

  6. IVABRADINE LOADED SOLID LIPID MICROPARTICLES: FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION BY CENTRAL COMPOSITE ROTATABLE DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Afzal, Samina; Sher, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The current research focused on improvement of oral bioavailability and decrease in dosing frequency of ivabradine (Iva) in order to enhance patient compliance by formulating novel sustained release Iva loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) with the help of melt emulsification technique. SLMs formulations were designed with the help of three level central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to study the impact of independent variables like lipid concentration, surfactant concentration and stirring speed on responses - percentage yield (Y,) and entrapment efficiency (Y2). Compatibility between the drug and bees wax (BW) was checked by conducting Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). SLMs were further evaluated for rheological behavior, zeta potential, particle size and for morphology by scanning'electron microscope (SEM). The release of drug from SLMs was conducted by USP type-Il apparatus at pH 1.2, pH 6.8 and data were analyzed by different kinetic models like zero order, first order, Higuchi model, Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hixon-Crowell models. The rheo- logical studies approved the good flow behavior of SLMs and spherical smooth surface of SLMs was observed from SEM. DSC, FTIR and XRD studies concluded the lack of any possible interaction between formulation components. The size-of SLMs ranged from 300 to 500 pm and zeta potential study showed the presence of higher negative charge (-30 to -52 mV). Response Y, varied from 53 to 90% and response Y2 ranged from 29 to 78% indicating the effect of formulation variables. The obtained outcomes were analyzed by second order polynomial equation and suggested quadratic model was also validated. SLMs released Iva from 54 to 90% at pH 6.8 and was significantly (p 0.05) affected by BW concentration. The release mechanism followed the zero order and Korsmeyer-Peppas (n 0.85) kinetic models suggesting slow erosion along with diffusion

  7. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization, pharmacokinetics, and hypoglycemic effect of berberine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mei Xue, Ming-xing Yang, Wei Zhang, Xiu-min Li, De-hong Gao, Zhi-min Ou, Zhi-peng Li, Su-huan Liu, Xue-jun Li, Shu-yu Yang Xiamen Diabetes Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The high aqueous solubility, poor permeability, and absorption of berberine (BBR result in its low plasma level after oral administration, which greatly limits its clinical application. BBR solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs were prepared to achieve improved bioavailability and prolonged effect. Developed SLNs showed homogeneous spherical shapes, small size (76.8 nm, zeta potential (7.87 mV, encapsulation efficiency (58%, and drug loading (4.2%. The power of X-ray diffraction combined with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed to analyze chemical functional groups and the microstructure of BBR-SLNs, and indicated that the drug was wrapped in a lipid carrier. Single dose (50 mg/kg oral pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed significant improvement (P<0.05 in the peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and variance of mean residence time of BBR-SLNs when compared to BBR alone (P<0.05, suggesting improved bioavailability. Furthermore, oral administration of both BBR and BBR-SLNs significantly suppressed body weight gain, fasting blood glucose levels, and homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance, and ameliorated impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in db/db diabetic mice. BBR-SLNs at high dose (100 mg/kg showed more potent effects when compared to an equivalent dose of BBR. Morphologic analysis demonstrated that BBR-SLNs potentially promoted islet function and protected the islet from regeneration. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that by entrapping BBR into SLNs the absorption of BBR and its anti-diabetic action were effectively enhanced. Keywords: berberine, solid lipid nanoparticles, pharmacokinetic, hypoglycemic effect

  9. Preparation and characterization of gadolinium-loaded PLGA particles surface modified with RGDS for the detection of thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhang,1 Jun Zhou,1 Dajing Guo,1 Meng Ao,2 Yuanyi Zheng,2 Zhigang Wang21Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Ultrasound, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Thrombotic disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The development of magnetic resonance molecular imaging provides potential promise for early disease diagnosis. In this study, we explore the preparation and characterization of gadolinium (Gd-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA particles surface modified with the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS peptide for the detection of thrombus. PLGA was employed as the carrier-delivery system, and a double emulsion solvent-evaporation method (water in oil in water was used to prepare PLGA particles encapsulating the magnetic resonance contrast agent Gd diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA. To synthesize the Gd-PLGA/chitosan (CS-RGDS particles, carbodiimide-mediated amide bond formation was used to graft the RGDS peptide to CS to form a CS-RGDS film that coated the surface of the PLGA particles. Blank PLGA, Gd-PLGA, and Gd-PLGA/CS particles were fabricated using the same water in oil in water method. Our results indicated that the RGDS peptide successfully coated the surface of the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles. The particles had a regular shape, smooth surface, relatively uniform size, and did not aggregate. The high electron density of the Gd-loaded particles and a translucent film around the particles coated with the CS and CS-RGDS films could be observed by transmission electron microscopy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles could target thrombi and could be imaged using a clinical magnetic resonance scanner. Compared with the Gd-DTPA solution, the longitudinal relaxation time of

  10. Characterization and Analysis of Viscoelastically Loaded Thin Film Piezoelectric Resonators Incorporated in AN Oscillator Microsensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ronald Patrick

    1994-01-01

    In the recent advancement of piezoelectric resonator technology, there has been a large growth in the application of these devices for chemical sensing. These sensors operate by detecting changes in their environment which perturb the electrical - acoustic operation and in turn can be harnessed by means of supporting electronics and signal processing to monitor various processes. Examples include remote environmental monitoring, chemical process control, and commercial gas phase detectors. In this dissertation, the chemical sensing theory and properties of piezoelectric resonators such as the bulk-acoustic wave thin-film resonator (TFR) and the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are developed. This analysis concentrates on characterizing the resonance behavior of thickness mode resonators based upon the physical properties at the electrode interface which include interfacial mass density, elasticity, viscosity, and thickness of the composite device consisting of the piezoelectric material, the electrodes, and any deposited layer on the electrode surface in contact with the surrounding medium. In this work, no approximation is made as to the stress or particle displacement variation across the visco-elastic film which allows a complete study of the perturbational mechanical variations on the electrical and resonance properties of the composite resonator. The derivation and verification of equivalent circuit models based on the physical properties of the piezoelectric resonator and visco-elastic sensing film are presented. The results and models from this research will be beneficial to surface chemistry studies and also have application to fabrication techniques and electrical modeling. The use of this theory is employed in a study of a QCM coated with a commercially developed negative resist. Photo-polymerization of the resist results in induced visco-elastic structural changes which can be monitored and characterized using the full admittance theory of the composite

  11. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana [Department of Chemistry, UFSCAr, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 {+-} 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 {+-} 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  12. Optimization and physicochemical characterization of a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded NLC for ocular antiangiogenic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, J; Gonzalez-Mira, E; Egea, M A; Garcia, M L; Souto, E B

    2010-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for the intravitreal-targeting delivery of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) by direct ocular instillation. A five-level central composite rotable design was used to study the influence of four different variables on the physicochemical characteristics of NLCs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization of NLC production parameters. The systems were produced by high pressure homogenization using Precirol ATO5 and squalene as solid and liquid lipids respectively, and Lutrol F68 as surfactant. Homogenization at 600 bar for 3 cycles of the optimized formulation resulted in the production of small NLC (mean diameter < 200 nm) with a homogeneous particle size distribution (polydispersity index (PI) approximately 0.1), of negatively charged surface (approximately |45| mV) and high entrapment efficiency (approximately 95%). Surface morphology was assessed by SEM which revealed fairly spherical shape. DSC, WAXS and FT-IR analyses confirmed that TA was mostly entrapped into the NLC, characterized by an amorphous matrix. In vivo Draize test showed no signs of ocular toxicity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin loaded PLA-Hyperbranched polyglycerol electrospun blend for wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Govindaraj; Pappuru, Sreenath; Chakraborty, Debashis; Maya Nandkumar, A; Chand, Dillip Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed to develop curcumin (Cur) incorporated electrospun nanofibers of a blend of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) for wound healing applications. Both the polymers are synthesized and fabricated by electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Electrospun scaffolds (PLA/HPG/Cur) exhibits very high hydrophilicity, high swelling and drug uptake and promotes better cell viability, adhesion and proliferation when compared to PLA/Cur electrospun nanofibers. Biodegradation study revealed that the morphology of the nanofibers were unaffected even after 14days immersion in Phosphate Buffered Saline. In vitro scratch assay indicates that migration of the cells in the scratch treated with PLA/HPG/Cur is complete within 36h. These results suggest that PLA/HPG/Cur nanofibers can be a potential wound patch dressing for acute and chronic wound applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, characterization and toxicological investigation of copper loaded chitosan nanoparticles in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Divya [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Dhanwal, Vandna [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Nayak, Debasis [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Saneja, Ankit [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Amin, Hina [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Rasool, Reyaz ur [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Gupta, Prem Narayan [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Formulation and Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Goswami, Anindya, E-mail: agoswami@iiim.ac.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India); Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (India)

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles often attribute severe adverse effects to the various organs or tissues at the molecular level despite of their applications in medical, laboratory and industrial sectors. The present study highlights the preparation of copper adsorbed chitosan nanoparticles (CuCSNPs), its characterization and validation of cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. Particle size of the CuCSNPs was determined by using Zetasizer and the copper loading was quantified with the help of ICP/MS. Further characterization of CuCSNPs was carried out by FT-IR analysis to determine the formation of nanoparticles and SEM was conducted for the morphological analysis of the CuCSNPs. The CuCSNPs exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects towards HEK-293 cells as analyzed by MTT assay. Moreover, the CuCSNPs inhibited the colony formation and induced nuclear damage at the dose of 100 μg/mL, much more effectively than the in built control copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}). At the molecular level, the CuCSNPs were found to be triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating effector caspases and subsequent PARP cleavage to induce cell death in HEK-293 cells. - Highlights: • Subtoxic levels of CuCSNPs induce apoptosis in HEK-293 cells. • CuCSNPs mediate toxicity via nuclear cleavage and ROS generation. • CuCSNPs favor caspase activation and PARP cleavage to induce cell death.

  15. Cyclosporine A Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Dry Eye Disease: In Vitro Characterization Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, V.D.; Apar, D.U.

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a common disease of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for CsA (CsA) ophthalmic delivery, for the treatment of dry eye disease. Topical CsA is currently the only and safe pharmacologic treatment of severe dry eye symptoms. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by W/O solvent evaporation technique followed by probe sonicator and characterized for various properties such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation studies by Franz diffusion cells, XRD, DSC, SEM, and stability studies. The developed nano suspension showed a mean particle size in the range from 128 to 253.50 nm before freeze drying and after freeze drying 145.60 to 260.0 nm. The drug entrapment efficiency was from 58.35 to 95.69% and production yield was found between 52.29±2.4 and 85.30±2.1 % in all preparations. The zeta potential of the Eudragit RL containing nanoparticles was positive, that is, 20.3 mV to 34.5 mV. The NPs formulations exhibited a biphasic drug release with initial burst followed by a very slow drug release and total cumulative release up to 24 h ranged from 69.83 to 91.92%. Kinetically, the release profiles of CsA from NPs appeared to fit best with the Higuchi model. The change of surface characteristics of NPs represents a useful approach for improvement of ocular retention and drug availability.

  16. Study on the Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Silver Loaded ZSM-5 Zeolite for Bacterial Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Le Thi Hoai; Vinh, Tran Quang; Loan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nhiem, Nguyen Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Radnik, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of nano silver coated ZSM-5 zeolite (Ag/ZSM-5) by ion exchange method combined with anaerobic thermal treatment and its bacterial elimination performance were studied. The various Ag content of different samples was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The Ag/ZSM-5 sample with 0.251 wt% Ag (denoted as ZAg3) was characterized by using atomic absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and pulsed CO chemisorption methods. The results showed that silver nanoparticles with a small nano-size of 2-3 nm were formed and distributed on the surface of ZSM-5 zeolite with a dispersion value of 59%. The samples denoted as ZAg1, ZAg2, ZAg3, ZAg4 correspond to a Ag content of 0.064; 0.128; 0.251; 0.253 wt% Ag. In the evaluation series, after 10 min of contact time between bacterial and Ag/ZSM-5, over 99% of E.coli (initial concentration was 10(6) cfu/ml) could be eliminated by Ag/ZSM-5 with the Ag content of at least 0.251 wt% (ZAg3). In addition, over 99% of Coliform (initial concentration was 10(5) cfu/ml) could be eliminated by Ag/ZSM-5 with Ag content of at least 0.128 wt% (ZAg2). In a further evaluation series varying the contact time, ZAg3 sample could eliminate over 99% and 100% of Ecoli after 10 min and 60 min, respectively (initial concentrations of both E.coli and Coliform were 10(5) cfu/ml). In addition, it could eliminate 100% of Coliform in only 10 min of contact time.

  17. Storage and characterization of the hydrogen in mixed oxides on base of cerium-nickel and zirconium or the aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeusscher, S.

    2008-12-01

    The mixed oxides based on cerium-nickel and zirconium or aluminium are able to store large quantities of hydrogen, To determine nature, reactivity and properties of hydrogen species (spill-over, direct desorption), the solid were studied by different physicochemical techniques in the dried, calcined and partially reduced states: XRD, porosity, TGA, TPR, TPA, TPD, chemical titration and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Solids are mainly meso-porous with a common pore size at 4 nm, They are constituted of CeO 2 phase, Ce-Ni or Ce-Ni-Zr solid solution and of Ni(OH) 2 in the dried state and NiO in the calcined state. The Ni species are in various environments and the strong interactions between the cations in solid solution and at different particles interface influence their reducibility and the creation of anionic vacancies. Activation in H 2 in temperature is determining for hydrogen storage in the solid while calcination step is not necessary. INS Analyses evidence that the hydrogen species inserted during treatment in H 2 are H + (OH - ), hydride H - and H * (metallic nickel) species, present in various chemical environments, in particular for hydride species. All kinds of hydrogen species participate to the reaction during the chemical titration in agreement with the proposed hydrogenation mechanism. The study of the adsorption of hydrogen shows that this step is fast and in quantity of the same order as that measured by chemical titration. The direct desorption of H 2 is very low, linked to the presence of hydrogen in interaction with metallic nickel (H *- .). Desorption of water is also observed, in parallel, corresponding to the elimination of groups. The hydride species are not desorbed. These various observations allow connecting hydrogen species properties with their localization in the structure and to model active sites. (author)

  18. Formulation and in vitro characterization of novel sildenafil citrate-loaded polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer-based orally dissolving films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Li; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Qing-Ri; Xu, Wei-Juan; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Yin; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-10-01

    This work was aimed to develop novel sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer (Kollicoat(®) IR)-based orally dissolving films (ODFs) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODFs. The SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 6.25mg in an area of 6 cm(2) was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The physicochemical properties of drug-loaded ODF were also investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of Kollicoat(®) IR, sodium alginate (ALG-Na) and glycerol (10:2:1.5, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20s. The SC-loaded ODF showed a delayed disintegration time (about 25s), but exhibited improved mechanical properties when compared to the blank ODF. SC was homogeneously dispersed throughout the ODF and the crystalline form of drug had been partly changed, existing strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The Kollicoat(®) IR/ALG-Na based ODFs containing SC might be an alternative to conventional tablet for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  20. Hydrogenation of nitriles on a well-characterized nickel surface: From surface science studies to liquid phase catalytic activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardin, Denis Emmanuel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Nitrile hydrogenation is the most commonly used method for preparing diverse amines. This thesis is aimed at the mechanism and factors affecting the performance of Ni-based catalysts in nitrile hydrogenations. Surface science techniques are used to study bonding of nitriles and amines to a Ni(111) surface and to identify surface intermediates. Liquid-phase hydrogenations of cyclohexene and 1-hexene on a Pt foil were carried out successfully. Finally, knowledge about the surface structure, surface chemical bond, dynamics of surface atoms (diffusion, growth), and reactivity of metal surfaces from solid-gas interface studies, is discussed.

  1. Characterizing Ecosystem and Watershed Response to Atmospheric Loading at the Urban Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, V.; Lopez, S.; Hogue, T.; Rademacher, L.

    2006-12-01

    The southern California region, although highly urbanized and densely populated, is also characterized by steep mountain ranges with extensive forests and diverse ecosystems. Growing population pressure in the region has forced continuing development at the urban fringe. The large mountain systems situated on the windward side of the Los Angeles basin experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates from various urban pollutants. Arroyo Seco, a watershed located on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, is no exception to this trend. The present study uses hydrologic and geochemical data to assess current watershed dynamics and ecosystem responses to the impacts of regional urbanization. The Arroyo Seco stream runs through a deeply incised canyon originating in the San Gabriel Mountains and draining into the Los Angeles River. The current riparian habitat, which comprises only 15 percent of the total land cover within the watershed, contains over 705 species of plants and animals. We focused our studies on the upper reaches of the basin (~18 square miles), which remains undeveloped and consists primarily of chaparral and evergreen forests. This portion of the watershed has an average watershed slope of approximately 6 percent and relatively porous soils. However, estimated runoff ratio from the existing USGS gage and local precipitation gages indicates fairly high runoff (discharge/precipitation ratio of 0.29). Weekly stream samples have been collected over a several year period and analyzed for standard geochemical constituents and stable isotopes to assess deposition impacts on ecosystem function and overall watershed behavior. Stable isotopes of water measured in the weekly Arroyo Seco stream samples deviate from the global meteoric water line (GMWL), particularly during summer months. High evaporative rates in the summer may be responsible for the distinct summer pattern and overall deviation from the GMWL of stream isotope values. An

  2. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  3. Assessment of Aprotinin Loaded Microemulsion Formulations for Parenteral Drug Delivery: Preparation, Characterization, in vitro Release and Cytotoxicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, Neslihan Üstündağ; Özdemir, Derya İlem; Kahyaoğlu, Şennur Görgülü; Şenyiğit, Zeynep Ay; Aşıkoğlu, Makbule; Genç, Lütfi; Karasulu, H Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    The object of the current study was to prepare novel microemulsion formulations of aprotinin for parenteral delivery and to compare in vitro characteristics and release behaviour of different Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-Aprotinin loaded microemulsion formulations. In addition, cytotoxicity of microemulsion formulation was evaluated with cell culture studies on human immortalized pancreatic duct epithelial-like cells. For this aim, firstly, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to detect the formulation region and optimal microemulsions were characterized for their thermodynamic stability, conductivity, particle size, zeta potential, viscosity, pH and in vitro release properties. For in vitro release studies aprotinin was labelled with (99m)Tc and labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and stability of the radiolabeled complex were determined by several chromatography techniques. Radiolabeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-Aprotinin was found over than 90% without any significant changes up to 6 hours after labelling at room temperature. After that, in vitro release studies of (99m)Tc-Aprotinin loaded microemulsions were performed with two different methods; dissolution from diffusion cells and dialysis bags. Both methods showed that release rate of (99m)Tc- Aprotinin from microemulsion could be controlled by microemulsion formulations. Drug release from the optimized microemulsion formulations was found lower compared to drug solution at the end of six hours. According to stability studies, the optimized formulation was found to be stable over a period of 12 months. Also, human immortalized pancreatic duct epithelial-like cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of optimum formulation. Developed microemulsion did not reveal cytotoxicity. In conclusion the present study indicated that the M1-APT microemulsion is appropriate for intravenous application of aprotinin.

  4. High loading efficiency and sustained release of siRNA encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles: quality by design optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Dongmei; Jensen, Ditte Krohn; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bunker, Matthew; Whiteside, Paul; Scurr, David; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2011-01-01

    Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) is an attractive polymer for delivery of biopharmaceuticals owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and outstanding controlled release characteristics. The purpose of this study was to understand and define optimal parameters for preparation of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterize their properties. The experiments were performed according to a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design based on five independent variables: The volume ratio between the inner water phase and the oil phase, the PLGA concentration, the sonication time, the siRNA load and the amount of acetylated bovine serum albumin (Ac-BSA) in the inner water phase added to stabilize the primary emulsion. The effects on the siRNA encapsulation efficiency and the particle size were investigated. The most important factors for obtaining an encapsulation efficiency as high as 70% were the PLGA concentration and the volume ratio whereas the size was mainly affected by the PLGA concentration. The viscosity of the oil phase was increased at high PLGA concentration, which explains the improved encapsulation by stabilization of the primary emulsion and reduction of siRNA leakage to the outer water phase. Addition of Ac-BSA increased the encapsulation efficiency at low PLGA concentrations. The PLGA matrix protected siRNA against nuclease degradation, provided a burst release of surface-localized siRNA followed by a triphasic sustained release for two months. These results enable careful understanding and definition of optimal process parameters for preparation of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating high amounts of siRNA with immediate and long-term sustained release properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Characterization and Hydrogen Production from Water Decomposition with Methanol in a Semi-Batch Type Reactor Using In, P-TiO2s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonwoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water using solar energy is potentially a clean and renewable source for hydrogen fuel. This study examines the production of hydrogen over In, P-TiO2s photocatalysts. 1 mol% In-TiO2 and P-TiO2 were produced using the solvothermal method and were treated at 500 and 800∘C to obtain anatase and rutile structure, respectively. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectra, X-ray spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The production of H2 from methanol photodecomposition was greater over the rutile structure than over the anatase structure of TiO2. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen was enhanced over In-TiO2 and P-TiO2 compared to that over pure TiO2; the production increased by about 30%. The structural effect and the addition of In, P have significant influence on the H2 production from methanol/water decomposition.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of the plasmid EGFP-p53 loaded on pullulan–spermine magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslaminejad, Touba, E-mail: tslaminejad@yahoo.com [Pharmaceutics Research Centre, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin, E-mail: nnematollahi@kmu.ac.ir [Department of Anatomy, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neuroscience Research Centre, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzal Research Institute, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ansari, Mehdi, E-mail: mansari@kmu.ac.ir [Pharmaceutics Research Centre, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutics Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been used as effective vehicles for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents that can be controlled in their concentration and distribution to a desired part of the body by using externally driven magnets. This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of pullulan–spermine (PS) magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermal decomposition of goethite (FeOOH) in oleic acid and 1-octadecene; pullulan–spermine was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of pullulan–spermine clusters. EGFP-p53 plasmid was loaded on functionalized iron oleate to transfer into cells. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency of the nanocomplexes were tested. FTIR studies showed the presence of oleic acid and 1-octadecene in the iron oleate nanopowder and verified the interaction between spermine and pullulan. The characteristic bands of PS in the spectrum of the pullulan–spermine-coated iron oleate (PSCFO) confirmed that PS covered the surface of the iron oleate particles. TEM studies showed the average size of the iron oleate nanopowder, the PSCFO, and the plasmid-carrying PSCFO (PSCFO/pEGFP-p53) to be 34±12 nm, 100±50 nm and 172±3 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the PSCFO was lower in comparison with the iron oleate nanopowder due to the presence of organic compounds in the former. In cytotoxicity tests performed using U87 cells as glioblastoma cells, a 92% survival rate was observed at 50 µg/µl of the plasmid-carrying PSCFO, with an IC{sub 50} value of 189 µg/µl. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermal decomposition method. • TEM studies showed the average size of

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of the plasmid EGFP-p53 loaded on pullulan–spermine magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin; Ansari, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been used as effective vehicles for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents that can be controlled in their concentration and distribution to a desired part of the body by using externally driven magnets. This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of pullulan–spermine (PS) magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications. Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermal decomposition of goethite (FeOOH) in oleic acid and 1-octadecene; pullulan–spermine was deposited on the magnetite nanoparticles in the form of pullulan–spermine clusters. EGFP-p53 plasmid was loaded on functionalized iron oleate to transfer into cells. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency of the nanocomplexes were tested. FTIR studies showed the presence of oleic acid and 1-octadecene in the iron oleate nanopowder and verified the interaction between spermine and pullulan. The characteristic bands of PS in the spectrum of the pullulan–spermine-coated iron oleate (PSCFO) confirmed that PS covered the surface of the iron oleate particles. TEM studies showed the average size of the iron oleate nanopowder, the PSCFO, and the plasmid-carrying PSCFO (PSCFO/pEGFP-p53) to be 34±12 nm, 100±50 nm and 172±3 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements revealed that magnetic saturation of the PSCFO was lower in comparison with the iron oleate nanopowder due to the presence of organic compounds in the former. In cytotoxicity tests performed using U87 cells as glioblastoma cells, a 92% survival rate was observed at 50 µg/µl of the plasmid-carrying PSCFO, with an IC 50 value of 189 µg/µl. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanopowder was produced by thermal decomposition method. • TEM studies showed the average size of the

  8. Comprehensive Characterization Of Ultrafine Particulate Emission From 2007 Diesel Engines: PM Size Distribution, Loading And Indidividual Particle Size And Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Imre, D.; Shimpi, S.; Warey, A.

    2006-12-01

    The strong absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) impacts the atmospheric radiative balance in a complex and significant manner. One of the most important sources of BC is vehicular emissions, of which diesel represents a significant fraction. To address this issue the EPA has issues new stringent regulations that will be in effect in 2007, limiting the amount of particulate mass that can be emitted by diesel engines. The new engines are equipped with aftertreatments that reduce PM emissions to the point, where filter measurements are subject to significant artifacts and characterization by other techniques presents new challenges. We will present the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted at the Cummins Technical Center in which a suite of instruments was deployed to yield comprehensive, temporally resolved information on the diesel exhaust particle loadings and properties in real-time: Particle size distributions were measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Total particle diameter concentration was obtained using Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD). Laser Induced Incandescence and photoacoustic techniques were used to monitor the PM soot content. Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) provided the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles. Measurements were conducted on a number of heavy duty diesel engines operated under variety of operating conditions, including FTP transient cycles, ramped-modal cycles and steady states runs. We have also characterized PM emissions during diesel particulate filter regeneration cycles. We will present a comparison of PM characteristics observed during identical cycles, but with and without the use of aftertreatment. A total of approximately 100,000 individual particles were sized and their composition characterized by SPLAT. The aerodynamic size distributions of the characterized

  9. Characterization of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur in nuclear fuel (UO2) and cladding nuclear rod materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, Maria Teresa I.; Lopes, Paula Corain; Moura, Sergio C.; Sampaio, Jessica A.G.; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur gases analysis in nuclear fuels such as UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , U 3 Si 2 and in the fuel cladding such as Zircaloy, is a well known as a quality control in nuclear industry. In UO 2 pellets, the Hydrogen molecule fragilizes the metal lattice causing the material cracking. In Zircaloy material the H2 molecules cause the boiling of the cladding. Other gases like Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon and Sulfur affect in the lattice structure change. In this way these chemical compounds have to be measure within specify parameters, these measurement are part of the quality control of the nuclear industry. The analytical procedure has to be well established by a convention of the quality assurance. Therefore, the Oxygen, Carbon, Sulfur and Hydrogen are measured by infrared absorption (IR) and the nitrogen will be measured by thermal conductivity (TC). The gas/metal analyzer made by LECO Co. model TCHEN-600 is Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen analyzer in a variety of metals, refractory and other inorganic materials, using the principle of fusion by inert gas, infrared and thermo-coupled detector. The Carbon and Sulfur compounds are measure by LECO Co. model CS-400. A sample is first weighed and placed in a high purity graphite crucible and is casted on a stream of helium gas, enough to release the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. During the fusion, the oxygen present in the sample combines with the carbon crucible to form carbon monoxide. Then, the nitrogen present in the sample is analyzed and released as molecular nitrogen and the hydrogen is released as gas. The hydrogen gas is measured by infrared absorption, and the sample gases pass through a trap of copper oxide which converts CO to CO 2 and hydrogen into water. The gases enter the cell where infrared water content is then converted making the measurement of total hydrogen present in the sample. The Hydrogen detection limits for the nuclear fuel is 1 μg/g for the Nitrogen

  10. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes based on sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene and polysiloxanes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Barreto, M.; Aguilar, J.C.; Rodriguez de San Miguel, E.; de Gyves, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acosta, J.L.; del Rio, C.; Ojeda, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), c/Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, M. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Facultat de Ciencies, U.A.B., Bellaterra 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the preparation of proton-conducting hybrid membranes (HMs) obtained by a solvent casting procedure using a solution containing sulfonated hydrogenated styrene-butadiene (HSBS-S) and an inorganic-organic mixture (polysiloxanes) previously prepared by a sol-gel route. HSBS-S copolymers with different sulfonation degrees were obtained and characterized by means of elemental analysis (EA), chemical titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). HSBS-S with the best properties in terms of proton conductivity and solubility for the casting procedure was selected to prepare the HMs. The solvent casting procedure permitted the two phases to be homogeneously distributed while maintaining a relatively high proton conductivity in the membrane. HMs with different blend ratios were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), electrical (EIS), physicochemical (water uptake, ion-exchange capacity) and thermal (TGA-MS) methods. Finally, the optimized HSBS-S membrane and HMs were tested in hydrogen single fuel cells to obtain the polarization and power curves at different cell temperatures and gas pressures. Results indicate that HMs show a considerable improvement in performance compared to the optimized HSBS-S membrane denoting the benefit of incorporating the inorganic-organic network in the hydrogenated styrene-butadiene matrix. A Nafion membrane was used as reference material throughout this work. (author)

  11. Rupture mechanics of metallic alloys for hydrogen transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, I.; Briottet, L.; Lemoine, P.; Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C.

    2007-01-01

    With the aim to establish a cheap hydrogen distribution system, the transport by pipelines is a solution particularly interesting. Among the high limit of elasticity steels, the X80 has been chosen for hydrogen transport. Its chemical composition and microstructure are given. Important microstructural changes have been revealed in the sheet thickness: the microstructure is thinner and richer in perlite in surface than in bulk. In parallel to this microstructural evolution, a microhardness gradient has been observed: the material microhardness is stronger in surface than in bulk of the sheet. The use of this material for hydrogen transport requires to study its resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The main aim of this work is to develop an easy rupture mechanics test allowing to qualify the studied material in a gaseous hydrogen environment, to determine the sensitivity of the studied material to the hydrogen embrittlement and to better understand the mechanisms of the hydrogen embrittlement for ferritic materials. Two experimental tests have been used for: the first one is a traction machine coupled to an autoclave; the second one allows to carry out disk rupture tests. The toughness of the material in a gaseous hydrogen environment has thus been determined. The resistance of the material to hydrogen embrittlement has been characterized and by simulation, it has been possible to identify the areas with a strong concentration in hydrogen. The second aim of this work is to study the influence of the steel microstructure on the hydrogen position in the material and on the resistance of the material to the hydrogen embrittlement. The preferential trapping sites on the material not mechanically loaded have at first been identified, as well as the hydrogen position on the different phases and at the ferrite/cementite interface. The interaction between the mechanical loads, the position and the trapping of the hydrogen have been studied then. At last, has been

  12. Improved cellulose conversion to bio-hydrogen with thermophilic bacteria and characterization of microbial community in continuous bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hongyu; Gadow, Samir I.; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yu-You

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic hydrogen fermentation of cellulose was evaluated by a long term continuous experiment and batch experiments. The continuous experiment was conducted under 55 °C using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 day. A stable hydrogen yield of 15.4 ± 0.23 mol kg −1 of cellulose consumed was maintained for 190 days with acetate and butyrate as the main soluble byproducts. An analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences showed that the hydrogen-producing thermophilic cellulolytic microorganisms (HPTCM) were close to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, Clostridium sp. and Enterobacter cloacae. Batch experiment demonstrated that the highest H 2 producing activity was obtained at 55 °C and the ultimate hydrogen yield and the metabolic by-products were influenced greatly by temperatures. The effect of temperature variation showed that the activation energy for cellulose and glucose were estimated at 103 and 98.8 kJ mol −1 , respectively. - Highlights: • Continuous cellulosic-hydrogen fermentation was conducted at 55 °C. • Hydrogen yield was improved to 15.4 mol kg −1 of consumed-cellulose. • The cellulosic hydrogen bacteria were close to Clostridia and Enterobacter genus. • The mixed microflora produced H 2 within a wide range of temperatures (35 °C–65 °C). • Activation energy of cellulose and glucose were 103 and 98.8 kJ mol −1 , respectively

  13. Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts Katie B. Paul 1.2, Ruth Marfil-Vega 1 Marc A. Mills3, Steve 0. Simmons2, Vickie S. Wilson4, Kevin M. Crofton2 10ak Rid...

  14. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M. [EURESYS, Rome (Italy); Pace, S. [Salerno Univ., Salerno (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia; Mancini, A. [ORIM S.r.l., Piediripa, MC (Italy); Tripodi, P. [Stanford Research Institut International, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA).

  15. Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex for oral delivery: preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fude; Shi, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Tao, Anjin; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-28

    Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and biodegradable polymers as carrier materials to control drug release. Solubilization study, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to prove the complex formation. The effects of key parameters such as polymer/SPC weight ratio, organic phase and polymer type on the properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. Spherical particles of 200 nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were obtained under optimal conditions. The drug entrapment efficiency was up to 90%. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in both pH 6.8 and pH 1.2 dissolution mediums. The specific modality of drug release, i.e., free or SPC-combined, was investigated in the aid of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. The influence of polymer type on the drug release was also discussed. The pharmacological effects of the nanoparticles made of PLGA 50/50 (Av.Mw 9500) were further evaluated to confirm their potential suitability for oral delivery. Intragastric administration of the 20 IU/kg nanoparticles reduced fasting plasma glucose levels to 57.4% within the first 8 h of administration and this continued for 12 h. PK/PD analysis indicated that 7.7% of oral bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection was obtained.

  16. Methotrexate loading in chitosan nanoparticles at a novel pH: Response surface modeling, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashad, Rania A; Ishak, Rania A H; Geneidi, Ahmed S; Mansour, Samar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of employing a novel but critical formulation pH (6.2) to encapsulate an anionic model drug (methotrexate, MTX) into chitosan(Cs)-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles(NPs). A response surface methodology using a three-level full factorial design was applied studying the effects of two independent variables namely; Cs concentration and MTX concentration. The responses investigated were the entrapment efficiency (EE%), mean hydrodynamic particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP). In order to simultaneously optimize the series of models obtained, the desirability function approach was applied with a goal to produce high percent of MTX encapsulated into highly charged Cs-TPP NPs of homogenous optimum PS. MTX-loaded CsNPs were successfully prepared at the novel pH applied. The suggested significant models were found quadratic for EE, PS and ZP responses, while 2-factor interaction model for PDI. The optimization overlay graph showed that the maximum global desirability, D=0.856, was reached when the conditions were set at high Cs and MTX concentration. Thus, the use of such optimized conditions, at this novel pH, achieved a maximum drug EE% (73.38%) into NPs characterized by optimum PS (232.6nm), small PDI value (0.195) and highly surface charged (+18.4mV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Cunfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Xiaoling, E-mail: tinachen0628@163.com [Department of Endodontics, Xiamen Stomatology Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Lizong, E-mail: lzdai@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. - Highlights: • A new type of antibacterial agent (PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites) was synthesized. • The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was studied. • Inhibition zone, MIC, MBC, and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. • PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Cu loaded TiO2 Nano tube Arrays and their Photo catalytic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Zaki; Sreekantan, Srimala

    2011-01-01

    This paper described the preparation of Cu loaded TiO 2 nano tube arrays. Firstly, TiO 2 nano tube arrays were formed by anodization. Afterwards, the formed nano tube arrays were incorporated with Cu by wet impregnation method. The soaking time and concentration were varied to obtain an optimum set of parameter for Cu incorporation in TiO 2 nano tubes. After anodization, all samples were annealed at 400 degree Celsius for 4 hours to obtain anatase phase. The nano tube arrays were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). An average diameter 63.02 nm and length 12.15 μm were obtained for TiO 2 nano tubes. The photo catalytic activity of these nano tubes were investigated with methyl orange (MO) and the TiO 2 nano tube prepared in 0.01 M of Cu (NO 3 ) 2 solution within 3 hours demonstrates the highest photo catalytic activity with 83.6 % degradation of methyl orange. (author)

  19. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Neira

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98 of oral fluid, 38% (32/84 of pen railing and 43% (35/82 of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/Ag nanoparticle loaded mullite nanocomposite system: A potential candidate for antimicrobial and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S; Bagchi, B; Kundu, B; Bhandary, S; Basu, R; Nandy, P; Das, S

    2014-11-01

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has triggered the development of nanoscale materials as an alternative strategy. To stabilize these particles an inert support is needed. Porous nanomullite developed by sol-gel route is loaded with copper and silver nanoparticle by simple adsorption method. These nanocomposites are characterized using XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDAX and UV-visible spectrophotometer. Antibacterial activity of these nanocomposites against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria are performed by bactericidal kinetics, flow cytometry and MTT assay. The underlying mechanisms behind the antimicrobial property and cell death are also investigated by EPR spectroscopy, intracellular ROS measurement and β-galactosidase assay. The cytocompatibility of the nanocomposites is investigated by cell viability (MTT), proliferation (Alamar blue) and wound healing assay of mammalian fibroblast cell line. Nanocomposites show a fairly uniform distribution of metal nanoparticle within mullite matrix. They show excellent antibacterial activity. Metal ions/nanoparticle is found to be released from the materials (CM and SM). Treated cells manifested high intracellular oxidative stress and β-galactosidase activity in the growth medium. The effect of nanocomposites on mammalian cell line depends on exposure time and concentration. The scratch assay shows normal cell migration with respect to control. The fabricated nanoparticles possess diverse antimicrobial mechanism and exhibit good cytocompatibility along with wound healing characteristics in mouse fibroblast cell line (L929). The newly synthesized materials are promising candidates for the development of antimicrobial ceramic coatings for biomedical devices and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizations of power loads on divertor targets for type-I, compound and small ELMs in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    -III ELMy H-modes. The energy loss and divertor power load are systematically characterized for these different ELMy H-modes to provide a physics basis for the next-step high-power long-pulse operations in EAST. Both type-I and compound ELMs exhibit good confinement (H98(y,2) ∼ 1). A significant loss......The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has recently achieved a variety of H-mode regimes with different edge-localized mode (ELM) dynamics, including type-I ELMs, compound ELMs, which are manifested by the onset of a large spike followed by a sequence of small spikes on Dα......-III ELMs. It is remarkable that the new very small ELMy H-modes exhibit even lower target power deposition than type-III ELMs, with the peak heat flux generally below 1 MW m−2. These very small ELMs are usually accompanied by broadband fluctuations with frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 kHz, which may...

  2. Formulation Development, Optimization, and In vitro - In vivo Characterization of Natamycin Loaded PEGylated Nano-lipid Carriers for Ocular Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Akash; Lakhani, Prit; Taskar, Pranjal; Wu, Kai-Wei; Sweeney, Corinne; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2018-04-23

    Current study aimed at formulating and optimizing natamycin (NT) loaded PEGylated NLCs (NT-PEG-NLCs) using Box-Behnken Design and investigating their potential in ocular applications. Response surface methodology (RSM) computations and plots for optimization were performed using Design Expert ® software, to obtain optimum values for response variables based on the criteria of desirability. Optimized NT-PEG-NLCs had predicted values for the dependent variables not significantly different from the experimental values. NT-PEG-NLCs were characterized for their physicochemical parameters; NT's rate of permeation and flux across rabbit cornea was evaluated, in vitro; ocular tissue distribution was assessed in rabbits, in vivo. NT-PEG-NLCs were found to have optimum particle size (< 300 nm) narrow PDI, high NT entrapment and NT content. In vitro transcorneal permeability and flux of NT from NT-PEG-NLCs was significantly higher than Natacyn ® . NT-PEG-NLC (0.3%) showed improved delivery of NT across the intact cornea and provided concentrations statistically similar to the marketed suspension (5%) in inner ocular tissues, in vivo, indicating that it could be a potential alternative to the conventional suspension during the course of fungal keratitis therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization and comprehensive characterization of metal hydride based hydrogen storage systems using in-situ Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bellosta von Colbe, J. M.; Bücherl, T.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2016-10-01

    For the storage of hydrogen, complex metal hydrides are considered as highly promising with respect to capacity, reversibility and safety. The optimization of corresponding storage tanks demands a precise and time-resolved investigation of the hydrogen distribution in scaled-up metal hydride beds. In this study it is shown that in situ fission Neutron Radiography provides unique insights into the spatial distribution of hydrogen even for scaled-up compacts and therewith enables a direct study of hydrogen storage tanks. A technique is introduced for the precise quantification of both time-resolved data and a priori material distribution, allowing inter alia for an optimization of compacts manufacturing process. For the first time, several macroscopic fields are combined which elucidates the great potential of Neutron Imaging for investigations of metal hydrides by going further than solely 'imaging' the system: A combination of in-situ Neutron Radiography, IR-Thermography and thermodynamic quantities can reveal the interdependency of different driving forces for a scaled-up sodium alanate pellet by means of a multi-correlation analysis. A decisive and time-resolved, complex influence of material packing density is derived. The results of this study enable a variety of new investigation possibilities that provide essential information on the optimization of future hydrogen storage tanks.

  5. Separation of rate processes for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water in packed columns 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Hartog, J. den; Goodale, J.W.; Rolston, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wetproofed platinum catalysts in packed columns promote isotopic exchange between counter-current streams of hydrogen saturated with water vapour and liquid water. The net rate of deuterium transfer from isotopically enriched hydrogen has been measured and separated into two rate processes involving the transfer of deuterium from hydrogen to water vapour and from water vapour to liquid. These are compared with independent measurements of the two rate processes to test the two-step successive exchange model for trickle bed reactors. The separated transfer rates are independent of bed height and characterize the deuterium concentrations of each stream along the length of the bed. The dependences of the transfer rates upon hydrogen and liquid flow, hydrogen pressure, platinum loading and the effect of dilution of the hydrophobic catalyst with inert hydrophilic packing are reported. The results indicate a third process may be important in the transfer of deuterium between hydrogen and liquid water. (author)

  6. Analysis of a weld of an hydrogen tank under pressure: contribution of the nano-indentation for the characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, C.; Delobelle, P.; Perreux, D.; Russo, C.; Munier, E.; Decamps, B.

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the size of an hydrogen spherical tank under pressure, composed of two half shell in aluminium alloy AZ5G machined in a forged bar and welded by electrons beam by a circumference. In this work, it is shown what the nano-indentation test can bring here. The influence of the tempering heat treatment after welding, the grains diameter and the loss in alloy elements (Zn and Mg) on the local mechanical properties of the weld bead has been revealed. In the same way, a hardening of the alloy due to the hydrogen penetration and leading to an increase of the dislocations density is observed. (O.M.)

  7. Hydrogen yield from low temperature steam reforming of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N.K.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories; Ranganathan, R. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Interest in the use of ethanol for fuel cell hydrogen production was discussed with particular reference to a study in which the production of hydrogen was maximized through low temperature steam reforming of ethanol in the temperature range of 200 to 360 degrees C. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of Mn concentration on a Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen. The purpose was to maximize ethanol conversion and hydrogen selectivity in the lowest possible reaction temperature for the ideal catalyst activity. The optimum reaction conditions in the presence of a suitable catalyst can produce the desired products of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with six different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 weight per cent Mn, were prepared, characterized and studied for the ethanol-steam reforming reaction. The effects of different process variables were studied, including water-to-ethanol feed ratio, space time and catalyst reduction temperatures on ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield. Maximum ethanol conversion of 60.7 per cent and hydrogen yield of 3.74 (mol of hydrogen per mol of ethanol converted) were observed at 360 degrees C for a catalyst with 2.5 weight per cent Mn loading. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. Development and characterization of cefazolin loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles composite gelatin nanofiber mats for postoperative surgical wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Goutam; Hussain, Taqadus; Chauhan, Gaurav; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy in post-operative wound care remain controversial leading to escalation in levels of multi-resistant bacteria with unwanted morbidity and mortality. Recently zinc (Zn) because of multiple biophysiological functions, gain considerable interest for wound care. Based on our current understanding, the present study was designed with an intent to produce improve therapeutic approaches for post-operative wound management using composite multi-functional antibiotic carrier. The study involved the fabrication, characterization and pre-clinical evaluation of cefazolin nanofiber mats loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) and comparing co-formulated mats with individual component, enable a side by side comparison of the benefits of our intervention. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and drug-ZnONP mixture against Staphylococcus aureus was determined using micro dilution assay. The fabricated nanofibers were then evaluated for in-vitro antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of inhibition was predicted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further these nanofiber mats were evaluated in-vivo for wound healing efficacy in Wistar rats. Study revealed that the average diameter of the nanofibers is around 200–900 nm with high entrapment efficiency and display sustained drug release behavior. The combination of ZnO and cefazolin in 1:1 weight ratio showed higher anti-bacterial activity of 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells taken from the zone of inhibition revealed the phenomenon of cell lysis in tested combination related to cell wall disruption. Further composite medicated nanofiber mats showed an accelerated wound healing as compared to plain cefazolin and ZnONP loaded mats. Macroscopical and histological evaluations demonstrated that ZnONP hybrid cefazolin nanofiber showed enhanced cell adhesion, epithelial migration, leading to faster and more efficient collagen synthesis

  9. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity and dissolved selenium are known water-quality impairments in the lower Gunnison River watershed of western Colorado. Salinity is a concern because of its adverse effects on agricultural land and equipment, and on municipal and industrial users. The Montrose Arroyo watershed in Montrose, Colorado, contains agricultural and residential areas as well as undeveloped land and has undergone substantial land-use change since the early 1990s. Previous sampling efforts indicated salinity concentrations and loads have remained constant since land-use change began in the early 1990s; however, recent sampling also indicated that dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads have begun to increase. In response to the potential increasing dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey—in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation; Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum; and Colorado River Water Conservation District—continued to monitor salinity and dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads in the Montrose Arroyo watershed. This report characterizes salinity and dissolved-selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo from 1992 to 2013 at three sites: Montrose Arroyo at East Niagara Street (MA2, U.S. Geological Survey site identification number 382802107513301), Montrose Arroyo at 6700 Road (MA3, U.S. Geological Survey site identification number 382711107500501), and Montrose Arroyo at 6750 and Ogden Roads (MA4, U.S. Geological Survey site identification number 382702107493701). A detailed land-use change analysis was also characterized in the MA3 subwatershed.

  10. Morphology-controllable synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composites and their hydrogen storage capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okan, Burcu Saner, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Zanjani, Jamal Seyyed Monfared [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Letofsky-Papst, Ilse [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010, Graz (Austria); Cebeci, Fevzi Çakmak; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z. [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Sphere-like and layer-by-layer growth mechanisms of polypyrrole are controlled by changing pyrrole monomer concentration and using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as template. Pristine polypyrrole has sphere-like structures but remarkable change in types of polypyrrole growth is observed from spherical-like to layer-by-layer structures in the presence of CNT. Acid treatment enhances polypyrrole coverage on CNT surface by preventing agglomeration of polypyrrole due to an increase in surface oxygen groups and sp{sup 2} bonds in CNT structure. The crystallinity of powders comparably decreases after polypyrrole coating due to the amorphous structure of polypyrrole and a sharp decrease in the intensity of 002 peak. The influence of surface functionalization and polymer coating on the structural parameters of multi-walled CNT and their composites is investigated by tailoring the feeding ratio of polypyrrole. The hydrogen sorption measurements at ambient conditions by Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer demonstrate that hydrogen uptake of CNT/polypyrrole composite is 1.66 wt.% which is almost 3 times higher than that of pristine CNT. Higher hydrogen uptake values are obtained by keeping the mass ratio of pyrrole monomer and CNT equal by using non-functionalized CNT in composite production. Hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics of polypyrrole/CNT composites is improved by increasing adsorption sites after polymer coating and acid treatment. The desorption curves of these modified surfaces are higher than their adsorption curves at lower pressures and hysteresis loop is observed in their isotherms since hydrogen is chemically bonded to the modified surfaces by the conversion of carbon atoms from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} hybridization. - Highlights: • Growth mechanisms of polypyrrole are controlled by changing monomer concentration. • Lamellar structure is formed by using pristine CNT at high monomer concentration. • Homogeneous polymer coating is achieved on the surface of

  11. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Franck, E-mail: franck.rose@hgst.com; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno [HGST, A Western Digital Company, San Jose Research Center, 3403, Yerba Buena Rd, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki [HGST, A Western Digital Company, Japan Research Laboratory, 2880 Kozu, Odawara, Kanagawa 256-8510 (Japan); Mangolini, Filippo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Carpick, Robert W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6315 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  12. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Franck; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp 3 fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp 2 clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  13. Multicomponent hydrogen-bonding organic solids constructed from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and N-heterocycles: Synthesis, structural characterization and synthon discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yingxia; Shao, Hui; Pang, Yanyan; Wang, Debao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Seven novel multicomponent crystals involving various substituted organic amine molecules and 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Crystal structures with 1,4-bis(imidazol) butane (L1) 1, 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (L2) 2, 1-phenyl piperazine 3, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine 4, 4,4'-bipyridine 5, 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridine 6, 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine 7 were determined. Among the seven molecular complexes, total proton transfer from 6-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid to coformer has occurred in crystals 1-4, while the remaining were cocrystals. X-ray single-crystal structures of these complexes reveal that strong hydrogen bonding O-H···O/N-H···O/O-H···N and weak C-H···O/C-H···π/π···π intermolecular interactions direct the packing modes of molecular crystals together. The analysis of supramolecular synthons in the present structures shows that some classical supramolecular synthons like pyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (7) and aminopyridine-carboxylic acid heterosynthon R22 (8), are again observed in constructing the hydrogen-bonding networks in this paper. Besides, we noticed that water molecules act as a significant hydrogen-bonding connector in constructing supramolecular architectures of 3, 4, 6, and 7.

  14. Characterization, Cytotoxicity, and Genotoxicity of TiO2 and Folate-Coupled Chitosan Nanoparticles Loading Polyprenol-Based Nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Wang, Chengzhang; Zhang, Changwei; Li, WenJun; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Hongxia; Ye, Jianzhong

    2018-07-01

    The structure and bioactivity of Ginkgo biloba leaves polyprenol (GBP) are similar to that of dolichol which widely exists in human and mammalian organs. GBP possesses potential pharmacological activities against cancer. This study involved oil-in-water type nanoemulsion (NE) loading GBP was prepared by dissolving polyprenol in nanoemulsion of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)/TiO 2 solution, Triton X-100, and 1-octanol by inversed-phase emulsification (EIP) and ultrasonic emulsification (UE) method. Folic acid (FA)-coupled chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs), GBP-FA-CS-NPs and GBP-TiO 2 -FA-CS-NPs, were fabricated by ionic cross-linking of positively charged FA-CS conjugates and negatively charged nanoemulsion with TPP/TiO 2 . And characterizations of them were investigated by TEM, SEM, FTIR, particle size, and zeta potential. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of GBP-TiO 2 -FA-CS-NP treatment were higher than GBP-NE, GBP-FA-CS-NPs, TiO 2 -NE, GBP-TiO 2 -NE, TiO 2 -FA-CS-NPs, and GBP-TiO 2 -FA-CS-NP treatment at the same tested concentrations in HepG2 cells. GBP-TiO 2 -FA-CS-NPs at low TiO 2 concentration (from 1 to 2.5 μg/ml) showed good inhibition capacity on HepG2 cells and low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on HL-7702 cells. The possible mechanism of cytotoxicity on GBP-TiO 2 -FA-CS-NPs against HepG2 cells is by preventing excessive intracellular Ca 2+ into extracellular spaces via inhibiting Ca 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ -ATPase.

  15. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  16. Design, characterization, and biological evaluation of curcumin-loaded surfactant-based systems for topical drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Dos Santos, Aline Martins; Rodero, Camila Fernanda; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Chorilli, Marlus

    From previous studies, it has been found that curcumin exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity and is being used for the treatment of skin disorders; however, it is hydrophobic and has weak penetrating ability, resulting in poor drug transport through the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to develop liquid crystalline systems for topical administration of curcumin for the treatment of inflammation. These liquid crystalline systems were developed from oleic acid, polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol, and water as the surfactant, oil phase, and aqueous phase, respectively. These systems were characterized, and polarized light microscopy showed anisotropy with lamellar mesophases (Formulation 1) and hexagonal mesophases (Formulations 2 and 3), which were confirmed by the peak ratio measured using small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, rheological tests revealed that the formulations exhibited gel-like behavior (G'>G″), as evidenced by the increased G' values that indicate structured systems. Texture profile analysis showed that hexagonal mesophases have high values of hardness, adhesiveness, and compressibility, which indicate structured systems. In vitro studies on bioadhesion revealed that the hexagonal mesophases increased the bioadhesiveness of the systems to the skin of the pig ear. An in vivo inflammation experiment showed that the curcumin-loaded hexagonal mesophase exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the positive control (dexamethasone). The results suggest that this system has a potential to be used as a bioadhesive vehicle for the topical administration of curcumin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that these systems can be used for the optimization of drug delivery systems to the skin.

  17. Design, characterization, and biological evaluation of curcumin-loaded surfactant-based systems for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Santos B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Aline Martins dos Santos, Camila Fernanda Rodero, Maria Palmira Daflon Gremião, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP – São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo Brazil Abstract: From previous studies, it has been found that curcumin exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity and is being used for the treatment of skin disorders; however, it is hydrophobic and has weak penetrating ability, resulting in poor drug transport through the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to develop liquid crystalline systems for topical administration of curcumin for the treatment of inflammation. These liquid crystalline systems were developed from oleic acid, polyoxypropylene (5 polyoxyethylene (20 cetyl alcohol, and water as the surfactant, oil phase, and aqueous phase, respectively. These systems were characterized, and polarized light microscopy showed anisotropy with lamellar mesophases (Formulation 1 and hexagonal mesophases (Formulations 2 and 3, which were confirmed by the peak ratio measured using small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, rheological tests revealed that the formulations exhibited gel-like behavior (G'>G'', as evidenced by the increased G' values that indicate structured systems. Texture profile analysis showed that hexagonal mesophases have high values of hardness, adhesiveness, and compressibility, which indicate structured systems. In vitro studies on bioadhesion revealed that the hexagonal mesophases increased the bioadhesiveness of the systems to the skin of the pig ear. An in vivo inflammation experiment showed that the curcumin-loaded hexagonal mesophase exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the positive control (dexamethasone. The results suggest that this system has a potential to be used as a bioadhesive vehicle for the topical administration of curcumin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that these systems can be used for the optimization of drug

  18. Characterization of Sensory-Motor Behavior Under Cognitive Load Using a New Statistical Platform for Studies of Embodied Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ryu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings. The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals. These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of

  19. Characterization of Sensory-Motor Behavior Under Cognitive Load Using a New Statistical Platform for Studies of Embodied Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihye; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2018-01-01

    The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings). The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals). These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of empirical data

  20. Stress release and defect occurrence in V1-xFe x films upon hydrogen loading: H-induced superabundant vacancies, movement and creation of dislocations

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Dobroň, Patrik; Čí žek, Jakub; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen-induced elastic/plastic deformation was studied in V 1-xFex (x = 0.02-0.08) films with thicknesses between 10 and 400 nm and prepared at different temperatures. The combination of several in situ techniques such as X-ray diffraction, acoustic emission, electromotive force and substrate curvature techniques allows sensitive studies of defects generated in these thin films. As well as conventional out-of-plane linear elastic film expansion and in-plane compressive stress increase during hydrogen absorption, the investigations uncovered new details: as soon as hydrogen predominately solved in interstitial lattice sites, discrete stress relaxation (DSR) events were detected, after which the film continued to behave in a linear elastic manner. DSRs were interpreted by uncorrelated movement of pre-existing dislocations. Particularly in the case of films deposited at higher temperatures, in-plane tensile stress was found at very small H concentrations of less than 0.005 H/V. Upon further H uptake, this turned into compressive stress. However, this stress increase differed from theoretical predictions. This behavior is explained by the generation of superabundant vacancies. Dislocation emission and plastic deformation are linked to the formation of the hydride phase in the V1-xFex films. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress release and defect occurrence in V1-xFe x films upon hydrogen loading: H-induced superabundant vacancies, movement and creation of dislocations

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen-induced elastic/plastic deformation was studied in V 1-xFex (x = 0.02-0.08) films with thicknesses between 10 and 400 nm and prepared at different temperatures. The combination of several in situ techniques such as X-ray diffraction, acoustic emission, electromotive force and substrate curvature techniques allows sensitive studies of defects generated in these thin films. As well as conventional out-of-plane linear elastic film expansion and in-plane compressive stress increase during hydrogen absorption, the investigations uncovered new details: as soon as hydrogen predominately solved in interstitial lattice sites, discrete stress relaxation (DSR) events were detected, after which the film continued to behave in a linear elastic manner. DSRs were interpreted by uncorrelated movement of pre-existing dislocations. Particularly in the case of films deposited at higher temperatures, in-plane tensile stress was found at very small H concentrations of less than 0.005 H/V. Upon further H uptake, this turned into compressive stress. However, this stress increase differed from theoretical predictions. This behavior is explained by the generation of superabundant vacancies. Dislocation emission and plastic deformation are linked to the formation of the hydride phase in the V1-xFex films. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the hydrogen bond in molecular systems of biological interest by neutron scattering; Caracterisation de la liaison hydrogene dans des systemes moleculaires d'interet biologique par diffusion de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavillon, F

    2004-10-15

    This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the scattering spectra of neutrons on molecular liquids. This method is based on the adjustment of the molecular form factor concerning great momentum transfer. The subtraction of the intra-molecular contributions gives access to information on inter-molecular interactions such as the hydrogen bond. 3 systems with increasing levels of difficulty have been studied: the ammonia molecule, the N-methyl-formamide (NMF) and the N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). The value we get for the N-D intermolecular distance of the liquid ammonia molecule is 1.7 angstrom, this value is different from the value generally admitted (2.3 angstrom) but we have validated it by studying the isotopic substitution N{sup 14}/N{sup 15}. The adjustment to the NMF is obtained with a good accuracy but the characterization of the hydrogen bound is more delicate to infer. A preliminary study of the NMA molecule shows that this method can give relevant results on complex molecules.

  3. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  4. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  5. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG fabricated in hydrogen (H2-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  6. Characterization of white poplar and eucalyptus after ionic liquid pretreatment as a function of biomass loading using X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xueming [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Duan, Yonghao [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); He, Lilin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Seema [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-08

    A systematic study was done to understand interactions among biomass loading during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment, biomass type and biomass structures. White poplar and eucalyptus samples were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) at 110 °C for 3 h at biomass loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. All of the samples were chemically characterized and tested for enzymatic hydrolysis. Physical structures including biomass crystallinity and porosity were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. SANS detected pores of radii ranging from ~25 to 625 Å, enabling assessment of contributions of pores with different sizes to increased porosity after pretreatment. Contrasting dependences of sugar conversion on white poplar and eucalyptus as a function of biomass loading were observed and cellulose crystalline structure was found to play an important role.

  7. Characterization of cyclic deformation behaviour of tempered and quenched 42CrMoS4 at single step and variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelp, M.; Eifler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic single steps tests were performed on tempered and quenched specimens of the steel 42CrMoS4. Strain, temperature and electrical resistance measurements yielded an empirical prediction of fatigue life according to Coffin, Manson and Morrow. All measured values are based on physical processes and therefore show a strong interaction. A new testing procedure was developed permitting hysteresis measurements to be used for the characterization and description of fatigue behaviour under variable amplitude loading. The basic idea is to combine fatigue tests with any kind of load spectrum with single step tests. This offers the possibility to apply lifetime prediction methods normally used for single step tests for those with random or service loading. (orig.)

  8. Ruthenium-platinum bimetallic catalysts supported on silica: characterization and study of benzene hydrogenation and CO methanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, D.K.; Rao, K.M.; Sundararaman, N.; Chandavar, K.

    1986-12-15

    Ru-Pt/SiO/sub 2/ bimetallic catalysts with varying Ru:Pt ratio have been prepared and studied with the aim to establish if they contain coclusters or isolated ruthenium and platinum particles. X-ray diffraction studies show that individual crystallites of ruthenium and platinum are present and no coclusters are formed. Metal dispersion has been determined by hydrogen chemisorption and surface composition of the catalysts has been obtained from XPS. It was found that preoxidation of the catalysts prior to reduction is essential for good platinum dispersion. The experimental turnover number (TN) for benzene hydrogenation on the bimetallic catalysts agrees very well with that of the weighted average on the individual metal catalysts and this may be taken as a kinetic evidence for the absence of coclusters. Carbon monoxide methanation activity of the bimetallic catalysts is quite similar to that of the supported platinum catalyst. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cd2SiO4/Graphene nanocomposite: Ultrasonic assisted synthesis, characterization and electrochemical hydrogen storage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi-Arani, Maryam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2018-05-01

    For the first time, a simple and rapid sonochemical technique for preparing of pure Cd 2 SiO 4 nanostructures has been developed in presence of various surfactants of SDS, CTAB and PVP. Uniform and fine Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticle was synthesized using of polymeric PVP surfactant and ultrasonic irradiation. The optimized cadmium silicate nanostructures added to graphene sheets and Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposite synthesized through pre-graphenization. Hydrogen storage capacity performances of Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticle and Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposite were compared. Obtained results represent that Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposites have higher hydrogen storage capacity than Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticles. Cd 2 SiO 4 /Graphene nanocomposites and Cd 2 SiO 4 nanoparticles show hydrogen storage capacity of 3300 and 1300 mAh/g, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization of a new photosensitive compound [Ru(bpy)2 (TPAD)](PF6)2 and its application for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-Qin; Guo, Yi-Ping; Yin, Ming-Cai; Fan, Yao-Ting

    2016-06-01

    A new photosensitive compound based on triphenylamine donor and ruthenium(II), namely [Ru(bpy)2(TPAD)](PF6)2 (PS1, bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine, TPAD = N-(4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline-2-yl)phenyl)-N-phenylbenzenamine), had been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, MS spectra, UV, PL and CV measurements. The target photocatalyst, PS1/0.5 wt% Pt/TiO2, was prepared by sensitizing PS1 to 0.5 wt% Pt/TiO2 and characterized by SEM and XRD. The highest hydrogen evolution reached to 9500 μmol·(g·catalyst)-1 (475 μmol, 31.7 TON and TOF 5.8 vs. PS1) under the optimal conditions with 0.05 g·L-1 of PS1, and 5% of TEOA at pH 11 with the irradiation of 5.5 h. The mechanism of hydrogen evolution was also briefly discussed in the present work.

  11. Synthesis, spectral characterization and structural studies of a novel O, N, O donor semicarbazone and its binuclear copper complex with hydrogen bond stabilized lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layana, S. R.; Saritha, S. R.; Anitha, L.; Sithambaresan, M.; Sudarsanakumar, M. R.; Suma, S.

    2018-04-01

    A novel O,N,O donor salicylaldehyde-N4-phenylsemicarbazone, (H2L) has been synthesized and physicochemically characterized. Detailed structural studies of H2L using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique reveals the existence of intra and inter molecular hydrogen bonding interactions, which provide extra stability to the molecule. We have successfully synthesized a binuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu2(HL)2(NO3)(H2O)2]NO3 with phenoxy bridging between the two copper centers. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, FT-IR, UV-Visible, mass and EPR spectral methods. The grown crystals of the copper complex were employed for the single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The complex possesses geometrically different metal centers, in which the ligand coordinates through ketoamide oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and deprotonated phenoxy oxygen. The extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions of the coordinated and the lattice nitrate groups interconnect the complex units to form a 2D supramolecular assembly. The ESI mass spectrum substantiates the existence of 1:1 complex. The g values obtained from the EPR spectrum in frozen DMF suggest dx2 -y2 ground state for the unpaired electron.

  12. Future hydrogen markets for large-scale hydrogen production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of delivered hydrogen includes production, storage, and distribution. For equal production costs, large users (>10 6 m 3 /day) will favor high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies to avoid collection costs for hydrogen from widely distributed sources. Potential hydrogen markets were examined to identify and characterize those markets that will favor large-scale hydrogen production technologies. The two high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies are nuclear energy and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. The potential markets for these technologies are: (1) production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet) including liquid fuels with no net greenhouse gas emissions and (2) peak electricity production. The development of high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies requires an understanding of the markets to (1) define hydrogen production requirements (purity, pressure, volumes, need for co-product oxygen, etc.); (2) define and develop technologies to use the hydrogen, and (3) create the industrial partnerships to commercialize such technologies. (author)

  13. Radiation Shielding Materials Containing Hydrogen, Boron, and Nitrogen: Systematic Computational and Experimental Study. Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Sheila A.; Fay, Catharine C.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Earle, Kevin D.; Sauti, Godfrey; Kang, Jin Ho; Park, Cheol; McMullen, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    The key objectives of this study are to investigate, both computationally and experimentally, which forms, compositions, and layerings of hydrogen, boron, and nitrogen containing materials will offer the greatest shielding in the most structurally robust combination against galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), secondary neutrons, and solar energetic particles (SEP). The objectives and expected significance of this research are to develop a space radiation shielding materials system that has high efficacy for shielding radiation and that also has high strength for load bearing primary structures. Such a materials system does not yet exist. The boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) can theoretically be processed into structural BNNT and used for load bearing structures. Furthermore, the BNNT can be incorporated into high hydrogen polymers and the combination used as matrix reinforcement for structural composites. BNNT's molecular structure is attractive for hydrogen storage and hydrogenation. There are two methods or techniques for introducing hydrogen into BNNT: (1) hydrogen storage in BNNT, and (2) hydrogenation of BNNT (hydrogenated BNNT). In the hydrogen storage method, nanotubes are favored to store hydrogen over particles and sheets because they have much larger surface areas and higher hydrogen binding energy. The carbon nanotube (CNT) and BNNT have been studied as potentially outstanding hydrogen storage materials since 1997. Our study of hydrogen storage in BNNT - as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen gas concentration - will be performed with a hydrogen storage chamber equipped with a hydrogen generator. The second method of introducing hydrogen into BNNT is hydrogenation of BNNT, where hydrogen is covalently bonded onto boron, nitrogen, or both. Hydrogenation of BN and BNNT has been studied theoretically. Hyper-hydrogenated BNNT has been theoretically predicted with hydrogen coverage up to 100% of the individual atoms. This is a higher hydrogen content

  14. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  15. Long-term stability of thermophilic co-digestion submerged anaerobic membrane reactor encountering high organic loading rate, persistent propionate and detectable hydrogen in biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Niu, Qigui; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu You

    2013-12-01

    The performance of thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of coffee grounds and sludge using membrane reactor was investigated for 148 days, out of a total research duration of 263 days. The OLR was increased from 2.2 to 33.7 kg-COD/m(3)d and HRT was shortened from 70 to 7 days. A significant irreversible drop in pH confirmed the overload of reactor. Under a moderately high OLR of 23.6 kg-COD/m(3)d, and with HRT and influent total solids of 10 days and 150 g/L, respectively, the COD removal efficiency was 44.5%. Hydrogen in biogas was around 100-200 ppm, which resulted in the persistent propionate of 1.0-3.2g/L. The VFA consumed approximately 60% of the total alkalinity. NH4HCO3 was supplemented to maintain alkalinity. The stability of system relied on pH management under steady state. The 16SrDNA results showed that hydrogen-utilizing methanogens dominates the archaeal community. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria in bacterial community was insufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  17. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH+⋯N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH2(CH2)4NH][BF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaś, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupiński, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH + ⋯N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF 4 ] − units. The crystal structure of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. 1 H and 19 F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF 4 ] − anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II–I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic–inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic–inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH 2 (CH 2 ) 4 NH][BF 4 ], phase IV. The dashed lines stand for the hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds to BF4 groups are not included for

  18. On the characterization of dynamic supramolecular systems: a general mathematical association model for linear supramolecular copolymers and application on a complex two-component hydrogen-bonding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odille, Fabrice G J; Jónsson, Stefán; Stjernqvist, Susann; Rydén, Tobias; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the characterization of the dynamic (kinetically labile) association of supramolecular assemblies in solution is presented. It is an extension of the equal K (EK) model by the stringent use of linear algebra to allow for the simultaneous presence of an unlimited number of different units in the resulting assemblies. It allows for the analysis of highly complex dynamic equilibrium systems in solution, including both supramolecular homo- and copolymers without the recourse to extensive approximations, in a field in which other analytical methods are difficult. The derived mathematical methodology makes it possible to analyze dynamic systems such as supramolecular copolymers regarding for instance the degree of polymerization, the distribution of a given monomer in different copolymers as well as its position in an aggregate. It is to date the only general means to characterize weak supramolecular systems. The model was fitted to NMR dilution titration data by using the program Matlab, and a detailed algorithm for the optimization of the different parameters has been developed. The methodology is applied to a case study, a hydrogen-bonded supramolecular system, salen 4+porphyrin 5. The system is formally a two-component system but in reality a three-component system. This results in a complex dynamic system in which all monomers are associated to each other by hydrogen bonding with different association constants, resulting in homo- and copolymers 4n5m as well as cyclic structures 6 and 7, in addition to free 4 and 5. The system was analyzed by extensive NMR dilution titrations at variable temperatures. All chemical shifts observed at different temperatures were used in the fitting to obtain the DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees values producing the best global fit. From the derived general mathematical expressions, system 4+5 could be characterized with respect to above-mentioned parameters.

  19. Female Adults with Patellofemoral Pain Are Characterized by Widespread Hyperalgesia, Which Is Not Affected Immediately by Patellofemoral Joint Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Barton, Christian; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2016-10-01

    Compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the knee and a site remote to the knee in female adults with patellofemoral pain (PFP) to pain-free controls before and after a patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol designed to aggravate symptoms. Cross-sectional study SETTING: Participants were recruited via advertisements in fitness centers, public places for physical activity and universities. Thirty-eight females with patellofemoral pain, and 33 female pain-free controls. All participant performed a novel PFJ loading protocol involving stair negotiation with an extra load equivalent 35% of body mass. PPTs and current knee pain (measured on a visual analogue scale) was assessed before and after the loading protocol. PPTs were measured at four sites around the knee and one remote site on the upper contralateral limb. Females with PFP demonstrated significantly lower PPTs locally and remote to the knee, both before and after the PFJ loading protocol when compared to control group. Following the loading protocol, PPTs at knee were significantly reduced by 0.54 kgf (95%CI = 0.33; 0.74) for quadriceps tendon, 0.38 kgf (95%CI = 0.14; 0.63) for medial patella, and 0.44 kgf (95%CI = 0.18; 0.69) for lateral patella. No significant change in PPT remote to the knee was observed - 0.10 kgf (95%CI = -0.04; 0.24). Female adults with PFP have local and widespread hyperalgesia compared to pain free controls. A novel loading protocol designed to aggravate symptoms, lowers the PPTs locally at the knee but has no effect on PPT on the upper contralateral limb. This suggests widespread hyperalgesia is not affected by acute symptom aggravation. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Microscopic characterization of pretransition oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn alloy under various Zn and dissolved hydrogen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyu Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure of oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn tube sample was intensively examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy after exposure to simulated primary water chemistry conditions of various concentrations of Zn (0 or 30 ppb and dissolved hydrogen (H2 (30 or 50 cc/kg for various durations without applying desirable heat flux. Microstructural analysis indicated that there was no noticeable change in the microstructure of the oxide corresponding to water chemistry changes within the test duration of 100 days (pretransition stage and no significant difference in the overall thickness of the oxide layer. Equiaxed grains with nano-size pores along the grain boundaries and microcracks were dominant near the water/oxide interface, regardless of water chemistry conditions. As the metal/oxide interface was approached, the number of pores tended to decrease. However, there was no significant effect of H2 concentration between 30 cc/kg and 50 cc/kg on the corrosion of the oxide after free immersion in water at 360°C. The adsorption of Zn on the cladding surface was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and detected as ZnO on the outer oxide surface. From the perspective of OH− ion diffusion and porosity formation, the absence of noticeable effects was discussed further. Keywords: Dissolved Hydrogen Effect, Porosity, Pretransition Oxide, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Zirconium Alloys

  1. Graphene-based materials: fabrication, characterization and application for the decontamination of wastewater and wastegas and hydrogen storage/generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Wu, Yan; Huang, Huajun; Peng, Xin; Zeng, Guangming; Zhong, Hua; Liang, Jie; Ren, Miaomiao

    2013-07-01

    Graphene, as an ideal two-dimensional material and single-atom layer of graphite, has attracted exploding interests in multidisciplinary research because of its unique structure and exceptional physicochemical properties. Especially, graphene-based materials offer a wide range of potentialities for environmental remediation and energy applications. This review shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent synthetic technologies about designing and fabricating various innovative graphene-based materials. Furthermore, an extensive list of graphene-based sorbents and catalysts from vast literature has been compiled. The adsorptive and catalytic properties of graphene-based materials for the removal of various pollutants and hydrogen storage/production as available in the literature are presented. Tremendous adsorption capacity, excellent catalytic performance and abundant availability are the significant factors making these materials suitable alternatives for environmental pollutant control and energy-related system, especially in terms of the removal of pollutants in water, gas cleanup and purification, and hydrogen generation and storage. Meanwhile, a brief discussion is also included on the influence of graphene materials on the environment, and its toxicological effects. Lastly, some unsolved subjects together with major challenges in this germinating area of research are highlighted and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of graphene-based materials in the field of adsorption and catalysis science represents a viable and powerful tool, resulting in the superior improvement of environmental pollution control and energy development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of NiO/SnO2 Composites and Hydrogen Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure SnO2 and NiO doped SnO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized via a simple and environment-friendly hydrothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS were used to investigate the crystalline structures, surface morphologies and microstructures, and element components and their valences of the as-synthesized samples. Furthermore, planar chemical gas sensors based on the synthesized pure SnO2 and NiO/SnO2 composites were fabricated and their sensing performances to hydrogen, an important fault characteristic gas dissolved in power transformer oil, were investigated in detail. Gas sensing experiments indicate that the NiO/SnO2 composites showed much higher gas response and lower working temperature than those of pure SnO2, which could be ascribed to the formation of p-n heterojunctions between p-type NiO and n-type SnO2. These results demonstrate that the as-synthesized NiO/SnO2 composites a promising hydrogen sensing material.

  3. Hail hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.

    1996-01-01

    After years of being scorned and maligned, hydrogen is finding favor in environmental and process applications. There is enormous demand for the industrial gas from petroleum refiners, who need in creasing amounts of hydrogen to remove sulfur and other contaminants from crude oil. In pulp and paper mills, hydrogen is turning up as hydrogen peroxide, displacing bleaching agents based on chlorine. Now, new technologies for making hydrogen have the industry abuzz. With better capabilities of being generated onsite at higher purity levels, recycled and reused, hydrogen is being prepped for a range of applications, from waste reduction to purification of Nylon 6 and hydrogenation of specialty chemicals. The paper discusses the strong market demand for hydrogen, easier routes being developed for hydrogen production, and the use of hydrogen in the future

  4. Optimal shifting of Photovoltaic and load fluctuations from fuel cell and electrolyzer to lead acid battery in a Photovoltaic/hydrogen standalone power system for improved performance and life time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfahunegn, S. G.; Ulleberg, Ø.; Vie, P. J. S.; Undeland, T. M.

    Cost reduction is very critical in the pursuit of realizing more competitive clean and sustainable energy systems. In line with this goal a control method that enables minimization of the cost associated with performance and life time degradation of fuel cell and electrolyzer, and cost of battery replacement in PV/hydrogen standalone power systems is developed. The method uses the advantage of existing peak shaving battery to suppress short-term PV and load fluctuations while reducing impact on the cycle life of the battery itself. This is realized by diverting short-term cyclic charge/discharge events induced by PV/load power fluctuations to the upper band of the battery state of charge regime while operating the fuel cell and electrolyzer systems along stable (smooth) power curves. Comparative studies of the developed method with two other reference cases demonstrate that the proposed method fares better with respect to defined performance indices as fluctuation suppression rate and mean state of charge. Modeling of power electronics and design of controllers used in the study are also briefly discussed in Appendix A.

  5. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  6. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  7. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilik, Gregory K.; Boehman, Andre L. [The EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Hedan; Haworth, Daniel C. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Herreros, Jose Martin [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine, with a focus on exhaust emissions. Hydrogen was substituted for diesel fuel on an energy basis of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15% by aspiration of hydrogen into the engine's intake air. Four speed and load conditions were investigated (1800 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output and 3600 rpm at 25% and 75% of maximum output). A significant retarding of injection timing by the engine's electronic control unit (ECU) was observed during the increased aspiration of hydrogen. The retarding of injection timing resulted in significant NO{sub X} emission reductions, however, the same emission reductions were achieved without aspirated hydrogen by manually retarding the injection timing. Subsequently, hydrogen assisted diesel combustion was examined, with the pilot and main injection timings locked, to study the effects caused directly by hydrogen addition. Hydrogen assisted diesel combustion resulted in a modest increase of NO{sub X} emissions and a shift in NO/NO{sub 2} ratio in which NO emissions decreased and NO{sub 2} emissions increased, with NO{sub 2} becoming the dominant NO{sub X} component in some combustion modes. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) of the hydrogen assisted diesel combustion process captured this trend and reproduced the experimentally observed trends of hydrogen's effect on the composition of NO{sub X} for some operating conditions. A model that explicitly accounts for turbulence-chemistry interactions using a transported probability density function (PDF) method was better able to reproduce the experimental trends, compared to a model that ignores the influence of turbulent fluctuations on mean chemical production rates, although the importance of the fluctuations is not as strong as has been reported in some other recent modeling studies. The CFD results confirm

  8. Solid phase characterization and gas transfers through unsaturated porous media: experimental study and modeling applied diffusion of hydrogen through cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, T.H.

    2009-10-01

    This thesis documents the relationship between the porous microstructure of cement based materials and theirs gaseous diffusivity properties relative to the aqueous phase location and the global saturation level of the material. The materials studied are cement pastes and mortars. To meet the thesis objective, the materials are characterized in detail by means of several experimental methods: mercury intrusion porosimetry, water porosimetry, thermo-poro-metry, nitrogen sorption and water desorption. In addition, diffusion tests realized on materials maintained in controlled humidity chambers allow obtaining the effective hydrogen diffusivity as function of the microstructure and the saturation state of material with a gas chromatography. The experimental results are then used as a data base that is compared to a modeling approach. The model developed consists of a combination of ordinary diffusion (Fick regime) and Knudsen diffusion of hydrogen. The model also accounts for the effects of the liquid curtains, the impact of tortuosity on gas diffusion, and the saturation level of the porous system. (author)

  9. Synergistically enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of ZnCdS by co-loading graphene quantum dots and PdS dual cocatalysts under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Su, Yanhong; Min, Shixiong; Li, Yanan; Lei, Yonggang; Hou, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report that the co-loading of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and PdS dual cocatalysts on ZnCdS surface achieves a high efficiency photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light (≥420 nm). The GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two steps: hydrothermal coupling of GQDs on ZnCdS surface followed by an in-situ chemical deposition of PdS. The resulted GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS exhibits a H2 evolution rate of 517 μmol h-1, which is 15, 7, and 1.7 times higher than that of pure ZnCdS, GQDs/ZnCdS, and ZnCdS/PdS, respectively, demonstrating the synergistic effects of GQDs and PdS dual cocatalysts. A high apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) up to 22.4% can be achieved over GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS at 420 nm. GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS also has a relatively good stability. Such a considerable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was attributable to the co-loading of the GQDs and PdS as respective reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, leading to an efficient charge separation and surface reactions.

  10. Electrodeposition and characterization of Fe–Mo alloys as cathodes for hydrogen evolution in the process of chlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. GRGUR

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe–Mo alloys were electrodeposited from a pyrophosphate bath using a single diode rectified AC current. Their composition and morphology were investigated by SEM, optical microscopy and EDS, in order to determine the influence of the deposition conditions on the morphology and composition of these alloys. It was shown that the electrodeposition parameters, such as: chemical bath composition and current density, influenced both the composition of the Fe–Mo alloys and the current efficiency for their deposition, while the micro and macro-morphology did not change significantly with changing conditions of alloy electrodeposition. It was found that the electrodeposited Fe–Mo alloys possessed a 0.15 V to 0.30 V lower overvoltage than mild steel for hydrogen evolution in an electrolyte commonly used in commercial chlorate production, depending on the alloy composition, i.e., the conditions of alloy electrodeposition.

  11. Structural Characterization of AgGaS2-type Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production from Water Under Visible Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Shin, Namsoo; Jang, Jum Suk; Lee, Jae Sung

    2007-01-01

    Bulky AgGaS2 was synthesized as a p-type semiconductor photocatalyst by a conventional solid state reaction under N2 flow for hydrogen production under visible light. To remove the impurity phase involved in the synthesized material and improve its crystallinity, the material was treated at various temperatures of 873-1123 K under H2S flow. Impurity phases were identified as β-Ga2O3 and Ag9GaS6 with Rietveld analysis of XRD, and the local coordination structure around gallium atom in AgGaS2 was investigated by EXAFS. As the H2S-treatment temperature increased, the contribution from impurity phase was diminished. When the temperature reached 1123 K, the impurity phases were completely removed and the material showed the highest photocatalytic activity

  12. Characterization of 13 and 30 μm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes deposited over CMOS integrated circuits for particle detection application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despeisse, M.; Anelli, G.; Commichau, S.; Dissertori, G.; Garrigos, A.; Jarron, P.; Miazza, C.; Moraes, D.; Shah, A.; Wyrsch, N.; Viertel, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained with a novel monolithic silicon pixel detector which consists in depositing a n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) diode straight above the readout ASIC (this technology is called Thin Film on ASIC, TFA). The characterization has been performed on 13 and 30 μm thick a-Si:H films deposited on top of an ASIC containing a linear array of high-speed low-noise transimpedance amplifiers designed in a 0.25 μm CMOS technology. Experimental results presented have been obtained with a 600 nm pulsed laser. The results of charge collection efficiency and charge collection speed of these structures are discussed

  13. Spatial characterization of T1 and T2 relaxation times and the water apparent diffusion coefficient in rabbit Achilles tendon subjected to tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, J; Helmer, K G; Grigg, P; Sotak, C H

    2005-03-01

    Tendons exhibit viscoelastic mechanical behavior under tensile loading. The elasticity arises from the collagen chains that form fibrils, while the viscous response arises from the interaction of the water with the solid matrix. Therefore, an understanding of the behavior of water in response to the application of a load is crucial to the understanding of the origin of the viscous response. Three-dimensional MRI mapping of rabbit Achilles tendons was performed at 2.0 T to characterize the response of T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water to tensile loading. The ADC was measured in directions both parallel (ADC( parallel)) and perpendicular (ADC( perpendicular)) to the long axis of the tendon. At a short diffusion time (5.8 ms) MR parameter maps showed the existence of two regions, here termed "core" and "rim", that exhibited statistically significant differences in T(1), T(2), and ADC( perpendicular) under the baseline loading condition. MR parameter maps were also generated at a second loading condition of approximately 1 MPa. At a diffusion time of 5.8 ms, there was a statistically significant increase in the rim region for both ADC( perpendicular) (57.5%) and ADC( parallel) (20.5%) upon tensile loading. The changes in core ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)), as well as the relaxation parameters in both core and rim regions, were not statistically significant. The effect of diffusion time on the ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values was investigated by creating maps at three additional diffusion times (50.0, 125.0, 250.0 ms) using a diffusion-weighted, stimulated-echo (DW-STE) pulse sequence. At longer diffusion times, ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values increased rather than approaching a constant value. This observation was attributed to T(1) spin-editing during the DW-STE pulse sequence, which resulted in the loss of short-T(1) components (with correspondingly lower ADCs) at longer diffusion times

  14. Rupture mechanics of metallic alloys for hydrogen transport; Mecanique de la rupture des alliages metalliques pour le transport de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, I.; Briottet, L.; Lemoine, P. [CEA Grenoble (DRT/LITEN/DTH/LEV), 38 (France); Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C. [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche et d' Ingenierie des Materiaux (ENSIACET/CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    With the aim to establish a cheap hydrogen distribution system, the transport by pipelines is a solution particularly interesting. Among the high limit of elasticity steels, the X80 has been chosen for hydrogen transport. Its chemical composition and microstructure are given. Important microstructural changes have been revealed in the sheet thickness: the microstructure is thinner and richer in perlite in surface than in bulk. In parallel to this microstructural evolution, a microhardness gradient has been observed: the material microhardness is stronger in surface than in bulk of the sheet. The use of this material for hydrogen transport requires to study its resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The main aim of this work is to develop an easy rupture mechanics test allowing to qualify the studied material in a gaseous hydrogen environment, to determine the sensitivity of the studied material to the hydrogen embrittlement and to better understand the mechanisms of the hydrogen embrittlement for ferritic materials. Two experimental tests have been used for: the first one is a traction machine coupled to an autoclave; the second one allows to carry out disk rupture tests. The toughness of the material in a gaseous hydrogen environment has thus been determined. The resistance of the material to hydrogen embrittlement has been characterized and by simulation, it has been possible to identify the areas with a strong concentration in hydrogen. The second aim of this work is to study the influence of the steel microstructure on the hydrogen position in the material and on the resistance of the material to the hydrogen embrittlement. The preferential trapping sites on the material not mechanically loaded have at first been identified, as well as the hydrogen position on the different phases and at the ferrite/cementite interface. The interaction between the mechanical loads, the position and the trapping of the hydrogen have been studied then. At last, has been

  15. Cost-effective flow injection amperometric system with metal nanoparticle loaded carbon nanotube modified screen printed carbon electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Themsirimongkon, Suwaphid; Saipanya, Surin; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    Various metal nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on carbon nanotube (CNT) was modified on the home-made screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to enhances sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination. The simple casting method was used for the electrode modification. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs modified electrodes were investigated for their electrochemical properties for H2O2 reduction. The Pd-CNT/SPCE is appropriated to measure the H2O2 reduction at a potential of -0.3 V, then this modified electrode was incorporated with a home-made flow through cell and applied in a simple flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Some parameters influencing the resulted modified electrode and the FI-Amp system were studied. The proposed detection system was able to detect H2O2 in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM, with detection limit of 20 µM. Relative standard deviation for 100 replicated injections of 0.6 mM H2O2 was 2.3%. The reproducibility of 6 electrodes preparing in 3 different lots was 8.2%. It was demonstrated for determination of H2O2 in disinfectant, hair colorant and milk samples. Recoveries in the range of 90-109% were observed. The developed system provided high stability, good repeatability, high sample throughput and low reagent consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with insulin by sodium cholate-phosphatidylcholine-based mixed micelles: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gong, Tao; Wang, Changguang; Zhong, Zhirong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2007-08-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with insulin-mixed micelles (Ins-MMs) were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method, in which sodium cholate (SC) and soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) were employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and the mixture of stearic acid and palmitic acid were employed to prepare insulin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ins-MM-SLNs). Some of the formulation parameters were optimized to obtain high quality nanoparticles. The particle size and zeta potential measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were 114.7+/-4.68 nm and -51.36+/-2.04 mV, respectively. Nanospheres observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed extremely spherical shape. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) and drug loading capacity (DL%) determined with high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by modified ultracentrifuge method were 97.78+/-0.37% and 18.92+/-0.07%, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of Ins-MM-SLNs indicated no tendency of recrystallisation. The core-shell drug loading pattern of the SLNs was confirmed by fluorescence spectra and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) which also proved the integrity of insulin after being incorporated into lipid carrier. The drug release behavior was studied by in situ and externally sink method and the release pattern of drug was found to follow Weibull and Higuchi equations. Results of stability evaluation showed a relatively long-term stability after storage at 4 degrees C for 6 months. In conclusion, SLNs with small particle size, excellent physical stability, high entrapment efficiency, good loading capacity for protein drug can be produced by this novel reverse micelle-double emulsion method in present study.

  17. Characterization of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria Enterobacter Strains Isolated from a Microbial Fuel Cell Exposed to Copper Shock Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Qin, Dan; Chen, Lixiang; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Hongbo; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu) shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III) oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load) and B4B2 (after Cu shock load) were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L−1 of Cu(II) while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m−2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density. PMID:25412475

  18. Characterization of exoelectrogenic bacteria enterobacter strains isolated from a microbial fuel cell exposed to copper shock load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijie Feng

    Full Text Available Microorganisms capable of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs have gained increasing interest. Here fourteen exoelectrogenic bacterial strains were isolated from the anodic biofilm in an MFC before and after copper (Cu shock load by Hungate roll-tube technique with solid ferric (III oxide as an electron acceptor and acetate as an electron donor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they were all closely related to Enterobacter ludwigii DSM 16688T within the Enterobacteriaceae family, although these isolated bacteria showed slightly different morphology before and after Cu shock load. Two representative strains R2B1 (before Cu shock load and B4B2 (after Cu shock load were chosen for further analysis. B4B2 is resistant to 200 mg L-1 of Cu(II while R2B1 is not, which indicated the potential selection of the Cu shock load. Raman analysis revealed that both R2B1 and B4B2 contained c-type cytochromes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that strain R2B1 had the capacity to transfer electrons to electrodes. The experimental results demonstrated that strain R2B1 was capable of utilizing a wide range of substrates, including Luria-Bertani (LB broth, cellulose, acetate, citrate, glucose, sucrose, glycerol and lactose to generate electricity, with the highest current density of 440 mA·m-2 generated from LB-fed MFC. Further experiments indicated that the bacterial cell density had potential correlation with the current density.

  19. Analyzing coastal turbidity under complex terrestrial loads characterized by a 'stress connectivity matrix' with an atmosphere-watershed-coastal ocean coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nadaoka, Kazuo

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric, watershed and coastal ocean models were integrated to provide a holistic analysis approach for coastal ocean simulation. The coupled model was applied to coastal ocean in the Philippines where terrestrial sediment loads provided from several adjacent watersheds play a major role in influencing coastal turbidity and are partly responsible for the coastal ecosystem degradation. The coupled model was validated using weather and hydrologic measurement to examine its potential applicability. The results revealed that the coastal water quality may be governed by the loads not only from the adjacent watershed but also from the distant watershed via coastal currents. This important feature of the multiple linkages can be quantitatively characterized by a "stress connectivity matrix", which indicates the complex underlying structure of environmental stresses in coastal ocean. The multiple stress connectivity concept shows the potential advantage of the integrated modelling approach for coastal ocean assessment, which may also serve for compensating the lack of measured data especially in tropical basins.

  20. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  1. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  2. ILC (ionic liquid colloids) based on p(4-VP) (poly(4-vinyl pyridine)) microgels: Synthesis, characterization and use in hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Turhan, Tugce; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this study for the first time p(4-VP) (poly(4-vinyl pyridine)) colloidal ionic liquid particles derived from 4-VP (4-vinyl pyridine) are reported, used in the preparation of a catalyst system by loading metal salts such as CoCl 2 and NiCl 2 from ethyl alcohol solutions into the modified p(4-VP) particles, and used for hydrogen generation from NaOH-free hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . Colloidal ionic liquids containing 0.054 mmol Co and Ni were used in NaOH-free hydrolysis of 0.30 g NaBH 4 in 50 mL water at 40 °C and 1000 rpm mixing rate. The reaction rates relating to hydrolysis of NaBH 4 were 3148 (mL H 2 ) (min) −1 (g of Co) −1 for Co, and 1803 (mL H 2 ) (min) −1 (g of Ni) −1 for Ni. The effect of metal loading time, NaBH 4 concentration, temperature, and kinetic parameters were also investigated. The activation energy, enthalpy, and activation entropy for the reaction of NaBH 4 in the presence of the colloidal dicationic catalyst system were calculated as 43.98 kJ/mol, 40.38 kJ/mol, and −178.22 J/mol.K, respectively. - Highlights: • Microgel Ionic liquid colloid reactors for H 2 production. • P(4-VP) microgel ILC (ionic liquid colloid). • Modified microgel for green energy. • Ionic liquid microgel embedding metals salts NaBH 4 hydrolysis. • Ionic liquid microgel catalyst systems

  3. Hydrogen recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  4. The preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic studies of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye YJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Jing Ye,1 Yun Wang,1 Kai-Yan Lou,1 Yan-Zuo Chen,1 Rongjun Chen,2 Feng Gao1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel biocompatible and biodegradable drug-delivery nanoparticle (NP has been developed to minimize the severe side effects of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX for clinical use. PTX was loaded into the hydrophobic cavity of a hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD, using an aqueous solution-stirring method followed by lyophilization. The resulting PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex dramatically enhanced the solubility of PTX in water and was directly incorporated into chitosan (CS to form NPs (with a size of 323.9–407.8 nm in diameter using an ionic gelation method. The formed NPs had a zeta potential of +15.9–23.3 mV and showed high colloidal stability. With the same weight ratio of PTX to CS of 0.7, the loading efficiency of the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs was 30.3-fold higher than that of the PTX-loaded CS NPs. Moreover, it is notable that PTX was released from the DM-β-CD/CS NPs in a sustained-release manner. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with reference formulation (Taxol®, the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h (the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and mean residence time by 2.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Therefore, the novel drug/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs have promising applications for the

  5. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  6. Characterization of LaNiO3 prepared by sol–gel: Application to hydrogen evolution under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khettab, M.; Omeiri, S.; Sellam, D.; Ladjouzi, M.A.; Trari, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photoactive LaNiO 3 was prepared by sol–gel. ► LaNiO 3 exhibits n type conductivity it due to slight oxygen deficiency. ► LaNiO 3 was successfully for hydrogen evolution upon visible light. - Abstract: The semi conducting properties of LaNiO 3 , elaborated by sol–gel, have been investigated for the first time by the photocurrent technique and capacitance measurements. The oxide crystallizes in a distorted perovskite structure and the transport properties indicate degenerate conductivity with activation energy of 18 meV. The infrared spectrum allowed us to evaluate the band gap at 88 meV. The electrochemical behaviour has been studied in alkaline electrolyte (KOH, 0.5 M). The corrosion potential (−0.204 V SCE ) and the exchange current density (0.103 mA cm −2 ), determined from the semi logarithmic plot, indicate long lived oxide. The slope and the intercept to C −2 = 0 of the Mott Schottky plot, characteristic of n type behaviour, gave respectively an electron density (N D ) of 2.3 × 10 19 cm −3 and a flat band potential (V fb ) of −0.61 V SCE . The nature of the Nyquist plot, measured over a wide frequency range (10 −3 –10 5 Hz), shows the predominance of the bulk contribution. The arc is not centred on the real axis (−6.3°), an evidence of a constant phase element. The straight line at low frequencies is due to Warburg diffusion and the data are interpreted thanks to the Randles model. The absorption of light promotes electrons into LaNiO 3 –CB with a potential (−0.62 V SCE ) sufficient to reduce water (−0.50 V SCE ). As application, the oxide has been tested successfully for hydrogen evolution upon visible light with a rate evolution of 1.73 μmol min −1 (g catalyst) −1 and a quantum efficiency of 0.042% under full light (29 mW cm −2 ).

  7. The pizzicato knee-joint energy harvester: characterization with biomechanical data and the effect of backpack load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Michele; Zhu, Meiling; Aung, Min S H; Goulermas, John Y; Jones, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    The reduced power requirements of miniaturized electronics offer the opportunity to create devices which rely on energy harvesters for their power supply. In the case of wearable devices, human-based piezoelectric energy harvesting is particularly difficult due to the mismatch between the low frequency of human activities and the high-frequency requirements of piezoelectric transducers. We propose a piezoelectric energy harvester, to be worn on the knee-joint, that relies on the plucking technique to achieve frequency up-conversion. During a plucking action, a piezoelectric bimorph is deflected by a plectrum; when released due to loss of contact, the bimorph is free to vibrate at its resonant frequency, generating electrical energy with the highest efficiency. A prototype, featuring four PZT-5H bimorphs, was built and is here studied in a knee simulator which reproduces the gait of a human subject. Biomechanical data were collected with a marker-based motion capture system while the subject was carrying a selection of backpack loads. The paper focuses on the energy generation of the harvester and how this is affected by the backpack load. By altering the gait, the backpack load has a measurable effect on performance: at the highest load of 24 kg, a minor reduction in energy generation (7%) was observed and the output power is reduced by 10%. Both are so moderate to be practically unimportant. The average power output of the prototype is 2.06 ± 0.3 mW, which can increase significantly with further optimization. (paper)

  8. Dual R3R5 tropism characterizes cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 isolates from individuals with high cerebrospinal fluid viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ulf; Antonsson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Bengt; Medstrand, Patrik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Jansson, Marianne; Gisslen, Magnus

    2012-09-10

    To study the use of major and alternative coreceptors by HIV-1 isolates obtained from paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Paired plasma and CSF isolates from HIV-1-infected individuals with varying clinical, virologic, and immunologic parameters were assessed for the ability to infect indicator cells expressing a panel of coreceptors with documented expression in the central nervous system (CNS). HIV-1 isolates obtained from plasma and CSF in 28 individuals with varying viral load, CD4 T-cell counts, and with or without AIDS-defining disease were analyzed for the ability to infect NP2.CD4 cells stably expressing a panel of HIV coreceptors (CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CXCR6, GPR1, APJ, ChemR23, RDC-1 or BLT1). All isolates from both plasma and CSF utilized CCR5 and/or CXCR4. However, the ability to use both CCR3 and CCR5 (R3R5) was more pronounced in CSF isolates and correlated with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell count. Notably, four out of five CSF isolates of subtype C origin exhibited CXCR6 use, which coincided with high CSF viral load despite preserved CD4 T-cell counts. The use of other alternative coreceptors was less pronounced. Dual-tropic R3R5 HIV-1 isolates in CSF coincide with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell counts. Frequent CXCR6 use by CSF-derived subtype C isolates indicates that subtype-specific differences in coreceptor use may exist that will not be acknowledged when assessing plasma virus isolates. The findings may also bare relevance for HIV-1 replication within the CNS, and consequently, for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of novel antimicrobial films derived from thymol-loaded zein-sodium caseinate (SC) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang-Kang; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Tang, Chuan-He; Wei, Zi-Hao

    2012-11-21

    The objective of this research was to fabricate novel antimicrobial films based on zein colloidal nanoparticles coated with sodium caseinate (SC), an emulsifier/stabilizer. Thymol-loaded zein-SC nanoparticles were prepared using an antisolvent technique, with the average particle size and zeta potential about 200 ± 20 nm and -40 mV, respectively. Zein-SC nanoparticle-based films exhibited higher mechanical resistance and water barrier capacity than the SC films and concomitant good extensibility as compared with zein films. Thymol loadings endowed zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella as well as DPPH radical scavenging activity. Water vapor permeability, microstructure, mechanical, and controlled release properties of the films were evaluated. The possible relationship between some selected physical properties and microstructure were also discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that thymol loadings resulted in the emergence phenomena of the nanoparticles to form large particles or packed structure, consisting of clusters of nanoparticles, within the film matrix, in a thymol loading dependent manner. The appearance of large particles or an agglomerate of particles may weaken the compactness of protein network of films and thus impair the water barrier capacity, mechanical resistance, and extensibility of the films. The release kinetics of thymol from nanoparticle-based films can be described as a two-step biphasic process, that is, an initial burst effect followed by subsequent slower release, and zein-SC nanoparticles within the films matrices gave them the ability to sustain the release of thymol. In addition, a schematic illustration of the formation pathway of zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with or without thymol was proposed to illuminate the possible relationship between some selected physical properties and the microstructure of the films.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of folate decorated albumin bio-conjugate nanoparticles loaded with a synthetic curcumin difluorinated analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Kaustubh A; Kesharwani, Prashant; Sau, Samaresh; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Padhye, Subhash; Kashaw, Sushil K; Iyer, Arun K

    2017-06-15

    Albumin-bound paclitaxel colloidal nanoparticle (Abraxane®) is an FDA approved anticancer formulation available in the market. It is a suspension which is currently used therapeutically for treating cancers of the breast, lung, and pancreas among others. CDF is a novel new and potent synthetic curcumin analogue that is widely used for breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to use biocompatible albumin as well as folate decorated albumin to formulate colloidal nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin difluorinated (CDF). CDF has demonstrated a 16-fold improvement in stability and remarkable anticancer potency compared to its natural derivative, curcumin. CDF showed marked inhibition of cancer cell growth through down-regulation of multiple miRNAs, up-regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and attenuation of histone methyl transferase EZH2. However, CDF is highly hydrophobic and photodegradable with sparing aqueous solubility. In this study, we have formulated albumin nanoparticle using a modified desolvation method, which yielded high CDF loading in a nanoformulation. The physicochemical properties of CDF loaded albumin and folate-decorated albumin nanosuspensions were assessed for particle size, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency/loading, solubility and drug release. Importantly, the folate ligand decorated albumin nanoparticles were formulated in principle to passively and actively target folate-overexpressing-cancers. In this study, the synthesis and optimization of BSA and folate decorated BSA conjugated CDF nanoparticles are assessed in detail that will be useful for its future clinical translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the wind loads and flow fields around a gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hui; Yang, Zifeng; Sarkar, Partha [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Haan, Fred [Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the characteristics of a tornado-like vortex and to reveal the dynamics of the flow-structure interactions between a low-rise, gable-roof building model and swirling, turbulent tornado-like winds. The experimental work was conducted by using a large-scale tornado simulator located in the Aerospace Engineering Department of Iowa State University. In addition to measuring the pressure distributions and resultant wind loads acting on the building model, a digital Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to quantify the evolution of the unsteady vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model in tornado-like winds. The effects of important parameters, such as the distance between the centers of the tornado-like vortex and the test model and the orientation angles of the building model related to the tornado-like vortex, on the evolutions of the wake vortices and turbulent flow structures around the gable-roof building model as well as the wind loads induced by the tornado-like vortex were assessed quantitatively. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the surface pressure and wind load measurements to elucidate the underlying physics to gain further insight into flow-structure interactions between the gable-roof building model and tornado-like winds in order to provide more accurate prediction of wind damage potential to built structures. (orig.)

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Water-Soluble Chitosan Microparticles Loaded with Insulin Using the Polyelectrolyte Complexation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Su, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric delivery systems based on microparticles have emerged as a promising approach for peroral insulin delivery. The amount of insulin was quantified by the improved Bradford method. It was shown that water-soluble chitosan/insulin/tripolyphosphate (TPP) mass ratio played an important role in microparticles formation. Stable, uniform, and spherical water-soluble chitosan microparticles (WSC-MPs) with high insulin association efficiency were formed at or close to optimized WSC/insulin/TPP mass ratio. WSC-MPs had higher association efficiency in the ph 4.0 and ph 9.7 of TPP solution. The results showed that association efficiency and loading capacity of insulin-loaded WSC-MPs prepared in 0.01 mol/L HCl of insulin were 48.28 ± 0.90% and 9.52 ± 1.34%. The average size of insulin-loaded WSC-MPs was 292 nm. The presented WSC microparticulate system has promising properties towards the development of an oral delivery system for insulin

  13. Optical characterization of hydrogen-free CeO2 doped DLC films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Zhou Hongxiu; Guo Dongming; Gao Hang; Kang Renke

    2008-01-01

    A novel kind of hydrogen-free CeO 2 doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thickness of 180-200 nm were deposited on silicon by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Reduced reflectance and increased lifetime are expected with respect to pure DLC films, making these coatings good candidates as optical protective coatings for IR windows and solar cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that CeO 2 is formed within the DLC films. Auger electron spectroscopy exhibits that the C, O, and Ce elements distribute uniformly across the film thickness, and C element diffuses into the Si substrate at the interface between the substrate and film. AFM shows that nanoparticles with diameter of around 50 nm are formed on the surface of deposited films, whose surface roughness is in the range of 1.3-2.3 nm. Raman spectra show the CeO 2 doped DLC films are amorphous DLC films, and both the G frequency and relative intensity ratio I D /I G are higher than those of pure DLC films. The photoluminescence of CeO 2 doped DLC films is obviously more intense than that of a pure DLC film, which indicates a promising potential as optical protective films for solar cells and IR window

  14. Straightforward high-pressure synthesis and characterization of indium-based thiospinels: photocatalytic potential for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Horacio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco (Spain); NANOTEC (Centro de Investigacion en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia), Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Tartaj, Pedro; Alonso, Jose Antonio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco (Spain); Vaquero, Fernando; Navarro, Rufino M.; Fierro, Jose Luis G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Bolletta, Juan P.; Paoli, Juan M. de; Carbonio, Raul E. [INFIQC - CONICET, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina); Fernandez-Diaz, Maria Teresa [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-15

    Ternary chalcogenides (AB{sub 2}X{sub 4}) based on the spinel structure are gaining a great deal of attention because of the possibility of tuning their magnetic and optoelectronic properties not only by changing chemical composition but also by altering their degree of inversion. Here we report a rapid high-pressure synthetic method for the synthesis of MIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} powders starting from commercially available solid sulfides. We prove the versatility of our method by reporting the synthesis of six members of the MIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} family (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cd) under high-pressure conditions (3.5 GPa); these compounds show complete to moderate degrees of inversion. Furthermore, this family covers a spectral region that includes visible band gaps. Interestingly, the structural refinement carried out by X-ray and neutron diffraction allows one to establish positive correlations between the gap and different parameters, including the degree of inversion. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, these ternary chalcogenides show moderate photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Development of novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with gelatin and HPMC: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Tae; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Joe, Kwan Hyung; Kim, Young Ran; Hwang, Doo Hyung; Lee, Yong-Bok; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-09-15

    To develop a novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced solubility and bioavailability, various solid dispersions were prepared using a spray drying technique with hydrophilic polymers such as gelatin, HPMC and citric acid. Their solubility, thermal characteristics and crystallinity were investigated. The dissolution and pharmacokinetics of the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion were then compared with a sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate-loaded commercial product (Reductil). The solid dispersions prepared with gelatin gave higher drug solubility than those prepared without gelatin, irrespective of the amount of polymer. The sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersions containing hydrophilic polymer and citric acid showed higher drug solubility compared to sibutramine base and sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate. Among the formulations tested, the solid dispersion composed of sibutramine base/gelatin/HPMC/citric acid at the weight ratio of 1/0.8/0.2/0.5 gave the highest solubility of 5.03+/-0.24 mg/ml. Our DSC and powder X-ray diffraction results showed that the drug was present in an altered amorphous form in this solid dispersion. The difference factor (f(1)) values between solid dispersion and commercial product were 2.82, 6.65 and 6.31 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Furthermore, they had the similarity factor (f(2)) value of 65.68, 53.43 and 58.97 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Our results suggested that the solid dispersion and commercial product produced a similar correlation of dissolution profiles at all pH ranges. The AUC, C(max) and T(max) of the parent drug and metabolite I and II from the solid dispersion were not significantly different from those of the commercial product, suggesting that the solid dispersion might be bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion prepared with gelatin, HPMC and citric acid is a promising candidate for improving the

  16. Hydrogen highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2008-01-01

    The USA Administration would like to consider the US power generating industry as a basis ensuring both the full-scale production of hydrogen and the widespread use of the hydrogen related technological processes into the economy [ru

  17. Hydrogen-Induced Plastic Deformation in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáč, F.; Čížek, J.; Vlček, M.; Procházka, I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Traeger, F.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.

    In the present work hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals covered with Pd over-layer were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen and the influence of hydrogen on ZnO micro structure was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was employed for determination of depth profile of hydrogen concentration in the sample. NRA measurements confirmed that a substantial amount of hydrogen was introduced into ZnO by electrochemical charging. The bulk hydrogen concentration in ZnO determined by NRA agrees well with the concentration estimated from the transported charge using the Faraday's law. Moreover, a subsurface region with enhanced hydrogen concentration was found in the loaded crystals. Slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) investigations of hydrogen-loaded crystal revealed enhanced concentration of defects in the subsurface region. This testifies hydrogen-induced plastic deformation of the loaded crystal. Absorbed hydrogen causes a significant lattice expansion. At low hydrogen concentrations this expansion is accommodated by elastic straining, but at higher concentrations hydrogen-induced stress exceeds the yield stress in ZnO and plastic deformation of the loaded crystal takes place. Enhanced hydrogen concentration detected in the subsurface region by NRA is, therefore, due to excess hydrogen trapped at open volume defects introduced by plastic deformation. Moreover, it was found that hydrogen-induced plastic deformation in the subsurface layer leads to typical surface modification: formation of hexagonal shape pyramids on the surface due to hydrogen-induced slip in the [0001] direction.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-P-Ag composite coating as efficient electrocatalyst for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, Liju; Hegde, A. Chitharanjan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrocatalytic activity of Ni-P alloy is improved by Ag nanoparticle incorporation. • Ni-P-Ag electrode is developed through sol-enhanced electrodeposition. • Ni-P-Ag composite coating shows better electrocatalytic efficiency for HER. - Abstract: The effect of addition of silver nanoparticle sol (SNS) into Ni-P plating bath was studied in terms of the variation in electrocatalytic behavior of the developed coatings in 1.0 M KOH. Ni-P-Ag composite coating was achieved through direct electrolysis by adding a known quantity of the conventionally prepared SNS into Ni-P bath. Ni-P-Ag coatings electrodeposited galvanostatically on copper under different conditions of the bath was used as electrode material for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The optimal concentration of the SNS required for maximum electrocatalytic activity towards HER was obtained by adding different volumes of SNS (from 0 to 50 mL L −1 ) into the bath. The HER efficiency of the test electrodes in 1.0 M KOH medium was examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) techniques. The kinetics of HER on the alloy and composite electrodes were established through Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles into the Ni-P alloy matrix. The microstructure and morphology of the alloy and composite coatings were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A significant improvement in the electrocatalytic property of nano-Ag derived composite coatings was found, and was attributed to the enhanced electroactive sites of Ag particles. Deposition conditions to maximize the electrocatalytic activity of Ni-P-Ag nanocomposite coatings in relation to traditional Ni-P alloy coatings was arrived, and results are discussed.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes on clay minerals and its application to a hydrogen peroxide biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-L.; Jehng, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on clay minerals, and the development of biosensors based on Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au and Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-Glucose oxidase (GOD) composite films for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and glucose, respectively. The CNTs are synthesized on nickel cation exchanged clay mineral platelets. From field-emission scanning electron microscope images, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infrared and thermogravimetric analysis results, the clay layers are exfoliated and delaminated after the growth of CNTs on them. The mixed hybrid film of Nafion, CNT/Clay, Au particles and GOD is coated on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode to detect H 2 O 2 or glucose. This film exhibits a detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -5 M for H 2 O 2 with a sensitivity of 280 nA mM -1 . In addition, the amperometric response for glucose containing 2.0 mg mL -1 GOD in the Nafion-CNT/Clay-Au-GOD modified GC electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 620 nA mM -1 with a linear range up to 1850 μM. A higher sensitivity and shorter response time are observed with increasing GOD content in the composite matrix film. Besides, the highest sensitivity of 2032 nA mM -1 is obtained with the addition of the 10.0 mg mL -1 GOD in the composite film. Consequently, the CNT/Clay/Nafion medium can probably be a useful electrode for the development of sensors due to its high sensitivity and applicability

  20. THE HYDROGEN EPOCH OF REIONIZATION ARRAY DISH. II. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECTRAL STRUCTURE WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS AND ITS SCIENCE IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Neben, Abraham R. [MIT Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard; Dickenson, Roger; Doolittle, Phillip; Egan, Dennis; Hedrick, Mike; Klima, Patricia [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Deboer, David; Parsons, Aaron; Ali, Zaki S.; Cheng, Carina; Patra, Nipanjana; Dillon, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bowman, Judd; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Venter, Mariet [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, SA (South Africa); Acedo, Eloy de Lera [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-11-10

    We use time-domain electromagnetic simulations to determine the spectral characteristics of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Arrays (HERA) antenna. These simulations are part of a multi-faceted campaign to determine the effectiveness of the dish’s design for obtaining a detection of redshifted 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization. Our simulations show the existence of reflections between HERA’s suspended feed and its parabolic dish reflector that fall below -40 dB at 150 ns and, for reasonable impedance matches, have a negligible impact on HERA’s ability to constrain EoR parameters. It follows that despite the reflections they introduce, dishes are effective for increasing the sensitivity of EoR experiments at a relatively low cost. We find that el